Conference Paper

Seamless Electromobility

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Abstract

The existing electromobility (EM) is still in its fledgling stage and multiple challenges have to be overcome to make Electric Vehicles (EVs) as convenient as combustion engine vehicles. Users and Electric Vehicle Fleet Operators (EFOs) want their EVs to be charged and ready for use at all times. This straightforward goal, however, is counteracted from various sides: The range of the EV depends on the status and depletion of the EV battery which is influenced by EV use and charging characteristics. Also, most convenient charging from the user's point of view, might unfortunately lead to problems in the power grid. As in the case of a power peak in the evening when EV users return from work and simultaneously plug in their EVs for charging. Last but not least, the mass of EV batteries are an untapped potential to store electricity from intermittent renewable energy sources. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to tackle this multi-layered problem from different perspectives. Using on-board EV data and grid prediction models, we build up an information model as a foundation for a back end service containing EFO and Charging Station Provider (CSP) logic as well as a central Advanced Drivers Assistant System (ADAS). These components connect to both battery management and user interfaces suggesting various routing and driving behaviour alternatives customized and incentivized for the current user profile optimizing above mentioned goals.

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... Electric Vehicle (EV) penetration, renewable energies, and customer orientation of car manufacturers [1] enables synergies between energy supply, vehicle users, and the mobility sector. However, also new challenges arise [2] which we target to examine with three types of agents and their perspectives: EV user, power supplier and car manufacturer. Although many research papers in the literature describe single perspectives, a threefold contemplation of their connections as shown in Fig. 1, is still missing. ...
... To satisfy their individual needs, vehicle users expect their EVs to be just as reliable and convenient to use, as known from combustion engine cars [3,4]. However, limited range and longer charging times of EVs complicate individual mobility, manifesting e.g. in range anxiety [2,5]. For EV users also the power supply interaction changes, as not only home appliances but also mobility requires electric energy. ...
... Psychological approaches, e.g. deducted from customer surveys [19,2,20] allow to characterize basic user types. Therein, gamification and incentivation [2] methods are developed to increase user acceptance. ...
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Electric Vehicle (EV) penetration and renewable energies enables synergies between energy supply, vehicle users, and the mobility sector. However, also new issues arise for car manufacturers: During charging and discharging of EV batteries a degradation (battery aging) occurs that correlates with a value depreciation of the entire EV. As EV users' satisfaction depends on reliable and value-stable products, car manufacturers offer charging assistants for simplified and sustainable EV usage by considering individual customer needs and battery aging. Hitherto models to quantify battery aging have limited practicability due to a complex execution. Data-driven methods hold feasible alternatives for SOH estimation. However, the existing approaches barely use user-related data. By means of a linear and a neural network regression model, we first estimate the energy consumption for driving considering individual driving styles and environmental conditions. In following work, the consumption model trained on data from batteries without degradation can be used to estimate the energy consumption for EVs with aged batteries. A discrepancy between the estimation and the real consumption indicates a battery aging caused by increased internal losses. We then target to evaluate the influence of charging strategies on battery degradation.
... The emergence of EV introduces new opportunities and threats to existing energy system. Accordingly, findings from the literature reported that by the end of 2016 ∼1.3 million EVs were globally in used (Eider et al., 2017). EVs may range from hybrid electric cars, plug-in electric cars, and hydrogen vehicles, and may utilize one or more traction engines or electric engines for propulsion (Hinz et al., 2015). ...
... The need to increase environmental concerns and reduce oil supply has sprung the need for research toward the electrification of the transportation sector, and technological development have advanced the rapid integration of EVs in cities. The term electric vehicle refers to vehicles deploying electric motor(s) for propulsion, comprising both rail and road vehicles, underwater and surface vessels, as well as electric aircrafts (Eider et al., 2017). EV aids electricity management as the batteries can store energy to be used as reserve of energy when the EVs are idle. ...
... By providing energy back to the grid, thereby serving as a distributed energy source. Accordingly, EVs can be leveraged by network operators to enhance renewable energy usage for self-healing or to provide supplementary energy services, so as to lessen the dependency on diesel source generators (Eider et al., 2017). Thus, lessening electricity fluctuations and inefficiencies faced in today's grid. ...
