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Hundertwasser - Inspiration for Environmental Ethics: Reformulating the Ecological Self


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This article analyses and interprets the works of Friedensreich Hundertwasser (1928–2000) as a source of inspiration for environmental ethics and offers an extended model of the Ecological Self based on an interpretation of his works. Hundertwasser was a prominent Jewish-Austrian artist and environmental activist, yet despite his commitment to environmental issues, he has not received the attention he deserves from the environmental ethics community. His works and writings suggest a critique and reformulation of the well-known concept of the Ecological Self. This concept implies that humans are essentially embedded in the natural world -that the Self is porous and open rather than disengaged and atomistic. This article suggests an alternative, holistic and extended version of this concept. It assesses and incorporates additional layers found between humans and nature -clothing, architecture, urban environments, and social and political environments.
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Hundertwasser – Inspiration for Environmental Ethics:
Reformulating the Ecological Self
Nir Barak
I respect the copyright and therefore this is a pre-print. The version of record of this manuscript
has been published and is available in the Environmental Values journal. Available online at:
To cite this article:
Barak Nir (2017) “Hundertwasser – Inspiration for Environmental Ethics: Reformulating the
Ecological-Self”, Environmental Values 26(3): 317-342.
doi: 10.3197/096327117X14913285800689
Hundertwasser – Inspiration for Environmental Ethics: Reformulation the Ecological Self
Nir Barak
This article analyses and interprets the works of Friedensreich Hundertwasser (1928–2000) as a
source of inspiration for environmental ethics and offers an extended model of the Ecological Self
based on an interpretation of his works. Hundertwasser was a prominent Jewish-Austrian artist
and environmental activist, yet despite his commitment to environmental issues, he has not
received the attention he deserves from the environmental ethics community. His works and
writings suggest a critique and reformulation of the well-known concept of the Ecological Self.
This concept implies that humans are essentially embedded in the natural world – that the Self is
porous and open rather than disengaged and atomistic. This article suggests an alternative, holistic
and extended version of this concept. It assesses and incorporates additional layers found between
humans and nature clothing, architecture, urban environments, and social and political
Keywords: Ecological Self, environmental ethics, environmental political theory, urbanism,
This article examines the relevance of the work and thought of Friedensreich
Hundertwasser (1928–2000) to environmental ethics and philosophy. A prominent Jewish-
Austrian artist and environmental activist, Hundertwasser attracted international acclaim during
his lifetime. Yet, despite his commitment to environmental concerns, he is generally overlooked
by environmental ethicists and philosophers. In his written and visual language, Hundertwasser is
neither an academic philosopher nor an environmental theorist; rather, his work is akin to
Skolimowski’s (1992) notion of a ‘living philosophy’ or Hadot’s (2004) ‘philosophy as a way of
life’. As an artist-philosopher, Hundertwasser’s thinking is not purely theoretical, but distinguished
by a clarity and sensitivity to the complex relationship between the human and non-human worlds.
Although many people know Hundertwasser through his art, he is still unrecognised in the
environmental ethics field. This article offers a brief biographical sketch and thematic summary
and proceeds to an analysis of Hundertwasser’s work, with reference to the concept of the
Ecological Self. The concept is then expanded to incorporate ideas pertaining to urban
environmental ethics and philosophy.
There are several points to note before starting out. The corpus of Hundertwasser’s writing
includes diaries, exhibition catalogues, manifestos, letters and articles, which he revised and
translated. Hundertwasser’s writing was published in several languages,
mostly in the form of
exhibition catalogues and art books, and sometimes several versions were published under the
same title, with slight changes.
My second point concerns Hundertwasser’s style. Sometimes prophetic, at other times
cynical, his writing is invariably critical and provocative, as the following quote shows: ‘The
architect acts like a criminal of war … He is building cancerous structures in concrete which are
killing nature and man within’.
The ‘criminal’ referred to here is Austrian architect Adolph Loos
(1870–1933), whose 1910 manifesto of modernist architecture, Ornament and Crime (Loos 1998)
advocated sterile facades and symmetrical shapes which Hundertwasser opposed. Had a
philosopher expressed herself in this manner, we would baulk at their generalised accusation and
disregard of social and political realities. When an artist uses provocative language and
performance art to draw attention to their ideas, we entertain the possibility that they may have
something legitimate to say.
The third point concerns methodology. This article is based on philosophical and
interpretive analyses garnered over a three month period at the Hundertwasser Archive in Vienna,
researching primary sources.
The analysis is supported by semi-structured interviews conducted
with residents of the Hundertwasserhaus in Vienna and workers of the KunstHausWien
(Hundertwasser Museum). Lastly, interviews with Hundertwasser’s friends and staff of the
Hundertwasser Archive yielded additional invaluable information.
Biographical Sketch
Hundertwasser, whose birth name was Friedrich Stowasser, was born in Vienna in 1928 to
a Catholic father and Jewish mother. After his father died in 1929, his mother raised him alone.
Following the Anschluss in 1938, he and his mother were forced to leave their home and share an
apartment with his aunt and grandmother. He was baptised a Catholic in 1935 and joined the Hitler
Youth. These acts saved his own and his mother’s life; his grandmother, aunt and remaining Jewish
Hundertwasser wrote in German, French, and English. He personally translated or approved almost all the English
versions of his work, thus keeping authorial intention intact.
The book Schöne Wege (Schurian 1983) is an exception in that it combines all his important work in one volume.
An expanded edition of the same title was published by Langen-Müller Verlag (Schurian 2004).
Hundertwasser (1980b).
Materials from the Hundertwasser Archive are given in the list of references and cited in the notes.
relatives were deported to the death camps. Those childhood experiences deeply affected his ideas,
writing and ecological consciousness.
Hundertwasser’s artistic journey began in 1948 at the Viennese Academy of Fine Arts,
which he left after three months to embark on extensive travels throughout Europe and Africa
(Rand 2007: 11). Thereafter, Hundertwasser’s art focused on quotidian life and propounded an
alternative lifestyle and the place of nature in it, as elaborated in the examples below (see e.g.
Hundertwasser 2008a). His style was colourful and spontaneous. The one consistent feature in his
work was a loathing for straight lines and right angles, which he saw as inorganic and pathogenic,
associating them and geometric rationality with instrumental functionality in human and non-
human life. His oeuvre gradually developed from painting to applied art, with accompanying
manifestos and architectural conceptions bursting with ideas about nature and reflections on the
interrelationship between humans and the natural world.
