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  • University of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faculty of Science and Education

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This paper provides an overview of the development, use and future trends of biodegradable packaging, types of biopolymers, the properties of biodegradable packaging, the concept of biodegradability, bio-technology production and packaging advantages and shortcomings of. In the opening statement, described the concept of packaging in general and how biodegradable packaging developed through history. The chapter on biopolymers shows that all types of biopolymers are used for the production of bio-packaging and how we share it. The next two chapters relate to the properties of biodegradable materials and distribution of bio-packaging shapes. A special place in the work occupies a section of biodegradation and composting, which clearly illustrates the mechanism of biodegradation but also clarifies the concept compostable and biodegradable plastics. The last two chapters deal with the technology of production of biodegradable packaging and a brief analysis of the advantages and disadvantages biodegradable packaging. An important component of this work is a questionnaire on the awareness and importance of using biodegradable packaging with students at four faculties of the University of Mostar.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52
Arch Lebensmittelhyg 68,
26–38 (2017)
DOI 10.2376/0003-925X-68-26
© M. & H. Schaper GmbH & Co.
ISSN 0003-925X
1)Faculty of Agronomy and Food Technology University of Mostar, Biskupa C
ˇule bb,
Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; 2)Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and
Education, University of Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Biodegradable packaging
in the food industry
Biologisch abbaubare Verpackungen in der Lebensmittelindustrie
Anita Ivankovic´1), Karlo Zeljko1), Stanislava Talic´2), Anita Martinovic´ Bevanda2),
Marija Lasic´1)
Summary This paper provides an overview of the development, use and future trends of bio-
degradable packaging, types of biopolymers, the properties of biodegradable packa-
ging, the concept of biodegradability, bio-technology production and packaging
advantages and shortcomings of. In the opening statement, described the concept
of packaging in general and how biodegradable packaging developed through history.
The chapter on biopolymers shows that all types of biopolymers are used for the
production of bio-packaging and how we share it. The next two chapters relate to
the properties of biodegradable materials and distribution of bio-packaging shapes.
A special place in the work occupies a section of biodegradation and composting,
which clearly illustrates the mechanism of biodegradation but also clarifies the
concept compostable and biodegradable plastics. The last two chapters deal with the
technology of production of biodegradable packaging and a brief analysis of the
advantages and disadvantages biodegradable packaging. An important component of
this work is a questionnaire on the awareness and importance of using biodegradable
packaging with students at four faculties of the University of Mostar.
Keywords: biodegradable packaging, polymers, degradation
Zusammenfassung Dieser Artikel soll einen Überblick über die Entwicklung, die derzeitige Nutzung und
zukünftige Trends biologisch abbaubarer Verpackungen geben. Des Weiteren über
Biopolymere, der biologischen Abbaubarkeit, Produktionstechnologien und über Vor-
und Nachteile biologisch abbaubarer Verpackungen informieren. Zu Beginn des
Artikels wird über Verpackungen im Allgemeinen und über die Entwicklung der
biologisch abbaubaren Verpackung im Laufe der Zeit berichtet. Das Kapitel über Bio-
polymere zeigt, dass alle Arten von Biopolymeren für die Herstellung von Biover -
packungen verwendet werden und wie diese eingeteilt werden. Die nächsten beiden
Kapitel beziehen sich auf die Eigenschaften von biologisch abbaubaren Materialien
und die Verbreitung von biologischen Verpackungsformen. Eine Sonderstellung in der
Arbeit hat der Abschnitt des biologischen Abbaus und Kompostierung, der den
Mechanismus des biologischen Abbaus verdeutlicht, aber auch das Konzept kompo-
stierbarer und biologisch abbaubare Kunststoffe darstellt. Die letzten beiden Kapitel
beschäftigen sich mit der Produktionstechnologien und einer kurzen Analyse der Vor-
und Nachteile biologisch abbaubarer Verpackungen. Ein wichtiger Bestandteil dieser
Arbeit ist ein Fragebogen zum Bewusstsein und zur Bedeutung der Verwendung von
biologisch abbaubaren Verpackungen mit Studierenden an vier Fakultäten der Uni-
versität von Mostar.
Schlüsselwörter:biologisch abbaubare Verpackungen, Polymere, Abbau
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52 27
Packaging is any product that is used to hold, protection,
handling, delivery and presentation of goods, from raw
materials to finished products, from producers to con -
sumers. Packaging is usually divided according to the basic
raw material of which is produced according to the type of
packaging material can be divided into metal, glass, poly-
mer, paper cardboard, wood, textile, multilayered, ceramic
and other types.
Food packaging must meet a number of conditions, such
as legislation, safety and many other conditions as well as
functionality since it is required to be innovative, easy to
use and attractive design. One of the main tasks of
packaging in the food industry is to protect the product of
chemical, mechanical and microbiological impact, and also
allows the freshness of the product and keeps all its
nutritional value. The key point in food packaging is that
the packaging is an integral part of the production, preser-
vation, storage, distribution, and at the present time and an
integral part of the preparation of foods. The properties of
the food product are only possible to maintain proper
selection of appropriate packaging and packing process
(Stricˇ evic´, 1982).
The aim of the paper is importance of raising awareness
of people to live properly and responsibly, in harmony with
nature, manage packaging and encourage the production
of biodegradable packaging. Finally, it would be presented
to the survey, which was conducted on students of under -
graduate study natural sciences and medical sciences at the
University of Mostar.
Development of bioplastic
Today, at the beginning of the 21st century, great impor -
tance is given to products from renewable sources, for their
positive impact on nature. Generally increasing awareness
among consumers worldwide to conventional plastic pro-
ducts, although very useful, creating huge damage to the
environment, water resources, and the entire ecosystem.
Accumulation of plastic in the environment, reduction of
arable land, wear oil wells, releasing gases during incine -
ration have prompted efforts to develop biodegradable
packaging / plastics (Mohatny et al, 2015).
The largest sector in the demand for bio-packaging is the
food industry. The rapid development of the industry has
led to problems with non-degradable packaging, but it
takes time, work and patience while reorienting them to
bio-packaging (bioplastic) (Platt, 2006).
In addition to efforts to find a replacement for plastic sup-
ports the development and cardboard packaging produced
only from renewable sources (Kolybaba 2003, Narayan, 2006).
The main leaders in composting are Germany and the
Netherlands, where for a very long time composting is car-
ried out effectively and successfully, all thanks to national
programs to support and develop people's consciousness
(Mohatny, 2005, Platt, 2006).
Biomaterials (biopolymers) are polymers produced from
renewable sources. Biopolymers are manufactured from
plant raw materials, in the first place, but in recent times
and of animal. Their main feature is their biodegradability.
Classified in many ways such as, chemical structure, origin,
methods of synthesis, cost-effectiveness, application, etc.
(Davidovic and Savic, 2010).
Polymers from renewable resources are different from
natural polymers because their synthesis is induced inten-
tionally. Conventional polymers are not biodegradable be-
cause of long chains of molecules that are too big and too
well connected to each other to make them able to separate
the microorganisms to break down. Unlike conventional,
polymers made from natural plant materials from wheat,
potato or corn starches have molecules that are easily
microbiologically degradable. For 1 kg of bio-plastics
should be 1 to 2 kg of maize and 5 to 10 kg of potatoes,
which means that 500 000 tons of bio-plastics per year re-
quires 50,000 to 100,000 hectares of soil. At the same time,
it means the destruction of large areas of forest/rainforest
to cultivated plants for the production of biodegradable
materials (Goodship and Ogar, 2004).
Thanks to their natural origin, natural polymers are all
inherently biodegradable since for each enzyme a polyme-
rase whose activities produce a natural polymer, and there
is depolymerase capable of catalyzing the decomposition of
the polymer (Scholz and Khemani, 2006).
Classification of biopolymers
The traditional way of dealing with biodegradable
packaging materials is divided into three generations based
on historical development.
