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Social and ecological analysis of commercial integrated crop livestock systems: Current knowledge and remaining uncertainty

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Abstract Crops and livestock play a synergistic role in global food production and farmer livelihoods. Increasingly, however, crops and livestock are produced in isolation, particularly in farms operating at the commercial scale. It has been suggested that re-integrating crop and livestock systems at the field and farm level could help reduce the pollution associated with modern agricultural production and increase yields. Despite this potential, there has been no systematic review to assess remaining knowledge gaps in both the social and ecological dimensions of integrated crop and livestock systems (ICLS), particularly within commercial agricultural systems. Based on a multi-disciplinary workshop of international experts and additional literature review, we assess the current knowledge and remaining uncertainties about large-scale, commercial ICLS and identify the source of remaining knowledge gaps to establish priorities for future research. We find that much is understood about nutrient flows, soil quality, crop performance, and animal weight gain in commercial ICLS, but there is little knowledge about its spatial extent, animal behavior or welfare in ICLS, or the tradeoffs between biodiversity, pest and disease control, greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, and drought and heat tolerance in ICLS. There is some evidence regarding the economic outcomes in commercial ICLS and supply chain and policy barriers to adoption, but little understanding of broader social outcomes or cultural factors influencing adoption. Many of these knowledge gaps arise from a basic lack of data at both the field and system scales, which undermines both statistical analysis and modeling efforts. Future priorities for the international community of researchers investigating the tradeoffs and scalability of ICLS include: methods standardization to better facilitate international collaborations and comparisons, continued social organization for better data utilization and collaboration, meta-analyses to answer key questions from existing data, the establishment of long term experiments and surveys in key regions, a portal for citizen science, and more engagement with ICLS farmers.

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... Integrated crop-livestock systems (agropastoral systems) are one of the management strategies being used to rehabilitate degraded crop and pasture lands (Assis et al., 2015;Guimaráes et al., 2004;Kluthcouski et al., 2004;Mendes de Paula et al., 2011;Muniz et al., 2011;Vera, 2004). A number of studies indicate that these systems contribute toward (i) increasing livestock (Karvatte Junior, 2016) and crop (da Silveira et al., 2011) production; reducing land use impacts such as loss of SOC and net GHG emissions ; and optimizing the use of inputs due to the synergistic interaction between crop and pasture components in the same area (de Moraes et al., 2014;Garrett et al., 2017a;Nie et al., 2016;Peterson et al., 2020;Peyraud et al., 2014;Rao et al., 2015;Soares et al., 2020;Soussana and Lemaire, 2014;Vera, 2004;Vera et al., 1992;Vilela et al., 2011Vilela et al., , 2012Vilela et al., , 2019. In the last 20 years there has been a large adoption of crop-livestock systems in Brazil and it is estimated that by 2015 there were 11.5 Mha under different forms of crop-pasture-tree systems (Skorupa and Manzatto, 2019). ...
... Integrated crop-livestock systems are characterized by the use of the same area for agriculture and livestock production, either simultaneously or in succession, to improve the use of land and environmental resources (Nie et al., 2016). These systems can vary in terms of crop and pasture species used, the way these species are mixed, and the purposes and aims of individual farmers (Balbino et al., 2011;Carvalho et al., 2010;Garrett et al., 2017a;Mendes de Paula et al., 2011;Nie et al., 2016;Salton et al., 2008;Vilela et al., 2003). ...
... Although the issue of policies affecting land use and conservation is not dealt within the present review, it is recognized that it has a major direct and indirect influence on the development and adoption of more sustainable crop-livestock practices in the acid soil savannas of South America and, more generally, to carbon accumulation and sequestration throughout the world's savannas (for a comparative analysis, see Dong et al., 2011). Garrett et al. (2017a) suggested that there is little understanding of broader social outcomes or cultural factors influencing adoption. They attributed these knowledge gaps to a basic lack of data at both the field and system scales, which undermines both statistical analysis and modeling efforts. ...
Chapter
Acid soil savannas of tropical America are a vast resource to expand agricultural production, alleviate the pressure on tropical rainforest and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. During the past three decades there have been major changes in land use in the Cerrados of Brazil and to a lesser extent in the Llanos of Colombia. Monocropping and improved pasture grasses were adopted widely to boost crop and animal production. Various types of integrated crop-livestock systems and no-till cropping systems were introduced to not only recuperate degraded pastures but also to sustain crop and livestock productivity. Several studies showed that well-managed pastures based on deep rooted tropical forage grass and legume species could accumulate significant amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) in deeper soil layers. Among the number of factors that influence SOC accumulation, deep rooting ability of grasses and high root turnover seem to play a major role in accumulation of SOC in deeper soil layers in the form of particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral associated organic carbon (MAOC). This review provides insights toward some key approaches and management options to increase both POC and MAOC accumulation and particularly MAOC accumulation in deeper soil layers in crop-livestock systems. There are some important gaps in our knowledge, particularly regarding the influence of length of pasture phase on MAOC accumulation in deeper soil layers from crop-livestock systems. Finally, we highlight the importance of land use policies and suggest some future research priorities for consideration to increase benefits from the use of integrated crop-livestock systems in acid soil savannas.
... Integrated crop-livestock systems are facing the pressure to intensify worldwide, thus decoupling crops from pasture and reducing the amount of time under pasture, while increasing the frequency of annual grain crops (Franzluebbers, 2007;Garrett et al., 2017;Peyraud et al., 2014). Often this intensification is occurring to meet the economic objectives of farmers who are facing higher input costs and lower prices, with decreasing margins forcing them to search for new opportunities (Peyraud et al., 2014). ...
... Often this intensification is occurring to meet the economic objectives of farmers who are facing higher input costs and lower prices, with decreasing margins forcing them to search for new opportunities (Peyraud et al., 2014). However, the integration of crops and livestock has long served as the backbone of sustainable agriculture, especially in terms of maintaining soil quality and effectively recycling nutrients and energy (Brewer and Gaudin, 2020;Garrett et al., 2017). Pasture-based systems provide an array of ecosystem services, not only soil organic carbon (SOC) but other regulating and provisioning services that are critical for the functioning of agricultural landscapes, such as preserving biodiversity, providing clean water, and preventing soil erosion (Jaurena et al., 2021). ...
... Pasture-based systems provide an array of ecosystem services, not only soil organic carbon (SOC) but other regulating and provisioning services that are critical for the functioning of agricultural landscapes, such as preserving biodiversity, providing clean water, and preventing soil erosion (Jaurena et al., 2021). Given current trends in global land use, Garrett et al. (2017) highlighted knowns and unknowns related to integrated croplivestock systems and reported that net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tradeoffs between ecosystem services, and economic benefits are rarely studied, particularly using long-term experiments (LTE) to address uncertainties. ...
Article
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CONTEXT Integrated crop-livestock systems are facing the pressure to intensify worldwide, yet decoupling crops and livestock can lead to specialized systems relying on greater external inputs and potential negative externalities. OBJECTIVE Our goal was to compare rice-pasture, as the business-as-usual rotation, with two intensified systems, rice-soybean and rice-cover crop, to address the following objectives: 1) quantify partial carbon footprint (CF) including both crop and livestock, 2) develop a multi-criteria performance index based on productivity, economic, and environmental indicators at the systems-level, and 3) evaluate the stability of this index over the study period. METHODS To understand how increasing the frequency of annual grain crops influences whole-system sustainability, we evaluated 10 productivity, economic and environmental indicators as well as a multi-criteria performance index and its stability in three rice-based rotation systems over 7 years in Uruguay. Treatments were: (a) rice–pasture [a 5 yr rotation of rice–ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)–rice, then 3.5 yr of a perennial mixture of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)], (b) rice–soybean [a 2-yr rotation of rice–ryegrass–soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.)– Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.)], and (c) rice–cover crop (an annual rotation of rice–Egyptian clover). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Rice-soybean had medium productivity and energy use, resulting in the highest nitrogen and energy use efficiency and among the lowest yield-scaled C footprint. Field greenhouse gas emissions and embodied energy in fuel and agrochemicals were similar in rice-pasture and rice-soybean, but the increase in soil organic carbon in pasture rotating with rice was able to offset this by almost 50%. Rice-cover crop had the highest economic incomes but also the highest input costs, translating into the lowest gross margin. Although the rice-soybean and rice-pasture had a similar gross margin, the variability in rice-pasture was lower and with lower input costs. Rice-soybean and rice-pasture had a multi-criteria performance index 65% higher than rice-cover crop (0.35). Rice-pasture had the highest overall stability across four different stability parameters calculated. We conclude that the intensification of rice-pasture with annual crops could reduce the stability of sustainability without increasing economic performance, even for rice-soybean that showed the best the multi-criteria performance but with less stability across indicators. SIGNIFICANCE The findings of this study demonstrate how the integration of rice and pastures with livestock achieves the best combination of stability across profitability and environmental performance, thus mitigating vulnerability to external stressors.
... Considering this challenge, integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) can combat soil degradation and recuperate pastures through the introduction of crop/tree species. Such systems have been encouraged worldwide as they align with the principles of cleaner production (Lemaire et al., 2014;Garrett et al., 2017;Moraes et al., 2018). These systems can optimize nutrient cycling between animal stocking and cropping phases, restore soil structure, improve crop and livestock productivity with little increase in inputs, and improve the quality of employment (Nie et al., 2016;Carvalho et al., 2018;Costa et al., 2018). ...
... We also analyzed the impact of two nitrogen (N) levels applied during the livestock stocking phase on the economic performance of these ICLS. High N fertilization combined with no-till systems increases soil organic carbon and consequently, the provision of multiple ecosystems services as primary production (Garrett et al., 2017). The rates of applied N fertilizers are also important factors in determining N leaching from the field (Basso and Ritchie, 2005;Palma et al., 2007) and GHG emissions (Ren et al., 2021). ...
