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Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
Review Article
Goat Milk in Human Nutrition and Health A Review
Sachin S. Lad1*, K.D. Aparnathi1, Bhavbhuti Mehta1 and Suresh Velpula2
1Dairy Chemistry Department, 2Dairy Engineering Department, SMC College of Dairy Science,
AAU, Anand, India
*Corresponding author
In many countries, goat farming is the
important part from the economy point of the
view; especially in the Mediterranean and
Middle East region. Goat farming is well
organized in France, Italy, Spain and Greece
(Park and Haenlein, 2006). Industrialization
of the goat milk is not well successed because
of its poor and insufficient volume. From
1990, interest in the goat milk production is
increased i.e. 10 million MT (1990) to 15.2
million MT (2008). Though there is increase
in the production of the goat milk, still there
is lack of marketing of this milk (Mahmoud,
2010). Goat milk is one of a neutraceutical
health drink. As goat milk is rich in mineral
and vitamin content and has creamy texture, it
is used as the replacer for number of the
supplements which are people consume daily.
Goat milk is quite better as compared to that
of cow milk because of its easy digestibility.
Composition of goat milk
Different milks have different composition.
Composition of the cow, goat and human
milks are mentioned in table 1. Composition
of these milk are vary according to changes in
diet, individuals, season, breed, species,
feeding managements, environmental
conditions, stage of the lactation, locality and
condition of the udder.
Goat milk differs from cow and human milk
in having better digestibility, buffer capacity,
alkalinity and therapeutic values.
Fat of goat milk have higher physical
properties i.e. surface tension, viscosity and
specific gravity as compared to cow milk
(Park et al., 2007).
International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences
ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 6 Number 5 (2017) pp. 1781-1792
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Goats are earliest domesticated animals. Number of the individuals are
maintained them either as a source of the income or as a hobby. Mostly
goats are maintained as a source of the milk and were milked even before
cows. Goat is also called as “Cow of poor man”. Many scientists focused
on the functional properties of the goat milk along with sheep milk. It is
concluded that, these milks have not only high nutritional value but also
therapeutic value and dietary characteristics.
Ke ywor ds
Goat milk,
Human nutrition
and health
17 April 2017
Available Online:
10 May 2017
Article Info
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
Milk lipid
Fat is up to 99 % glycerides and steroids. The
fat is present in the milk as “oil-in-water”
type of emulsion. Fat globules of goat‟s milk
observed to be similar to that of cow‟s milk in
lipids composition and properties but goat‟s
milk lacks agglutinin (Jenness, 1980). The
average diameter of globules in goat‟s milk is
about 1.5-2 µm compared to 2.5-3.5 µm for
cow‟s milk and the percentage of globules of
less than 1.5µm is 28% for goat‟s milk verses
10% for cow‟s milk (Le Jaouen, 1981 and
Kalantzopoulos, 1993).
Average size of the fat globules are much
smaller in goat milk i.e. about 65% of the fat
globules are < 3 µm as compared to that of
the cow milk (Park et al., 2007). That‟s why
goat milk is considered as “self
homogenized” milk. In respect to free lipids,
goat milk has higher values than that of cow
milk Cerbulis et al., 1982).
Goat milk has three fatty acids higher (two
fold) as compared to that of cow milk i.e. C8,
C10, and C12 (Juarez and Ramos, 1984).
Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are able
to provide energy without being deposited in
the fatty tissue of the body as well as it play a
role in decreasing cholesterol levels in body.
MCTs used for “milky urine” (chyluria) and
chylothorax (lung conditions).
MVTs are also used for treating the food
absorption disorders i.e. diarrhea, steatorrhea
(fat indigestion), cealic disease, liver disease
and digestion problems due to partial surgical
removal of stomach (gasterctomy) or intestine
(short bowel syndrome).
Fatty acids composition of goat milk reported
by various authors and compared with those
of cow milk is summarized in table 2.
Milk proteins
Two distinct phases of milk proteins are an
unstable micellar phase composed of casein
and a soluble composed of whey proteins.
Goat milk contains lesser amounts of the αs-
casein, higher amounts of the β-casein
fractions and almost equal amounts of the k-
casein fractions compared to cow milk. The
major protein in cow milk is αs1casein, while
in goat milk is β casein. Goat milk also
contains equal amount ofαs1-casein, but the
amount and genetic variants differ between
goat populations (Diaz-Castro et al., 2010).
The casein micelles in goat milk differ from
those in cow milk in having greater β-casein
solubilisation, more calcium and phosphorus
and lower heat stability (Horackoval et al.,
Goat milk contains a significantly lower level
of αs-1 casein, a major allergen in bovine
milk (Lara-Villoslada et al., 2004) (Table 3).
Milk carbohydrate
Lactose is the major carbohydrate in goat
milk and the content is slightly lower than in
cow milk. It is synthesized from glucose and
galactose in the mammary gland, where the
milk protein α-lactalbumin plays an important
role (Kunz et al., 2000). Lactose is a valuable
nutrient, because it favors intestinal
absorption of calcium, magnesium and
phosphorous and the utilization of vitamin D.
It also is of major importance during milk
synthesis and during secretion of milk into the
duct system of the udder.
Other carbohydrates found in goat milk are
oligosaccharides, glycopeptides,
glycoproteins and nucleotides in small
amounts. Goat milk is significantly rich in
lactose-derived oligosaccharides compared to
cow milk. Milk oligosaccharides are thought
to be beneficial to human nutrition because of
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
their prebiotic and anti-infective properties
(LaraVilloslada et al., 2006). In animal
models, goat milk oligosaccharides have been
shown to have anti-inflammatory effects in
induced colitis (Daddaoua et al., 2006). These
results could be useful in the management of
inflammatory bowel disease (Robinson,
Goat milk contains a lower concentration of
oligosaccharides in comparison to human
milk, it is greater than in bovine and ovine
(Sheep) milks and the oligosaccharide
structures identified in goat milk are most
similar to that of human milk. This is
particularly significant for infant nutrition as
human milk oligosaccharides are greatly
beneficial for the infant due to their prebiotic
and anti-infective properties.
Milk vitamins
Goat milk has a higher vitamin A content than
cow milk because goats convert all β-carotene
from foods into vitamin A in the milk
(Conesa et al., 2008). For the same reason,
goat milk is always whiter than cow milk.