While initially involved in artistic projects, Hundertwasser exploited his international
recognition to raise ecological awareness through his art. From the mid 1970s onwards,
Hundertwasser was involved in various environmental campaigns, from local (Viennese)
initiatives such as Mehr Grün (‘more green’)
to European and international conservation projects
and anti-nuclear campaigns. The posters and paintings that he contributed were admired for their
vitality and resonant catchphrases – such as ‘You are a guest of Nature – Behave!– and their sales
profited the various organisations he produced them for.
Hundertwasser sought to raise ecological awareness through his architectural projects,
which embodied his vision of an alternative urban environment. Bruno Kreisky, Austria’s federal
chancellor from 1970 to 1983, and Leopold Gratz, mayor of Vienna between 1973 and 1984,
supported his vision and granted him the opportunity to realise his architectural-ecological ideas
This biographical note is often overlooked when interpreting Hundertwasser’s art, though it is clearly key to
understanding his work. His first paintings of nature appeared during the war years, and one may speculate that
because he was living in fear, he felt more comfortable in the Wienerwald (Vienna Woods) than in the city. While
these experiences were only documented in a single archived interview (1 January 1995) they are implicitly present
in his paintings and some written manifestos (see Hundertwasser 2008b). He also discussed these issues in his diary
from 1943 to 1946, and in letters to his mother, Elsa Stowasser. These letters were only recently discovered, and are
still archived and unpublished. In relation to questions of environmental ethics and the Holocaust, see Katz (2015).
See e.g. Hundertwasser (1953b, 1974).
For examples of his work, see:
See Hundertwasser (1980a).
For detailed examples, see Hundertwasser (1974–1998).
for residential construction in Vienna.
The ensuing Hundertwasserhaus was far friendlier to its
residents and more responsive to nature than other styles of building.
Helmut Zilk (mayor of
Vienna from 1984 to 1994) commissioned Hundertwasser to redesign the Spittelau waste
incinerator, which he transformed from a functional industrial building into a monumental work
of art.
Hundertwasser died at sea in 2000 and, following his specific instructions, was given an
ecological burial under a tulip tree in the Garden of the Happy Dead on land that he owned in New
The present study seeks to incorporate some of Hundertwasser’s ideas into contemporary
environmental ethics thinking. As an environmentalist, Hundertwasser can be linked with Deep
Ecology: his art and writing honour the intrinsic value of nature, human interconnectedness and
interdependence with nature, and holism and human embeddedness in nature. But this does not
mean we should read him as an environmental philosopher. Philosophers and artists have different
sensitivities, and although they both interpret reality, the former are committed to coherent and
explicit arguments while the latter are committed to creative, often implicit expressions of their
reflections. What follows here is a philosophical interpretation focusing mainly on the Ecological
Self as it appears in Hundertwasser’s work, rather than an examination of Hundertwassers
thinking as an environmental philosopher. In other words, the following is not an attempt to
establish a ‘Hundertwasserian’ environmental philosophy, but rather to analyse in what ways
Hundertwasser’s work inspires further philosophical reflection.
The Five-Skinned Socio-Ecological Self
The Ecological Self is one of the main concepts in environmental ethics. It is an abstract
idea describing an awareness of what is normally termed the (narrow) ego. The idea of the
Ecological Self expands the boundaries of the egoistic self to include nature as an integral part of
Kreisky supported Hundertwasser consistently. For example, Hundertwasser’s ‘world traveling exhibition’ (1975–
1987) toured the world under the official sponsorship of Federal Chancellor Kreisky. Its title, ‘Austria Presents
Hundertwasser to the Continents’, formally designated him Austria’s cultural representative. Additionally, in 1978
Hundertwasser designed an alternative flag for the state of Israel which was accompanied by a ‘peace manifesto
(Hundertwasser 1978). Despite the fact that it may read as politically naïve, Kreisky sent the manifesto to heads of
state in the Middle East.
For a critical evaluation of this project, see Kraftl (2009, 2010).
Some interviewees suggested that Zilk introduced waste separation in Vienna as this was Hundertwasser’s condition
for accepting the Spittelau project.
the human self. The concept is based on a criticism of individualistic or atomistic conceptions of
the self and proposes an alternative view which embeds humans intrinsically in nature. The idea
was pioneered by Arne Næss (1995), who argued that awareness of our Ecological Self is achieved
in a process of Self-realisation (the capital ‘S’ implying organic wholeness). His idea was taken
further by Mathews, Skolimowski, Devall, Fox and others. For these thinkers, any ontological or
epistemic segregation between humans and nature is a misconception (Devall 1995; Fox 1995;
Mathews 1991; Skolimowski 1992). The critique generally goes like this:
Ecological thinking … requires a kind of vision across boundaries. The epidermis of the
skin is ecologically like a pond surface or a forest soil, not a shell so much as a delicate
interpenetration. It reveals the self ennobled and extended rather than threatened as part of
the landscape and the ecosystem. (Devall 1995: 102)
This critique is fairly close to the communitarian critique of the ‘liberal self’, which argues
that humans are defined by their communal bonds and are not self-sufficient (Sandel 1984; Taylor
1985, 1992). The alternative communitarian conception of the self argues that individuals are
embodied agents in a community (or different communities), which greatly influences their
identity, culture, values and conceptions of the good.
The thread this view shares with the Deep
Ecology critique is that atomistic conceptions of the self are limited, and the self should be seen
from another perspective. For a Deep Ecologist, the self is essentially embedded in the natural
world; for a communitarian, it is embedded in the social world. I argue that a careful interpretation
of Hundertwasser offers a third perspective, which includes and extends these views.
For an overview of the debate between liberals and communitarians (or more precisely individualism and
communitarianism), see Avineri and de Shalit (1992) and Bell (1993).
Figure 1. Friedensreich Hundertwasser, The Five Skins of Man, 1998. Ink on paper, 29.7 cm x 20.9 cm.
Image © 2017 NAMIDA AG, Glarus, Switzerland. For further elaboration, see Restany (2013) and Restany and
Hundertwasser (2001).
Hundertwasser’s The Five Skins of Man (Figure 1) presents his view of the human being
as an essentially embedded self with five ‘skins’. The model describes a scheme of creative
engagement and interaction between the self and the natural and social worlds. Accordingly, the
‘skins’ of the self extend through the individual’s epidermis (first skin), clothes (second skin),
house and architecture (third skin), the social environment of identity, such as family, groups,
communities, cities, nations, traditions, heritage and so forth (fourth skin), and the Earth (fifth
skin), which includes all non-human beings and ecosystems. Like Næss’s concept of Self-
realisation, the five skins involve interplay in the extension of the self to produce a comprehensive
model comprised of a five-skinned socio-ecological self. The next sections analyse each skin, the
breadth of the model and its critique of the Ecological Self, as well as its potentialities.