Article
CONTEXT Integrated crop-livestock systems have been encouraged worldwide as they align with the principles of cleaner production. However, studies on these systems have mainly explored agronomic and environmental indicators; thus, fewer studies have been conducted considering an economic perspective, particularly when trees are introduced. OBJECTIVE This study sought to compare the economic profitability of two integrated systems, crop-livestock only (CL) and crop-livestock-trees (CLT), crossed with two nitrogen fertilization levels (90 and 180 kg N ha⁻¹, N90 and N180, respectively). METHODS Our analysis (gross revenue, costs and profit) relies on experimental data obtained over 10 years. In 2006, eucalyptus, pink pepper, and silver oak were planted in six of the 12 experimental units at 3 × 14 m spacing. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS In the first years (2007–2009), black oat was used as a cover crop during the winter, preceding summer cash crops (rice, soybean, and maize), to recover a degraded pasture and because most of the trees had not attained enough size to support animal impact. This period was marked by economic losses because only summer crops provided revenue. From 2010, when cattle grazing on cool-season pastures was integrated, preceding maize or soybean crops, the systems began to generate profit, and profit stability was observed in crop-livestock systems thereafter. Fertilizers accounted for the largest production cost (41% of total costs), and an increase in N level slightly increased the profit (+6%) in crop-livestock systems. The CLT N90 was as profitable as the crop-livestock treatments, despite high annual economic fluctuations with mature trees (i.e., + and - profit). However, the sale of wood from eucalyptus and silver oak contributed to cover these losses. Considering the complete production cycle of 10 years, the net accumulated profit was positive for all treatments, with values of US$ 1486, 2039, 2109 and 2238 ha⁻¹ for CLT N180, CLT N90, CL N90, and CL N180, respectively. We conclude that crop-livestock performs better than crop-livestock-trees in terms of profit stability. An increase in the N level did not guarantee a significant increase in income revenue. SIGNIFICANCE Our findings indicate that CL provide profit stability, even in unfavored areas, thereby contributing to sustainable development goals globally. However, despite the importance of income from wood for farmers, mature trees impair the attainment of a stable profit over the years in CLT systems. Therefore, innovative agronomic practices combined with agricultural policies are needed to encourage the adoption of CLT systems and to adequately take advantage of their ecological benefits.
... Drylands are projected to have most negative impacts. There are many uncertainties for a range of intertwined impacts that affect agricultural systems differently (Garrett et al. 2017). Impacts vary by geographical, bio-physical, and socio-economic conditions, which render it difficult to make decisions regarding the development of the sector. ...
... Results from this study can motivate an informed dialogue through broad collaboration and engaging a broad range of stakeholders when developing national plans and help to tighten the measures required to move up from business as usual towards a sustainable development pathway (Berkes 2009;Garrett et al. 2017). The way knowledge is produced, prospective action and policy packages evaluated through ex ante impact assessments with stakeholders and experts, influences how it can serve national purposes and guide climate adaptation planning. ...
Chapter
Agricultural production systems in Zimbabwe are facing high intensity of climate change impacts. Stakeholders require actionable information to direct investments towards a climate resilient future. The Agricultural Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Project, Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience (AgMIP CLARE) uses an integrated multi-modeling approach to support policy-level decision making and priority setting for sustainable development and climate adaptation with the goal of improving farmers’ livelihoods, food and nutrition security and gender equity. The Zimbabwe Vision 2030 was used to co-develop, with stakeholders’ and experts, plausible future scenarios of the agricultural sector in Zimbabwe. For systems like in Nkayi district, the simulation results illustrate that investing in a sustainable future, yields more favourable outcomes than investing in ‘high emission’ economic growth: pro-active diversification and intensification of small (traditional) grains and legumes and integration with livestock, supported by inclusive, functional value chains and access to information leads to higher returns per unit land on farm. Policies and interventions that promote a switch to more legumes in the farming systems, and make the uptake of productivity enhancing technologies more attractive, achieve greater food and nutrition security and increase social and economic equity, offset the impacts of climate change and improve farmers livelihoods. Importantly, to make effective investments there is need to create incentives for all farmers to invest; under a sustainable future, vulnerability is less and the poorest benefit more. Deciding for one future helps prioritizing what it would take in terms of policies and investments to achieve the vision 2030. Testing technologies and adaptations under different possible futures, integrating socio-economic and agro-ecological dimensions across different scales, simulation experiments helps stakeholders and experts to design and evaluate policies aimed at meeting sustainable development, climate and food security goals.
... At the regional scale, distant farms share nutrients by moving crops and manure among farms [30]. Typically, various types of ICLS involve diverse cereals or cover crops, beef cattle and dairy cows, buffalo, poultry, sheep, and goats (Table 1) due to different purchasing powers and knowledge of ICLS management of producers, availability of resources, soils, and climate [31,32]. Diversifying production could also utilize labor more efficiently at the farm and/or regional scales. ...
... As discussed in section 2, ICLS can result in substantially higher profitability, compared to specialized crop or livestock production. The benefits of ICLSs, however, depend on the stability of markets, technologies, social culture, infrastructure, labor availability, policies, and biophysical and climate factors [31]. For example, in North Dakota, USA, labor and management earnings were 12,304 USD for crops only (monoculture) and 18,063 USD (46.8% higher) for ICLS where crops and cattle operations were integrated, even with a modest return from the cattle in 2001 [88]. ...
Article
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Integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) can be productive, sustainable, and climate-resilient agricultural systems compared to specialized and intensive systems. This review explores the beneficial traits and contributions of ICLS to food security, social and economic benefits, and resilience, and proposes strategies to adopt ICLSs in low-, medium-, and high-income countries. Currently, global food security faces two main challenges. First, one in nine people do not have sufficient protein and energy in their diet, of those 50% are smallholder subsistence farmers and 20% are landless families in the low-and medium-income countries (LMICs). Second, specialized intensive agricultural practices often cause soil and environmental degradation. ICLS is an agricultural practice that could play a significant role in mitigating these challenges. The diversified cropping systems in ICLS can improve the productivity of the principal crop as well as enhance food security through increasing nutritional indicators such as food consumption score and household dietary diversity especially for rural households. An ICLS, therefore, could be a key for achieving food and nutritional security and environmental sustainability both in short and long-terms. While ICLS practices have increased over time, there are still adoption challenges due to lack of investment, sustainable awareness, lack of skills by the producers, and market competition. In LMICs, successful implementation of ICLS requires organizational and/or institutional support to create new marketing opportunities and adoption of ICLS can be improved if government policies provide capital, markets, and educational services to subsistence farmers. These government policies can also increase the producer's knowledge, change farmer's attitudes and enhance trust in organic matter management for sustainable soil management. Therefore, agricultural scientists are challenged to provide fundamental and credible information to integrate crop and livestock production systems so that worldwide adoption of ICLS can be used to increase the agricultural production compatible with food and nutrition security.
... The vertical dimension of ICLS comprises plants and herbivores. On the other hand, the horizontal dimension is composed of functional genetic diversity, functional types of plants and ruminant and monogastric herbivores (Bell and Moore, 2012;Garrett et al., 2017). The design of reconnected crop-livestock systems provides a way of planning both dimensions of diversity in space and time, aiming to benefit from synergies between system components and achieve a higher overall system performance compared to the sum of individual performances de Faccio Carvalho et al., 2018a). ...
... ICLS are based on the philosophy of building resilience by increasing systems' capacity to adapt and self-organize in response to external disturbances, such as environmental changes (Bonaudo et al., 2014;. This is largely due to the adoption of agricultural practices that increase soil organic matter, water and nutrient use efficiency, nutrient recycling, biodiversity, and spatio-temporal heterogeneity (Wezel et al., 2014;Altieri et al., 2015;Lemaire et al., 2015;Garrett et al., 2017;Van Oijen et al., 2020). To be resilient, an ecosystem must exhibit capacity to maintain its integrity over time and must have a reserve of flexible pathways, through a diversity of flows, to adapt to uncertainties (Ulanowicz et al., 2009;Altieri et al., 2015;Stark et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Closely integrated crop and livestock production systems used to be the rule in agriculture before the industrial revolution. However, agricultural landscapes have undergone a massive intensification process in recent decades. This trajectory has led to uniform landscapes of specialized cropping systems or consolidated zones of intensive livestock production. Loss of diversity is at the core of increasing side effects on the environment from agriculture. The unintended consequences of specialization demand the reconciliation of food production with environmental quality. We argue that the reconnection of grazing livestock to specialized crop landscapes can restore decoupled biogeochemical cycles and reintroduce the necessary complexity to restore ecosystem functioning. Besides, the reconnection of crops and livestock promotes several ecosystem services underlying multifunctionality. We focus on the capacity of integrated crop-livestock systems to create biophysical and socioeconomic resilience that cope with weather and market oscillations. We present examples of redesigned landscapes that leverage grazing animals to optimize food production per unit of land while mitigating the externalities of specialized agriculture. We also debate mindset barriers to the shift of current specialization trends toward the design of multifunctional landscapes.
... In smallholder mixed systems, farm diversification and sustainable intensification are often proposed as ways to achieve this (Descheemaeker et al. 2016;Whitbread et al. 2010). Progress has been made in developing improved crop varieties and livestock breeds, along with improved management, capitalizing on the synergies from crop-livestock integration, to increase resource-use efficiency, food and feed quantity and quality, and the entire system's overall productivity and stability (Blümmel et al. 2013;Garrett et al. 2017). Enhanced farm diversity (crops, livestock, off-farm activities) can help to disperse production and market risks, thus reducing the sensitivity to climate variability and economic risks. ...
... Transitioning towards sustainable development (RAP SDT), through crop diversification, soil rehabilitation, and livestock feed technologies, enabled by inclusive markets, was more profitable and provided more equitable benefits from agriculture than investing in rapid economic growth (RAP REG). Promoting diversification and integration of crop and livestock production is therefore not only critical to address current productivity constraints in smallholder farming systems, but also to adapt to future climates (Garrett et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Decision makers need accurate information to address climate variability and change and accelerate transformation to sustainability. A stakeholder-driven, science-based multi-model approach has been developed and used by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) to generate actionable information for adaptation planning processes. For a range of mid-century climate projections—likely to be hotter, drier, and more variable—contrasting future socio-economic scenarios (Representative Agricultural Pathways, RAPs) were co-developed with stakeholders to portray a sustainable development scenario and a rapid economic growth pathway. The unique characteristic of this application is the integration of a multi-modeling approach with stakeholder engagement to co-develop scenarios and adaptation strategies. Distribution of outcomes were simulated with climate, crop, livestock, and economic impact assessment models for smallholder crop livestock farmers in a typical dryland agro-ecological zone in Zimbabwe, characterized by low and erratic rainfall and nutrient depleted soils. Results showed that in Nkayi District, Western Zimbabwe, climate change would threaten most of the farms, and, in particular, those with large cattle herds due to feed shortages. Adaptation strategies that showed the most promise included diversification using legume production, soil fertility improvement, and investment in conducive market environments. The switch to more legumes in the farming systems reduced the vulnerability of the very poor as well as the more resourced farmers. Overall, the sustainable development scenario consistently addressed institutional failures and motivated productivity-enhancing, environmentally sound technologies and inclusive development approaches. This yielded more favorable outcomes than investment in quick economic wins from commercializing agriculture.