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The digitalization of the power grid to smart grid provides value added services to the prosumers and other stakeholders involved in the energy market, and possibly disrupts existing electricity services in smart cities. The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) do not only challenge the sustainability of the smart grid but also promote and stimulate its upgrading. Undeniably, EVs can actively promote the development of the smart grid via two-way communications by deploying Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) and Grid-toVehicle (G2V). EVs have environmental benefits as compared to hybrids or even internal combustion engine vehicle as they can help minimize noise levels, pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. The integration of EVs could bring substantial changes for the society not only in providing transportation services but also shifting economies from petroleum and reducing the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from the transportation sector. Therefore, this study employs secondary data from the literature to explore how EVs can achieve sustainable energy as a service business model in smart cities. Findings from this study suggest that EVs are major assets for a sustainable energy future as EV batteries offers an untapped opportunity to store electricity from renewable energy sources. Implications from this study discusses the issues and recommendations for integrating of EVs in smart cities.
... After more than a hundred years of niche use, electric vehicles (EVs) seem on the cusp of displacing internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in personal transportation [1,2]. Better fuel efficiency, environmental friendliness, and lowering costs give EVs an edge over ICE vehicles. ...
... Given the observed demand for charging session d, N d , we approximate the probability P request (d) as P request (d) = N d /T d , where we have to select the time discretization fine enough so that P request (d) 1. This is done to keep the approximation error caused by the timestep discretization low. ...
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As electric vehicles (EVs) are slowly becoming a common occurrence on roads, commercial EV charging is becoming a standard commercial service. With this development, charging station operators are looking for ways to make their charging services more profitable or allocate the available resources optimally. Dynamic pricing is a proven technique to increase revenue in markets with heterogeneous demand. This paper proposes a Markov Decision Process (MDP)-based approach to revenue- or utilization- maximizing dynamic pricing for charging station operators. We implement the method using a Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) algorithm and evaluate it in simulation using a range of problem instances based on a real-world dataset of EV charging sessions. We show that our approach provides near-optimal pricing decisions in milliseconds for large-scale problems, significantly increasing revenue or utilization over the flat-rate baseline under a range of parameters.
... Consequently, there is a mutual dependence of humans and such systems on each other: the system reacts on the human interventions and vice versa. To this end, An electric mobility ecosystem is a typical example of an HCPS, where such a system consists of generally five relevant sub-systems (e.g., actors/stakeholders) of electric vehicles (EV), electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), electric mobility service provider (eMSP), charging station operator (CSO) and distribution system operator (DSO) [2,3]. As it can be noticed, in addition to the cyber physical system in place, human beings (e.g., EV drivers, grid or charging station operators) are involved in such a system. ...
... Temporal score = Base score ExploitabilityRemediation Level Report Con f idence (2) where Base score is given in Equation (1) and the other three parameters are described in this section respectively. For the worst case scenario, the temporal metric group has the same score of 8.7 as that of the base metric group. ...
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An electric mobility ecosystem, which resembles a human-centred cyber physical (HCP) system, consists of several interacting sub-systems that constantly communicate with each other. Cyber-security of such systems is an important aspect as vulnerability of one sub-system propagates to the entire system, thus putting it into risk. Risk assessment requires modelling of threats and their impacts on the system. Due to lack of available information on all possible threats of a given system, it is generally more convenient to assess the level of vulnerabilities either qualitatively or semi-quantitatively. In this paper, we adopt the common vulnerability scoring system (CVSS) methodology in order to assess semi-quantitatively the vulnerabilities of the communication in electric mobility human-centred cyber physical systems. To this end, we present the most relevant sub-systems, their roles as well as exchanged information. Furthermore, we give the considered threats and corresponding security requirements. Using the CVSS methodology, we then conduct an analysis of vulnerabilities for every pair of communicating sub-systems. Among them, we show that the sub-systems between charging station operator (CSO) and electric vehicle supply equipment (charging box) as well as CSO and electric mobility service provider are the most vulnerable in the end-to-end chain of electric mobility. These results pave the way to system designers to assess the operational security risks, and hence to take the most adequate decisions, when implementing such electric mobility HCP systems.
... Private users acquire a vehicle to achieve individual mobility, i.e. the freedom to reach any destination reliably whenever desired. Poor charging infrastructure, long charging times, and range-anxiety create the misleading impression PEVs dissatisfy this purpose [9]- [11]. Although this impression is mainly induced by psychological effects [12], users tend to charge in an uncoordinated, excessive fashion to ensure their individual mobility [9]. ...