Both goat and cow milk have low
concentrations of vitamin B6 and vitamin D,
which are both important during infancy
(Juarez et al., 2011) (Table 5).
Goat milk contains a similar amount of
vitamin A as human milk. Vitamin A is
important for both innate and adaptive
immune responses, including cell-mediated
immunity and antibody responses. Vitamin C
is a well-known water-soluble antioxidant that
is found in greater amounts in goat milk than
in cow milk. This vitamin has been shown to
affect many aspects of the immune system
including the regulation of immunity via
antiviral and anti-oxidant properties (Geissler
and Powers, 2011). Goat milk is also a good
source of vitamins such as D, E, thiamine,
riboflavin and niacin. Goat‟s milk has low
levels of foliate (Park, 2006).
Milk mineral
It is noteworthy that milk of each species has
a particular individual pattern of minerals,
which may be a pointer of the relative
nutritional importance of the element.Goat
milk is reported to have higher content of
Potassium, Calcium, chloride, Phosphorus,
Selenium, Zinc and Copper than cow milk
(Krstanovic et al., 2010; Lopez-Aliaga et al.,
2005).Cow milk is distinguished by a lower
concentration of sodium, phosphorus, zinc,
copper and manganese with respect to other
milk types (goat and human milk). From the
viewpoint of human nutrition, therefore the
milk of goat is to be preferred to that from
cow (Bunaji) due to higher content of most of
the minerals. Hence goat milk, like cow milk
cannot replace human milk in young children
but could complement it. A greater diffusion
of knowledge on nutritional value of goat
milk could promote its complementary effect
in human diet, mostly if used highest mineral
contents compared to that of cow or human
milk (Belewu and Aiyegbusi, 2002) (Table 6).
Dietary and medical significance of goat
Goat milk is considered as an ideal food for
all the ages as it contains essential vitamin
and minerals. It is one of the key healthy
drink (
Functional food
Milk calcium and proteins along with the
newly formed structures created by reaction
of these are of great concern from the
technological point of view. Milk and
colostrum are rich in bioactive components
which are important to regulate weight and
hypertension. It also influences digestion and
health properties. As goat milk is rich in such
components, we can call it as a „functional
and neutraceutical‟ drink.
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
Easily digestible fats and proteins
The size of the fat globules of the goat milk is
smaller than cow milk, therefore it makes it
easy to digest. The composition of the protein
of the goat milk allows forming a softer curd
which assists to digestive health and comfort.
Caprine casein micelles contains more
inorganic phosphorous and calcium, are less
heat stable, are less solvated and lose β-casein
more quickly than bovine casein micelle.
Goat milk contains less α s casein and often
has more αs2 than αs1-casein (Mora-
Gutierrez et al., 1991). β-casein and K-casein
are more in the goat milk than cow milk,
therefore weak gel is obtain which is
beneficial for the better digestibility but it is
responsible for reduced cheese yield.
Lower in lactose
Goat milk contains slightly lower lactose
content than cow milk. Lactose intolerance is
cause because of the deficiency of Lactase
which digests milk sugar, Lactose. In patients
suffering from lactose intolerance,
unhydrolyzed lactose passes to large intestine.
In large intestine, this unhydrolyzed lactose is
fermented by microbes leading to gas
formation and release of the free fatty acids
which causes gastrointestinal disturbances
such as diarrhea, abdominal pain and
flatulence (Russell et al., 2011). Anecdotal
evidences show that goat milk is easy to
digest because of softer curd formation.
Casein profile of goat milk allows lactose to
pass through large intestine more fastly and
prevents the symptoms of lactose intolerance
(Robinson, 2011). However, goat milk is not
recommended for the patients suffering from
lactose tolerance
health/goat-milk-benefits). Along with its
digestibility it explains that why lactose
intolerance patients can enjoy goat milk
without any repercussions.
Haeilein et al., (2004) indicated that treatment
with goat milk typically cure 30-40 %
problem cases of childhood cow milk allergy,
which can be higher in some cases (One study
shows improvements in 49 out of 55 children
treated with goat milk).
Less allergic proteins
An allergy is defined as an altered or
abnormal tissue reaction following exposure
to foreign antigen (McCullough, 2003). It is
well known that proteins are essentials for the
body functioning like growth, development
and repair of the body. They are the most
common antigens. Infants are most commonly
sensitive to proteins, about 2-6 % incidence
(Lara-Villoslada et al., 2004). Some
researches show that, cow milk intolerance is
often due to alpha s-1 casein
cow-milk/). It is interesting that, the level of
the alpha s-1 casein goat milk is 89 % lower
than that of cow milk. Hence, it is less
allergic, goat milk shown improvements in
colic, minor digestive disorders, asthma and
eczema over cow milk and people with cow
milk sensitivities (McCullough, 2003).
Allergenicity of goat milk and cow milk in
mice was studied and it is demonstrates that
the goat milk is beneficial immunologically
on reducing specific markers involved in the
allergic response (Lara-Villoslada et al.,
2004). Compared to goat milk, cow milk
significantly increased markers of
inflammation including cytokine interleukin-4
(IL-4) and antigen-specific immunoglobulin
G1 (IgG1), key markers in hypersensitivity
reactions. IgG1 binds to mast cells and
promotes degranulation (the initiation of an
allergic response), causing an increase in
histamine levels and the resulting allergic
symptoms. This reaction to cow milk was in
contrast to goat milk, which did not induce an
allergic response. Figure 1(A and B)
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
demonstrates the differences in IgG1 (A) and
histamine (B) production in response to cow
milk versus goat milk administration.
Goat milk proves its anti-allergy benefits
upon drinking when a similar trial in children
with cow milk protein allergies was taken.
Drinking of cow milk had significantly higher
levels of the inflammatory marker tumour
necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) than those who
consumed goat milk. TNF-α is a primary
mediator of adverse reactions to cow milk
protein including gastrointestinal distress,
respiratory and cutaneous symptoms such as
eczema. In addition to the lack of
inflammatory effects with goat milk
consumption, subjects who drank goat milk
also had higher levels of the anti-
inflammatory cytokine IL-10. IL-10 which
suppresses the formation of pro-inflammatory
cytokines such as TNF-α and is thought to
contribute to immune suppression and thus
prevent reactions to antigens in cow milk
(Albenzio et al., 2012), table 7 shows the
effect of cow milk compared to goat milk on
these allergenic markers.