... In response to increasing demand for livestock products, these traditionally mixed systems increasingly intensify and are thereby replaced by specialized livestock production systems with spatially decoupled crop and livestock production and high levels of resource depletion and/or environmental pollution (Garrett et al., 2017a;Jin et al., 2020). For instance, about 51% of total feed nitrogen (N) in China was imported in 2015, greatly increasing energy requirements for transport, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions abroad, and causing nutrient surpluses in China (Du et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Livestock are critical for incomes, livelihoods, nutrition and ecosystems management throughout the global South. Livestock production and the consumption of livestock-based foods such as meat, cheese, and milk is, however, under global scrutiny for its contribution to global warming, deforestation, biodiversity loss, water use, pollution, and land/soil degradation. This paper argues that, although the environmental footprint of livestock production presents a real threat to planetary sustainability, also in the global south, this is highly contextual. Under certain context-specific management regimes livestock can deliver multiple benefits for people and planet. We provide evidence that a move toward sustainable intensification of livestock production is possible and could mitigate negative environmental impacts and even provide critical ecosystem services, such as improved soil health, carbon sequestration, and enhanced biodiversity on farms. The use of cultivated forages, many improved through selection or breeding and including grasses, legumes and trees, in integrated crop-tree-livestock systems is proposed as a stepping stone toward agroecological transformation. We introduce cultivated forages, explain their multi-functionality and provide an overview of where and to what extent the forages have been applied and how this has benefited people and the planet alike. We then examine their potential to contribute to the 13 principles of agroecology and find that integrating cultivated forages in mixed crop-tree-livestock systems follows a wide range of agroecological principles and increases the sustainability of livestock production across the globe. More research is, however, needed at the food system scale to fully understand the role of forages in the sociological and process aspects of agroecology. We make the case for further genetic improvement of cultivated forages and strong multi-disciplinary systems research to strengthen our understanding of the multidimensional impacts of forages and for managing agro-environmental trade-offs. We finish with a call for action, for the agroecological and livestock research and development communities to improve communication and join hands for a sustainable agri-food system transformation.
... Combining cropping and livestock locally can therefore help reduce pollution (Wilkins, 2008;Sutton et al., 2013). The goal is to achieve an optimized distribution of manure and fodder import/production between fields and farms (Garrett et al., 2017;Asai et al., 2018). The reconnection of crop and livestock increases the overall landscape-level NUE and has been demonstrated to reduce N surplus and water pollution (Garnier et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
Nitrogenous fertilizers are fundamental to crop production, and the global consumption of these fertilizers is increasing to meet the demand of growing population at the cost of environmental footprints. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of crops is low due to excessive use of nitrogen (N) in soil–plant system that results in greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions and cause global warming. This chapter discusses possible reasons for GHGs emissions and its mitigation potential through soil, plant, and sensors-based approaches. Potential of split N application, different nitrification inhibitors, green manure crops, and biological nitrogen fixation including the use of legumes as cover crops have also been highlighted. Furthermore, the significance of promotion of innovative on-farm technologies has also been discussed. Integrated strategies including site-specific N management, crop residues management, higher plant densities, weed and pest control, and balanced fertilization with other nutrients can help reduce N losses. Food waste, manure, and sewage can be used to improve NUE for achieving UN Sustainable Development Goals.
... Combining cropping and livestock locally can therefore help reduce pollution (Wilkins, 2008;. The goal is to achieve an optimized distribution of manure and fodder import/production between fields and farms (Garrett et al., 2017;Asai et al., 2018). The reconnection of crop and livestock increases the overall landscape-level NUE and has been demonstrated to reduce N surplus and water pollution . ...
Chapter
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The trends in human population growth suggest that population will be a primary driver to produce more with limiting resources. Here, we discuss the correlation between population growth and the projected changes in various sectors and the resultant increase in nitrogen (N) use in Pakistan. Main drivers for increasing N use are (i) population; (ii) food and feed production; (iii) livestock population; (iv) land use; (v) dietary patterns; (vi) power generation; (vii) industry; and (viii) transport. As N use increases, it adds into N emissions, impacts biodiversity, and increases air and water pollution and eutrophication, which raise concerns about human health and socioecological sustainability and abatement costs. Given the important role of N in economy, food security, human health, and environment, a detailed discussion on critical N drivers is essential to improve our understanding about N cycling/dynamics. In Pakistan, a steadily increasing N consumption calls for optimizing N demand and use. Development and enforcement of regulatory measures are needed to reduce N footprints both for the industrial and agriculture sector in Pakistan. Recognizing the cross-related sectors and interrelated drivers, a holistic approach is required to be adopted for regular assessment of N dynamics.
... In addition, many cover crops have relatively high forage quality, and growers of various crops, including winegrapes, are increasingly considering winter sheep grazing as an alternative to mowing (Sulc and Franzluebbers, 2014). This practice allows for the integration of animal and crop production into the same system, a strategy which can reduce mowing and herbicide inputs and therefore can decrease the environmental footprint of winegrape production (Garrett et al., 2017;Niles et al., 2018). Digestion of recalcitrant compounds (cellulose and lignin) by sheep increases the input of labile C in soils through manure that promotes microbial growth and therefore potential C accumulation. ...
Article
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Sheep grazing is increasingly being considered by winegrape growers to manage cover crop growth in Mediterranean vineyards, a practice that could contribute to reducing fertilizer inputs, coupling the cycles of C and N and increasing soil health. Nevertheless, short-term increases in available soil C and N could trigger the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). We carried out a field experiment in a Mediterranean vineyard of the Central Coast of California to investigate the short-term effects of grazing in combination with tillage on soil C, N and GHG emissions. Tillage and grazing treatments were combined in a full factorial design with 16 plots. Gas samples were collected using static chambers during the main management events from the tractor row and the soil under the vines within each plot. Gas samples were collected through two years, including two wet and two dry seasons and analyzed to assess daily fluxes and cumulative seasonal emisions of N2O, CH4 and CO2. In spring each year we collected soil samples from 0 to 15 and 15–30 cm depths of the vine and tractor rows of each plot, and from 0 to 15 cm depth at the time of gas sample collection. We observed that sheep grazing did not produce an increase in available soil N and C, but resulted in sporadic and localized peaks in daily N2O, CH4 and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless emissions were not significantly larger than non-grazed soils when extrapolated to the cumulative emissions of the whole season. The combination of tillage and grazing increased N2O emissions from the soil under the vine potentially due to increased nitrification rates. Sheep grazing and tillage did not have a significant effect on the yield and quality of the grapes during the two years of the study.
... Combining cropping and livestock locally can therefore help reduce pollution (Wilkins, 2008;. The goal is to achieve an optimized distribution of manure and fodder import/production between fields and farms (Garrett et al., 2017;Asai et al., 2018). The reconnection of crop and livestock increases the overall landscape-level NUE and has been demonstrated to reduce N surplus and water pollution . ...
Book
Nitrogen Assessment: Pakistan as a Case-Study provides a detailed overview of issues and challenges related to nitrogen use and overuse, thus serving as a reference for researchers in Pakistan and providing important insights for other geographic regions. Excess and inefficient nitrogen use in crops and livestock sectors is polluting our rivers, seas, atmosphere, and ecosystems, contributing to climate change, hampering biodiversity, and contributing to stratospheric ozone depletion. This book covers the importance of nitrogen in relation to food security, human health, and economic stability in South Asia. It also discusses nitrogen status, sources, sinks, and drivers of nitrogen use in Pakistan, focusing on current nitrogen measures and policies. Nitrogen pollution is one of the biggest challenges of 21st Century, and the international scientific community is beginning to recognize the significance of nitrogen pollution and to explore how to combat it. The editors’ institution, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, partners with South Asia Nitrogen Hub, which includes about 30 organizations from South Asia and UK working on nitrogen assessment, budgeting, awareness, and policy guidance, as well as possible measures to reduce nitrogen pollution. Nitrogen Assessment: Pakistan as a Case-Study provides an important guide to this work and is written in a way that is accessible to an audience with a wide range of experience from advanced students to seasoned researchers.
... However, the economic profit of IS was higher due to its high product quality and high price, which was the primary driving factor for farmers when choosing production behaviors. Apart from this, the construction of the cooperative production and operation mode has also brought some social benefits, focusing on increasing farmers' income and employment opportunities and improving farmers' professional knowledge in the previous studies (Bell, Moore, and Kirkegaard 2014;Garrett et al. 2017;Gil, Garrett, and Berger 2016). Yunfeng Cooperative used advanced scientific breeding technology to drive farmers to get rich together through technical training, medicine with indigenous microbial support, and basing a rural revitalization model of "company + cooperative + base + farmer." ...
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Sustainable agricultural development is a topic of global concern aiming at satisfying food demand of the growing population while reducing impact on environment. Circular agriculture has become a promising development pattern with the advantages of complementing environmental resources, replacing feedback from outside system, and processing waste of bottom of system, etc. This study combined economic analysis, life cycle assessment and emergy accounting to evaluate sustainability of an integrated maize-pig system (IS) driven by indigenous microbes in Northeast China, compared with separated maize and pig system (SS). IS reduced input of concentrate feed, coal, vaccines, disinfectants, fertilizer and labor by 14.35%, 100%, 46.11%, 100%, 60.1% and 60.8% driven by indigenous microbes. Economic analysis results showed that IS has 82.88% higher profit than that of SS. The sum of potential environmental impacts of IS was lower than SS for 80.65% according to lifecycle assessment. The emergy results revealed that IS performed better sustainability. Internal feedback emergy for fertilizer and local resources for maize straw increasing of IS significantly improved emergy efficiency. The reduction resulted in nonrenewable resources decreased 33.01% than that of SS, and increased renewable resources by 67.81%, which reduced environmental load ratio of IS by 60.08% of IS. Meanwhile, these factors were the primary factors generating higher sustainability of IS. Overall, the integrated maize-pig system driven by indigenous microbes in this study can effectively alleviate the problems caused by agricultural waste and promote sustainable agricultural development.
... In practice, sheep graze vineyards in the period of vine dormancy, but is also possible to integrate livestock during the vegetation period. Livestock keeping and crop production have been studied in order to develop synergies, but these studies are still typically undertaken in isolation [5,7]. First of all, ICLS are limited by external (but potentially changeable) factors-e.g., by unfavourable subsidy laws under the EU's Common Agricultural Policy [8]. ...