... Poor charging infrastructure, long charging times, and range-anxiety create the misleading impression PEVs dissatisfy this purpose [9]- [11]. Although this impression is mainly induced by psychological effects [12], users tend to charge in an uncoordinated, excessive fashion to ensure their individual mobility [9]. As in the case of fleets, automated scheduling for charging a PEV with explicit consideration of the user's preferences may alleviate the problem and become a useful tool for the users themselves. ...
... Recently, there have been several mobility-based services developed as a response to different needs of transportation networks around the globe. Electro mobility has been built on three key pillars in relation to diverse features: efficiency, ecofriendliness, and quiet technology [28]- [30]. Electric-vehicles (EVs) are flexible and robust and can utilize energy directly from the grid with no major modifications. ...
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In recent years, trends towards user-centered technology are increasing due to various social, economic, and environmental aspects. Concurrently, the success of electromobility is highly dependent on how we provide the charging facility and the security of energy-trading gateways. In this paper, we propose a modeling framework that would address all these challenges and would be ready for real-life implementation when data becomes available. The proposed model works on a two-charging station methodology, which allows us to examine the mutual benefits of vehicle users and electricity supply entities. In addition, the massive data revolutions and blockchain technology are providing enough impetus for the success of the given framework. Undoubtedly, this study is unique and should be considered a milestone to reveal directions for further studies.
... In Germany, a country marked by a relatively high capacity of renewable energy -53% of total capacity for electricity production in 2019 according to the Bundesnetzagentur & Bundeskartellamt (2019) -, carbon intensity per kWh can fluctuate by an order of magnitude, with a mean for 2019 of 0.15 kg of CO 2 equivalent per kWh (SD = 0.09 kg, min = 0.03 kg, max = 0.54 kg) (Bundesnetzagentur, 2020), with a consumed share of renewable energy of 35% at total electricity consumption (BMWI, 2021). With increasing capacity for intermittent renewable energy production around the world, and an increasing share of BEVs on the roads (Irle, 2020), steering charging behavior has previously been suggested as an approach to increase consumed share from total capacity, and reduce emissions from BEV charging (Eider et al., 2017;Kacperski and Kutzner, 2020;Robinson et al., 2013;Schmalfuß et al., 2015;Tu et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2018a). ...
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Battery electric vehicles generate a significant share of their greenhouse gas emissions during production and later, when in use, through the energy used for charging. A shift in charging behavior could substantially reduce emissions if aligned with the fluctuating availability of renewable energy. Financial incentives and environmental appeals have been discussed as potential means to achieve this. We report evidence from a randomized controlled trial in which cost-free and “green” charging was advertised via email notifications to customers of a charging service provider. Emails invited to charge during midday hours (11:00 to 15:00) of days with high predicted shares of renewable energy. Results show a significant increase in the number of charging processes in the critical time, and in the amount of energy charged (kWh), despite only marginal monetary savings of 5€ on average. A further increase in kWh charged was observed on weekends. Under the assumption that these charging processes replaced regular overnight charging at home, this represents reduction in CO2 emissions of over 50%.
... It is also important to provide the gradual adaptation of society to new solutions appearing in urban transport systems [11]. Although these issues appear to be very important and should be widely considered by scientists the authors noticed that many scientific works on electric mobility focus mainly on aspects related to management, transport systems, economy, technical, or automotive issues [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. However, there are few works directly dedicated to the subject of education in the form of methods and concepts of electric mobility education. ...
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The implementation of new mobility solutions based on electric vehicles such as electric cars, electric scooters, and electric bikes, in urban transport systems, may bring several advantages for society, from environmental and economic benefits to improved quality of life. Nevertheless, we witness a scarcity of education and promotion that supports electric mobility, which can lead to social barriers due to the lack of knowledge. Consequently, people may be discouraged from using new transport technologies. The article focuses on electric mobility issues and present the original concept of electric mobility education. The goal of the work is to identify appropriate educational methods, useful during teaching about electric mobility at different levels of education. The concept focuses on education from primary school to long-life learning. Presented pedagogical concept is based on the three main pillars of pedagogy as diagnosis, forecasting, and content developing. It was developed based on expert research and diagnosed challenges and education gaps during teaching about electric mobility. The concept includes many techniques of education, from the classic methods as lectures and working with books to new educational solutions as e-learning. The original concept of electric mobility education creates new opportunities to promote electric mobility and support the process of creating new services in the electric mobility market.