First Skin: The Creative Self
Hundertwasser has described the first skin in different ways. In 1981 he stated: ‘When everyone
is quite naturally and simply creative, a paradise, a kingdom is right there where he is’.
In an
earlier piece, he wrote:
Freedom without happiness is no freedom. Man can’t be happy without independent,
creative activity. … Individual happiness is based on individual differences, on distinctive
traits in people … Only he who is conscious of himself, only he who takes the time to get
[to] know himself, only he can free himself.
To paraphrase: humans are creative, authentic, unique, and free; realising our creative
abilities is paradise on Earth. We all have these capabilities, which are born from our interactions
with the world. Damping creative capacities leads to the ‘new illiteracy’, expressed as social
The lines I trace with my feet on the pavement walking to the museum are more important
than the lines I will find there hanging on the walls inside. And it pleases me enormously to
see that the line I trace is never straight, never confused, but has a reason to be like this in
every tiny part. Beware of the straight line and the drunken line. But above all beware of
the T-squared straight line.
Straight lines and right angles involve standardisation and uniformity; their lack of
creativity epitomises a new illiteracy. Total realisation of the first skin is achieved by fighting such
incompetence through creativity. On the one hand, realising these creative abilities implies
exceptionalness and uniqueness; on the other hand, since it is only one of the five skins, it also
implies modesty and smallness. Modesty and smallness support the legacy of Leopold Kohr (1978,
1986) and E.F. Schumacher (1973): opposition to the cult of bigness while embracing scale and
smallness. This view does not require self-effacement but a sense of scale and proportion, mostly
Hundertwasser (1981).
Hundertwasser (1966).
See Hundertwasser (1953a, 1954).
Hundertwasser (1953b). The ‘drunk line refers to surrealism, one of the most powerful avant-garde aesthetic
movements from the 1920s to the 1960s. Surrealism enthusiastically embraced Freud’s theory of dreams and the
unconscious. They mixed their aesthetic agenda with a radical political agenda in which the realm of dreams and the
unconscious coincided with beauty (aesthetics) and (political) freedom. Hundertwasser rejected these ideas because
his commitment was to quotidian life and ‘paradise on Earth’.
in our self-conceptions and the human being’s place in the social and natural world. This view also
applies to lifestyle, values, aspirations and goals, and urges humans not to be arrogant in their
hopes but to think first and then (hopefully) limit themselves.
This skin is associated with the liberal, individualistic self: it is free (positively and
negatively), autonomous and infinitely creative.
But, the individualistic conception of the self
also implies a fully enclosed self, wholly distinct from the outer natural and social worlds, and
applying instrumental reason to those worlds in an atomistic construal of society as constituted by
individual purpose (Taylor 1992, 1995). The communitarian and Deep Ecology critique and my
own interpretive analysis here raise the atomistic barrier by proposing that other components are
essential extensions of the self while retaining a commitment to personal autonomy.
Second Skin: Clothes, Authenticity, Socio-Political Critique
‘I am against conformism, against fashion, which changes every year’, Hundertwasser claimed.
That was not so in former times. Fashion has only existed for about a hundred years; until
then there was just clothing … That clothing is supposed to be symmetrical is one of those
misconceptions of our typified society. … The fashion mafia is actually just as bad, if not
worse, than the mafia of modern art … Clothing must become art again and stop being just
There are two ideas here. First, clothes are not only functional, but symbolic extensions of
the first skin – an expressive and essential part of the self. The idea that fashion is inauthentic is
linked to the creative and free existence associated with the first skin. The second idea is a socio-
economic-ecological critique of the social role of fashion that can also be ascribed to the second
skin. In this role, fashion dictates the latest trends not only in clothes but in all personal consumer
goods. This motivates consumption and causes psychological discomfort, say, over not owning the
latest iPhone. A critique of constantly changing fashion thus challenges consumerism and the
social construction of needs, echoing the political ideologies of radical ecology. Dobson argued
that ecologism as a political ideology calls for a critical assessment of current values, radical
For a comprehensive analysis of the significance of creativity for liberalism and the liberal conception of the self,
see Avnon and de Shalit (1999).
Hundertwasser (1982b). The ‘mafia of modern artis not modern art per se, but the art industry that develops around
it, where some styles are à la mode.
changes in our political and social lives, and above all changes in contemporary consumption and
production patterns (Dobson 2007: 1–9). Thus, the second skin’s authenticity and Hundertwasser’s
critique of the transience of fashion share the same starting point as the socio-political critique of
ecologism. These ideas also endorse the idea of ‘simple living’, which is prevalent in Deep
Third Skin: Built Environments, Holism, Interconnectedness, Interdependence
It could be argued that the built urban environment is not a natural locus for realising our
ecological selves. Yet, as urban populations grow (half the world currently lives in cities), urban
growth needs more scholarly focus. Some authors see this as a blind spot in environmental ethics
and argue that it is linked to a strong anti-urban bias in environmental philosophy.
In short, this
bias conceives urban life as morally inferior to life lived closer to nature.
It may be argued that this bias is not as dominant as it once was and no longer constitutes
a ‘blind spot’. Its significance should not, however, be understated by proponents of Deep Ecology.
The tendency to focus on ‘classical’ environmental concerns, such as wilderness conservation,
yields impressive metaphysical or ontological arguments regarding the value of nature or the
essential relationship between humans and nature. However, it leaves us without an ethical,
philosophical and political framework by which to reflect on the interaction with the artificial
world. Moreover, it relinquishes ‘brown’ areas of the world – including their inhabitants. This is
an unsolicited stance, especially since the people who suffer the most from the abuse of nature that
non-anthropocentrism opposes – are frequently disadvantaged populations living in urban areas.
Moreover, failing to bring forward an urban environmental ethic implies renouncing urban spaces
and their relationship with the natural world as purely instrumental valuations. So, in order to
assess how the language and moral sentiments of Deep Ecology may be applied, we should ask:
How can the built environment mediate the expansion of the Ecological Self?
This question has received limited attention. Booth (2008) discussed the need to fill the
urban hole of holistic approaches (Deep Ecology) and overcome the ‘pain and grief’ of urban life.