First generation
The first generation of material was used for shopping bags,
consisting of synthetic polymers such as low density poly-
ethylene (LDPE-low density polyethylene) with a pro -
portion of 5–15 % starch fillers and pro-oxidizing and auto-
oxidative additives. Later these materials decompose or
bio-fragment into smaller molecules that are not biodegra-
dable. Such materials have created a very bad image of bio
materials especially for consumers who were convinced
that they played in terms of biodegradability (Chiellini,
2008). Low density polyethylene-LDPE produced in 1933
by Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) using high pressure
process via free radical polymerization. Its production uses
the same methods today. It is estimated that about 5.7 wt%
of LDPE can be recycled. LDPE is in the range defined by
the density of 0.910 to 0.940 g/cm3. Non-reactive at room
temperature, except in the action of strong oxidizing agents
and some solvents cause swelling. Excellent resistance to
acids, alcohols, esters, and a base, followed by resistance to
various aldehydes, ketones and vegetable oils, and low is
resistant to halogen hydrocarbons. They are stable up to a
temperature of 80 °C. It is produced in transparent or
opaque variations, and is quite flexible and tough, but also
fragile. It is used for general purposes (packaging for
juices) or for industrial purposes (corrosion resistant mate-
rials, welding machine, etc. (Malpass, 2010).
Second generation
The second generation of biomaterials comprises a mixture
of pre-gelatinized starch (40–70 %) and low density poly-
ethylene (LDPE) with the addition of the hydrophilic
copolymer such as ethylene acrylic acid, polyvinyl alcohol
and vinyl acetate, which are used to compact. Complete
degradation of starch takes 40 days and the degradation of
the whole of the above-mentioned film lasts 2–3 years.
Third generation
The third generation of the material fully consists of bio-
materials and can be divided into three main categories
according to the origin and production methods:
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52
1. Polymers extracted/isolated directly from biomass
2. Polymers produced by classical chemical synthesis and
3. Polymers obtained directly from natural or genetically
modified organisms (Chiellini, 2008).
Third generation biopolymers those are interesting for this
study can be divided into three main categories according
to their origin and method of production:
Polymers extracted/isolated directly from biomass
This category of biopolymers is most present on the mar-
ket. Polymers of this category are obtained from plants,
marine and domestic animals. Examples are polysacchari-
des, such as cellulose, chitin and starch, whey protein, ca-
sein, collagen, soy protein, myofibrillar proteins of animal
muscle, etc., can be used alone or as a mixture with syn -
thetic polyesters such as polylactic acid (PLA). The most
prevalent category that is used in food packaging is
cellulose-based paper. There appears also regenerated
cellulose film (cellophane paper) and cellulose acetate.
Hemicellulose, the second most abundant plant polymer in
the world, is in its infancy as a biomaterial research for food
packaging (Grondahl et al, 2006).
From raw materials annually renewable, based on starch
are most used. Green plants such as potatoes, corn, wheat
and rice are the raw materials for the production of
biopolymers. Starch as the main component in them, it is
potentially the most acceptable biodegradable polymer
material due to its low cost, availability, and because it is
produced from renewable sources. How is not a thermopla-
stic material, is used in mixtures with non-biodegradable
polymers and biodegradable materials. The nature of the
crystal grains in the form of 15–100 microns in diameter
after extraction, the crystal structure is distorted to him
pressing, heat, mechanical work and plasticizers such as
water, glycerol and other polyols to make the thermoplastic
starch (Bastioli, 2005). Plastic-coated starch (known as
thermoplastic starch or TPS) is usually obtained by de-
stroying or plastic coating of native starch with water using
the thermo-mechanical energy in a continuous extrusion
process. TPS can be manufactured in the same way as
traditional plastics, but the sensitivity to water vapor and
low mechanical properties render it useless for many appli-
cations. TPS achieves equilibrium properties after a few
weeks (Averous et al, 2004).
Mixing starch with aliphatic polyesters improves its
workability and biodegradation. The combination of starch
with a water soluble polymer such as polyvinyl chloride
(PVC) is used for the production of starch film (Adeodato
Vieira et al, 2011).
This generation of plastics made from starch is comple-
tely biodegradable. From biodegradable plastics based on
starch are made of different bags and sacks, rigid packaging
such as hot-formed trays and containers, as well as products
for filling gaps in packages. This material successfully re-
places polystyrene and polyethylene in many applications
(Rustogy and Chandra, 1998).
Chitin and chitosan
Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide after
cellulose and differs from it only by the OH group. The
most abundant in the cell walls of the skin of insects, the
shells of shellfish and insects, and can be found in the cell
walls of some fungi. Chitosan is actually deacetylated
derivative of chitin (Clarnival and Halleux, 2005). Both are
applied to produce various biodegradable films for
packaging, and the largest they use as an edible coating to
prolong the shelf-life of fresh fruits and vegetables (Zhao
and Mc Daniel, 2005). Chitosan has a very poor mechanical
properties and resistance to water.
More recently used composite films formed by mixing
chitosan and starch showing good properties when it comes
to water vapour and mechanical properties. Chitin and
chitosan have good antimicrobial properties to a variety of
fungi, yeasts and bacteria found in food and thus enable
good use as materials that produce biodegradable packa-
ging for food packaging, in particular, are important for
prolonging the shelf-life of foods (Chiellini, 2008).
Other plant proteins
The two most common vegetable proteins used in the
production of biodegradable packaging are chickpeas and
isolated soy protein. Other proteins that are used include
those extracted from wheat, pistachios, peas and sunflower
(Dean and Yu, 2005). Other polymers based on proteins
such as albumin, casein, fibrinogen, silk and elastin are
taken into account due to its biodegradability as a raw
material for the production of biodegradable packaging.
Unfortunately they have not found wide use because they
are difficult to process, do not melt without decompression,
and difficult to mix with other polymers due to incompa -
tibility and processing them is expensive unlike other poly-
saccharides (Battacharya et al, 2005).
Films made from isolated soy protein are very sensitive to
moisture and is not strong. Adding stearic acid of about
25 % to improve properties of tensile and thermal proper-
ties and reduced moisture sensitivity (Lodha and Nteravali,
2005). More recently it was discovered that the soy protein
together with glycerol, gellan gum, or K-carrageenan suita-
ble for the production of biodegradable/edible soybean-
based packaging containers (trays) (Mohareb and Mittal,
2007). Always in the production of such packaging must
pay attention to the barrier properties to moisture because
most hydrophilic in nature. Work on the properties of these
materials is demanded because they have not yet come
across a great application in production but is thought to
want in the future. Collagen covers (intestine) for now
remain the only widely applied product based on proteins.
It is believed that the film based on a protein found exten-
sive application as edible films in future also (Guilbert and
Cuq, 2007).
Polymers produced by conventional
chemical synthesis of bio-monomers
It is possible to get a large range biopolyesters by chemical
synthesis. In theory, all previous packaging materials can be
replaced by new types derived from renewable monomers,
but the question of economic viability (Kobayashi, 2010,
Berezina and Martelli, 2014).
The most famous of these groups biopolymer is poly -
lactic acid (PLA-polylactide). PLA is biodegradable
thermoplastic linear polyester, for its properties similar to
polystyrene. The raw material for obtaining the lactic acid
is obtained by fermentation of glucose or starch from an -
other source. As a source of carbohydrate may be used
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52 29
corn, wheat or alternatively whey and molasses (Wackett,
There are several routes to useful industrial (or high mo-
lecular weight) PLA (Woo et al, 1995).
There are the two principal monomers lactic acid and
lactide. The most common way to the PLA is a ring-
opening polymerization of lactide with various metal
catalysts (typically tin (II)-ethyl hexanoate) in solution or
as a suspension. The reaction metal catalyst often causes
racemization of PLA, reducing stereospecificity with
respect to the starting material.
The second time the PLA is a direct condensation of
lactic acid monomer. This procedure should be carried out
at a temperature lower than 200 °C because above this
temperature in the formation of low molecular weight
materials. Direct condensation is carried out in steps, where
the lactic acid in the first oligomerizes PLA oligomers. The-
reafter, the polycondensation is carried out in solution or
the melt where the short oligomeric units combine to give a
high molecular weight polymer chain. Removing the water
using vacuum or azeotropic desti lation favors to polycon-
densation during transesterifi cation. Even higher molecular
weight can be obtained by careful crystallisation of the
crude polymer from the melt. The carboxylic acids and
alcohols, the last group are concentrated in the amorphous
area of the solid polymer can be reacted.