... In H2020 ELECTRIFIC project [5], an Uncertain Ad-Hoc reservation system was developed for the EMSP E-Wald 1 . It is based on OCPP and implemented as a proof-of-concept to be demonstrated in a case study. ...
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As the number of electric vehicles on the roads increases, new technologies and concepts such as fast/super-fast charging and dynamic pricing are developed and implemented respectively. With those innovations on the rise, reservation of charging stations for electric vehicles will play a pivotal role in seamlessly integrating them into the transportation and mobility system. In this paper we derive basic requirements for building interoperable reservation systems and identify four generic approaches to reservation. For designing the system model and engineering the charging station reservation system, we utilize the E-Mobility Systems Architecture framework. For one of the reservation types, we implement a proof-of-concept and demonstrate its usefulness by conducting a showcase in Bavaria, Germany. Further, we set up and conduct a simulation-based evaluation to compare the four different reservation types regarding their benefit to users and providers as well as overall system efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first contribution proposing an interoperable reservation system for electric vehicle charging. The results presented in this paper provide insights regarding the feasibility of the different reservation types under varying conditions.
... In H2020 ELECTRIFIC project [5], an Uncertain Ad-Hoc reservation system was developed for the EMSP E-Wald 1 . It is based on OCPP and implemented as a proof-of-concept to be demonstrated in a case study. ...
Preprint
As the number of electric vehicles on the roads increases, new technologies and concepts such as fast/super-fast charging and dynamic pricing are developed and implemented respectively. With those innovations on the rise, reservation of charging stations for electric vehicles will play a pivotal role in seamlessly integrating them into our transportation and mobility system. In this paper, based on two reservation scenarios, we derive basic requirements for devising interoperable reservation systems. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first contribution proposing an interoperable reservation system for electric vehicle charging. For defining the system model and engineering the charging station reservation system, we adapt and utilize the widely used Smart Grid Architecture Model. We identify four generic approaches of reservation. For one reservation type, we implement a proof-of-concept and demonstrate its usefulness by conducting a showcase in Bavaria, Germany. Further, we setup and conduct a simulation-based evaluation to compare the four different reservation types regarding their benefit to users and providers as well as overall system efficiency. The results presented in this paper provide insights for providers of charging infrastructure regarding the feasibility of the different reservation types under varying conditions.
... In [27] an extensive BEV demand model based on empirical data is implemented considering the available charging infrastructure and characteristics of public and home charging. As user behavior is usually not in accordance with grid-friendly charging, incentives for the users are necessary in order to adapt their behavior [5]. ...
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This chapter presents temporal representations and temporal reasoning techniques that are useful to planning with time and resources. In planning, temporal relations can be conveniently represented and handled with constraint satisfaction problem (CSP)-based approaches and techniques. Two main formalisms for qualitative relations are developed—the time-point algebra, and the interval algebra. PA enable to relate in time a set of instants with qualitative constraints without necessarily ordering them. IA enables to relate in time a set of intervals with qualitative constraints. The relationships between these two formalisms are discussed. The quantitative temporal constraint networks are also introduced in the chapter. A calculus for relating a set of instants with quantitative, absolute, and relative numerical constraints is developed. The simple case where every constraint is a simple interval and the general case where disjunctions of intervals are allowed are explained in the chapter.
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This chapter builds on temporal reasoning techniques for planning by presenting some adequate representations for planning involving explicit time and by developing two related approaches to temporal planning. Time is dealt with mainly within point algebra (PA) and the simple temporal networks. Other approaches that rely on interval algebra (IA) are discussed. The chapter focuses on temporal planners that extend certain planning techniques. However, it departs significantly from the model of state-transition systems. It views an action not as a single state transition but as a collection of local change and persistence conditions that are spread out in time but are focused on just a few state variables or propositions. Such a view offers several advantages in expressiveness. In particular, explicit time is essential for handling the interaction of concurrent actions properly.