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The multiple land use of agricultural areas is a building block for increased land use efficiency. Unlike monoculture, integrated crop-livestock systems optimally improve ecosystem services, making it an important field of research and application for adapting land use and food systems that have sustainability deficits. The integration of sheep in viticulture production is described as a promising example of an integrated crop-livestock system. While some studies of the integration of sheep into vineyards are already available for other parts of the world, there is still no research on its implementation in Central European viticulture systems. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we conducted standardized interviews with 34 winegrowers who already graze sheep in their vineyards. The method allowed a wider overview of the implementation of the integrated crop-livestock system than would have been possible with other approaches. Furthermore, the authors kept sheep in their own vineyard for three years to evaluate the statements of the survey participants. The period during which sheep graze in vineyards is quite heterogeneous in Central Europe. Some farms use sheep only during vine dormancy; others also let sheep graze during a certain period in summer. There are also viticulture training systems where grazing is almost continuously possible. In Central Europe, summer grazing normally requires operational adjustments such as lifting the wires of the training system and branches of the vine; otherwise, the vines could be damaged. This option seems to be tailored to the training system in use. Some interviewees mentioned that sheep not only use the accompanying vegetation as fodder and therefore control the undervine growth, but in some cases, they were also able to replace other work processes, such as defoliating the grape zone or cleaning undesired vine shoots near the ground. However, a high additional workload due to livestock keeping was also mentioned by some survey participants. Some of the interviewees cooperate with shepherds, which could help to solve this challenge. Finally, we summarize possible opportunities and risks of this integrated crop-livestock system. Integrating sheep in vineyards seems to be quite feasible in the period of vine dormancy, whereas more information and considerably more effort is needed to integrate sheep during the vegetation period. Further research is needed to answer open questions especially for the necessary adaptions of the common vine training system or the implementation of alternative systems more suitable to combine with livestock keeping. Some practitioners found opportunities to merchandize the use of sheep in wine sales. This potentially unique selling point could be a solution for a broader consideration of sheep in vineyards.
... The cheapest and most effective method of restoring deforested areas in the Amazon is 'passive' natural regeneration (Crouzeilles et al., 2017), which gives rise to secondary forests (defined here as forests growing on land that had been previously cleared for agriculture). The area of natural regeneration in the Amazon has grown steadily over the last 30 years even without policy interventions , as agricultural abandonment is a direct consequence of the low profitability and unsustainability of many of the prevalent farming systems (Garrett et al., 2017;Lavelle et al., 2016). Currently, approximately 148,764 km 2 in the Amazon are occupied by secondary forests . ...
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Secondary forests (SFs) growing on previously cleared land could be a low-cost climate change mitigation strategy due to their potential to sequester CO2. However, given widespread changes in climate and land-use in the Amazon in the past 20 years, it is not clear whether current rates of carbon uptake by SFs reflect estimates based on dividing the carbon stock by the estimated age of the forest. This is important, as differences between methodological approaches could lead to important discrepancies in estimates of carbon accumulation. Furthermore, we know little about how carbon uptake rates of secondary forests vary across some of the most deforested regions of the Amazon, where reforestation actions are most needed. Here, we compare the rates of carbon accumulation estimated over the lifetime of a stand (by stand age) with the contemporary rates estimated by recensus data, based on 28 permanent SFs plots distributed across four regions. Then, we compare how carbon uptakes rates vary across regions and how they compare to previous studies. The average rates of contemporary (1.23 ± 0.57 Mg C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) and lifetime (1.14 ± 0.63 Mg C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹) carbon accumulation were strongly correlated (r = 0.78) and similar between regions. Overall, our carbon accumulation rates were much lower than other estimates of Amazonian SFs, which suggests that regions with the greatest opportunities for large-scale implementation of SFs have some of the slowest rates of carbon accumulation. Contrary to predictions from chronosequence analysis, the lack of difference between lifetime and contemporary rates of carbon accumulation suggests forests are maintaining a consistent rate of growth in the first decades after abandonment. These results—combined with the high rates of ongoing environmental change - highlight the importance of continuing to monitor the rate of carbon accumulation in secondary forests. This is necessary to support the implementation and monitoring of large-scale passive restoration in the highly-deforested Amazon.
... Integrated systems combine crop-livestock-forestry production in various land-use configurations at farm level and are supposedly more carbon-friendly (Garrett et al., 2017). Reports from Observatório ABC (2016), however, suggest that this climate-related financing program did not achieve its full potential. ...
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Until 2019, the Brazilian federal government employed a number of policy measures to fulfill the pledge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change and agriculture. While its forest law enforcement strategy was partially successful in combating illegal deforestation, the effectiveness of positive incentive measures in agriculture has been less clear. The reason is that emissions reduction from market-based incentives such as the Brazilian Low-Carbon Agriculture Plan cannot be easily verified with current remote sensing monitoring approaches. Farmers have adopted a large variety of integrated land-use systems of crop, livestock and forestry with highly diverse per-hectare carbon balances. Their responses to policy incentives were largely driven by cost and benefit considerations at the farm level and not necessarily aligned with federal environmental objectives. This article analyzes climate-related land-use policies in the state of Mato Grosso, where highly mechanized soybean–cotton and soybean–maize cropping systems prevail. We employ agent-based bioeconomic simulation together with life-cycle assessment to explicitly capture the heterogeneity of farm-level costs, benefits of adoption, and greenhouse gas emissions. Our analysis confirms previous assessments but suggests a smaller farmer policy response when measured as increase in area of integrated systems. In terms of net carbon balances, our simulation results indicate that mitigation effects at the farm level depended heavily on the exact type of livestock and grazing system. The available data were insufficient to rule out even adverse effects. The Brazilian experience thus offers lessons for other land-rich countries that build their climate mitigation policies on economic incentives in agriculture.
... The coupling of grain and rapeseed production and animal husbandry in Australia could increase the productivity of crops and livestock by 25-75% with the least external input [16]. On the whole, most studies showed that the agricultural and animal husbandry cycle model played an important role in global food security, improving farmers' livelihoods, reducing environmental pollution, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions [17][18][19]. ...
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Nitrogen-based pollution from agriculture has global environmental consequences. Excessive use of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, incorrect manure management and rural waste treatment are key contributors. Circular agriculture combining cropland and livestock is an efficient channel to reduce the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers, promote the recycling of livestock manure, and reduce the global N surplus. The internal circulation of organic nitrogen resources in the cropland-livestock system can not only reduce the dependence on external synthetic nitrogen, but also reduce the environmental impacts of organic waste disposal. Therefore, this study tried to clarify the reactive nitrogen emissions of the crop-swine integrated system compared to the separated system from a life cycle perspective, and analyze the reasons for the differences in nitrogen footprints of the two systems. The results showed that the integrated crop production and swine production increased the grain yield by 14.38% than that of the separated system. The nitrogen footprints of crop production and swine production from the integrated system were 12.02% (per unit area) and 19.78% lower than that from the separated system, respectively. The total nitrogen footprint of the integrated system showed a reduction of 17.06%. The reduction was from simpler waste manure management and less agricultural inputs for both chemical fertilizer and raw material for forage processing. In conclusion, as a link between crop planting and pig breeding, the integrated system not only reduces the input of chemical fertilizers, but also promotes the utilization of manure, increases crop yield, and decreases environmental pollution. Integrated cropland and livestock is a promising model for agriculture green and sustainable development in China.
... The production layout should be further optimized and the coordinated development among regions should be strengthened according to the regional characteristics of the northern and southern parts of Anhui Province [29]. Garrett et al. [30] suggested that crop livestock systems should be integrated to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Based on the characteristics of animal husbandry and planting in the province, a new combination model of large-scale farming and farmland utilization should be actively explored. ...
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Anhui Province is located in the eastern China, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River, and contains three major basins, i.e., the Yangtze River, Huaihe River, and Xin’an River basins. Based on the statistical data of livestock and poultry quantity and farmland area in Anhui Province in 2019, ArcGIS was used to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics of the livestock and poultry excreta (LPE) pollutants in Anhui Province in order to explore the potential pollution risk posed by livestock and poultry farming to the farmland and the water environment in Anhui Province. The equivalent pollution load method was adopted to compare and assess the release of LPE pollutants in various cities and to analyze the causes. Through the calculation of the farmland carrying capacity load and early warning value of LPE and the water load of livestock and poultry pollutant release based on the equivalent pollution index method, a comprehensive assessment of the potential pollution risk posed by livestock and poultry farming on farmland and the water environment in Anhui Province was carried out. In this study, the spatial distribution of the livestock and poultry pollution in Anhui Province was analyzed, the effect of the pollution load of the livestock and poultry on the cultivated land and water environment was evaluated, and suggestions for environmental protection measures are provided. The results of this study revealed that the total pig equivalent of the livestock and poultry farming in Anhui Province was 55,068,400 and the LPE output was 47,778,600 t in 2019. The LPE pollutant output was 1,707,700 t, and the total release was 510,400 t. The release of pollutant chemical oxygen demand (COD) accounted for 71.67% of the total release. The average farmland load of the pig manure equivalent was 8.09 t/hm2 in the province. The average pollutant diffusion concentration of in the water was 31.63 mg/L. The average equivalent pollution index of LPE was 5.23, indicating a mild pollution impact on the water environment. Overall, the spatial distribution of the LPE pollutant output and pig manure equivalent farmland load in Anhui Province increased from south to north. Fuyang and Suzhou cities had a high risk of water environment pollution and should be the key regions for livestock and poultry pollution prevention and control measures. The optimization of the layout of livestock and poultry farming areas, smoothing the cycles of crop and livestock farming, and the vigorous promotion of the resource utilization of the LPE are proposed.
... As the major feed supplied to the livestock is fulfilled from the crop residues in ICLS which reduces the coemption from human food (Blummel,2010) and thus considered as an advantageous system. There are various types of ICLS and the selection of particular integration type for a specific place or area depends on the resource present, soil, climate, farmers skill or knowledge on the enterprises and in its management and even on farmers buying capacity (Garrett et al.,2017). The diversity plays an important role in ICLS as the inter species diversity is more beneficial and effective over intra species diversity (Romeo et al.,2016). ...
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Majority of the farmers of India as well as other developing countries are small and marginal and practising farming operations since long back but are unable to fulfil their basic requirements or even dietary needs. In general, farmers prefer confine their farming activities into a single enterprise. But there are several agriculture and allied activities such as crop, livestock, fishery, apiculture, duckery, agroforestry, vermicomposting, biogas production, mushroom production etc. that can be incorporated with crop production as per the suitability and compatibility. The faming system provides ample scope for inclusion of such activities with crop production for increasing the productivity, profitability, employment generation, food and nutritional security and ultimately agricultural sustainability. The integration of enterprises is done with a primary target of utilization of by-products, lowering the overall input cost, efficient resource use and more farm output. The article focuses on the need for adoption of integrated farming system and some common options to make the farming a profitable venture.
... Overall, beef cattle manure and CCCs based CTs improved soil N, P, and K, but beef cattle manure application consistently improved crop yield and significantly reduced the need for additional in-organic fertilizer application to canola and wheat in subsequent years. Garrett et al. (2017) indicated that farmers' motivations for re-integrating animals into cropland are varied, but ...