This idea is extended when she suggests that the built environment ‘offers fertile ground for the
ongoing process of Self-realization’ (ibid.: 84), but she offers no clear idea what this implies or
For some major examples, see Booth (2013), de Shalit (1996, 2003), Gunn (1998), Jamieson (1984), King (2000),
Kirkman (2004) and Light (2001). For an extensive symposium on urban environmental ethics, see Light et al. (2003).
how it may be achieved. In addition to suggesting that we should ditch the wilderness concept
because it conveys a nature/culture dualism, Callicott argues, ‘Chicago is no less a phenomenon
of nature than is the Great Barrier Reef(Callicott 1992: 18; see also Callicott 1991). More recently,
he wrote that cities gain value by ‘the way they integrate or incorporate nature into themselves
(Callicott 2004: 117), and that a city is valuable for its ‘towering oaks … sweet fragrance of nearby
gardenia and … the air-filling chorus of cicadas(ibid.: 117), not for its culture, education, welfare,
human rights and so forth.
This is questionable as it ignores the fact that nature is natural and
cities are artificial. Cities also involve planning, deliberation, premeditation and politics, none of
which are natural. Weak efforts to make cities more natural ignore the more fundamental aspects
of this problem and demand a more complex theory of the Ecological Self in urban areas.
Warwick Fox proposes ethical considerations of the built environment and ‘responsive
cohesion’ criterion as the central or foundational value in numerous ethical issues (Fox 2002,
2006). This is realistic for acknowledging the essential experiential differences between wilderness
and cities, but it fails to explain how the urban experience mediates the expansion of the Ecological
Self. I argue that a careful interpretation of Hundertwasser’s architectural ideas shows the
relationship between architecture (part of the third skin) and Self-realisation.
For similar lines of argumentation, see Stefanovic and Scharper (2011).
Figure 2. Hundertwasserhaus, Vienna, 1977–1986.
Photograph by Kurt Pultar © 2017 Hundertwasser Archive, Vienna. This public housing project was Hundertwasser’s
first significant architectural project. It is located in an ordinary residential neighbourhood in Vienna.
‘The time has come for people to rebel against their confinement in cubical constructions
like chickens or rabbits in cages, a confinement which is alien to human nature The
architect has no relationship to the building The bricklayer has no relationship to the
building … The tenant has no relationship to the structure … Only when architect,
bricklayer and tenant are a unity, or one and the same person, can we speak of architecture’.
Hundertwasserhaus in Vienna (Figure 2) and other urban Hundertwasser dwellings
represent three-dimensional manifestos of Self-realisation in urban areas that elicit ongoing
interaction between the resident, the building and the surrounding urban environment. According
to Hundertwasser, a person’s house should be a unique creation, like the second skin – functional
but expressive, relating to its (inner) habitants and (outer urban) surroundings. With
Hundertwasser (1958).
Hundertwasserhaus, the building’s aesthetic qualities project these values alongside symbols of
holism, interconnectedness and interdependence with nature in an urban setting.
First then, let us consider how the third skin behaves holistically. Regarding houses and
buildings, Hundertwasser wrote, ‘Some people say houses consist of walls. I say houses consist of
This is revealing. Walls segregate and windows break down that segregation; walls
impose opposition, windows break opposition. But, alongside his view of windows,
Hundertwasser criticises what he terms ‘window dictatorship’: the uniformity and physical
symmetry in popular window construction. ‘Window rights’, as Hundertwasser called them, grant
individuals the ability to work with the capacity of windows to break dualistic splits between inner
and outer realities, and to achieve aesthetic pluralism by resisting their uniformity.
Figure 3. An example of ‘window rights’, Vienna, 1972.
Image © 2017 Hundertwasser Archive, Vienna.
‘You must yourself become the author of your ([urban]) environment. You cannot wait for
a permit or an authority. Not only your clothes and your rooms, but the face of the building
in which you live belong to you’.
The focus hereafter is mostly on interaction between the building and nature. For an extensive analysis of the social
functioning of the building, see Kraftl (2009, 2010).
Hundertwasser (1990).
Hundertwasser (1972).
Figure 4. An example of ‘window rights’, Bülach, Switzerland, 1972.
Image © 2017 Hundertwasser Archive, Vienna.
‘The apartment-house tenant must have the freedom to lean out of his window and as far as
his arms can reach transform the exterior of his dwelling space. And he must be allowed to
take a long brush and – as far as his arms can reach – paint everything pink, so that from far
away, from the street, everyone can see: there lives a man who distinguishes himself from
his neighbours, the pent-up livestock!’.
The practice of window rights is a symbolic act of engagement, representing people’s
embeddedness in society and nature. When someone leans out of the window and creatively
expresses themselves, they are interacting with their street, buildings and neighbourhood residents;
they also symbolically interact with the city and surrounding nature. This shows themselves as
they are, thus inviting further interaction. In doing this, they ‘leave’ part of themselves outside and
simultaneously lets some of the outside in. This is a meaningful, holistic interaction. Unlike the
dualistic in/out schism, the practice of window rights changes the house/environment dyad leading
to an ecological and holistic realisation that the house does not exist in isolation, but interacts with
the world. Thus, the window is more than a hole in the wall: it is a gate through which messages
can be sent and through which others may return. It implies openness to the world and symbolises
ongoing interaction and engagement with it. The very evident barriers that precede the exercise of
window rights now disappear and relax. In this process, the individual appropriates their third skin
and moves forward and outward towards the fourth: the social and political skin.
So far, this recognises the tremendous creative power of the individual. Note though that
this power is only motivated and constituted by constant engagement. With window rights, the
Hundertwasser (1958).
result of this engagement is a colourful and pluralistic street (see Figure 2). But it might not always
be welcome. What if your neighbour’s ‘creativity’ looks dreadful? Since window rights are defined
in terms of positive liberty, their ‘complementary limitations’ are in the spirit of negative liberty:
‘man has a particular claim to his architectural outer skin. With one condition: neither the
neighbours of those implementing modifications nor the stability of the house may suffer as a
Thus, exercising window rights grants neighbours control and the right to demand the
undoing of alterations they dislike. Exercising these rights can also be a catalyst for social
interaction and shared goals, or even a common theme or spirit in a building or neighbourhood.
For the moment, though, these social ideas remain theoretical and people cannot actualise
Hundertwasser’s concept of window rights.
Let us now examine the interconnectedness, modesty and interdependence of the third skin,
and how it redefines relations between urban space and nature. In recent years we have seen a
growing trend towards ‘green roofs’, roof gardening and urban agriculture, practices dating back
to the hanging gardens of Babylon, traditional European farmhouses and vernacular architecture.
However, the size and scale of the phenomenon, sponsored and promoted by municipalities such
as Chicago, Toronto, Copenhagen, Munich, Portland and Singapore, far exceeds that of the past.