Polymerization of the mixture of L- and D-lactide typi-
cally leads to the synthesis of poly-DL-lactide (PDLLA),
which is amorphous. The use of a catalyst can result in PLA
exhibiting crystallinity. In addition to lactic acid and lactide
is used and lactic acid O-karoboksihidrid (Kricheldorf et al,
1983). In aerobically degrades completely over the lactic
acid into water and carbon dioxide, and the biodegradation
favorable conditions for 3–4 weeks (Mahalik and Nambiar,
PLA is mainly processed into thermoformed pads and
containers for packing and serving food, films, transparen-
cies and bottles and other packaging blown, but also mixed
with other materials to improve their. PLA excellent water
vapor-permeable which is important in the packaging of
fresh food, which is necessary for the water vapor which
evaporates quickly while reducing disturbance of the
packaging. Is largely processed into thermoformed pads
and containers for packing and serving food, films, trans -
parencies and bottles and other packaging blown, but also
mixed with other materials to improve their.
An example of the good properties of the variety of
raspberry “Polana“ which during storage maintains a stable
concentration of anthocyanins in all combinations of
packaging with PLA thickness of 25 or 40 microns (poly-
propylene boxes in PLA bags and cardboard boxes in the
PLA bags) Unlike polypropylene box with holes and card-
board boxes . PLA bags thickness 25 micrometers maintain
optimal gas composition (10 to 20 % CO2and 5 to 10 %
O2) for storing raspberries (Seglia et al, 2009).
Polymers obtained directly from natural
or genetically modified organisms
Many bacteria accumulate these polymers as a source of
energy and as a carbon reserve. This group includes
polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and bacterial cellulose.
PHAs are polyesters that are part of the living oraganizama
structure, hydrophobic and insoluble in water.
Their characteristics are most associated with the pro-
perties of the monomer building blocks of which which a
wide variety of different biopolymer can be synthesized by
microbial fermentation. Enzyme PHA-polymerase cata -
lyzes the reaction of polymerization HA in the PHA within
the cell. The overall biochemical pathway of synthesis
carried out in the cell in a series of enzyme reactions.
PHA, which synthesizes type Alcaligenes, Azotobacter,
Bacillus, Halobacterium, Rhizobium and many other
micro-organisms can be produced in large quantities bio-
technologicaly, renewable substrate, using fermentation
and known physical and chemical processes extracted from
biomass after production. Depending on the bacteria and
the carbon source, the polyhydroxyalkanoate may be
manufactured from rigid brittle to plastic to rubber-like
polymer. Have similar properties such as propylene and
polyethylene, elastic and the thermoplastic (retained upon
cooling forms) (Zivkovic, 2009).
The most common is the use of derivative polyhydroxy-
butyrate labeled PHB. PHB is biodegradable polyester
linear prepared by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipid.
It can be used for food packaging, cosmetics and pharma-
ceutical products, as well as in agriculture. The aerobic
conditions are completely degraded into water and carbon
dioxide. Biodegradation in favorable conditions takes 5–6
weeks (Botana et al, 2010).
Apart from renewable, biodegradable plastics can be
produced from synthetic polymers by using bacteria. The
bacterium Pseudomonas putida converts styrene monomer
in the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), biodegradable plastic
which has a wide range of applications. PHA is water in -
soluble, biodegradable material and compostable whose
improvement works intensively before its commercializa-
tion (Chiellini, 2008).
Properties of biodegradable materials
Materials were based on the need to be useful in the food
packaging industry so as to their physical and mechanical
properties enable their eligibility and the application of a
certain degree, but it also applies largely to prices.
Barrier properties
Poor barrier properties (especially humidity resistance) of
the traditional and most widely used biomaterials (paper, cel-
lulose films, and cellophane) are all known and is therefore
necessary to mix these materials with synthetic polymers to
achieve the desired barrier properties for packaging of many
foodstuffs. Biomaterials made of polysaccharides having
poor barrier properties when it comes to water vapor and
other polar substances in a large proportion of the humidity,
but at low or middle portion of humidity create good proper-
ties to oxygen and other non-polar substances such as various
flavors and oils. Moisture vapor transmission rate was prepa-
red from the starch material is 4–6 times higher than conven-
tional materials made from synthetic polymers. Materials
made of arabinoxylan as barley a low permeability as regards
oxygen and CO2and a high permeability in the case of water
vapor (the fluorinated materials are less surface hydrophilic
such or yet to be finalized).
Some of barrier properties (Tab. 1) where the bio -
material and oil derived materials eg., PLA (polylactic
acid) has a moisture vapor transmission rate 3–5 times
greater than that of PET (polietilentetraftalat), LDPE (low
density polyethylene), HDPE (high density polyethylene)
and OPS (oriented polystyrene). PLA has improved
barrier properties to oxygen from PS (polystyrene), but not
as well as PET.
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52
PHA (polihidroksialkonati) has similar moisture vapor
transmission rate as well as materials made from petro-
PHB (polyhydroxyalkanoates) has better barrier pro-
perties to oxygen from the PET and PP (polypropylene),
and adequate barrier properties when it comes to fat and
fragrances for products with a short shelf life.
Barrier properties of gases in most bio-materials depend
on the ambient humidity, or PLA and PHA are exceptions.
Mechanical properties
The mechanical properties of most organic material similar
to the materials derived from petroleum. For example
properties of the PLA are defined by molecular weight of
the polymer chain structure (linear with respect to the
branched), the degree of crystallization etc. Orientation
PLA improves the mechanical strength and heat stability, a
different molecular weight and crystallization result of soft
and elastic to hard and high strength materials. The
amorphous and poorly crystallized PLA has a transparent,
shiny surface; a highly crystalline PLA has an opaque
surface. In Table 1 is avaliable to the melting temperature
is 130–180 °C, and in the glassy form exceeds already at a
temperature of 40–70 °C.
The physical properties of PHA copolymer depend of
the composition and molecular structure of the copolymer.
PHB is generally hard, highly crystalline thermoplastic
polymer which most resembles the isotactic PP because of
its mechanical properties. As such polymer PHB generally
rigid and brittle, the introduction of the HV (hidoksivale-
ratne subunit) copolymers improves his mechanical pro -
perties so that it reduces the level of crystallization and
melting temperature resulting in a decrease or increase in
hardness toughness and resistance to impact. It is evident
that a variety of PHA used in various applications due to
its properties and a melting temperature which is
50–180 °C.
Experimental methods try to de-
termine which materials have super-
ior properties and are carried out and
also the mixing of different types to
obtain a better packing material.
Current restrictions
The main problem was the most-used
for food packaging are their proper-
ties, processing and price. In parti -
cular, brittleness, low temperatures at
which creates distortion, low resis -
tance during processing (excluding
PHA polymers) and their barrier pro-
perties, particularly to water vapor,
limiting their use. In recent years, the
price drops and they certainly will de-
cline in the future and with time
should increase process optimization
and efficiency of plants for the produc-
tion of such material. The limited
availability of raw materials is still one
of the most pressing problems that
hinder the development of such mate-
rials. However it is unlikely that will be
enough to PLA and to meet the needs
of the food industry for some time.
Methods for improving functionality
It is necessary to develop new techniques and processes to
improve the barrier properties of bio-packaging. For exam-
ple, the addition of bio-nanocomposite material shows that
the improved mechanical properties of bio-materials and
coating SiOx compounds with PLA material reduces
moisture vapor transmission rate of 60 %. There are many
applications of different techniques that improve different
properties when it comes to these materials or to achieve
this and applied in the future requires more effort and
research that will help to these materials even more pro-
ducts and use (Chiellini, 2008).
Biopackaging forms
Biodegradable packaging is produced in several different
forms to adapt to the requirements for packaging and
storage of various products currently the most biodegra -
dable gels, films, bags, boxes with lids and trays.