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Adequate nutrition is essential for crop growth, production, and profit potential for farmers, but chemical fertilizer costs alone can constitute a greater portion of the total variable costs for wheat and canola. The present study evaluated seven cropping treatments (CT) in a 3-year crop rotation under two different soil types. Five of the CTs consisted of a one-time application (year 1) of beef cattle manure, and growing of cover crop cocktails (CCC) for annual pasture, swath grazing, green manure, and green feed. Canola and wheat were respectively grown in years 2 and 3 of the 3-year crop rotation. In year 2, CTs impacted canola seed yield and seed protein (only at site 2). Wheat had similar protein content in year 3 at both sites. At both sites, the application of beef cattle manure in year 1 seemed to encourage higher plant tissue P at the expense of plant tissue Zn. Overall, beef cattle manure and CCCs based CTs improved soil N, P, and K, but beef cattle manure application consistently improved crop yield and significantly reduced the need for additional in-organic fertilizer application to canola and wheat in subsequent years.
... Such integration could reshape the N and P cycles, decrease dependence on synthetic fertilizer inputs, improve soil quality, and reduce the AGNPS (Lu et al., 2019;Carrer et al., 2020;Zhang et al., 2019). Studies from around the world have shown that integration of livestock and cropping systems provides a more profitable means to sustainably intensify agriculture (Pérez-Gutiérrez and Kumar, 2019;Carrer et al., 2020;Moraes et al., 2014;Garrett et al., 2017). By continuing to advocate for integrated crop-livestock systems in China, we can develop environmentally favorable measures to mitigate the undesirable effects triggered by intensified and separated agricultural systems. ...
Article
A good understanding of the nutrient cycle under a regional development strategy is crucial for nutrient management decision-making. Quantitatively assessment of nutrient flow under the regional coordinated development strategy in mainland China can provide scientific reference for achieving global high-quality coordinated economic and agricultural development. In this study, the characteristics of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows of agricultural systems in mainland China from 1998 to 2030 were quantified using nutrient flows in food chain environment and resource (NUFER) model. The results revealed that national N and P surplus intensity were 50.3 and 18.6 kg·hm-2 in 2018, respectively, and there is still space for soil nutrient retention. The national input and output of N and P showed a continuous upward trend over the last two decades. Chemical fertilizer application and livestock rearing are the key points for nutrient management in China's agricultural systems. Under the regional development strategy, considerable geographical variation in N and P surplus intensity was observed across the country. From 1998 to 2013, the regional distribution of N and P surplus intensity was in accordance with regional economic characteristics. Areas with higher N and P surplus intensities were mainly in the eastern and central regions. From 2014 to 2018, equal emphasis on ecology and economy in the Yangtze River Economic Belt allowed development without aggravating the deterioration of the N and P surplus in the region. Over the next 10 years, our simulation predicts that future nutrient footprints tend to decrease, and coordinated governance of regional development and agricultural environment protection are the key to regional sustainable development.
... The ICLS has three main objectives, (i) reduce the soil cyclical nutrients loss and consequently increase plant productivity, (ii) organize agricultural practices in a way that contribute to ecosystem services, and (iii) increase economic resilience to adverse hypotheses from an economic and environmental point of view (Moraine et al., 2014). For these reasons, some countries, such as Australia, Brazil, France, New Zealand, and the United States, are stimulating the adoption of ICLS in agricultural areas (Garrett et al., 2017). ...
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Various approaches were developed considering the need to increase agricultural productivity in cultivated areas without more deforestation, such as the Integrated Crop livestock systems (ICLS). The ICLS could be composed of annual crops followed by pastureland with the presence of cattle. Due to the high temporal dynamic of rotation between crops over the season, monitoring these areas is a big challenge. Also, agricultural organizations worldwide highlight the need for early-season maps for this kind of work. In this context, this study evaluated the potential of open data (Sentinel-2) data to map ICLS areas. The performance of two classifiers was evaluated: one of Machine Learning (random forest) and the other of Deep Learning (LSTM). Three different time windows of data were tested (Entire season, 180 days, and 120 days). Using the RF classifier, it was possible to achieve satisfactory results (Overall accuracy higher than 80%) for the early season (180 days). However, further studies are needed to explain better the lower(when compared to Random Forest) accuracy achieved by LSTM net (0.79 % for 180 days) and compare the results achieved here with results for a study area with different rates of cloud cover.
... Studies with ICLS have mainly focused on the integration of cattle into cropping systems (Garrett et al., 2017;Peterson et al., 2020;Rovira et al., 2020). However, the integration of sheep into annual crop-pasture rotations (Montossi et al., 2013;Savian et al., 2014;Farias et al., 2020) and perennial systems (Montossi et al., 2013;Niles et al., 2018;Schoof et al., 2021) has been shown to improve on-farm resource-use efficiency and income. ...
Article
The Rio de la Plata region (Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil) is currently characterized by a mosaic of intensively managed croplands and remaining areas of livestock production on native grasslands. The production of crops and animals in this scenario is usually spatially segregated as a result of mindset and structural constraints developed over decades of agricultural specialization. However, several studies have suggested that crop-livestock integration across various spatio-temporal scales can improve land-use efficiency and ecosystem services provisioning. In this context, the long-standing tradition of Rio de la Plata region’s ranchers on sheep production summed to the easy-to-manage body size of these small ruminants make them fit into a wide range of farm sizes and integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS) designs. In addition, the large variety of crops produced in the region, including annual (e.g., soybean, maize, rice and wheat) and perennial (e.g., orchards, vineyards and woodlands), and the diversity of temperate and tropical forage species used in livestock systems, provide multiple ICLS possibilities. In this review, we explore these possibilities and highlight the opportunities and challenges for integration of crop and sheep production in the Rio de la Plata region of South America. Using mainly data from the region’s ICLS, but also other parts of the world, we show that ICLS with sheep are able to improve nutrient cycling, land-use efficiency, and systems’ resilience and profitability if sound grazing intensities are used. Finally, we build on the idea of ICLS farm design to present an interactive, hands-on methodology recently developed to support farmers’ transition from specialized systems to ICLS.
... Even with these benefits, the knowledge gap on the impact of crop-livestock farming systems on household welfare remains underexplored (Thornton and Herrero, 2014). This knowledge gap results partly from the limited availability of data on specific livestock enterprises (Garrett et al., 2017). Indeed, the few studies that have assessed the impact of crop-livestock integrated systems on household welfare do not focus on specific livestock category and majority employ crop-livestock simulation models (Rigolot et al., 2017;Thornton and Herrero, 2001). ...
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Climate change continues to pose significant challenges to food security and livelihoods of smallholder farmers specifically in semi-arid regions. One approach that holds prospects for climate risk management is climate-smart agriculture (CSA). CSA has concentrated on crop practices with little attention to livestock especially indigenous (village) chickens as a potential practice that can be combined with crop agriculture. This study considers the adoption of three CSA practices: improved maize seeds (IS), soil management (SM), indigenous chicken (IC) enterprise and their various combinations. Using survey data collected from 300 farming households in semiarid Kenya, we estimate the impact of integrated crop-poultry system adoption on food security and farm income using multinomial endogenous treatment effect models. Robustness checks are conducted using alternative identification strategies. Results show that, generally, the adoption of IS, SM, IC and their combinations reduces the number of months without enough food and increases farm income. When we consider the magnitude of the impacts, interesting results emerge when a combination of the CSA practices are considered. The highest impact is observed with the joint adoption of SM & IC and IS &IC. Broadly, the empirical findings suggest that integrated systems (in our case crop-poultry integration), deserve both policy and research attention as they provide synergistic benefits that improve climate resilience and household welfare.
... However, there are many challenges in the adoption of ICLS, including the implementation of commercialscale ICLS in specialized farms. Paradigms associated with the use of areas under conservation agricultural practices (e.g., potential soil compaction by animal trampling or the consumption of forage material that would otherwise cover the soil) and a higher degree of managerial complexity remain barriers to ICLS adoption in southern Brazil [36,57] . Also, specialized farmers (those producing one or two commercial cash crops only) have 38% less probability to couple crops with livestock compared to those with a higher degree of on-farm diversification (at least three different crops) [58] . ...
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The Rio de la Plata region comprises central Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. Modern agriculture developed around 1900 with recent decades being characterized by the advance of cropping areas over native grasslands. Highly specialized agriculture has decoupled crop and livestock production but has succeeded in intensifying yields. However, significant losses of ecosystemsservices have been reported. Thus, questions have been raised on the sustainability of this pathway. A glance at world regions that have experienced similar trends suggests that an urgent course correction is needed. A major concern has been the lack of diversity in regions with highly specialized agriculture, promoting renewed interest in integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS), not only because ICLS are more diverse than specialized systems, but also because they are rare examples of reconciliation between agroecosystem intensification and environmental quality. Consequently, this paper discusses alternatives to redesign multifunctional landscapes based on ICLS. Recent data provide evidence that recoupling crop and animal production increases the resilience of nutrient cycling functions and economic indicators to external stressors, enabling these systems to face climate-market uncertainty and reconcile food production with the provision of diverse ecosystem services. Finally, these concepts are exemplified in case studies where this perspective has been successfully applied.
... For this reason, commercial-scale ICLS are regaining attention globally (Garrett et al., 2017;Peterson et al., 2020) even as mixed systems remain dominant in most traditional smallholder systems in developing countries . ICLS in which ruminant livestock graze on crop residues or grasses to produce high-quality food (e.g., beef and milk by-products) reduce market competition for human-edible feed resources (Peyraud & Peeters, 2016). ...
Article
We evaluated Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) establishment in a factorial of grazing intensity (intense, moderate, moderate‐light, light, and no grazing, with target average sward heights of 10, 20, 30, and 40 cm in the grazed plots) and additional seeding (self‐seeding with or without additional seeding) in an integrated soybean‐beef cattle system in southern Brazil. Grazing treatments were imposed in winter (June–July) and followed by a direct‐seeded soybean crop (November). The establishment was quantified prior to the stocking periods in 2017 and 2018, corresponding to self‐seeding from 2016 and 2017. Intense grazing impaired ryegrass re‐establishment, resulting in larger individual plants (0.54 vs. 0.15 g dry matter plant−1) but lower population density (57 vs. 1,355 plants m−2) than in the other treatments. Additional broadcast ryegrass seeding did not fully compensate for the reduced natural reseeding in this treatment. The addition of seeds under intense grazing increased plant population density to values comparable to moderate grazing intensities but reduced individual plant mass, limiting herbage mass attained by the end of the pasture establishment phase. Contrastingly, the various combinations of individual plant mass and population density were sufficient to maintain herbage masses in moderate to light grazing intensities that were comparable to that in the ungrazed treatment, regardless of seed addition (63 vs. 180 g DM m−2 for intense grazing vs. the average of other treatments over the whole establishment phase). Moderate grazing, e.g., target sward heights of 20 cm or greater, is necessary to achieve a system that can sustain itself without seed addition.