To encourage this trend, cities emphasise the utilitarian value of the practice: effective storm-water
reduced urban ‘heat island effect’, better insulation (and thus far lower air-
conditioning costs) and air quality, and roofs which last two to three times longer and beautify the
These rationales for encouraging green roofs are without exception utilitarian and
instrumental. Highlighting this line of reasoning is not a critique since there is nothing glamorous
about a policy that is ineffective or a practice that leads to undesired results. However, in order to
argue that the language of Deep Ecology can reverberate in urban spaces and that Self-realisation
Hundertwasser (1968). In this manifesto, Hundertwasser advocated a law that would give people building alteration
rights (the practice of window rights). In most cities, one cannot change the façade of a building, and municipalities
control what people can and cannot change. Hundertwasser sought a legal solution to this problem. For those interested
in the subject, correspondence on it can be found in Hundertwasser (1985: 104–108). Note that in Hundertwasser’s
buildings, tenants have the contractual right to alter the building’s interior and exterior design.
Storm-water runoff is a major cause of overflowing sewers, flooding, pollution and land erosion.
These benefits appear on the website of the Chicago Green Roof Initiative and in most municipal project
descriptions. See:
/green_roofs_bestman agementpractices.html.
is achievable via the third skin, we also have to justify such projects on non-instrumental grounds.
The quotations below offers a more fundamental basis for urban–nature considerations:
horizontal under the sky belongs to vegetation, and man can only claim for himself what is
vertical. In other words, this means: FREE NATURE MUST GROW WHEREVER SNOW FALLS IN
All that is white in winter must be green in summer … Woods shall grow on streets and
roofs. One must again be able to breathe woodland air in the cities.
Besides the utilitarian and instrumental benefits of green roofs, they can be justified on the
basis of the normative-distributive principle of sharing ‘(urban) land’. The idea of ‘belonging’ to
nature or human beings does not mean ownership. Rather, it concerns the reciprocal and
interdependent link between the human and non-human worlds by interpreting them from an urban
perspective that redefines our conception of urban space. Problems such as population density,
high-rises and urban infrastructure can all respect nature if it is restored horizontally.
Acknowledging vertical building as humanity’s place in the world (which not everyone believes
needs justification) is a counter-argument to misanthropic self-effacing trends, mistaken at times
for non-anthropocentrism. Restoring nature to cities horizontally, across rooftops, leaves the vast
vertical realm for human creativity and self-expression (facades and window rights).
Not that buildings and cities can be placed anywhere. Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater
was built in a forest over a waterfall and exemplifies an aggressive break from this principle.
Though romantically cherished and praised for capturing the essence of its surroundings, building
this house, which belongs in an urban landscape, caused unjustified destruction to nature. The
same applies to ‘ruralism’ and sprawl: saturated infrastructure for small populations, despite a
romantic attachment to ‘the land’, does more harm than good. As Glaeser argues, albeit from
another perspective, ‘if you love nature, stay away from it(Glaeser 2011: 201). The internal logic
of urbanism is thus more ecological and respectful of nature and the wilderness. The
Hundertwasser (1971), emphasis in original.
Hundertwasser (1972).
This assertion must not be taken at face value as it does not refer to physical-environmental aspects of cities, although
studies show that vegetation in cities yields encouraging results. Rather, it is a philosophical and ethical notion.
Designed and built between 1935 and 1937, Fallingwater is located in south-west Pennsylvania. See:
horizontal/vertical principle offers people a modest framework with which to cultivate a vital sense
of interconnectedness with nature in the city.
Cultivating ‘vertical green’ is another global tendency. Boston ivy and other climbing
plants are often used to cover buildings and, like green roofs, ‘green walls’ are getting attention in
contemporary urban practices, mostly for decoration but also to insulate and combat pollution.
Like green roofs, a solely instrumental view of vertical green diverges from the reasoning
presented here. Take Hundertwasserhaus’s ‘tree tenants’, for example (see Figure 5). They are not
just trees planted in urban areas but trees that actually live in an apartment building and are integral
to its facade. Planting flowers the traditional way at the base of a vertical facade is one thing;
planting trees around the building is somewhat different, mostly because of the space required.
The horizontal/vertical principle sees the vertical as the human domain, so that making space for
tree tenants who occupy part of the vertical domain becomes a practical, symbolic act implying
care and concern for nature. Normally, people plant flowers for aesthetic reasons; climbing plants
have aesthetic and instrumental purposes. However, planting trees as part of the facade of a
building says something different. Hundertwasser wrote, ‘A tree tenant is an ambassador of the
Ambassadors are representatives either sent or invited to represent a particular party’s
interests. Viewed thus, tree tenants represent both the interests of non-humans while silently
reminding us of the reciprocity between humans and nature.
The above examples demonstrate how it is possible to express the essential human
embeddedness in nature symbolically in urban spaces. In these examples, the relationships
between nature and society are conceptualised in terms of holism, interconnectedness and
interdependence. This is not an obvious locus for this type of Self-realisation. Discussions about
integrating nature into urban areas are generally about open spaces, parks and recreational
facilities; my own analysis has deliberately focused on dwellings since building density is the most
obvious marker of urban areas and the most quotidian aspect of city life.
In terms of the five-skinned Socio-Ecological Self, our analysis here has focused primarily
on the third skin. I propose that the process of extension and Self-realisation of the five-skinned
self calls for an openness to and engagement with the world. However, this process of extension
does not end with the third skin, that of architecture; it continues on to the fourth, the social and
political skin.
Hundertwasser (1973).
Fourth Skin: Social and Political Identity
The fourth skin contains the family, social community, the city and nation, culture and
heritage. It is a fundamental constituent of the self and corresponds to the communitarian self. A
comparison of communitarian critiques of the individualistic conception of the self sheds light on
an overlooked aspect of the Ecological Self. Communitarians argue that humans are embodied
agents embedded in a community (or various communities). This important critique ties in with
the theoretical framework of the fourth skin as it describes a central aspect of social and political
life whose significance is linked to the salience of the local community and cityscape in shaping
identity, culture, values and conceptions of the good.
Figure 5. Tree tenant, window stones, and old facade.
Photograph by Hubert Kluger © 2017 Hundertwasser Archive, Vienna.