Biodegradable gel
The gels are commonly used to prevent microbial conta -
mination, such as a hydrogel, the hydrogel chemical and
polymeric network (IPN) (Farrisa et al, 2009). In lettuce,
for example, impregnating gel no visible positive effects on
maintaining the quality and content of pectic substances
while the fruits of Solanum muricatum, protective gel
positive effect on maintaining the beta-carotene (Schreiner
et al, 2003). Radish gel coat starch-based proved effective
to maintain the content of pectin while the same is not
performed well for content Glucosinolate. It has been
found that a combination of hydrogels for various poly -
meric materials reduce the service life of certain fruits,
probably due to migration of water from the surrounding
area (Garcia and Barrett, 2002). White extruded ginseng
extract has good potential to maintain the concentration of
antioxidants if used together with biodegradable stretch
film (Rico et al, 2007).
TABLE 1: The barrier properties of polymers to bio-based and those derived from oil
(Chiellini, 2008).
Polymers Transfer rate of Moisture vapor Temperature Material thickness
oxygen mL m–2 transmission rate (°C) (mm)
day–1 at 0 % (g m–2 day–1 at 100 %
relative humidity) relative humidity)
OPLA (Oriented polylactic acid)
56.33 15.30 22 4.6
PLA (Polylactic acid)
200 66 23 0.1
PLA-M (Polylactic acid average molecular weight) 210 (at 90 %
relative humidity) 25 0.25
PLLA + SiOx (Polylactic acid medium molecular weight silicic compounds + hydrocarbons)
84–99 34–40 (at 37.8 °C) 23 0.1
PHB (Polyhydroxybutyrate)
183 1.16 30 1
PHBV (Poly-hydroxybutyrate and hydroxy valerate)
1.39 30 1
PET (Polyethyleneterephthalate)
9.44 3.48 22 4.6
OPS (Oriented polystyrene)
532 5.18 22 4.6
LDPE (Low density polyethylene) 38 (at 90 %
7.9 relative humidity) 0.75
LDPE+ 5% starch 38 (at 90 %
36.85 relative humidity) 0.75
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52 31
Biodegradable films
Biodegradable films are designed with the intention of re-
placing the polyethylene film used for different purposes,
from various industrial films, packaging products to the bag
for the collection of organic waste. Such materials have
better properties than traditional non-degradable plastics.
They are resistant to moisture, warm organic materials for
a period of several weeks or even months without changes
in physical properties. This allows greater flexibility com-
posting program. Good as a replacement for current films
used in storage, transport and packaging of the product and
are completely biodegradable. In addition, do not contain
polyethylene, do not leave residues after composting and
are made from renewable biomaterials (polyester derived
from corn dextrose). A comparative study of the permea-
bility of the biodegradable film for oxygen and carbon
dioxide as a form of packaging for the fruit of tomatoes
showed that films with low permeability negatively affected
the quality of the fruit. However, when the permeability of
the biodegradable films is into line with the respiration of
the fruit, the prevention of contamination by microorga-
nisms and insects achieved a positive effect on the dura -
bility and quality (Muratore et al, 2005).
Compared with polyphenol foil, biodegradable film
permeability is significantly decreased. Two kinds of
experimental films have been applied to freshly chopped
pineapple and melon and observed for their influence on
the microbiological quality control of the fruit during
storage at 10 °C. The types of films that were used in this
study are commercial plastic stretch film and experimental
methyl-cellulose film that includes vanilla as a natural
antimicrobial agent. Fresh sliced fruit, without any foil
wrapping was used as a control. Methyl-cellulose film had
inhibitory effect against Escherichia coli, and the yeast was
reduced was recorded. Methyl cellulose films with vanillin
increased the intensity of the yellow color with pineapple.
Pineapple which was guarded in an ordinary commercial
plastic film had a larger amount of ethanol. However, with
pieces of pineapple coated biodegradable film with vanillin
recorded a decrease of ascorbic acid by 90 % (Sungsuwan
et al, 2008).
Biodegradable bags
The production technology is based
on the use of bio materials, namely
polyester obtained from dextrose
corn as the main raw material. Thus
was obtained 100 % biodegradable
packaging, which is the influence of
microorganisms in conditions such as
normal composting degraded organic
material to carbon dioxide and water.
By using natural raw materials, are
not diminished physical properties of
this product, but on the contrary, they
are improved. Biode gradable bags
are strong, flexible, resistant to brea-
kage and damage, and resistant to
moisture and temperature changes
because of its raw material compo -
sition, the largest application with the
food industry. Tests show that these
bags are safe packaging, and can be
used for the storage and packaging of
food products. The addition of cer-
tain additives, the use of bags extends to other industrial
branches.Prednost application of biodegradable bags is not
only the functionality but also the fulfillment of all the rules
of environmental protection. Upon completion of use bags
as packaging, the bags when disposing of the land or com-
post decomposable to carbon dioxide and water, over a pe-
riod of several weeks, and at the same time does not dimi-
nish the value of the resulting compost, which makes this
container substantially different from previously known
polyethylene (Nampoothiri et al, 2010).
Biodegradable boxes with lids
Box with a cover made of bi-oriented polystyrene, pro -
duced from corn. Such packaging is biodegradable after
47 days, depending on the conditions, and the process does
not release harmful substances into the environment. It is
crystal clear, allowing better visibility of contents, and is
resistant to grease and withstands temperatures
from –60 °C to +80 °C. PLA containers significantly better
maintain fruit quality blueberries from standard ventilated
switching containers at temperatures between 10 and 23 °C
(Alemar et al, 2008).
Trays for fruits and vegetables
It was found that salad, and sliced broccoli, tomatoes, sweet
corn and blueberries can be successfully kept in biode -
gradable trays of pulp wrapped in foil packaging of poured-
caprolactone. Such patches are resistant to moisture but
brittle. Correspond to the products during freezing them
does not change their structural properties well (Makino
and Hirata, 1996).
Biodegradable packaging with silver
Silver is used in the fight against infection and deterioration
even in ancient Greece and Rome. In the 19th century
botanist von Nagel found that small concentrations or
silver particles have an antibacterial effect. Silver is used
today in the food packaging system. Food longer maintains
the quality texture, improve its storage capacity and
maintain food security addition of silver in the packaging.
Silver as an element in the production of biodegradable
TABLE 2: Mechanical properties of bio-based polymers and polymers derived from oil
(Chiellini, 2008).
Polymers Melting point The tempera- Young's model Tensile strength Elongation
Tm(°C) ture of the glass of elasticity (N mm–2) at Break (%)
transition Tg(°C) (kN mm–2)
Starch 110–115 0.6–0.85 35–80 580–820
PLA (polylactic acid) 130–180 40–70 3.5 48–53 30–240
PHA (polyhydroxyalkanoates) 70–7030 do 10 0.7–1.8 18–24 3–25
PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate) 140–180 0 3.5 25–40 5–8
PHBV (polyhydroxybutyrate
and hydroxyvalerate) 100–190 0–30 0.6–1 25–30 7–15
PHB (at 20 °C) (polyhydroxy-
butyrate) 180 4 3.5 43 5
PHBV (at 20 °C) (polyhydroxy-
butyrate and hydroxyvalerate) 145 1 1.2 20 50
PET (polyethylenetetraph-
thalate) 245–265 73–80 2.8–4.1 48–72 30–300
PS (polystyrene) 100 70–115 2.3–3.3 8–20 100–1000
LDPE (Low Density Poly-
ethylene) 11030 0.2 10 620
PP (polypropylene) 176 0 1.7 3.8 400
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52
packaging has antibacterial role. It damages the cell walls,
cell membranes and cytoplasm of bacteria. More recent
studies have found that silver also affects the replication of
DNA. Silver may be incorporated in the biopolymer in the
form of pure silver, silver coated, or in the form of micro-
particles. Biodegradable film with silver is preferred over
any other packaging materials because of its suppleness
and exceptional adhesion ability to fruit. It is used for
packaging fresh fruit and vegetables, as well as for storage
and transportation of food. The product meets the require-
ments on sanitary objects that come into direct contact with
food (Tokic et al, 2011, Otoni et all, 2016).
Biodegradation and composting
Biodegradation is the biochemical material conversion
process in the water, biomass, carbon dioxide or methane
in terms of the action of microorganisms. The process of
biodegradation of the polymer consists of two steps. First,
the process of reducing the polymer chain breaking of
carbon bonds in terms of the effect of heat (degradation
rate depends on temperature), humidity and the presence
of microorganisms. Second, part of the process of biode -
gradation process begins when shorter chains become ener-
gy sources of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi or algae).