... In addition, triticale is a preferred crop for producing silage because of its highyielding and nutritional forage attributes (Ayalew et al., 2018;Delogu et al., 2002). In general, the cool-season small grain forage provides more flexible crop-livestock systems, where producers can adjust production outcomes based on market values of grains and livestocks (Ates et al., 2018;Garrett et al., 2017;Kumssa et al., 2019). ...
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The focus of triticale breeding in the southern Great Plains of the United States has been to increase forage yield for autumn–winter seasons when most other forage species are dormant. This study aims to estimate the trends of seasonal yield changes over time. Yield trials had been conducted in a randomized complete block design for up to two decades. Seasonal yield changes over time were estimated using linear regression analysis. The analysis revealed a significant positive relation between autumn forage yield (relative to common checks) and calendar years when the trials were conducted. The estimated improvement of autumn forage yield was about 1.9% per year on medium and heavy soil at Ardmore, Oklahoma, and about 5.4% per year on light soil at Burneyville, Oklahoma. However, winter forage yield change was minimal and the spring forage yield increase was negative, although this decline was not significant. Total forage yield improvements were about 0.6% and 0.7% per year at Ardmore and Burneyville, respectively. Similar results were also observed when years of cultivars' introduction were used instead. The results indicate a significant gain in autumn forage yield, but a minor gain in the total forage yield due to the yield tradeoff between the autumn and spring seasons. After decades of triticale breeding for increasing early forage production, significant progress has been made in increasing autumn–winter forage yield, but minor progress in the total yield due to seasonal yield tradeoff between the early and late stages of the growth.
... Population density has an important impact on the ecological environment . The centralized control of environmental sanitation and moderate population agglomeration is conducive to the treatment of domestic sewage (Garrett et al., 2017;Zhao et al., 2018). In terms of industrial wastewater, industrial development is the main driving factor (Bu et al., 2021), while in the process of industrial development, industrial enterprise agglomeration also occurs (Ellison et al., 2010). ...
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Water resources serve as the foundation for high-quality urban development. As water pollution has become a major impediment to high-quality urban development, solving the problem of urban water pollution is critical for attaining high-quality urban growth. This research analyzes both point and non-point sources of pollution and constructs an urban water pollution simulation system model from four subsystems: population, industry, cultivated land, and livestock and poultry. This study selects 2020 as the base year and the current year’s development situation as the base scenario and then sets the other five simulation scenarios according to the research area development plan. Using Yichang data in this model, the research simulated and predicted the total amount of urban COD pollution under different scenarios. The results show that: 1) The difference between the simulation results of the constructed urban water pollution system and the 2010–2020 historical data is within 10%, which shows that the constructed system can analyze the reality. 2) Under the benchmark scenario, from 2020–2030, the total amount of urban COD shows a downward trend. The pollution from population and livestock subsystems are reduced by 20.20 and 35.29%, respectively, the industrial subsystem is increased by 40.60%, and the cultivated land subsystem is increased by 0.56%. 3) Compared with the benchmark scenario, the urban COD pollution in five scenarios has been reduced by 8,400, 42,000, 21,700, 100, and 72,300 tons, respectively, among which water pollution control measures in scenario five have the best effect. 4) Only by comprehensively controlling all pollution sources (scenario 5) can the total amount of urban COD pollution be controlled within 450,000 tons in 2030, which will be reduced by over 20% compared with 2020. An urban water pollution system can be used to simulate the source composition and total change amount of water pollution in the process of urban development, which is of great significance for government departments to provide accurate counter-measures for urban water pollution control and management decisions.
... Establishing a technology adoption system across multiple farmlands is important to fully realize the potential benefits of these technologies and crop varieties. One of the issues towards adopting technology is the insufficient baseline empirical data to model the risks and benefits of sustainable farming across multiple farm types, farm sizes, and environments [191]. As technological developments are rapidly evolving, there is a constant need to deliver broad knowledge of sustainable farming to the public or industry to reduce the uncertainty about biotechnology and facilitate the adoption of agricultural biotechnology. ...
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Climate change poses a serious threat to global agricultural activity and food production. Plant genome editing technologies have been widely used to develop crop varieties with superior qualities or can tolerate adverse environmental conditions. Unlike conventional breeding techniques (e.g., selective breeding and mutation breeding), modern genome editing tools offer more targeted and specific alterations of the plant genome and could significantly speed up the progress of developing crops with desired traits, such as higher yield and/or stronger resilience to the changing environment. In this review, we discuss the current development and future applications of genome editing technologies in mitigating the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on agriculture. We focus specifically on the CRISPR/Cas system, which has been the center of attention in the last few years as a revolutionary genome-editing tool in various species. We also conducted a bibliographic analysis on CRISPR-related papers published from 2012 to 2021 (10 years) to identify trends and potential in the CRISPR/Cas-related plant research. In addition, this review article outlines the current shortcomings and challenges of employing genome editing technologies in agriculture with notes on future prospective. We believe combining conventional and more innovative technologies in agriculture would be the key to optimizing crop improvement beyond the limitations of traditional agricultural practices.
... The use of sheep to graze in vineyards during the growing season is a new form of integrated crop-livestock system (ICLS; [4]) that has hitherto scarcely been explored [5]. It has interesting potential in terms of agro-ecological system services [6][7][8][9][10], and it seems possible that specific requirements for breed traits could help to expand the market for sheep breeds or rare breed traits. ...
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Protecting a breed of sheep is simple when there is demand for its breed traits, but new market options are often hard to find. In general, grazing sheep are able to take over some viticultural work. Here, we address a new and promising integrated crop-livestock system that involves the integration of sheep in the vineyard during the growing season. Using sheep in a vineyard entails opportunities but also risks, such as the current lack of information, specifically in relation to breed traits. In our survey, we evaluated 26 breeds for their suitability for grazing as long as possible in Central European vineyards during the growing season. First, the breed traits required were identified. Then, 94 flock book breeders were interviewed about specific breed traits. The height of a sheep’s muzzle is particularly important for assessing the suitability of a breed, as it defines the potential impact on the foliage area during the growing season. To determine the height of the muzzle, 179 flock book animals were measured. We found that the most important breeding objective for a new breed of sheep is the inability to stand on two legs. Adult animals of the breed Shropshire, and among these especially the shorter-legged Danish type, and Southdown, show a widespread inability to stand on two legs. Ouessant sheep are able to do so, yet are suitable with some limitations. Due to their extraordinarily small size, their reach is limited, as is their grazing performance. Thus, three of the 26 breeds studied here seem suitable for use in the most widespread vine training systems of Central Europe during the growing season. Targeted breeding could further improve the suitability of sheep for viticulture. Our findings could help to protect breeds and breed traits.
... In theory, re-integrating some animal production onto farmland (another tenant of regenerative agriculture), or at least locating animal production facilities close enough to croplands to make transport of the manure economically feasible, could offer some nutrient circularity benefit (including less demand for synthetic N fertilizer) and likely net soil carbon gain. Once again, however, the socio-economic barriers to adoption of re-integration of animal and crop production are significant, such as greater managerial intensity and knowledge required and the additional capital risk (Garrett et al. 2017). ...
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Nature-based solutions are gaining momentum as approaches to address major environmental challenges, including markets for soil carbon (C) sequestration for mitigating climate change. This special collection of papers, stemming from a symposium of the 2021 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union, poses several tough questions about the practical potential for significant C sequestration resulting from farmer participation in carbon markets. A common theme among these papers is that promotion of soil C sequestration through carbon markets has likely gotten ahead of the agronomic and biogeochemical science and especially the social science. We know a great deal about soil C dynamics and stabilization, but we know less about translating that knowledge to market-based solutions that have inherent challenges of validating sequestration rates and other potential pitfalls. Scientists can help provide rigor to carbon markets, although they must maintain objectivity and avoid conflicts of interests with well-intended evolving markets. Even when there is strong scientific support for the feasibility and the virtues of best management practices that provide numerous co-benefits while building soil organic matter, socio-economic barriers to farmer adoption remain poorly understood. Although soil markets currently focus almost exclusively on C, mitigation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture could offer several advantages as well as challenges. The papers in this special collection offer a needed perspective urging soil scientists, biogeochemists, and social scientists to step up and offer honest appraisals of what is most likely to work, or not, and why.
... Pasture management is vital to ensure adequate forage quantity and quality in support of domestic animal production. In addition, several countries have utilized the integration of livestock into cropping systems to contribute to the ecological sustainability of agriculture [1][2][3][4]. Domestic livestock is grown in pastures, grasslands, and natural areas; well-managed grazing results in reducing soil erosion from tillage and heavy grazing, improving soil fertility through the application of manure, maintaining ruminants' natural digestive systems, and converting otherwise unusable plant material into more nutritious animal products, such as meat and milk [5][6][7]. ...
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Pasture management approaches can determine the productivity, sustainability, and ecological balance of livestock production. Sensing techniques potentially provide methods to assess the performance of different grazing practices that are more labor and time efficient than traditional methods (e.g., soil and crop sampling). This study utilized high-resolution satellite and unmanned aerial system (UAS) imagery to evaluate vegetation characteristics of a pasture field location with two grazing densities (low and high, applied in the years 2015–2019) and four fertility treatments (control, manure, mineral, and compost tea, applied annually in the years 2015–2019). The pasture productivity was assessed through satellite imagery annually from the years 2017 to 2019. The relation and variation within and between the years were evaluated using vegetation indices extracted from satellite and UAS imagery. The data from the two sensing systems (satellite and UAS) demonstrated that grazing density showed a significant effect (p < 0.05) on pasture crop status in 2019. Furthermore, the mean vegetation index data extracted from satellite and UAS imagery (2019) had a high correlation (r ≥ 0.78, p < 0.001). These results show the potential of utilizing satellite and UAS imagery for crop productivity assessment applications in small to medium pasture research and management.
... Garrett et al. (2017a) also suggested policy incentives for integrating crop and livestock systems such as (i) strengthening environmental policies (and enforcement) that punish nutrient runoff and reward nutrient recycling; (ii) reducing food safety restrictions on the integration of animals and manure in cropland; and (iii) strengthening research and development for integrated crop livestock systems. Further, reintegrating crop and livestock systems at field and farm levels may contribute to improving soil quality, reducing water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk of crop failure (Garrett et al., 2017a;Garrett et al., 2017b). However, the challenge here is that some farms specialize in livestock production while others in crop production, as specialized animal production and crop production systems often produce at lower costs than mixed systems. ...
... The greatest challenge before agricultural researchers, planners, and farmers in developing world at present is to produce more food for growing population from less land, water, and other resources with unstable and stressed agro-ecosystems (Palsaniya et al. 2012a(Palsaniya et al. , 2016aTui et al. 2020). The crop-livestock integrated farming systems (IFS) provide diversification and intensification opportunities that enhance the production of quality food, profitability, and ecosystem sustainability, while imparting risk proofing against climate-related vulnerabilities (Garrett et al. 2017;Palsaniya et al. 2021;Tarawali et al. 2011). The IFS approach has widely been cited for higher productivity, profitability, employment generation, soil health, and sustainability (Behera and France 2016). ...