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A novel class of auction-based games is formulated to study coordination problems arising from charging a population of electric vehicles (EVs) over a finite horizon. To compete for energy allocation over the horizon, each individual EV submits a multidimensional bid, with the dimension equal to two times the number of time-steps in the horizon. Use of the progressive second price (PSP) auction mechanism ensures that incentive compatibility holds for the auction games. However, due to the cross elasticity of EVs over the charging horizon, the marginal valuation of an individual EV at a particular time is determined by both the demand at that time and the total demand over the entire horizon. This difficulty is addressed by partitioning the allowable set of bid profiles based on the total desired energy over the entire horizon. It is shown that the efficient bid profile over the charging horizon is a Nash equilibrium of the underlying auction game. An update mechanism for the auction game is designed. A numerical example demonstrates that the auction process converges to an efficient Nash equilibrium. The auction-based charging coordination scheme is adapted to a receding horizon formulation to account for disturbances and forecast uncertainty.
Article
As electric vehicles (EVs) have been popularized, research on battery management systems (BMSs) in their core technology has drawn considerable attention. Among the various functions of a BMS, estimating the state-of-health (SOH) of the battery is crucial; this estimation is used to determine the replacement time of the battery or to assess driving mileage. While most studies utilize capacity fading or resistance growth as SOH metrics, they all define SOH using fairly constrained assumptions, e.g., full cycling with constant current. Unfortunately, those assumptions cannot be applied to EV batteries that are, for the most part, cycled partially and dynamically. In clear contrast, this paper studies how SOH can be estimated in more practical environments where the batteries must support real-world driving patterns. In particular, this paper proposes a data-driven approach to trace SOH on the fly by using sensible BMS data such as current, voltage, and temperature while leveraging their historical distributions. We validated that our approach provides highly accurate results under actual EV driving conditions, with an average error less than 2.18%.
Conference Paper
Objectives for CO2 reduction as well as a more and more expensive gasoline have given a new breath to the plug-in vehicles (electric or hybrid). From an energetic point of view, the issue is then transferred from oil industry to the electrical power system sector. With this possible new demand, the question is then: will the power systems be able to accept the demand of several millions of vehicles, and how the power system control should be modified? Plug-in vehicles will be charge from the low voltage distribution network. Then their impact on the network is a critical issue to ensure the system security. The small storage devices brought by vehicles could be more a real opportunity than a constraint for distribution networks as vehicles could help reducing overload, voltage fluctuations observed with renewable sources. In this paper we present how plug-in vehicles charges can be managed to reduce the constraints on distribution networks. We propose controlled charging strategies to charge EVs when photovoltaic or wind generation feed power into the grid. Financial issues will also be discussed about sharing benefits between actors.
Article
Abstract We analyze the impacts of future scenarios of electric vehicles (EVs) on the German power system, drawing on different assumptions on the charging mode. We find that the impact on the load duration curve strongly differs between charging modes. In a fully user-driven mode, charging largely occurs during daytime and in the evening, when power demand is already high. User-driven charging may thus have to be restricted because of generation adequacy concerns. In contrast, cost-driven charging is carried out during night-time and at times of high PV availability. Using a novel model formulation that allows for simulating intermediate charging modes, we show that even a slight relaxation of fully user-driven charging results in much smoother load profiles. Further, cost-driven EV charging strongly increases the utilization of hard coal and lignite plants in 2030, whereas additional power in the user-driven mode is predominantly generated from natural gas and hard coal. Specific CO2 emissions of EVs are substantially higher than those of the overall power system, and highest under cost-driven charging. Only in additional model runs, in which we link the introduction of EVs to a respective deployment of additional renewables, electric vehicles become largely CO2-neutral.
Article
This paper addresses the problem of defining a day-ahead consumption plan for charging a fleet of electric vehicles (EVs), and following this plan during operation. A challenge herein is the beforehand unknown charging flexibility of EVs, which depends on numerous details about each EV (e.g., plug-in times, power limitations, battery size, power curve, etc.). To cope with this challenge, EV charging is controlled during opertion by a heuristic scheme, and the resulting charging behavior of the EV fleet is learned by using batch mode reinforcement learning. Based on this learned behavior, a cost-effective day-ahead consumption plan can be defined. In simulation experiments, our approach is benchmarked against a multistage stochastic programming solution, which uses an exact model of each EVs charging flexibility. Results show that our approach is able to find a day-ahead consumption plan with comparable quality to the benchmark solution, without requiring an exact day-ahead model of each EVs charging flexibility.