This process is in full sense confirmed as biodegradation
only when carbon compounds become food and micro -
organisms are transformed into water, biomass or carbon
dioxide (Barone and Arikan, 2007).
Composting is an ancient method of converting organic
matter remains in the fertile humus. Organic substances
which improve soil structure formed from organic waste
valuable help to retain moisture, the soil more breathable,
increase soil microbiological activity, enriching it with
nutrients and increase the resistance of plants to pests and
diseases (Mondini et al, 2004).
It is a biological process in which the controlled con -
ditions of elevated temperature and activity of certain
microorganisms (composting cycle), there is a degradation
of polymers to biobased as fast as the others decomposition
of organic waste, resulting in a water, carbon dioxide and
compost. The resulting organic compost is completely
environmentally neutral and in agronomic terms shall have
the same characteristics as other compost. The process of
composting is a key segment of dealing with organic waste
and return the remains of biodegradable materials in the
new use (Xi et al, 2016).
The mechanism of biodegradation of polymers
Degradable polymers the chemical structure is chan-
ged under the influence of moisture, oxygen
Biodegradable polymers are broken down under the
influence of naturally occurring microorganisms
Hydrolytic degradable polymers are degraded by
Oxidation degradable polymers – are broken down by
Photodegradable polymer breaks down under the
influence of natural light. Under the influence of photo-
oxidation comes to breaking chemical bonds. This is a
reaction involving radicals – chain reaction
Thermal degradable polymers – thermally degradable
(Jakobek, 2014).
Biodegradable plastic
Biodegradation of plastic happens if biological system (the
body) uses organic materials, plastics as a source of
nutrients. Microorganisms identify biodegradable plastics
as food and consume and digest. Biodegradable plastics can
be based on renewable raw materials – biomass (eg, starch)
or non-renewable – fossil raw materials (eg, oil) processed
by chemical or biotechnological processes. Source or pro-
cess that produces biodegradable plastic does not affect the
classification of biodegradable plastics.
speed and the degree of degradation, in addition to the
chemical composition of, depends on the starting
material, and the composition of the region of the end
product, which can be modified by adding fillers and
plasticizers to improve properties or reduce cost.
The degradation process of biodegradable plastics may
involve simultaneous or sequential abiotic and biotic
steps, but must include a step of biological mineraliza-
tion. the biodegradation affect abiotic (cold, humidity ...)
and biotic factors (micro-organisms)
Level 1 – fragmentation (macroscopic decomposition
and conversion to oligomers)
2nd stage mineralization (conversion of the organic
substances in inorganic, under the influence of micro -
Chemical mechanisms: hydrolysis, oxidation (Funke et
al, 1998).
Biodegrad- and composting products are friendly alterna-
tive to protect the environment in order to preserve fossil
fuels, and reduce CO2emissions. Often there is confusion
about the biodegradable, bioizvorne or both. To illustrate
the difference, the organization European Bioplastics has
proposed a simple two-axis model that includes all kinds of
plastic materials and their possible combinations.
Plastics are divided into four characteristic groups. The
horizontal axis shows the biodegradability of plastic, and
the vertical axis shows the source of raw materials – petro-
chemicals (fossil) sources or renewable sources. It followed
four groups of materials:
1st plastic that is not biodegradable and is made from
petrochemical sources-this category includes materials
that we know as traditional plastics.
2nd biodegradable plastics from renewable resources is
composite made of biomass and exhibits a biodegrada bility.
3rd biodegradable plastic from fossil sources is plastics
that can be biodegradable or made of fossil origin.
4th non-biodegradable plastics from renewable sources –
plastics produced from biomass but without the status of
biodegradability (Križan, 2012).
Biodegradation of PLA (polylactic acid) and PHAs
PLA (polylactic acid) decomposes to CO2, water and
biomass in controlled composting conditions in less than
90 days. This decomposition takes place in a controlled
environment in large plants where the compost tempera -
ture reaches 140 °C (Runjic´ Sokele, 2007).
PHAs (polyhydroxyalkanoates) are degradable in a bio-
logical environment, eg. in the compost. Microorganisms
attack PHVB by an enzyme secreted by PHA de-polyme-
rase that breaks the polymer base hydroxybutyrate (HB)
and hidoksi-valerate (HV) subunits. HV and HB units later
are used for growth. 55 % of tested yeast genus Penicillium
degrades PHA. Degradation usually lasts up to 24 weeks
but can be quite fast in a controlled environment (45 days)
(Zivkovic, 2009).
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52 33
Compostable plastics
Compostable plastics are plastics that are biodegradable in
the conditions and within the time frame of the cycle of
composting. During industrial composting heap komposti-
rajuc´oj temperature can reach temperatures up to 70 °C.
Composting occurs in humid conditions, the composting
process takes place for months. It is important to under-
stand that a biodegradable plastic is not necessarily
Compostable (can biodegrade over time or under different
conditions), while still compostable plastic biodegradable.
Determination of criteria for compostable plastics is
important because materials that are not suitable for
composting can reduce the final quality of compost
(Muscat et al, 2012).
Compostable plastic is defined by various national and
international standards (eg. EN13432, ASTM D-6900)
relating to industrial composting. EN13432 defines the
characteristics of packaging materials must meet to be
recognized as kompostabilan and acceptable for recycling
of organic solid waste. EN 14995: 2006 extends the scope of
plastic that is used for neambalažne application. These
standards form the basis for a number of certification
systems (Weber et all, 2002).
According to EN 13432 compostable material must have
the following characteristics:
Biodegradable: The ability to convert compostable
materials in CO2under the action of microorganisms.
This property is measured according to EN 14046 (also
published as ISO 14855: biodegradability under control-
led composting conditions). To demonstrate complete
biodegradability, the level of biodegradation of at least
90 % must be achieved in less than 6 months.
Dissolution (the possibility of disintegration): physical
fragmentation and loss of visibility in the final compost,
composting measured by testing in laboratory conditions
(EN 14045)
The absence of negative effects on the composting
Low levels of heavy metals and the lack of negative
impact on the final compost.
Home composting is different than the industry at a lower
temperature in the compost heap. Plastics must be speci -
fically tested to demonstrate compostability in home com-
posting conditions (Wiles and Scott, 2006)
Markings for biodegradable/compostable material
According to various international standards such as EN
13432, ASTM D 640 and Green Pla biodegradable/compo-
stable materials are marked.
Technology, biopackaging
Extrusion, thermo-forming, casting, baking, blow molding,
injection molding, laminating, coating and many other
techniques are the main methods in the processing of
plastics currently used for industrial production of plastic
packaging fed, but mostly it LDPE (low density polyethy-
lene), HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropy-
lene), PS (polystyrene), PET (polietilentetraftalat) etc. the
good fact is that, renewable at bioosnovi plastics generally
show good adaptation to many of the aforementioned
methods to be used for plastics processing, and require
little or no adjustment. However some species proved to
have limitations properties when it comes to processing, so
for example, have poor mechanical and thermal properties
making the material rigid, dry and stiff, but on the other
hand have a poor performance when it comes to gases and
moisture. In order to remove shortcomings in their proper-
ties need to overcome their own shortcomings before
commercial use of packaging on bioosnovi, for example, to
overcome the brittleness used biodegradable plasticizers.
The plasticizers include glycol and other low molecular
weight polyhydroxy component, polyethers and urea.
All in all, as far as the differences in technology and
production bioplatike ordinary plastic, the only difference
is that during the production of plastic on bioosnovi using
various accessories (additive) to enhance its properties
during processing. PLA is a hybrid material that has similar
properties as synthetic plastics (PET, PP) and very good
processing standard equipment used for processing synthe-
tic plastic. In particular PLA films that develop techniques
such as injection molding and thermo-forming very good
barrier characteristics (section 3.1.). At present, the most
represented film bags and containers for organic foods. Ser-
vices that distribute food are increasingly using cups, pots,
containers, laminated or extrusion coated PLA materials
on the market more accessible.