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The focus toward specialized double cropping in the recent past and the resultant stagnant farm productivity, natural resource degradation, improper by-product recycling, and declining resource use efficiency warranted renewed efforts toward dairy-based integrated farming systems (IFS) approach. The small holder dairy-based integrated farming system (IFS) under present study resulted in production of 323% more wheat equivalent yield (27358 kg ha⁻¹) and diverse provisioning services (grains, fruits, straw, green fodder, milk) as compared to groundnut–wheat double cropping system. The dairy-based IFS generated 82.7% more net return (2501 US$ ha⁻¹year⁻¹) with 1.52 benefit cost ratio, resulted in uniform distribution of income throughout the year (US$ 529 to 909 every month) and generated 251% more employment (418 man-days ha⁻¹year⁻¹) than double cropping. It provided regulating services in the form of improved soil fertility (19% more soil organic carbon), enhanced saturated infiltration capacity, higher carbon sequestration (552%) and was more dependent on indirect and renewable energy sources. The dairy-based IFS recorded more soil biodiversity (earthworm, fungal, and bacterial count) and better nutrient (100 Kg N, 45 Kg P, and 80 Kg K ha⁻¹ year⁻¹), and by-product recycling (20.4 tonnes farm yard manure and 1.98 tonnes farm-compost) vis-a-vis double cropping system (supporting services) besides providing many cultural services. The study concluded that systems transformation through greater crops-livestock integration provides number of provisioning, regulating, supporting, and cultural services, and leads to sustainable food systems.
... Enhancing farm diversity (crops, livestock, and off-farm activities) contributes to spreading production and market risks (e.g., Rodriguez et al., 2011;Descheemaeker et al., 2016a). It provides more options for better integration of crops and livestock, and more efficient resource use (Lemaire et al., 2014;Garrett et al., 2017). Intensification through improved crop and livestock management and improved crop varieties and livestock breeds can then increase overall system productivity and stability (e.g., Blüemmel et al., 2013;Tarawali et al., 2011). ...
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This two-part handbook focuses on the work that the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) accomplished using a new method — the AgMIP Regional Integrated Assessment Protocol — in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA), with funding from the UK Department for International Development. Through this research, AgMIP substantially improves the characterization and understanding of food security in SSA and SA and how its affected by climate variability and change. The chapters in this handbook demonstrate how AgMIP has enhanced the capacity of developing country researchers and stakeholders to work together, exploring and prioritizing adaptation to current and future climate stresses. Part 1 describes regional integrated assessment methods and analyses, while Part 2 presents the outcomes of farming system studies. The entire volume shows how AgMIP has established, as a public good, protocols for Regional Integrated Assessments that improve the capability of developing countries to address climate change challenges.
... Diversifying land covers can support biodiversity while potentially building soil and reducing pest pressures and farmers' chemical applications to their production systems (Bradshaw et al., 2004;Roesch-McNally et al., 2018;Merlos and Hijmans, 2020;Prokopy et al., 2020). Diversification via livestock and crop integration is another major approach to diversification (Garrett et al., 2017). We place our focus on a related definition, product diversification, through which farmers augment their mix of products. ...
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... Irrigation management occupy a major role of water conservation (Conservation Agriculture) in conjunction with other complementary good agricultural practices of integrated crop and production management [21]. Many farmers used integrated crop livestock combination for optimum water usage [22][23][24][25]. Farmer-based and country-based solutions were proposed to improve water and food security [26]. ...
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Food security is an essential issue for human survival and civilization. Whenever food–water security is in doubt, the community is negatively affected. Globally, Jordan is the second most water-stressed country, located in an arid, politically divided and migratory active Middle East region that lacks the access to valuable natural resources such as fertile soils. Jordan receives about 78 m3/person/year from renewable resources, which represents 1% of the world water share. Jordan’s Water Minister declared that a 50 million m3 lack of drinking water is to be faced next year; this shortage is added to the lack of irrigation water, which yields food insecurity and food price fluctuations that wear out the consumer. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the impact of agricultural cropping patterns and water security by analyzing the most relevant national databases. The study results will contribute to the development of national policy in order to strategize the aid programs and adaptation measures for more sustainable planning in the Jordanian agri-food sector.
... Long-term soybean integration with beef cattle production, under moderate grazing, can stabilise grain productivity and reduce the probability of crop failure in unfavourable years (Peterson et al. 2020;de Albuquerque Nunes et al. 2021). It can also improve soil quality (Carvalho et al. 2018), and help control pests, diseases and weeds (Garrett et al. 2017;Roese et al. 2020). ...
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Context: Soybean cultivation is advancing over areas traditionally used for livestock production in southern Brazil, which has led producers to decide whether to diversify their production system or keep it specialised. Aims: To evaluate the economic returns and risk for beef cattle production, as a specialised activity or an integrated system with soybean, in a high-risk region for soybean crop failures in southern Brazil. Methods: Using a stochastic model, we evaluated the gross margin per hectare, the risk of negative gross margin per hectare, and the contribution of input variables to the gross margin per hectare variance. Therefore, the following three production systems were simulated: beef cattle production (BP), beef cattle production associated with leasing land for soybean cultivation (BSL), and beef cattle production with soybean cultivation (BSC). Key results: All systems had a positive average gross margin per hectare, with BSL (US$125.69) having the highest average, followed by BSC (US$77.82) and BP (US$69.54). The highest difference between maximum and minimum values of gross margin per hectare was observed in the BSC, which was the only system to present a negative gross margin per hectare. This is owing to the high variation in the gross margin per hectare generated by soybean production activity, which made BSC the system with the greatest risk. Beef cattle average productivity from the integrated systems was 50% higher than the average observed in BP, with the minimum values in BSL and BSC being only 5.84% lower than the BP average. The risk components linked to soybean productivity (69.54%) and sale prices (17.32%) explained 86.86% of the variation in gross margin per hectare in the BSC. In BP and BSL, stocking rates (40.06% and 42.85% respectively) were the components with the greatest effect, followed by male and female selling prices, which explained 78.13% and 76.71% respectively, of the variation in the gross margin per hectare. Conclusions: The system with the most significant balance between risk and economic return was BSL, with a higher gross margin per hectare than in BP and lower risk than in BSC. Implications: Understanding the risk for negative economic results and the factors that affect the gross margin per hectare will help farmers decide whether to integrate soybean cultivation with beef production. These results will help inform the structure of the integration, and implementation of risk mitigation and loss minimisation strategies.
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Mapping highly dynamic cropping systems using satellite image time series is still challenging even when robust approaches are used. We assessed the potential of using high spatial and temporal resolution PlanetScope time series and deep neural networks (Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in one dimension - Conv1D, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP)) for mapping integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) and different land covers in the western region of São Paulo State, Brazil. We used 10-day and 15-day composite EVI and NDVI time series (both individually and combined) as input data in the neural network classifiers. Conv1D using both EVI and NDVI 10 day-composite time series outperformed the other classifiers evaluated in this study (LSTM and MLP), allowing improved discrimination of land parcels with ICLS in our study area.
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Agroforestry has been practiced for decades and is undoubtedly an important source of income for Indonesian households living near forests. However, there are still many cases of poverty among farmers due to a lack of ability to adopt advanced technology. This literature review aims to identify the characteristics and factors causing the occurrence of agricultural subsistence and analyze its implications for the level of farmer welfare and the regional forestry industry. The literature analysis conducted reveals that small land tenure, low literacy rates, and lack of forest maintenance are the main causes of the subsistence of small agroforestry farmers. Another reason is that subsistence-oriented agroforestry practices are considered a strong form of smallholder resilience. All of these limitations have implications for low land productivity and high-sawn timber waste from community forests. To reduce the subsistence level of farmers, government intervention is needed, especially in providing managerial assistance packages, capital assistance, and the marketing of forest products. Various agroforestry technologies are available but have not been implemented consistently by farmers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an integrated collaboration between researchers, farmers, and regionally owned enterprises (BUMD) to increase access to technology and markets. Although it is still difficult to realize, forest services, such as upstream-downstream compensation and carbon capture, have the potential to increase farmer income. Citation: Achmad, B.; Sanudin; Siarudin, M.; Widiyanto, A.; Diniyati, D.; Sudomo, A.; Hani, A.; Fauziyah, E.; Suhaendah, E.; Widyaningsih, T.S.; et al. Traditional Subsistence Farming of Smallholder
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Agroforestry has been practiced for decades and is undoubtedly an important source of income for Indonesian households living near forests. However, there are still many cases of poverty among farmers due to a lack of ability to adopt advanced technology. This literature review aims to identify the characteristics and factors causing the occurrence of agricultural subsistence and analyze its implications for the level of farmer welfare and the regional forestry industry. The literature analysis conducted reveals that small land tenure, low literacy rates, and lack of forest maintenance are the main causes of the subsistence of small agroforestry farmers. Another reason is that subsistence-oriented agroforestry practices are considered a strong form of smallholder resilience. All of these limitations have implications for low land productivity and high-sawn timber waste from community forests. To reduce the subsistence level of farmers, government intervention is needed, especially in providing managerial assistance packages, capital assistance, and the marketing of forest products. Various agroforestry technologies are available but have not been implemented consistently by farmers. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an integrated collaboration between researchers, farmers, and regionally owned enterprises (BUMD) to increase access to technology and markets. Although it is still difficult to realize, forest services, such as upstream–downstream compensation and carbon capture, have the potential to increase farmer income. Keywords: agroforestry; collaboration; farmers; government intervention; subsistence Citation: Achmad, B.; Sanudin; Siarudin, M.; Widiyanto, A.; Diniyati, D.; Sudomo, A.; Hani, A.; Fauziyah, E.; Suhaendah, E.; Widyaningsih, T.S.; et al. Traditional Subsistence Farming of Smallholder Agroforestry Systems in Indonesia: A Review. Sustainability 2022, 14, 8631. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148631
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Food products from mixed crop-livestock systems is a market-based solution to reduce environmental impacts of livestock worldwide. However, widespread promotion of mixed systems of recycling agriculture depends on consumers’ acceptance of its food products. In this paper, we examine consumers’ preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for several attributes of pork products, and develop consumer classes based on preferences. Using a choice experiment among 893 Chinese consumers, our results show that consumers are willing to pay a premium for pork with mixed crop-livestock systems claim. In addition, a positive WTP is also detected for different environmental carrying capacity, environmental benefits and quality certifications. We use latent class analysis to identify heterogeneous consumers into five classes: namely balanced thinking, price sensitive, quality preferred, environmental benefits conscious and ecology conscious consumers. Further policies and interventions aimed at promoting the market-oriented operation of mixed crop-livestock systems of recycling agriculture, based on regional environmental carrying capacity, different dimensions of environmental benefits and quality improvement of food products, will be effective.