Communities come in different sizes and different political units, comprising family,
villages, neighbourhoods, cities, states, bioregions and even virtual communities. The notion of
‘civicism’ captures the essence of the urban communitarian critique, namely that sense of urban
spirit, pride and ethos that is found (and ought to be fostered) in cities. It is an important but often
overlooked source of identity, a form of political membership and a critical response to
globalisation and nationalisation problems (Bell and de Shalit 2011). Another interesting
framework which ties in with this is Martina Löw’s theoretical project concerning ‘the intrinsic
logic of cities(Berking and Löw 2008; Löw 2012). Löw’s thinking is overlaps somewhat with the
urban ethos idea in arguing that besides being a completely distinct form of association (compared
to the state, say), cities also ‘behave’ differently because of their hidden structure, which she calls
their ‘intrinsic logic’. Different cities thus have similar problems, but how these problems are
interpreted and the methods and legislation used to address them varies according the intrinsic
logic of each city. Löw identifies five structural types that make up this intrinsic logic, one of
which is spatial structure (Löw 2012: 311–312). She also stresses the experiential sides of
producing shared meaning (or, to use Bell and de Shalit’s term, civicism), which collectively form
the fourth skin of an urbanite (Löw 2013).
“In Hundertwasserhaus, civicism is expressed through different elements of the spirit of
Vienna as Hundertwasser understood it.
Hundertwasser used recycled bricks which carried the
Habsburg coat of arms, salvaged from demolished buildings in Vienna (Hundertwasser 1997:
Looking at Figure 5 we notice that every window in the Hundertwasserhaus has a
decorative stone above it; in comparison to Hundertwasser’s 1943 drawing (e.g. Figure 6), we find
that these stones are part of Vienna’s cultural heritage. Parts of the old facade of the building are
reconstructed, so ‘the spirits of the old house could live in the new one(ibid.: 197). The ‘onion
domes on top of Hundertwasserhaus (Figure 2) are part of Vienna’s architectural history (cf. the
‘oniondome in Figure 6).
Hundertwasser was a proud citizen of Vienna, where he built his three dimensional manifestos. His most important
works are still exhibited in the KunstHausWien. See also Kreisky's letter to mayor Gratz expressing Hundertwasser's
civicism. In: (Hundertwasser 1997, 180)
The bricks are also unique for reasons that Hundertwasser was probably unaware of. The coat of arms on them
implies that they were manufactured before 1918 (the date of the collapse of the Habsburg dynasty) and possibly in
the late nineteenth century. Bricks were then produced locally rather than imported, made in factories between the
Wienerberg and the Wienfluss. Brick manufacture in this area dates back to Roman times, and during the massive
reconstruction of Vienna during the reign of Franz Joseph, bricks were made by Bohemian and Moravian workers.
This fact and the factories’ location mean that the bricks are the product of Vienna’s soil. Since Hundertwasserhaus
was built using these bricks, it symbolically and materially internalises Vienna.
Figure 6: Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Gateway of the Heiligenkreuzerhof, 1943. Pencil and watercolour on paper,
20 cm x 15 cm.
Image © 2017 NAMIDA AG, Glarus, Switzerland.
Architectural details thus have symbolic meaning. They capture the spirit of Vienna and
its intrinsic logic. How far they successfully frame Vienna’s spirit is debatable; what is important
is that civicism is integral to the five-skinned urban Socio-Ecological Self. The examples here
pertain mostly to symbolic interaction between the third and fourth skin. However, we should also
consider that in addition to the architectural expression of civicism, the spirit of the city included
in the fourth skin not only embraces the city’s cultural symbols but, even more significantly, its
ability to foster a sense of community, values and conceptions of the good.”
Fifth Skin: Nature and the Non-Human World
The fifth skin is the Earth. Hundertwasser wrote: ‘We must make a peace treaty with nature
… We are guests of nature and we must behave’.
Here we see humanity in the world, absorbed
and active, and the self as part of a cycle in the world. This understanding, Taylor argues, is: ‘[t]he
Hundertwasser (1982a).
notion that sharing a mutually sustaining life system with other creatures creates a bond: a kind of
solidarity which is there in the process of life. To be in tune with life is to acknowledge this
solidarity(Taylor 1992: 384).
The Earth skin is the final stage of Self-realisation and returns us to Deep Ecology and the
Ecological Self discussed above. It parallels the Ecological Self of Næss, Mathews, Fox, Devall
and others, and needs no further elaboration. We now turn to a discussion of the comprehensive
character of the five-skinned Socio-Ecological Self, comparing it to the original Deep Ecological
Reformulating the Ecological Self
The five-skinned Socio-Ecological Self is a comprehensive concentric model where each
skin’s components extend to the whole. The first skin is the bare individual, whose main
characteristic is creative ability. The second skin concerns the self’s needs and wants, and
introduces the basis for socio-political critique of consumption, production and lifestyle. The third
skin is where dwelling on Earth begins. It incorporates the first two skins and adds spatial elements.
Earlier, we analysed the spatio-symbolic expressions of holism, interconnectedness and
interdependence within the urban environment. The first three skins extend to the fourth skin, the
social and political embodiment of the self. This skin embraces identity, community, distribution
and conceptions of the good. The fifth skin is nature and (always) relates back to the social and
political load of the first four skins. This, and the stress on urban environments as essential
constituents of Self-realisation, is where Hundertwasser’s model and the Ecological Self model
most sharply diverge.
The place where Næss believed paradigmatic Self-realisation (and thus extension) could
be achieved was Tvergastein, a mountain hut in Norway’s Hallingskarvet massif. It was there that
Næss took inspiration and developed his philosophy Ecosophy T.
Being ‘part of myself’, the idea of home delimited an ecological self, rich in internal
relations to what is now called environment. But humanity today suffers from a place-
corrosive process. Urbanization, centralization, increased mobility … weaken or disrupt the
steady belongingness to a place … There seems to be no place for PLACE anymore. (Næss
2008: 45, original emphasis)
For an interesting analysis of the relationship between Næss the person, his philosophy and his dwelling, see Anker
A brief comparison of the five-skinned self with the Ecological Self of Næss and other
theorists raises an interesting point. For Næss, the Ecological Self extends directly from the first
to the fifth skin, and, in a sense, he ‘accuses’ the other skins of ‘disrupting’ the Self-realisation
The focus of the Ecological Self on the direct relationships between humans and nature
is important for reassessing the values attributed to nature and for providing the moral grounds for
environment-friendly attitudes. The five-skinned model emphasises all the mediated relationships
between humans and nature as possible loci for Self-realisation and as crucial for environmental
action. In other words, by accepting the suggested five-skinned model, our present analysis accepts
our embedment in the fifth skin, although it does not arise automatically from the first skin. Urban
architecture, social and political surroundings and commodities are dialectical: on the one hand
they may lead to discomfort and alienation and be rejected as morally inferior to life closer to the
wilderness; on the other hand, they have critical potentialities if we see them as integral
components of the self that can mediate its extension.