The aliphatic polyester copolymer PHBV and PHB
(poly-hydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate) are commer-
cially important as bioambalažna / biodegradable plastic
and very well quoted when it comes to the food packaging
industry. PHB is a very good thermoplastic material with a
high degree of crystallization, while PHA with medium
chain length longer behaves as an elastic material for which
has a low melting point and a low degree of crystallization.
But an important feature of PHA material is that it has low
water vapor permeability, making it similar to LDPE. PHA
is formed technique of blowing, extrusion and injection
molding into forms such as films, bottles and containers for
food. It is also very used in the biomedical industry (is non-
toxic and biocompatible in humans). PCBs are also used for
implants, bone plates, sutures and surgical. PHB trans -
parencies above 130 ° C allow a wide range of use and
industrial design. It is important to add that the PCB has a
low permeability and breaks down without any residual
residue. When conditions rashlad
-uvanja and freezing PHB
shows slightly worse performance than the PPA, or at high
temperatures its properties are much stronger and more
stable than the PPA (Chiellini, 2008).
Advantages and disadvantages of bio packaging
By studying the available literature can be found argu-
ments for both positive and negative characteristics of bio-
packaging. The good is the fact that all of the research
leading to the fact that the disadvantages of bio-packaging
and to eliminate its production continues to grow. There
are many different opinions, different experts who express
their opinions on bio-packaging as something good or as
something that will become a reality. Below are separated
some of the advantages and disadvantages of bio-packa-
ging (Tables 3 and 4).
The questionnaire was conducted to find out what is the
awareness of the importance and benefits of the use of
biodegradable packaging at the student population. The
questionnaire was conducted on a sample of 120 respon-
dents, 30 students (15 men and 15 women) with the first
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52
three years of study (undergraduate studies). Included are
four faculties at the University of Mostar as follows:
Faculty of Medicine, University of Mostar (first three
Agriculture and Food Technology, University of Mostar
(undergraduate Food Technology)
Faculty of Mathematics and Science Education, Uni -
versity of Mostar (undergraduate Tourism and Environ-
mental Protection)
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mostar (first three
The survey consists of 12 questions listed each separately
below graph, a graph in the pictures give the answers to the
exam, students in percent.
Graphs 13, 14, 15 and 16 contain a comparison of the
Faculty made to four questions, appropriation at its own
discretion, the questionnaire considering them the most
important demonstration of the entire questionnaire.
Based on research and literature review can be concluded
that biodegradable packaging has a bright future in the
food industry. A number of factors including policy and
legislative changes, as well as world demand for food and
energy resources, will undoubtedly influence the deve -
lopment of biodegradable packaging. There is no doubt
that the production of and demand for this packaging more
to increase partly because of improved properties of bio -
degradable packaging and partly due to the decrease of its
price, which is now unacceptable in relation to the price of
other packaging materials.
By increasing the awareness of people, training and,
most large retail chains acting as the producers and the
consumers can increase the growth and development of
biodegradable packaging. In order to overcome this kind of
packaging the food industry needs to more research. Most
scientists in this field agree that the future of biodegradable
packaging depends on a mixture of bio-nanocomposite ma-
terials and polymers, which will improve its performance.
They agree also that the greatest future of bioambalažnih
material has PHA whose competitiveness depends on pro-
duction, increased production leads to a direct reduction in
The results of the questionnaire have led to the follo-
wing conclusion:
1. Most students not using biodegradable packaging and
does not favor the products included in that package be-
cause they do not perceive such products on the shelves
of stores, believing that the design of such containers can
be done to their perception and attitude change. Do not
check the “eco-friendly“ labels on products they purcha-
se and are distributed around the thought that such a
designation has an impact on people's thinking. Most
would buy biodegradable bags in the store if the same
price was acceptable, that is the same or not much higher
than a regular bag. In her town are barely noticed con-
tainers for biodegradable waste but in this rare classified
waste prior to its disposal. Opinions are divided about
the impact of non-biodegradable packaging on the
environment and three quarters of them agree that they
see bio-packaging as one of the main ways to preserve
the environment. And in the end most of them believe
that the education the best way of increasing demand for
2. Comparing the four faculties on four separate questions,
the most positive responses give students of Tourism
and Environmental Protection, then students Faculty of
Pharmacy, Faculty of Food Technology and at the end
of medical school students.
Conflict of interest
I declare that there is no conflict of interest in relation to
the publication of this article.
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bag bag bag
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Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52 35
CHART 1: Question 1 – Do you use biodegradable packa-
ging? I do not care; No; Yes
CHART 2: Question 2 Do you prefer the products inclu-
ded in the biodegradable packaging? I do not
care; No; Yes
CHART 3: Question 3 – Have you noticed any products
in biodegradable packaging in stores? No;
Sometimes; Yes
CHART 4: Question 4 – Do you think the design of biode-
gradable packaging can make a popular and
interesting? No; Sometimes; Yes
CHART 5: Question 5 – Would you give more money for
biodegradable bag than for ordinary, non-bio -
degradable plastic bag that costs less? No;
Yes, if the price difference is not great; Yes
CHART 6: Question 5 – I check whether “eco-friendly“
symbol on the packaging of the products you
buy? No; Sometimes; Yes
Graphs based on the results of the questionnaire; 1 – Faculty of Medicine;
2 – Food technology; 3 – Tourism and Environment; 4 – Faculty of Pharmacy
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52
CHART 7: Question 7 – Do you think that the symbol of
“eco-friendly“ products to influence the thinking
of people? No; I’m not sure; Yes
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/ containers for the disposal of biodegradable
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which you have already used? Throw together
with other waste; I try to reuse; Classified
before disposal
CHART 10: Question 10 – Are you aware of the impact of
degradable packaging on the environment?
I’m not aware of; Yes and no; I am
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Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52 37
CHART 11: Question 11 What is your opi-
nion on bio- packaging? I am
not sufficiently informed; Not
see how it can help to preserve
nature; Main ways to preserve
the environment
CHART 12: Question 12 – In what way can in-
crease the demand for bio-packa-
ging? I do not see a solution;
Prohibiting the use of biode -
gradable packaging; Education
about its benefits; Decreasing
CHART 13: Comparison of the number of students from different faculties who use biodegradable packaging
CHART 14: Comparison of the number of students from different faculties who noticed biodegradable packaging in stores
CHART 15: Comparison of the number of students at various colleges that are classified packaging prior to disposal
CHART 16: Comparison of the number of students at various colleges that are considered biodegradable packaging one of
the basic ways to preserve the environment
Comparison of the Faculty; Faculty of Medicine; Food technology;
Tourism and Environment; Faculty of Pharmacy
Journal of Food Safety and Food Quality 68, Heft 2 (2017), Seiten 23–52
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... The third generation of the biomaterials is that consists of biomaterials completely. These are divided into three classes as per the origin and methods of production (Chiellini, 2008;Ivankovic et al., 2017): a) Polymers derived from biomass b) Polymers prepared by chemical process and bio-monomers c) Polymers that are derived from genetically modified bacteria or natural sources Shanghai Chemical and Industrial Corporation has developed the biodegradable biaxially oriented polylactic acid film that was extracted from corn. This degradable film may be applied as food package with high glossiness, transparency, heat seal-ability, steady folding and good strength (Qiang and Min, 2015). ...
... A biodegradable composite film was developed by mixing of chitosan and starch that consist good water vapour and mechanical properties. Chitin and chitosan having antimicrobial properties are found to be a good ingredient for production of biodegradable packaging for food products as it also help in prolonging the shelf-life of foods due to antimicrobial effect (Chiellini, 2008;Ivankovic et al., 2017). ...
... Although they do not possess all required mechanical and barrier characteristics, PLA and similar biopolymers offer many advantages over the conventional packaging materials -they are nontoxic, safe for the consumer's health, recyclable and environment-friendly [56]. In addition, PLA exhibits excellent water vapor-permeability, which is important in the packaging of fresh food, and possesses good retention properties that allow the adhesion of different biologically active compounds, thus serving as a suitable carrier material [57,58]. Another group of biopolymers used in the field of food biopackaging includes polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and bacterial cellulose that many bacterial species (Alcaligenes, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Halobacterium, Rhizobium) accumulate as a source of energy and as a carbon reserve. ...