Anti-inflammatory and anti-mucousal
Cow milk may responsible for the allergens
because of its protein fractions, while goat
milk is not. On other hand, along with these,
cow milk contains high content of fat than
goat milk which may increase mucous build-
up. Goat milk not causes irritation in the gut,
because the size of the fat globules of the goat
milk is one ninth the size of cow milk fat
Goat milk plays a key role in almost all
biological reactions and exerts antioxidant
and anti-inflammatory effects in the body.
This is important as inflammation is the
body's primary response to infection and
oxidation has been linked to the development
of many diseases, including cancer.
Furthermore, other factors such as the
maintenance of a healthy intestinal micro
flora with the help of probiotics and prebiotics
(Also contained in goat milk) are essential for
protecting against the negative effects of
pathogenic infection allergy (Shea et al.,
Heart health
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is such
atherogenic lipoprotein which transports
cholesterol from the liver to the blood vessels
and is often called "The bad cholesterol". The
"good" cholesterol is the high-density
lipoprotein (HDL) which transports
cholesterol from the vessels to the oxidative
modification of LDL (ox-LDL) plays a
pivotal role in atherosclerosis progression.
This implies that antioxidants, which could
inhibit LDL oxidation, should be effective in
suppressing atherosclerosis (Lindqvist, 2008).
Proteins of the goat milk are important source
of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE),
antihypertensive peptide and inhibitory
peptides. They are able to control microbial
infection and also provide disease defense.
Minor milk proteins include
immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, transferrin,
proteose peptone, ferritin, calmodulin
(calcium binding protein), prolactin and folate
binding protein. Non-protein nitrogen (NPN)
of human and goat milk is higher than that of
the cow milk. Taurine in the goat milk which
is derived from the sulphur-containing amino
acid has important metabolic functions as
does carnitine important nutrient for
neonate. As is evident from table 2, the
mineral and vitamin content of goat milk are
mostly higher than that of cow milk (Park et
al., 2007) (Table 4).
Goat milk is better than cow milk in
monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA),
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and
medium chain triglycerides (MCT). These are
beneficial for the cardiovascular conditions.
Along with these, goat milk has lower level of
the cholesterol than cow milk (Haenlein,
2004). Because of the balanced fatty acid
profile of the goat milk, it helps to prevent
atherosclerosis, heart attacks, strokes and
other heart complications. High potassium
content of the goat milk reduces the blood
Goat milk exerts hypocholesterolemic effect.
Goat milk consumption reduces plasma
triglyceride and hence had positive effect on
lipid metabolism (Lopez-Aliaga et al., 2005).
Goat milk is reported to reduce the total
cholesterol level and maintain adequate
triglycerides and transaminases (glutamate
oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and
glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT)
indicators for liver intoxication). This makes
goat milk to control and prevent coronary
heart diseases (CHDs).
Immunity booster
Selenium is one of the key component for the
immune system functionality. Small amount
of the selenium are found in the cow milk, but
significant amount of the same found in goat
milk. Hence, goat milk and its products are
acts as immunity booster and able to protect
an individual from illness.
Many types of cells are involved in the innate
and adaptive immune response, with T-
lymphocytes (T-cells), Natural Killer (NK)
cells and B-lymphocytes (B-cells) as the main
players. Although immunoglobulin's (Ig) are
similar in structure, minor differences within
the main immunological classes (IgG, IgM,
IgA, IgD and IgE) are associated with a
variety of biological properties and IgG and
IgA account for the majority of serum
immunoglobulins. A number of factors
influence our immune health and nutrition in
particular is main determinant of the body's
immune response.
Even if goat milk might not be a perfect
alternative for people with cow milk allergy,
very recent studies have showed
immunomodulatory effects from goat milk
both in in-vitro and human studies. Recently
investigated the effects of goat milk on human
blood cells in terms of nitric oxide (NO) and
cytokine release, the results demonstrated that
goat milk was able to activate NO release
from blood cells as well as triggering of
cytokine production (IL-10, TNF-a and IL-6).
The NO release could have cardio-protective
effects in the milk consumer and also expose
antibacterial activity and thereby prevent
Better nutrient uptake efficiency
As the chemical composition of the goat milk
is much closer to that of the human milk, it
easily assimilates in the body. Therefore it
enhances the bioavailability of the nutrients
present into it. Authors reported that, goat
milk consumption increases the uptake of Iron
and Copper in digestive tract (Gajewska et al.,
Prebiotic supplement
Goat milk has higher level of the
oligosaccharides as human milk than cow
milk. It is well known that, these acts as
prebiotics in gut and improve the health of the
digestive tract (Raynal-Ljutovac et al., 2008).
They are responsible for the beneficial
bacteria i.e. Bifidobacteria in the intestine.
Bifidobacteria exert a wide range of health
benefits including immune-stimulation,
prevention of pathogenic infections, anti-
carcinogenic activity and cholesterol lowering
activity in addition to improving lactose
maldigestion (Russell et al., 2011).
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
In naturopathic medicine, goats are referred as
bioorganic sodium animals whereas, cow are
calcium animals. Bioorganic sodium is an
important key element in maintaining joints
mobile and limber. Goat milk provides 35 %
of our daily needs of calcium in a cup. Along
with these, just a cup of goat milk provides up
to 20 % of daily needs of riboflavin. Along
with phosphorous, goat milk contains high
level of the potassium and Vitamin B12.