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The objective of this work was to compare the height-diameter relationship, described by nonlinear biological models, in Eucalyptus benthamii in monoculture forestry and in three different integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS): crop-forestry, livestock-forestry, and crop-livestock-forestry. The trees were evaluated during seven years after planting. Five nonlinear biological models were fitted to evaluate the height-diameter relationship, and Gompertz’s model was selected to describe the data, although all models described satisfactorily the height-diameter relationship of the trees in the ICLS. The analysis of the data showed that there is no similarity between monoculture forestry and the ICLS as to the height-diameter relationship. In addition, the height-diameter relationship in E. benthamii changes between the different ICLS. Particularly, two systems with cattle provide the same values of maximum growth rate, asymptote, and inflection point of diameter at breast height. Furthermore, with the integration of cattle into the tree component, the produced trees show lower asymptotic heights, with larger diameters when the average tree heights of the ICLS are equal.
Conference Paper
Coffee livestock integration is one of the climate change adaptation practices. However, its implementation is still not optimum due to the limited financial capacity of coffee smallholders. Some farmers implement the coffee livestock integration, but the integration system is not running optimally. This study analyzes the financial support for smallholder coffee plantations to implement coffee livestock integration as a Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) practice. The analysis was performed using Descriptive Statistics. Most farmers are interested in implementing coffee livestock integration but face constraints related to capital. Considering that the average ownership of coffee plantations is relatively small, the recommended coffee livestock integration is an integrated system based on farmer groups. Strategies to develop financial support for coffee livestock integration include increasing credit availability, increasing access, and diversifying and customizing products and services for different value chain actors. Not all components of investment and working capital get financial support. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen farmer institutions, both social and economic institutions. Establishing strategic partnerships with non-financial service providers and providing technical assistance towards optimal credit use will complement financial support for coffee livestock integration.
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Infectious diseases originating from animals (zoonotic diseases) have emerged following deforestation from agriculture. Agriculture can reduce its land use through intensification, i.e., improving resource use efficiency. However, intensive management often confines animals and their wastes, which also fosters disease emergence. Therefore, rising demand for animal-sourced foods creates a "trap" of zoonotic disease risks: extensive land use on one hand or intensive animal management on the other. Not all intensification poses disease risks; some methods avoid confinement and improve animal health. However, these "win-win" improvements alone cannot satisfy rising meat demand, particularly for chicken and pork. Intensive poultry and pig production entails greater antibiotic use, confinement, and animal populations than beef production. Shifting from beef to chicken consumption mitigates climate emissions, but this common strategy neglects zoonotic disease risks. Preventing zoonotic diseases requires international coordination to reduce the high demand for animal-sourced foods, improve forest conservation governance, and selectively intensify the lowest-producing ruminant animal systems without confinement.
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The integration of crop and livestock systems has been recognized for its potential to reduce the environmental impacts associated with agriculture and improve farmer livelihoods. However, to date, most research has focused on the integration of cattle into crop and pasture systems. Here we examine the integration of sheep into vineyards and assess farmers' perceived benefits and costs of the practice. Viticulture expansion has led to significant land use change in recent years and new environmental challenges, particularly with respect to herbicide use. Sheep integration into vineyards offers the potential to utilize the synergies of both systems to reduce external inputs, promote soil health, and increase farmer profit. Our study focuses in New Zealand, the world's 15 th largest wine producer, particularly in Marlborough, which produces 75% of the country's wine. As a result, the case study is an excellent representation of New Zealand viticulture, while also providing unique insights into a novel practice. Using a semi-structured interview and survey, we interviewed fifteen farmers representing five percent of 2 total New Zealand wine production to examine ecological and economic benefits of sheep integration in viticulture systems. We find that seasonal integration of sheep during vine dormancy is common, while integration during the growing season is rare. Overall, farmers perceive significantly more benefits than challenges with the integration of sheep into vineyards, particularly reduced mowing (100% of farmers) and herbicide use (66% of farmers). On average, farmers reported 1.3 fewer herbicide applications annually, saving US$ $56 per hectare. As well, farmers indicated they were doing 2.2 fewer mows annually saving US$ $64 per hectare. These results suggest that wide-scale adoption of seasonal integration of sheep and viticulture can provide large ecological benefits and higher profitability vis-à-vis conventional viticulture practices; however, further integration of the two systems may provide even greater benefits not currently realized.
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Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important and manageable property of soils that impacts on multiple ecosystem services through its effect on soil processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling and soil physical properties. There is considerable interest in increasing SOC concentration in agro-ecosystems worldwide. In some agro-ecosystems, increased SOC has been found to enhance the provision of ecosystem services such as the provision of food. However, increased SOC may increase the environmental footprint of some agro-ecosystems, for example by increasing nitrous oxide emissions. Given this uncertainty, progress is needed in quantifying the impact of increased SOC concentration on agro-ecosystems. Increased SOC concentration affects both N cycling and soil physical properties (i.e. water holding capacity). Thus the aim of this study was to quantify the contribution, both positive and negative, of increased SOC concentration on ecosystem services provided by wheat agro-ecosystems. We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to represent the effect of increased SOC concentration on N cycling and soil physical properties, and used model outputs as proxies for multiple ecosystem services from wheat production agro-ecosystems at seven locations around the world. Under increased SOC, we found that N cycling had a larger effect on a range of ecosystem services (food provision, filtering of N, and nitrous oxide regulation) than soil physical properties. We predicted that food provision in these agro-ecosystems could be significantly increased by increased SOC concentration when N supply is limiting. Conversely, we predicted no significant benefit to food production from increasing SOC when soil N supply (from fertiliser and soil N stocks) is not limiting. The effect of increasing SOC on N cycling also led to significantly higher nitrous oxide emissions, although the relative increase was small. We also found that N losses via deep drainage were minimally affected by increased SOC in the dryland agro-ecosystems studied, but increased in the irrigated agro-ecosystem. Therefore, we show that under increased SOC concentration, N cycling contributes both positively and negatively to ecosystem services depending on supply, while the effects on soil physical properties are negligible.
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The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS).Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.
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Integrated crop–livestock systems have been shown to improve nutrient cycling, particularly by re-coupling nitrogen and carbon cycles. Yet the number of mixed crop–livestock farms has been falling steadily in Europe. Integration between crops and livestock at the local level, through exchanges between already specialised farms, is rarely implemented. Given the lack of knowledge on new ways to maintain or to reintegrate crops and livestock from the farm up to the local level, concrete guidelines are needed. In this paper, we developed a transversal analysis of three complementary case studies regarding development of crop–livestock integration at the farm and beyond farm level. To this aim, we reviewed three French case studies in which participatory approaches were used to design scenarios of crop–livestock integration. When crop–livestock integration disappears from the farm level due to labour organisation, exchanges between specialised crop farmers and livestock farmers is a way to redevelop such integration at the local level. Transversal analysis of case-studies allowed us to suggest guidelines for further research regarding the design of agroecological crop–livestock integration. Articulating options of change at farm level and collective level allows to consider the appropriate level of design and trade-offs between (1) farm and beyond farm level, and (2) social, environmental and economic dimensions. Considering these different levels of organisation is needed to identify possible pathways to and policy incentives for integrated crop–livestock systems. Developing specific Decision Support Systems and participative research is needed to conceive locally adapted scenarios of crop-livestock integration.
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This paper presents ideas for a new generation of agricultural system models that could meet the needs of a growing community of end-users exemplified by a set of Use Cases. We envision new data, models and knowledge products that could accelerate the innovation process that is needed to achieve the goal of achieving sustainable local, regional and global food security. We identify desirable features for models, and describe some of the potential advances that we envisage for model components and their integration. We propose an implementation strategy that would link a “pre-competitive” space for model development to a “competitive space” for knowledge product development and through private-public partnerships for new data infrastructure. Specific model improvements would be based on further testing and evaluation of existing models, the development and testing of modular model components and integration, and linkages of model integration platforms to new data management and visualization tools.
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The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of grazing intensities after 11 years of an integrated crop-livestock system, under no-tillage, on soil moisture and soybean physiological parameters during a summer season affected by drought. The experiment was established in 2001 on a Rhodic Hapludox. Treatments consisted in the succession of soybean (summer) and a mixed pasture of black oat + Italian ryegrass (winter), under different beef-cattle grazing intensities: intensive grazing, with 0.10-m pasture height; moderate grazing, with 0.20-m pasture height; and no grazing. During the soybean cycle, in the 2011/2012 crop season, rainfall was 40% of the climatological normal. The soil moisture was within the limits of available water both under moderate grazing and no grazing, at 0.00–0.50-m soil depth, but, under intensive grazing, it was below the permanent wilting point, especially up to the grazing height of 0.20 m. Intensive grazing affected negatively the plant physiology parameters, reaching peaks of-2.5 MPa and +6°C for leaf water potential and leaf-air temperature difference, respectively. Moderate grazing or the absence of grazing, during the winter season, results in similar physiological responses, contributing to soybean plant homeostasis. Index terms: Glycine max, leaf temperature, leaf water potential, water availability.
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Paradoxically, the number of crop–livestock farms is declining across Europe, despite the fact that crop-livestock farms are theoretically optimal to improve the sustainability of agriculture. To solve this issue, crop–livestock integration may be organized beyond the farm level. For instance, local groups of farmers can negotiate land-use allocation patterns and exchange materials such as manure, grain, and straw. Development of such a collective agricultural system raises questions, rarely documented in the literature, about how to integrate crops and livestock among farms, and the consequences, impacts, and conditions of integrating them. Here, we review the different forms of crop–livestock integration beyond the farm level, their potential benefits, and the features of decision support systems (DSS) needed for the integration process.We identify three forms of crop–livestock integration beyond the farm level: local coexistence, complementarity, and synergy, each with increasingly stronger temporal, spatial, and organizational coordination among farms. We claim that the forms of integration implemented define the nature, area, and spatial configuration of crops, grasslands, and animals in farms and landscapes. In turn, these configurations influence the provision of ecosystem services. For instance, we show that the synergy form of integration promotes soil fertility, erosion control, and field-level biological regulation services through organizational coordination among farmers and spatiotemporal integration between crops, grasslands, and animals. We found that social benefits of the synergy form of integration include collective empowerment of farmers. We claim that design of the complementarity and synergy forms of crop–livestock integration can best be supported by collective participatory workshops involving farmers, agricultural consultants, and researchers. In these workshops, spatialized simulation modeling of crop–livestock integration among farms is the basis for achieving the upscaling process involved in integrating beyond the farm level. Facilitators of these workshops have to pay attention to the consequences on governance and equity issues within farmers groups.