... Another group of biopolymers used in the field of food biopackaging includes polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and bacterial cellulose that many bacterial species (Alcaligenes, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Halobacterium, Rhizobium) accumulate as a source of energy and as a carbon reserve. It was found that these biopolymers can find a wide range of food applications due to their good moisture vapor transmission rate and mechanical properties [58]. ...
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Nowadays, the increasing consumer's demands for fresh and minimally processed foods without chemical additives attracted the research attention on some novel methods in food industry and use of natural compounds as alternative of chemical preservatives. As a unique natural product obtained from beekeeping, propolis possesses a wide range of biological activities and health benefits that can be used in food production and biopreservation. Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky resinous substance that is collected and processed by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from various plant sources such as flowers, leaf buds and tree exudates, and serving as a building and defensive material in their hives. This review discusses the trends in application of propolis as a safe, innovative and promising approach to quality improvement and natural preservation of different food products. The broad antimicrobial spectrum of propolis against spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens offers a great variety of applications in food industry for biopreservation of meat, fish and poultry products, eggs, milk and dairy products, perishable fruits, vegetables, fruit juices and other beverages. In addition to its antimicrobial potential, the strong antioxidant properties of propolis can contribute to increase the nutritional value of the products or to retard the lipid oxidation and protein degradation of processed foods. For this purpose, propolis can be added directly to the food matrix in the form of an extract, to be applied on the surface of the product as a bioactive film or edible coating, or to be included in the composition of food biopackaging materials, thus preventing the food spoilage and enhancing the storage life of the food products. The present study on the applications of propolis in the food industry worldwide and its valuable properties reveals the potential of this natural product as a food additive, as a functional food ingredient, and as a prospective food biopreservative agent prolonging the shelf-life and improving the quality of food products.
... Biodegradable bags can be used for the storage and packaging of food products. The use of these bags in different industries requires the addition of additives (Ivankovick, Zeljko, Talic, Bevanda, & Lasic, 2017). Once their function of packaging is completed, they are decomposed to carbon dioxide, water, and other products within several weeks. ...
... Biodegradable bags, in addition, to offering safe food storage, are an ecological and environmentally friendly option. Biodegradable bags generated from natural sources show improved physical properties (Ivanković et al., 2017). For instance, bags from PBAT/PLA (commercially known as Mater-Bi) reinforced with 5% banana plant residue show softness, as well as biodegradability and compostability. ...
The present chapter is committed to identifying the applications and opportunities of biodegradable polymers in six main fields of agriculture. The selected information is herein organized in terms of pre- and post-harvest purposes, including seeds protection, mulching, controlled administration of agricultural inputs, packaging/transport/handling, films and coatings and water treatment. The materials and technologies employed for these applications show a growing multidisciplinary character, representing promising prospects for successfully improving the yield and sustainability of modern agriculture. Novel formulations integrating nanotechnology, biomaterials and green chemistry have begun to be developed. However, even if the perspectives are encouraging, agroscientists of all disciplines should interact more among them and with the farmers and greenhouse managers to discuss their current needs and end-use of such technologies. We still have a long way to go, but most of the findings in this compilation are proof of concepts at the laboratory or prototype level which can inspire new ideas, and it simultaneously serves as a guide for educational purposes on courses and seminars for the young generation of agroscientists.
... In the future there will no arable land Eco-friendly Short lived Source: Ivankovic et al. (2017). ...
... Similarly, as reported by [22] the permeable properties of the packaging materials play an essential role. One of the disadvantages of typical biodegradable materials is their high permeability rate [38], which can explain the difference in sugars between the SP Tray and the EPS Tray packaging materials. ...
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Post-harvest loss continues to be a significant problem in the food industry. Different packaging materials, designed to reduce fruit damage, are anticipated for various applications in the supply chain. Recently, stamped paper (SP) and expandable polystyrene (EPS) trays have been introduced as tomato retail packaging. Although the combination of paper trays and clear plastic are still not 100% biodegradable packaging, they are promising alternatives to the heavy utilisation of petrochemical-based polymers. This study investigated the effects of different packaging materials and storage conditions on the ‘Nema-Netta’ tomatoes’ quality attributes. The treatments consisted of a stamped paper (SP) + polyvinyl chloride (PVC), expandable polystyrene (EPS) + polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stamped paper (SP)+ flow wrap, expandable polystyrene (EPS) + flow wrap, polypropylene (PP), and unpackaged tomatoes stored at cold and ambient conditions. Firmness, physiological weight loss (PWL), pH value, titratable acidity (TA) and total sugars were evaluated at seven-day intervals, over 28 days. Temperature and relative humidity at cold storage ranged between 8–12 °C, 78–80% RH and 22–26 °C, 68–72% RH at ambient storage conditions. The packaging and storage conditions significantly affected the PWL, firmness, pH, TA and total sugars. Samples in the EPS Tray combined with the PVC wrap at cold storage maintained the quality of the tomatoes better than the other packaging. The combination of packaging and cold storage created an ideal environment for maintaining the quality of tomatoes. The relative differences between EPS Tray + PVC (non-biodegradable) and SP Tray + PVC (biodegradable) were less than 5% in multiple tests.
... Their composition is also natural which make them safe to use. They are produced from plant and easily decompose in the landfills [8]. The development of biodegradable food packaging was conducted by extraction of pigment of rose and red cabbage by using a solvent of ethanol and water followed by the production of starch and chitosan solution. ...
Food packaging is essential for maintaining the quality and safety of food. Excessive food packaging made of plastics could be harmful to the environment. Plastic food packaging takes a long period of time to biodegrade while most of them do not biodegrade and are harmful to the environment. To improve the properties of packaging and extend the shelf-life of packaged food, development of biodegradable food packaging is implemented by using natural and renewable resources for the main materials such as extracts from plants due to its ability to decompose and biodegrade in a short time. In this case, biodegradable polymers and films are needed to reduce the external influence of environment such as oxygen and moisture. In this paper, the usage of red cabbage and rose as pH indicator was introduced through extractions using solvents of ethanol and water. The production of film for packaging incorporates starch and chitosan solution and were compared with commercial packaging. Each of the samples or rose and red cabbage were used for the preparation of film by using hot press method. This paper will examine the results of chemical properties such as interaction in the mixture by using FTIR and biodegradability of the film, mechanical properties like tensile strength, and physical properties like pH, colour and the thickness of the film. Commercial packaging gave a better result in term of tensile strength and biodegradability. It also showed that rose is better than red cabbage in terms of preventing food spoilage. The FTIR results for all samples were quite similar as all the peaks fall into a single bond region.
... Increasing awareness of environmental pollution has led to the development of new forms of food packaging to replace the unsustainable consumption of plastic materials (CHISENGA et al., 2020;IVANKOVIĆ et al., 2017;POPA et al., 2011). ...
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The application of ozone as a treatment system for reducing microbial contaminant in Nipa bowls which are local products of the Palian river basin community, Trang province in Southern Thailand, was presented in this research. The ozone treatment system was designed and investigated for its performance to reduce microbial contaminant in nipa bowl products. Parameters affecting the performance of the system were optimized as well as ozone amount and treatment time. Under optimum condition (600 mg/h ozone and treatment time of 4 hours), the microbial decontamination was 4 log reduction, and the products could be stored for one month. The moisture content and the brightness of the ozone-treated products were significantly different from the untreated products when statistically tested at 95% confidence level. The moisture contents were 9.46 ± 0.10 and 10.54±0.31 %, and the brightness (L* value) were 74.93 ± 0.49 and 70.47 ± 0.65 for the ozone-treated and untreated products, respectively. Furthermore, the residual heavy metals were investigated, and no trace of metals was reported in nipa bowl samples. As a result, the nipa bowl products had met the standards as regards safety of food containers required by the Department of Medical Sciences Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. Following this collaboration between the university and the community, over 251,564 pieces of nipa bowls were sold which generated a total income of more than 84,000 USD to the Palian river basin community.
Packaging protects the citrus fruit from the hazards of transportation and storage, besides serving as an efficient handling unit in a specified volume. While keeping the fruit clean and hygienic, packages promote the sale because it is attractive and provides the required information to the customers. For long distance transport and storage, fruit should not be handled in unpacked conditions.
Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted tremendous attention due to their superparamagnetic properties, large specific surface area, high biocompatibility, non–toxicity, large–scale production, and recyclability. More importantly, numerous hydroxyl groups (–OH) on the surface of Fe3O4 MNPs can provide coupling sites for various modifiers, forming versatile nanocomposites for applications in the energy, biomedicine, and environmental fields. With the development of science and technology, the potential of nanotechnology in the food industry has also gradually become prominent. However, the application of composite Fe3O4 MNPs in the food industry has not been systematically summarized. Herein, this article reviews composite Fe3O4 MNPs, including their properties, modifications, and physical functions, as well as their applications in the entire food industry from production to processing, storage, and detection. This review lays a solid foundation for promoting food innovation and improving food quality and safety.
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A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch), lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan) and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid), poly(hydroxyalkanoates)), as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out. At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO- and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.
Active antimicrobial packaging interacts with packaged food and headspace to reduce, retard, or even inhibit the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Sachets and pads are one of the most successful applications of active food packaging. This review discusses recent developments of antimicrobial active packaging focused exclusively on emitting sachets and absorbent pads, including elaboration techniques, characterization methods, and applications for food preservation purposes. Advantages, drawbacks, and future trends are also discussed, as well as the antimicrobial compounds incorporated in emitting sachets and absorbent pads, including ethanol, chlorine dioxide, a variety of plant essential oils and their main active compounds, and nanoparticles.
Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This collection reviews bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and their current and potential applications for food protection and preservation. The first part of the book looks at the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Part two discusses the factors involved in choosing alternative packaging materials such as consumer preference, measuring the environmental performance of food packaging, eco-design, and the safety and quality of recycled materials. Part three contains chapters on the applications of environmentally-compatible materials in particular product sectors, including the packaging of fresh horticultural produce, dairy products and seafood. This section also covers active packaging, modified atmosphere packaging and biobased intelligent food packaging. The book finishes with a summary of the legislation and certification of environmentally-compatible packaging in the EU.
Demystifies the largest volume manmade synthetic polymer by distillingthe fundamentals of what polyethylene is, how it's made and processed,and what happens to it after its useful life is over. Endorsement for Introduction to Industrial Polyethylene. "I found this to be a straightforward, easy-to-read, and useful introductory text on polyethylene, which will be helpful for chemists, engineers, and students who need to learn more about this complex topic. The author is a senior polyethylene specialist and I believe we can all benefit from his distillation of knowledge and insight to quickly grasp the key learnings." -R.E. King III; Ciba Corporation (part of the BASF group). Jargon used in industrial polyethylene technology can often be bewildering to newcomers. Introduction to Industrial Polyethylene educates readers on terminology commonly used in the industry and demystifies the chemistry of catalysts and cocatalysts employed in the manufacture of polyethylene. This concise primer reviews the history of polyethylene and introduces basic features and nomenclatures for this versatile polymer. Catalysts and cocatalysts crucial to the production of polyethylene are discussed in the first few chapters. Latter chapters provide an introduction to the processes used to manufacture polyethylene and discuss matters related to downstream applications of polyethylene such as rheology, additives, environmental issues, etc. Providing industrial chemists and engineers a valuable reference tool that covers fundamental features of polyethylene technology, Introduction to Industrial Polyethylene: Identifies the fundamental types of polyethylene and how they differ. Lists markets, key fabrication methods, and the major producers of polyethylene. Provides biodegradable alternatives to polyethylene. Describes the processes used in the manufacture of polyethylene. Includes a thorough glossary, providing definitions of acronyms and abbreviations and also defines terms commonly used in discussions of production and properties of polyethylene. Concludes with the future of industrial polyethylene.
With the increasing awareness and concern about the dependency on fossil resources and the depletion of crude oil reserves, experts from industrial biotechnology, renewable resources, green chemistry, and biorefineries are stimulating the transition from the fossil-based to the bio-based economy. This text confronts scientific and economic challenges and strategies for making this crucial transition. Renewable Resources for Biorefineries is the work of a strongly interdisciplinary authorship, offering perspectives from biology, chemistry, biochemical engineering, materials science, and industry. This unique approach provides an opportunity for a much broader coverage of biomass and valorisation than has been attempted in previous titles. This book also represents the fundamentally important technical and policy aspects of a bio-based economy, to ground this important science in a realistic and viable economic framework. Chapters in this book cover a diverse range of topics, including: advanced generation bioenergy sectors; biobased polymers and materials; chemical platform molecules; industrial crops and biorefineries; financing and policy for change; and valorisation of biomass waste streams. This is an ideal book for upper level undergraduate and postgraduate students taking modules on Renewable resources, green chemistry, sustainable development, environmental science, agricultural science and environmental technology. It will also benefit industry professionals and product developers who are looking to improve economic and environmental ways to utilise renewable resources in current and future biorefineries.
Raspberries have been classified as a non-climacteric fruit - they have high physiological post-harvest activity, short ripening and a senescence period. The objective of this study was to examine the possibility of shelf life extension of primocane raspberry cultivar 'Polana' by packaging in different materials. The experiments were performed in the Latvia University of Agriculture Faculty of Food Technology, Jelgava and in the Latvia State Institute of Fruit Growing, Dobele during the year 2007. Contents of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, color in the L*a*b * measuring system, changes of moisture content and pH were analyzed during the storage period of three weeks. Oxygen and carbon dioxide dynamics in hermetic packages were analyzed by gas analyzer. The effect of packaging materials for shelf life extension was determined by using different packages: PP (polypropylene) trays inserted in pouches made from PLA (polylactic acid) films of different thickness 25 and 40 μm; cardboard boxes placed in PLA film pouches of different thickness 25 and 40. PP boxes manufactured with holes and cardboard boxes covered with net were used as control packaging in the experiments. The content of vitamin C rapidly increased during the first two days of storage in samples of all packaging materials but after four days ascorbic acid content started to decrease. The influence of packaging materials on the ascorbic acid content of raspberry samples was not significant. The anthocyanin content of all samples packaged in PLA material was quite stable during the whole storage time. The lowest weight losses were obtained in the PLA-40-PP sample (2.6%) although the other packaged samples did not exceed 5.2%. All samples placed in PLA (polylactic acid) film pouches by thickness 25 μm had optimal gasses composition (10 to 20% CO2 and 5 to 10% O 2) for storage of primocane raspberry cultivar 'Polana'.
Use of a biodegradable laminate of a chitosan-cellulose and polycaprolactone as a film for modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of fresh produce was tested. The temperature dependence of O2, CO2 and N2 gas permeability coefficients for the biodegradable laminate was examined. The coefficients increased linearly with increasing temperature in the range 10–25 °C. The coefficients were validated by experiments on MAP with shredded lettuce and shredded cabbage. MAP systems with head lettuce, cut broccoli, whole broccoli, tomatoes, sweet corn and blueberries were designed using the gas permeability coefficients. The gas composition in each biodegradable package including the fresh produce was simulated to be close to the optimal composition. The biodegradable laminate was found suitable as a packaging material for storage of fresh produce.
In this study, the film forming behaviour of low amylose (LA) and high amylose (HA) starches was studied. The starch-alone and a blend of plasticizer (polyol)–starch films were developed by gelatinising at various temperatures and casting at 25°C. The starch–plasticizer films contained glycerol and xylitol either individually or in 1:1 combination. The concentration of plasticizer used was 15%, 20% and 30% for LA films while it was 20%, 30% and 40% for HA films on dry solid basis. The HA-glycerol films retained the highest moisture content among all the films. The HA films exhibited higher glass transition temperature, higher tensile strength, higher modulus of elasticity and lower elongation at break than those obtained from LA starch. The tensile strength and modulus of elasticity decreased and the elongation increased with increasing plasticizer concentrations above 15% on dry solid basis regardless the starch type. Low water vapour permeability was evident in LA and HA films plasticized by combined plasticizers at 20% plasticizer concentration. Rheological measurements showed that most of the suspensions exhibited Herschel–Bulkley behaviour and some of the HA suspensions exhibited Bingham plastic behaviour. At 15% (on dry solid basis) plasticizer concentration, the films obtained from both the starches were brittle due to the anti-plasticization behaviour.