Goat milk improves Zn bioavailability, a
mineral with antioxidant capacity (Zago and
Oteiza, 2001). The better nutritive utilization
of goat milk fat (Alferez et al., 2001) provides
a lower substrate for lipid peroxidation and
consequently decreases the generation of free
radicals in this type of milk, explaining once
more the lower TBARS levels found in the
groups animals consuming the goat milk. The
positive role on genomic stability of the
habitual consumption of goat milk, even
during Fe-overloading feeding regime, fact
that could be due, at least in part to the high
bioavailability of Mg and Zn (Diaz-Castro et
al., 2009), together with its better fat quality
(Alferez et al., 2001). Magnesium metabolism
enhances genomic stability because of the
following: DNA is continuously damaged by
environmental mutagens and by endogenous
processes. To keep mutation frequencies low,
cells have evolved different types of DNA
repair systems. Nucleotide excision repair is
mainly involved in the removal of DNA
damage induced by environmental mutagens
and Mg is an essential cofactor in virtually all
steps of nucleotide excision repair. Secondly,
endogenous DNA damage is mainly repaired
by base excision repair (BER) (Hartwig,
Goat milk has a high content of conjugated
linoleicacid (CLA) (Jirillo et al., 2010). Anti-
carcinogenic properties of CLA have been
reported against mammary and colon cancer
(Liewet al., 1995) in animal models, as well
as in vitro models of human melanoma
(Shultz et al., 1992) colorectal and breast
cancer (Durgam and Fernandes, 2000). The
mechanism by which CLA inhibit tumor
development is not fully understood, although
perturbation of the eicosanoid-dependent cell
signaling systems, anti-oxidative effects and
disturbance of the receptor mediated actions
of estrogen have all been suggested by
fermented goat milk (Jirillo et al., 2010).
Table.1 Chemical composition and caloric value of ruminants and human milk
Total solids
Total protein
Whey protein
Energy (kcal/100g)
Source: (Alichanidis and Polychroniadou 1996)
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
Table.2 Fatty acids composition percent of goat‟s milk reported by
different authors and compared with those of cow‟s milk
Goat milk
Cow milk
Garcia et
al., 1979
et al., 1981
Sawaya et
al., 1994
et al., 1986
Hellin et al.,
Castro et
al., 1979
C 4.0
Table.3 Comparison of protein content in goat milk and cow milk
Goat milk
Cow milk
Level of
(%) for goat
Casein (Cn)
- 62.8
aR.S.D = residual standard deviation.Source: (Ceballos et al. 2009)
bDifference (%) for goat milk = [(goat milk value cow milk value)/ goat milk value] *100
cNS = P> 0.05; --P<0.001
Table.4 Comparison of amino acids content in goat milk and cow milk
Source: (Haenlein, 2001)
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
Table.5 Vitamin content of ruminant and human milk
Vitamins (per 100 g)
Vitamin A (IU)
Vitamin D (IU)
Thiamine (mg)
Riboflavin (mg)
Niacin (mg)
Pentathenic acid (mg)
Vitamin b6 (mg)
Folic acid (µg)
Biotin (µg)
Vitamin B12 (µg)
Vitamin C (µg)
Source: (Park et al., 2007)
Table.6 Mineral content of ruminant and human milk
Type of Milk
Minerals (mg/100 g)
Source: (Park et al., 2007)
Table.7 Cytokine levels (pg/ml) in lymphocytes of children stimulated against protein fractions
of cow and goat milk
Cytokine levels (pg/ml) in cultured supernatants of lymphocytes of children against protein
fractions of cow and goat milk
Milk protein fraction
Effects, P
Mean followed by different letters differ for P<0.05: a and b for species effect; A and B for milk fraction
effect. NS, not satisfactory
a protein mixture-casein; whey protein (80:20 w/w),; * P<0.05.Source: (Albenzio et al. 2012)
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
Fig.1A and B Serum levels of IgG1 and Histamine following
Cow Milk (CM) and Goat Milk (GM)
Conversion of milk into products
Goat milk is produced at small farms
traditionally. Goat milk and its products were
manufactured and consumed since long
period of the time. Fresh milk obtained under
sanitary conditions from properly fed and
managed healthy goats is free from
objectionable odour and flavor (Roy and
Vadodaria, 2006). Well known products from
the goat milk are Roquefort cheese and
Leben. On other hand, goat milk is not
suitable for the preparation of Ghee. The
reason behind it is relatively small sized fat
globules which cause problems during the fat
separation and its associated odour and flavor.
Goat milk is a good source for the preparation
of the Infant formulae.
Recently, utilization of the goat milk for
product manufacturing increases because of
its known functional properties and health
benefits, along with Cheese and Yoghurt,
different products are manufactured from goat
milk such as UHT, evaporated milk,
pasteurized beverages, ice-cream, milk
powder and traditional goat milk products
(Pandya and Ghodke, 2007).
On other side, goat milk cause “goaty” and
“mutton” flavor. Along with these, if goat
milk products are to be used in replacement
diets, it is necessary to incorporate folic acid
supplements, as goat milk is poor in the folic
acid (Pandya and Khan, 2006).
Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2017) 6(5): 1781-1792
In conclusion, researchers suggest that, “goat
milk can be considered to be a neutraceutical
health drink”. Goat milk is the good source
for those who are suffer from the cow milk
protein allergy or intolerance to cow milk.
Along with these, who are suffering from
anemia, osteoporosis and malabsorption, they
should go for goat milk. Now days, because
of the functional and neutraceutical properties
of goat milk, goat milk gained major attention
and increased its demand. Goat milk is better
for the infants and growing children, bur
caution should be exercised that this milk
should be supplemented with nutrient like
folic acid, which is deficient in it.
Albenzio, M., Campanozzi, A., D'Apolito, M.,
Santillo, A., Petioello Mantovani, M. 2012.
Differences in protein fraction from goat
and cow milk and their role on cytokine
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Alferez, M.J.M., M. Barrionuevo, I. Lopez-
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Lisbona, 2001. Digestive utilization of goat
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Belewu, M.A. and Aiyegbusi, O.F. 2002.
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Apparent Biological Value of Milk from
Human,Cow and Goat. J. Food Technol.,
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Ceballos, L., Morales, E., de la Torre Adarve, G.,
Diaz Castro, J., Martinez, L., Remedios, S.
2009. Composition of goat and cow milk
produced under similar conditions and
analyzed by identical methodology. J. Food
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Conesa, C., L. Sanchez, C. Rota, M. Perez, M.
Calvo and S. Farnoud, 2008. Isolation of
lactoferrin from milk of different species;
calorimetric and antimicrobial studies.
Comp Biochem. Physiol., 150: 131-139.
Daddaoua, A., V. Puerta, P. Requena, A. Martinez
Ferez, E. Guadix, F. Sanchezde Medina, A.