Article
In this article we study several routing problems that generalize shortest paths and the traveling salesman problem. We consider a more general model that incorporates the actual cost in terms of gas prices. We have a vehicle with a given tank capacity. We assume that at each vertex gas may be purchased at a certain price. The objective is to find the cheapest route to go from s to t , or the cheapest tour visiting a given set of locations. We show that the problem of finding a cheapest plan to go from s to t can be solved in polynomial time. For most other versions, however, the problem is NP-complete and we develop polynomial-time approximation algorithms for these versions.
Conference Paper
The steady increase in oil prices and awareness regarding environmental risks due to carbon dioxide emissions are promoting the current interest in electric vehicles. However, the current relatively low driving range (autonomy) of these vehicles, especially compared with the autonomy of existing internal combustion vehicles, remains an obstacle to their development. In order to reassure a driver of an electric vehicle and allow him to reach his destinations beyond the battery capacity, we describe a system which generates an energy plan for the driver. We present in this paper the electric vehicle ecosystem and we focus on the contribution of using the generalized multi-commodity network flow (GMCNF) model as a vehicle routing model that considers energy consumption and charging time in order to ensure the usage of an electric vehicle beyond its embedded autonomy by selecting the best routes to reach the destination with minimal time and/or cost. We also present some perspectives related to the utilization of autonomous electric vehicles and wireless charging systems. We conclude with some open research questions.
Article
The paper introduces the environmental propensity framework (EPF) and segments people who drive automobiles in the United States based on their environmental values and environmental self-efficacy. Specific information about consumers in each segment is reported, including opinion leadership, willingness to engage in complex thinking, skepticism toward new products and marketing communications, price sensitivity, and technological savviness. Based on the understanding gained of the segments within the segments defined by the EPF, the paper proposes appropriate policy and marketing techniques to motivate consumers within each of the five segments to consider hybrid cars.
Article
This paper considers the estimation of the state of charge and state of health for lithium-ion batteries, while an inclusive model is taken into account. The model includes two RC subnetworks, which represent the fast and slow transient responses of the terminal voltage. Nevertheless, the linear part of the model is unobservable. On the other hand, the nonlinear behavior of the open-circuit voltage versus state of charge is also included in the model. The proposed observer tackles the aforementioned problems to attain a reliable estimation of the state of charge. Moreover, as opposed to the methods in which the nonlinearities or uncertainties in the model are disregarded or those terms are discarded using a conventional sliding-mode observer, an analytical method is considered to estimate the additive nonlinear or uncertainty term in the model. This approach leads to a very accurate model of the battery to be used in a battery management system. Moreover, an online parameter estimation method is proposed to estimate the battery's state of health. The proposed scheme benefits from an adaptive rule for the online estimation of the series resistance in the lithium-ion battery based on the accurately identified model. Experimental tests certify the performance and feasibility of the proposed schemes.
Article
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are promoted as a viable near-term vehicle technology to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and resulting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with conventional vehicles (CVs). In spite of the benefits of EVs, several obstacles need to be overcome before EVs will be widely adopted. A major barrier is that consumers tend to resist new technologies that are considered alien or unproved, thus, policy decisions that consider their critical concerns will have a higher level of success. This research identifies potential socio-technical barriers to consumer adoption of EVs and determines if sustainability issues influence consumer decision to purchase an EV. This study provides valuable insights into preferences and perceptions of technology enthusiasts; individuals highly connected to technology development and better equipped to sort out the many differences between EVs and CVs. This group of individuals will likely be early adopters of EVs only if they perceive them to be superior in performance compared to CVs. These results can guide policymakers in crafting energy and transportation policy. It can also provide guidance to EV engineers' decision in incorporating consumer preference into EV engineering design.
Article
Dynamic price discrimination adjusts pricesbased on the option value of future sales, which varies with time and units available. This paper surveys the theoretical literature on dynamic price discrimination, and confronts the theories withnew data from airline pricing behavior.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the asymptotic behavior of the sequence (f sub n(i)) generated by a nonlinear recurrence relation. This problem arises in connection with an equipment replacement problem, cf. S. Dreyfus, A Note on an Industrial Replacement Process.