Two brief examples convey this idea best.
In the paintings Paradise and Irinaland (Figures 7 and 8), humans are embedded in the
world of nature, which also contains humans, technology and cities. In Paradise, humanity is
within and not detached from nature. Nature is represented by trees and birds; technology is
represented by ships. People learn to see the world with all its skins through Self-realisation. In
Irinaland, the expansion of the self from the first to the fifth skin is mediated by the city, and the
city is a significant locus of that Self-realisation. Instead of expressing reservations regarding
urban space, this article conversely argues that humans are extended and realised in all their skins
through creative engagement in and with the world. Of course this does not deny the discomforts
of urbanism or argue that we should give up the urban. On the contrary,
acknowledging urban
space as an intellectual and public arena which constantly reflects human values is an essential
part of the Self-realisation process which upholds the urban environment as the most significant
locus of (socio-political-environmental) action.
Cf. Dryzek’s distinction between ‘green consciousnessand ‘green politicsin his analysis of green radicalism
(Dryzek 2005: 181–228).
Eckersley developed the approach of critical political ecology, involving ‘critically questioning the values and norms
that are internal rather than external to existing understandings and practices; exposing unfulfilled emancipatory
promises and opportunities; unmasking tensions, contradictions and hidden forms of coercion within and/or between
ideas and practices; and exploring what historically possible changes in thought and practice might permit, facilitate
and/or enhance emancipation and enlightenment(Eckersley 2004: 8).
Holmes Rolston III admits that ‘The city is in some sense our niche; we belong there, and no one can achieve full
humanity without it(Rolston 1994: 1213).
Figure 7. René Brô and Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Paradise – Land of Man, Birds and Ships, 1950. Mural in
distemper, 275 cm x 500 cm.
Image © 2017 NAMIDA AG, Glarus, Switzerland.
Figure 8. Friedensreich Hundertwasser, Irinaland over the Balkans, 1969.
Mixed media on cardboard, 36.5 cm x51 cm.
Image © 2017 NAMIDA AG, Glarus, Switzerland.
The direct experience of nature proposed by Deep Ecology is tremendously important and
probably has no substitute in human experience. However, since most people live in cities or have
only limited direct contact with wild nature, we must take the concept of Self-realisation and its
underlying ideas seriously. This means recognising that Self-realisation is an ongoing process
rather than a from of instant enlightenment, and is therefore inseparable from quotidian life and
practices. In addition, it implies that our quotidian interaction with nature is constantly mediated
by our commodities, architecture, urban realities and, mostly, our social and political realities. The
model of the five-skinned Socio-Ecological Self can help us reflect on and practice an alternative,
more ecological lifestyle in all areas of life, and not just in our rare, direct experiences of wild
These reflections on the Deep Ecological notion of the Ecological Self and Self-realisation
should be read as a critical endorsement with reservations. On the one hand, the concept is
criticised for suggesting a direct extension from the first to the fifth skin, while on the other, the
core of the concept that humans are essentially embedded in nature, and the moral sentiment it
espouses, that nature ought to be valued in a non-instrumental manner, are upheld. The suggested
alternative refines and exemplifies the idea that even in our quotidian life we constantly interact
with Nature, though this interaction is mediated by other layers or skins. This critique should be
understood as a critical endorsement in that it seeks to defend Deep Ecology from possible critique,
according to which it is irrelevant to the challenge of urban sustainability, which is probably one
of the greatest contemporary challenges.
In summary, this article had two goals. First, to introduce Hundertwasser to the
Environmental Values community since most biographers examine him only from an aesthetic
standpoint. Given this lacuna, further research on Hundertwasser’s vision of the ‘green city’ and
environmental literacy through art and artists would be rewarding. The article’s second goal was
to reassess the Ecological Self by reinterpreting aspects of Hundertwasser’s work. This raises three
suggestions for further research. The first is a need to widen the model of the five-skinned Socio-
Ecological Self to include human needs, human rights and the complete range of ecologically
relevant social and political considerations. The second concerns the urban blind spot. Much work
has been done in this field and there are models of sustainable urbanism, green urbanism,
ecological urbanism and so on. Though important, these models are based on current trends in
urbanism those very trends that turn environmental ethicists’ off urbanism. In this sense, the
model of the five-skinned Socio-Ecological Self may represent another alternative, so that instead
of trying to ‘green’ contemporary trends of urbanism, we can try to make environmental
philosophy more relevant to the urban challenge. Lastly, since this model suggests that, especially
in cities, the relationship between humans and nature is constantly mediated, further research in
environmental politics in and of cities would be welcome. Such research could examine the
relationship of this suggested framework with theories of urban political ecology (Heynen et al.
2006), hybrid geographies (Whatmore 2002), ecological architecture (Pickerill 2016) and
environmental justice. For example, how can and how do cities promote socio-environmental
values (and of what type)? And in what ways does this model give rise to ideas of ecological
citizenship in cities?
I thank the city of Vienna and the Center for Austrian Studies at the Hebrew University of
Jerusalem for the research funds that supported this project. I am grateful to the assistance of Doris
Truppe, Joram Harel and especially Andrea C. Fürst of the Hundertwasser Foundation in Vienna.
I also thank Piki Ish-Shalom, Dan Avnon, Martina Löw, Liron Lavi and my friends at the
Environmental and Society research group at Tel Aviv University for their comments on previous
drafts of this article. I am indebted to the ongoing support and encouragement of Avner de Shalit.
Lastly, I thank my editor Marion Hourdequin and the journal’s two anonymous reviewers for their
comments and suggestions.
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This paper accepts Ecologism's basic argument that sustainable existence implies radical change in our relationship with the nonhuman world and in our social and political lives, and seeks to ascertain what ecologism implies for the city. The social and political aspects involved in transitioning a city to sustainable patterns are analyzed by scrutinizing three facets of the relationship between cities and the natural environment. The paper concludes with an analysis of the political and normative implications of these relations and argues that transitioning cities into sustainable patterns requires a more profound civic politics of urban sustainability.
... If, as Leopold (1986, 292) argues, "the weed in a city lot conveys the same lesson as the redwoods," then enhancing city-nature interrelatedness requires learning that "same lesson" as a civic community, and applying this knowledge in our interactions with the city. This type of collective introspection is not limited to greenways, parks, sidewalks, and central plazas, but embraces the city's civic culture and socioenvironmental norms (Barak 2017). ...