Zarzuelo, M.D. Suarez, J. Boza and O.
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Diaz-Castro, J., M.J.M. Alferez, I. Lopez-Aliaga,
T. Nestares and M.S. Campos, 2009. Effect
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Diaz-Castro, J., S. Hijano, M.J.M. Alferez, I.
Lopez-Aliaga and T. Nestares, 2010. Goat
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by chronic iron overload in anaemic rats.
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How to cite this article:
Sachin S. Lad, K.D. Aparnathi, Bhavbhuti Mehta and Suresh Velpula. 2017. Goat Milk in
Human Nutrition and Health A Review. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci. 6(5): 1781-1792.
... It starts to be gradually the preferred milk by consumers worldwide [1,2] and also in Slovakia [3]. Because of commonly described components which makes goat milk attractive for consumers [2,4], goat milk is also demanded as functional and/or nutraceutical drink as it is rich in bioactive components [5]. Milk contains beneficial microbiota that are important for development of flavor, taste, texture, technological and healthrelated perception but it also have contaminant bacteria that create risks associated with the consumption of raw milk and raw-derived products [5,6]. 2 Among useful microbiota, bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes have been occurred with 20.5 % abundance in tested Slovak raw goat milk using next-generation sequencing technique [5]. ...
... Firstly, bacteriocin activity was checked using the qualitative method as previously described by Lauková et al. [14]. The principal indicator-Enterococcus avium EA5 (the most sensitive strain) was 4 used in the test (our strain isolated from feces of piglet). Then a substance was precipitated using the following protocol: LPa 12/1 strain (0.1% inoculum) was grown in the volume 60 ml of MRS broth (Merck, Germany) overnight at 37˚ C. It was centrifuged (10 000 x g, 30 min). ...
Full-text available
Goat milk starts to be gradually the preferred milk by consumers worldwide and also in Slovakia. It is also demanded as functional and/or nutraceutical drink as it is rich in bioactive components. Goat milk contains complex of microbiota among which the phylum Firmicutes have been occurred with abundance 20.5 %. Among individual representatives of this phylum are involved also lacticaseibacilli. This study has been focused on bacteriocin-producing, beneficial strain Lacticaseibacillus paracasei LPa 12/1 isolated from raw goat milk and its potential to be additive in dairy products. Based on safety testing of bacteriocin-producing LPa 12/1 strain using BALB/c mice, it looks as safe. Even increase tendency in phagocytic activity in blood of mice was noted after LPa 12/1 strain application. Encapsulated form of LPa 12/1 strain producing thermo-stable bacteriocin seems to be a suitable to supplement dairy products. The strain colonized better ewe-goat milk yoghurt (up to 6.1 cfu/g log 10) than cow milk yoghurt (almost 5.0 cfu/g log 10). Although specific organoleptic tests were not involved, cow milk yoghurts remained in better consistency after LPa 12/1 strain supplementation in comparison with ewe-goat milk yoghurts. LPa 12/1 strain may be supposed as a new potential additive in dairy products/yoghurts.
... Goats are primarily raised for milk and meat production all over the world (Hale et al. 2011). Goat's milk is easily digestible and high in bioactive components and vitamins and has a little allergenic protein (Lad et al. 2017;Sonu and Basavaprabhu 2020). Goats can flourish in any part of the world due to higher resistance to environmental stress and disease resistance (Ali and Al-Samarai 2018). ...
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The sequence analysis of PCR product exhibited four novel SNPs in the promoter region of the LF gene at loci g.98T>C, g.143T>A, g.189AC>A, and g.346A>G. Each SNP yielded three genotypes; the genotypes TT (SNP1), AA (SNP3), and GG (SNP4) decreased SCC and increase milk quality traits such as density, protein, and milk yield (P < 0.01). The genotype CC (SNP2) and CA (SNP4) significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the milk quality parameters, while genotypes TC (SNP2) and GG (SNP4) showed significantly (P < 0.01) less SCC and increase lactose % in milk. Furthermore, screening of the LF promoter sequence explored the gain of four TF binding sites at locus g.98T˃C and three TF binding sites at g.346A˃G. However, the loss of four and two TF binding sites was seen at locus g.143T˃A and g.189C˃A, respectively. We can conclude from the present study that the GG, TT, and AA genotype might be utilized as genetic markers in marker-assisted selection for the breed improvement program of Beetal goats.
... Additionally, small ruminants, such as goats, possess noteworthy importance due to their added contributions to meat and milk production in urban and rural areas [1]. In developing countries, goats hold substantial significance in terms of health and economic welfare, as they provide a source of high-protein nutrition and serve as a crucial component in improving the well-being and financial stability of impoverished populations with limited access to quality food [2][3][4]. In the nations situated within the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea, as well as in the northern region of the Land of Israel and throughout Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, and Turkey, one may commonly observe a breed of goat recognized as the black Mediterranean goat (capra hircus mambrica). ...
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This study investigates the energy and nitrogen economy of the Mediterranean goat across diverse environmental conditions, emphasizing the influence of heat stress and shelter on animal productivity. Environmental factors such as water availability, food quality, and heat stress affect the animal's capacity to convert indigestible plant components into digestible food and sustain energy balance. In particular, heat stress causes a significant decrease in the goat's food by 27.49% and by 34.85% in alfalfa hay and wheat straw respectively, leading to a loss of body mass, even when offered high-quality food such as alfalfa hay. However, when sheltered from direct sunlight, the goat can maintain an energy balance on any diet, a significant decrease in body mass was recorded, with a reduction of 10.59% for alfalfa hay and 17.79 ± 3.0% for wheat straw. Heat stress also impairs the goat's ability to maintain a balanced nitrogen economy, reducing nitrogen loss through excretion during heat load conditions and high-protein food digestion. The study found that the average urea recycling rate in goats kept in a shelter was 36%, which was significantly higher than the rate observed in goats exposed to heat stress, which was only 19.6%. Moreover, the amount of recycled urea was also higher in the shelter at 91% compared to 69.9% in the reflected heat stress recorded when the goats were maintained on a diet of wheat straw. As the goat cannot reduce its metabolic rate, a negative energy balance occurs, resulting in body mass loss. The quality of food and heat stress are critical determinants of the goat's food consumption, with high heat load reducing appetite. This study concludes that sheltered conditions, providing protection from direct sunlight, are necessary to sustain productivity and maintain a stable body mass on any diet. Furthermore, maintaining a balanced nitrogen balance can be challenging for animals consuming low-protein food, particularly under suboptimal feeding conditions. The study's findings have implications for the broader issue of global warming, as rising temperatures could increase heat stress and reduce food consumption and productivity in animals, with potentially negative consequences for agriculture and food security. Therefore, protecting animals from heat stress through adequate shelter and management practices is essential to mitigate the negative impacts of global warming on animal productivity, Animal husbandry, and human livelihoods.