Article
Publisher Summary This chapter focuses on norms, which can be demonstrated to affect human action systematically and powerfully. Three distinct types of norms that are effective: social norms of the descriptive kind, which guides the behavior via the perception of how most others would behave; social norms of the injunctive kind, which guides the behavior via the perception of how most others would approve/disapprove of a person's conduct; and personal norms, which guides the behavior via the perception of how a person would approve/disapprove of his own conduct. At a given time, an individual's actions are likely to conform to the dictates of the type of norm that are familiar even when the other types of norms dictate contrary conduct. The chapter discusses those injunctive social norms—once activated—is likely to lead to beneficial social conduct across the greatest number of situations and populations. By focusing subjects on one or another type of norm, the action of a particular kind of norm was stimulated, without activating the other kinds.
Article
We tested three lithium-ion cells to evaluate capacity and power fade during cycle life testing of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) cell with varying state of charge (ΔSOC). Test results showed that the cells had sufficient power and energy capability to meet the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), now called FreedomCAR, goals for Power Assist at the beginning of life and after 120,000 life cycles using 48 cells. The initial static capacity tests showed that the capacity of the cells stabilized after three discharges at an average of 14.67 Ah. Capacity faded as expected over the course of 120,000 life cycles. However, capacity fade did not vary with ΔSOC. The hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests indicated that the cells were able to meet the power and energy goals at the beginning of testing and after 120,000 life cycles. The rate of power fade of the lithium-ion cells during cycle life testing increased with increasing ΔSOC. Capacity fade is believed to be due to lithium corrosion at the anode, and power fade suggested a buildup of the SEI layer or a decrepitation of the active material.
Article
We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be [euro]51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between [euro]26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of [euro]10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as [euro]67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only [euro]14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs.
Book
Automated planning technology now plays a significant role in a variety of demanding applications, ranging from controlling space vehicles and robots to playing the game of bridge. These real-world applications create new opportunities for synergy between theory and practice: observing what works well in practice leads to better theories of planning, and better theories lead to better performance of practical applications. Automated Planning mirrors this dialogue by offering a comprehensive, up-to-date resource on both the theory and practice of automated planning. The book goes well beyond classical planning, to include temporal planning, resource scheduling, planning under uncertainty, and modern techniques for plan generation, such as task decomposition, propositional satisfiability, constraint satisfaction, and model checking. The authors combine over 30 years experience in planning research and development to offer an invaluable text to researchers, professionals, and graduate students. Comprehensively explains paradigms for automated planning. Provides a thorough understanding of theory and planning practice, and how they relate to each other. Presents case studies of applications in space, robotics, CAD/CAM, process control, emergency operations, and games. Provides a thorough understanding of AI planning theory and practice, and how they relate to each other. Covers all the contemporary topics of planning, as well as important practical applications of planning, such as model checking and game playing. Presents case studies and applications in planning engineering, space, robotics, CAD/CAM, process control, emergency operations, and games. Provides lecture notes, examples of programming assignments, pointers to downloadable planning systems and related information online.
Conference Paper
In this paper we study several routing problems that generalize shortest paths and the Traveling Salesman Problem. We consider a more general model that incorporates the actual cost in terms of gas prices. We have a vehicle with a given tank capacity. We assume that at each vertex gas may be purchased at a certain price. The objective is to find the cheapest route to go from s to t, or the cheapest tour visiting a given set of locations. Surprisingly, the problem of find the cheapest way to go from s to t can be solved in polynomial time and is not NP-complete. For most other versions however, the problem is NP-complete and we develop polynomial time approximation algorithms for these versions.
In Statista-e Statistics Portal. 2017. Global car sales by manufacturer in 2016
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Press release-Transport 2050: Commission outlines ambitious plan to increase mobility and reduce emissions
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European Commission. 2011. Press release-Transport 2050: Commission outlines ambitious plan to increase mobility and reduce emissions. (Mar 2011).
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S. Chien et al. 2000. Aspen–automated planning and scheduling for space mission operations. In e 12th International Conference on Space Operations. 1–10.
Statista Dossier about the global market for electric vehicles
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Statista-e Statistics Portal. 2017. Statista Dossier about the global market for electric vehicles. (2017).
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ZSW, In Statista-e Statistics Portal. 2017. Worldwide number of electric vehicles in use from 2012 to 2016. (2017).
Dynamic pricing in the airline industry. forthcoming in Handbook on Economics and Information Systems Ed
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