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The challenge of creating a green city is enormous. But often, the complex social and political processes that are involved in making a city green are reduced to techno-managerial efforts. These depoliticize a highly political process, often upholding contemporary socio-environmental inequalities that are at the heart of the environmental crisis—and usually an outcome of unsustainable urban patterns. What’s more, this depoliticization tends to limit our acknowledgement of urban environmental ethics in the transition to green cities. Technical and managerial solutions are highly significant, yes, but they do not encompass all the political aspects involved in such a transition. Since a city is primarily a political entity, and not solely a “physical container” that needs improved management, how it transitions to sustainable patterns should also focus on the way that environmental issues are socially and politically framed, and on the values that drive the city’s policies. In addition, a public-civic discussion should assess the city’s contemporary political, social, economic, and cultural practices that may lie behind unsustainable urban patterns or, conversely, be more conducive to environmentally friendly policies.
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Austrian artist Friedensreich Hundertwasser today stands for a veritable example of a man as an accomplished ecological being. The merging of art, architecture, politics, and ecology into one utopian concept oriented towards the future positioned Hundertwasser not only an architectural experimenter but also as a specific visionary of ecological architecture. Throughout his lifetime, Hundertwasser opposed the so-called "mainstream" culture and materialism, which later contributed to his popularity. This popularity is certainly limited just as for those circles of social activists who believed that architecture must possess a "human figure". He was a man who, through art, knowledge of nature and its processes, created a new chapter in various fields, such as painting and design, all the way to architecture and the fight to preserve nature. This paper deals with the contribution of an unconventional artist to architecture and ecology. The introductory discussion approximates the significance of sustainable architecture, while the first part of the paper presents a brief biographical overview of Hundertwasser's character and oeuvre, as well as his understanding of life. The second part of the paper focuses on his views of the importance of ecological identity and the place of architecture in it, while the third part of the paper shows examples of the ideas of sustainable construction and their possible implementation in practice.
The environmental and economic costs of greenery depend on the planning criteria adopted and on the plants used. These costs can become more sustainable and can also be significantly lowered by using native flora and getting inspired by local plant communities. Nature-based solutions entail the use of species that co-occur naturally, thus replicating a model of coexistence consolidated by the evolutionary coherence of the biosphere. Planning, using and (re-)producing – getting inspired by natural ecosystems – may foster the dissemination of ecological awareness, with gardens, avenues, rooftops, walls and balconies seen as spaces available for the urban reconciliation with nature. The Anthosart Green Tool may support these actions, as a freely accessible online tool dedicated to the species belonging to the Italian flora, by recognizing their value as environmental and cultural assets. This tool is designed for those who want to engage in greenery design work using wild species, discover their potentials in terms of ethnobotanical knowledge and seek out information on the species of the flora of Italy.
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Current debates identifying urban population density as a major catalyst for the spread of COVID-19, and the praise for de-densification and urban sprawl that they entail, may have dire environmental consequences. Juxtaposing competing theories about the urban antecedents of COVID-19, our key argument is that urban political attributes overshadow the effects of cities’ spatial characteristics. This is true even when considering levels of compliance with movement restrictions and controlling for demographic and socio-economic conditions. Taking advantage of Israel as a living lab for studying COVID-19, we examine 271 localities during the first 3 months of the outbreak in Israel, a country where over 90% of the population is urban. Rather than density, we find social makeup and politics to have a critical effect. Cities with some types of political minority groups, but not others, exhibit higher infection rates. Compliance has a significant effect and density’s influence on the spread of the disease is contingent on urban political attributes. We conclude with assessing how the relationship between the politics of cities and the spread of contagious diseases sheds new light on tensions between neo-Malthusian sentiments and concerns about urban sprawl and environmental degradation. Keywords: COVID-19, population density, urban sustainability, urban planning, minorities, pandemics
Everyday life practices are one of the focuses of interest for so-called ‘sustainable transitions’. Efforts in making daily life more ecological have ranged from awareness-raising and behaviour change strategies to socio-technical innovations, but have produced limited results so far. In a present characterised by a prolonged and multifaceted crisis it is imperative that, as social scientists, we interrogate the (un)sustainability of everyday practices from a more critical angle, linking them to reflections about capitalism’s ecological destructiveness. One fruitful way of doing so is to interrogate the dimension of subjectivity as a space where collective discourses, practices and desires are embodied in concrete experience and actions. Drawing on ethnographic material on everyday energy use, I suggest that contemporary ways of living certainly contribute to the overall reproduction of capitalism and yet, in the (dis)juncture of the crisis, more sustainable livelihoods can be experimented with and prefigured. Subjectivity is one crucial dimension in which this process unravels.
Cities shape the lives and outlooks of billions of people, yet they have been overshadowed in contemporary political thought by nation-states, identity groups, and concepts like justice and freedom.The Spirit of Citiesrevives the classical idea that a city expresses its own distinctive ethos or values. In the ancient world, Athens was synonymous with democracy and Sparta represented military discipline. In this original and engaging book, Daniel Bell and Avner de-Shalit explore how this classical idea can be applied to today's cities, and they explain why philosophy and the social sciences need to rediscover the spirit of cities. Bell and de-Shalit look at nine modern cities and the prevailing ethos that distinguishes each one. The cities are Jerusalem (religion), Montreal (language), Singapore (nation building), Hong Kong (materialism), Beijing (political power), Oxford (learning), Berlin (tolerance and intolerance), Paris (romance), and New York (ambition). Bell and de-Shalit draw upon the richly varied histories of each city, as well as novels, poems, biographies, tourist guides, architectural landmarks, and the authors' own personal reflections and insights. They show how the ethos of each city is expressed in political, cultural, and economic life, and also how pride in a city's ethos can oppose the homogenizing tendencies of globalization and curb the excesses of nationalism. The Spirit of Citiesis unreservedly impressionistic. Combining strolling and storytelling with cutting-edge theory, the book encourages debate and opens up new avenues of inquiry in philosophy and the social sciences. It is a must-read for lovers of cities everywhere.
Environmental philosophers should look beyond stereotypes to consider American suburbs as an environment worthy of serious philosophical scrutiny for three reasons. First, for better or worse, the suburbs are the environment of primary concern to most Americans, and suburban patterns of development have caught on elsewhere in the industrialized world. Second, the suburbs are much more of a problem than many environmental theorists suppose, in part because suburban patterns of development are entrenched and difficult to change, and in part because they pose an important challenge to the very idea of an environmental ethic. Third, the search for sound policies and practices for metropolitan growth involves two crucial tasks for which philosophers may be particularly well suited: grappling with the ethical complexity of the suburbs, and fostering a robust and nuanced normative debate about the future of the built environment.