... It is, apparently, the preferred milk by consumers worldwide [1,2], including in Slovakia [3]. Goat milk is attractive to consumers [2,4] because of its content components. It is also demanded as a functional and/or nutraceutical drink as it is rich in bioactive components [5]. ...
Full-text available
Goat milk is gradually becoming the preferred milk by consumers worldwide, including Slovakia. It is also demanded as a functional and/or nutraceutical drink as it is rich in bioactive components. However, another new development is the research into the beneficial autochthonous strains used to enrich goat dairy products. Among individual species, representatives in raw goat milk are also involved in lacticaseibacilli. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance-producing Lacticaseibacillus paracasei LPa 12/1 was isolated from raw goat milk. This study focuses on its potential as a new additive in dairy products. No mortality was found when checking the safety of the LPa 12/1 strain using Balb/c mice. The strain reached higher counts in ewe–goat milk yoghurt (up to 6.1 cfu/g log 10) than in cow milk yoghurt (almost 5.0 cfu/g log 10). Cow milk yoghurts remained in more stable consistency after LPa 12/1 supplementation compared with ewe–goat milk yoghurts, although specific organoleptic tests were not performed. However, LPa 12/1 has survived sufficiently in both types of yoghurts. This bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance-producing strain LPa 12/1 in its encapsulated form applied in yoghurts seems suitable to supplement dairy products.
... Goat milk is utilized as a replacement for many supplements that people regularly take because of its high mineral and vitamin content and creamy texture. Due to its ease of digestion, goat milk is much superior than that of cow milk (Lad, Aparnathi, Mehta & Velpula, 2017). Goat milk possesses valuable medicinal and nutritional properties, making it suitable for infants, elders, pregnant women, and convalescent individuals. ...
Conference Paper
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PREFACE In the ever-evolving landscape of human progress, the fusion of creativity, ingenuity, and imagination stand as the driving force behind monumental advancement. It is within this crucible of innovation that the 12th International Innovation, Invention & Design (INDES) 2023 competition finds its place. For this prestigious event, we are reminded of the remarkable capacity of human intellect to shape the future and redefine the boundaries of possibility. The INDES 2023 competition represents a unique platform, one that celebrates the spirit of innovation, creativity, and design excellence. Each year, it attracts a diverse and talented community of visionaries from all corners of the world, who converge with a shared aspiration: to push the envelope of what is achievable, to solve complex problems, and to make the world a better place through their inventive ideas. This year, INDES 2023 saw a number of groundbreaking projects across various fields, from sustainable technologies and healthcare solutions to cutting-edge design and artistic expressions. As we delved into the proceedings of this competition, we are afforded the privilege of exploring the minds of those who are at the forefront of shaping our future. The pages that follow in this proceeding e-book offer a glimpse into the remarkable journeys of innovators and designers who have dedicated their time, energy, and expertise to crafting solutions that have the potential to transform industries, improve lives, and leave a lasting legacy. Each entry represents a unique testament to human curiosity, resilience, and creativity. We extend our heartfelt gratitude to all the participants, mentors, judges, and organizers who have made INDES 2023 a reality. Without your unwavering commitment to fostering innovation and design, this gathering of brilliant minds would not have been possible. As we explore the rich tapestry of ideas presented within these proceedings, let us be inspired to embrace the spirit of invention, innovation, and design in our own lives and work. Let us recognize that the future is not an abstract concept but a canvas waiting for the strokes of our collective genius. May the insights and discoveries contained within these pages serve as a testament to the power of human imagination and collaboration, reminding us that our potential knows no bounds. Welcome to the world of INDES 2023, where ideas take flight, innovation knows no limits, and design transforms the ordinary into the extraordinary.
... Although it is not necessarily an alternative for people with cow milk allergy, goat milk can have specific advantages over cow milk. The protein, fatty acid, lactose, vitamins, and mineral profiles of goat milk are different from that of cow milk [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Goats in the Netherlands are kept on mainstream farms, organic farms and artisanal farms. ...
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Goat milk is produced on mainstream and artisanal farms. It was expected that the farm management may influence the microbial population of the milk. Therefore, we investigated the bacterial content and microbiota composition of raw milk in relation to Dutch goat farm management. After amplicon sequencing we analyzed the taxa at phylum and genus levels, and used the relative values enabling to provide information about the variation among the different samples. On ten farms our results indicated that the number of bacterial colony forming units and microbiota composition of the milk, directly after milking was variable among farms and not related to the farm management system. At the phylum level the phyla Firmicutes , Actinobacteria , Proteobacteria , and to a minor extend Bacteriodota were the dominant phyla in the raw goat milk, together usually comprising 90% of the total bacterial phyla. The most dominant genera were Staphylococcus , Pseudomonas , Lactococcus , Microbacteria , Acinetobacteria , and Corinebacteria . The number of bacterial phyla and genera does not differ between the mainstream and artisanal farms, although the Shannon index may be numerically higher in the mainstream farms as compared to artisanal farms. In addition, the variability is higher among artisanal farms, which may be due to less standardization of the management. The milk microbiota composition differed among farms. Repeated sampling of a farm showed that this changed over time. The lactic acid producing bacteria showed a similar pattern. Variable microbiota richness amount and diversity of microorganisms were present in different farming systems. We concluded that farm-specific management and sampling moment were the major determining factors for the milk microbiota composition.
... Hence, it is no surprise that breast milk is the ideal form of nutrition for human newborns (Lawrence, 1994). However, for older children, particularly in the oneto three-year-old age group, cow and goat milk are excellent sources of many nutrients and functional substances, especially fat, protein and calcium, and are superior to most drinks selected by some parents as an alternative to livestock milk (Agostoni and Turck, 2011;Lad et al., 2017;Collard and McCormick, 2021). The livestock milk consumption and dairy products is also regarded as farms, and into products delivered mostly to healthy or organic stores. ...
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The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of breed, lactation number, and lactation stage on milk efficiency and goat milk ingredients, these being indicators of milk technological parameters and homeostasis disturbances. Goat breed and number of lactation affected energy-corrected milk, value-corrected milk yield, fat corrected milk, protein, casein, lactose contents and free fatty acids. Additionally, differences in non-fat solids and urea contents were found between two Polish common dairy breeds White Improved (PWI) and Fawn Improved (PFI) goats. Moreover, parity affected milk yield, its acidity and somatic cell count (SCC). Milk yield and milk components were found to vary according to lactation stage. At the beginning of lactation, milk is richer in ingredients which have effect on cheese and yoghurt production. All the goats undergo similar changes related to the lactation stage that is at the same time and this can affect the yield and quality of the curd. In production focused on liquid milk, the age structure of the herd should be properly managed, as the goats in their third lactation or above have higher milk yields, regardless of breed. For cheese production, the PWI breed would be more suitable than PFI as the PWI goat milk contains less SCC and more components essential for milk processing, including caseins.
The effect of enzymatic dephosphorylation, using intestinal alkaline phosphatase, on the structure of casein micelles in caprine micellar casein concentrate (MCC) was studied. An optimal condition, involving preheating the MCC dispersion, pH 6.4, 2.5 mg casein/mL and 0.4 U phosphatase/mL, was established and used to prepare MCC with 0–49% dephosphorylation by incubation at 37 °C for 0–180 min. β-Casein showed marked dephosphorylation and formed multi-phosphorylated isoforms depending on dephosphorylation degree, whereas αs- and κ-caseins showed limited and fast dephosphorylation, respectively. With increasing dephosphorylation, both the colloidal calcium and the calcium sensitive micellar caseins, especially β-casein, were gradually dissociated, and the calcium insensitive serum κ-casein was gradually associated with the micelles. The dissociated β-casein fraction was predominated by isoforms with lower number of phosphate groups. For micelles with increasing dephosphorylation, the molar mass decreased, the gyration and hydrodynamic radii decreased, the ratio of gyration to hydrodynamic radii and micellar hydration increased, the spherical morphology was generally retained, and the internal protein inhomogeneity disappeared progressively. These results suggest that after dephosphorylation, the caprine micelle framework underwent an intra-micellar mass redistribution, and become more loose and homogeneous.
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The composition, interactions, and properties of bioactive peptides found in the most abundant milk protein, CSN2, are the focus of goat milk peptidomics. The peptidome of goat milk is regarded as a valuable source of a large number of biologically active peptides as well as health-promoting activities. Through data mining for bioactive peptide selection associated with current bioactive peptide data algorithms resulting in bioactive peptide profiles and visualization of three-dimensional protein structure, in silico analysis on bioinformatic approaches has led to enhancements of global knowledge regarding the health benefits of dairy products. Biological potentials for cardiovascular and nervous diseases, as well as metabolic and immune treatments, are identified using these techniques, in order to increase the commercialization of goat milk bioactive peptides as a functional food and promising natural source treatments.
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The effect of whey powder, whey protein concentrate, caseinomacropeptide, and malt addition into milk on the growth and acid production of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus casei Lafti L-26, Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 151, and Lactobacillus casei CCDM 198) was evaluated. The ability of these strains to use different types of saccharides from milk and plant sources was also tested. Glucose, galactose, fructose and maltose were utilised by all tested strains. The results showed that the addition of malt positively affected the growth of lactobacilli strains compared to the growth in milk enriched by whey ingredients. The addition of malt increased significantly the production of D(-) isomer of lactic acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 151 and Lactobacillus casei CCDM 198 and the production of acetic acid by Lactobacillus casei CCDM 198.
The mineral content and apparent biological value (ABV) of milk from Human (T1), White Fulani (Bunaji) cow (T2) and West African dwarf goats (T3) (n=10) were assessed following a completely randomised design model and covariance analysis respectively. Concentration per million (ppm) were 210, 150 and 52 Na, (goat, human and cow milk) while potassium content was similar (P>0.05) in human (1.60) and goat (1.55) milk compared to that of cow milk. Quantity of Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu and Mn were higher in goat and human milk. They were lowest in cow milk: 4.03, 0.92, 1.07, 0.25 and 1.59ppm respectively. In these three treatments, the respective ratios Ca.P-1 were 4.2:1 (T1), 4.4:1 (T2) and 4.6:1 (T3) while Ca.Mg-1 and P.Mg-1 were decreased from 3.9 (cow milk) to 1.9 (human milk) and 0.89 (cow milk) to 0.45 (human milk). In conclusion, the milk of goat (West African dwarf) which contained more of these mineral contents similar to that of human milk, is a pointer to the nutritional contribution of goat milk in a country like Nigeria where prevailing undernourishment and malnutrition are accompanied by low intake of some minerals and vitamins among the populace and most especially the vulnerable (pregnant, lactating mothers, infants and weanlings and the sick) groups. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 7 No.1, 2002, pp. 9-11 KEY WORDS: West African dwarf goat, White Fulani (Bunaji) cow, Mineral composition, Apparent Biological Value.
Garganica goat milk was characterized for protein composition and the impact of milk protein mixture, casein and β-lactoglobulin fraction on cytokine production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from infants with cow's milk protein allergy. Bulk milk samples were collected in a dairy goat farm located in the Gargano area (Southern Italy), cow milk was used as control. Ten patients with cow's milk protein allergy (6 males; mean age 8.4 ± 6.4 months) and ten non-allergic control subjects (6 males; mean age 7.4 ± 3.1 months) were consecutively included in the study. Although the amount of total casein was comparable in cow and goat milk (56.08% vs. 55.33%, respectively) the distribution of principal casein fractions was different according to species. α-CN on total casein was more than 50% both in raw and pasteurized cow milk whereas it was always lower than 40% in goat milk and an opposite trend was observed for β-CN. Production of tumor necrosis factor-α after exposure to goat milk casein and β-lactoglobulin was lower than after exposure to the same fractions from cow milk. Goat milk induced higher levels of regulatory interleukin-10 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells than cow milk. Results on tumor necrosis factor-α evidenced that it is important to test the immune reactivity against each protein fraction before considering goat milk as a safe substitute for feeding infant with cow's milk protein allergy.
Changes in composition, N and lipid fractions, casein breakdown, and hardness were studied in two batches of three different types of goat cheese: fresh; semi-hard, washed curd and Majorero cheese. The characteristics of the fresh cheese were not altered by 15 d of chilled storage. The water-soluble N and NPN fractions in the semi-hard, washed curd and Majorero cheeses increased during ripening; after 2 mo, the percentages of water-soluble N in the two cheeses, respectively, were 41.1 and 28.1%; the NPN fraction accounted for 55.7 and 51.6% of these totals. At the end of the study, the percentages of degradation of the αs- and β-caseins were 54 and 19%, respectively, in the Majorero cheese; breakdowns of these two casein fractions were similar (35%) in the semi-hard, washed curd cheese. No changes were observed in the fatty acid composition during the study. The total FFA contents at the end of ripening were 6114 ppm in the Majorero cheese and 9790 ppm in the semi-hard, washed curd cheese.
The aim of this study is to update the values concerning nutritional components for sheep and goat dairy products. The bibliography examines first the main biochemical constituents of sheep and goat milk products but also the more specific components with potential nutritional impact and lastly it gathers information on the relationship between cheese and milk compositions and the impact of technologies. Since the composition of French small ruminant cheeses is not well established, with composition tables being old and lacking information, recent studies have been conducted in France to investigate the nutritional characteristics of sheep and goat milks and cheeses on a large scale. Goat milk cheese sampling was representative of French production, taking into account the variability linked to geographic origin, dairy or on-farm transformation and type of cheeses. Fresh lactic cheeses made with raw (6 samples) or pasteurised (6) milk, ripened lactic cheeses made with raw (11) or pasteurised (6) milk, spreads (4), soft ripened cheeses (6 “Chèvre Boite or “Brique” type cheeses) and 4 bulk raw milks were sampled twice in a summer–autumn period. These 86 samples were analysed for their nutritional value. The impact of the technological process was assessed with, for example, its effect on mineral and vitamin B content. With respect to sheep, 5 representative samples of milk were collected, just before cheese making, in the 3 main French traditional areas of dairy sheep production. The sampling was carried out 4 times in the year. The objective was to explore the variability of the nutritional characteristics of the original milk. The cheeses made with these milks were analysed after ripening with a double objective: to specify their nutritional content and to assess the relationship between milk and cheese content. Some preliminary results are given concerning fatty acids.
Goats milk has been said to be a suitable alternative to cows milk for people with lactose intolerance and cows milk protein intolerance, but most of the evidence is anecdotal. This review discusses some of the marginal differences which distinguish goats milk from cows milk, leading to suggestions that in certain cases goats milk may be tolerated differently from cows milk. Most of the current evidence, however, appears to refute this claim, with little support for the anecdotal reports. Where any food intolerance is suspected, professional advice should always be obtained to ensure that the diet (especially for children) is well balanced. More research and controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify some of the issues raised.
Goat milk and its products of yoghurt, cheese and powder have three-fold significance in human nutrition: (1) feeding more starving and malnourished people in the developing world than from cow milk; (2) treating people afflicted with cow milk allergies and gastro-intestinal disorders, which is a significant segment in many populations of developed countries; and (3) filling the gastronomic needs of connoisseur consumers, which is a growing market share in many developed countries. Concerning (1), very much improvement in milk yield and lactation length of dairy goats, especially in developing countries must be accomplished through better education/extension, feeding and genetics. Concerning (2), little unbiased medical research to provide evidence and promotional facts has been conducted, but is very much needed to reduce discrimination against goats and substantiate the many anecdotal experiences about the medical benefits from goat milk consumption, which abound in trade publications and the popular press. Goats have many unique differences in anatomy, physiology and product biochemistry from sheep and cattle, which supports the contention of many unique qualities of dairy goat products for human nutrition. Concerning (3), a few countries like France have pioneered a very well-organized industry of goat milk production, processing, marketing, promotion and research, which has created a strong consumer clientele like in no other country, but deserves very much to be copied for the general benefit to human nutrition and goat milk producers. The physiological and biochemical facts of the unique qualities of goat milk are just barely known and little exploited, especially not the high levels in goat milk of short and medium chain fatty acids, which have recognized medical values for many disorders and diseases of people. The new concept of tailor making foods to better fit human needs has not been applied to goat milk and its products so far, otherwise the enrichment of short and medium chain fatty acids in goat butter, and their greater concentration compared to cow butter, could have become a valued consumer item. Also revisions to human dietary recommendations towards admitting the health benefits of some essential fats supports the idea of promoting goat butter. While goat yoghurt, goat cheeses and goat milk powder are widely appreciated around the world, goat butter is not produced anywhere commercially in significant volume. © 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Physico-chemical characteristics of milk are related to its composition for a particular animal species. Sheep milk contains higher levels of total solids and major nutrient than goat and cow milk. Lipids in sheep and goat milk have higher physical characteristics than in cow milk, but physico-chemical indices (i.e., saponification, Reichert Meissl and Polenske values) vary between different reports. Micelle structures in goat and sheep milk differ in average diameter, hydration, and mineralization from those of cow milk. Caprine casein micelles contain more calcium and inorganic phosphorus, are less solvated, less heat stable, and lose -casein more readily than bovine casein micelles. Renneting parameters in cheese making of sheep milk are affected by physico-chemical properties, including pH, larger casein micelle, more calcium per casein weight, and other mineral contents in milk, which cause differences in coagulation time, coagulation rate, curd firmness, and amount of rennet needed. Renneting time for goat milk is shorter than for cow milk, and the weak consistency of the gel is beneficial for human digestion but decreases its cheese yield. Triacylglycerols (TAG) constitute the biggest part of milk lipids (nearly 98%), including a large number of esterified fatty acids. Sheep and goat milk also have simple lipids (diacylglycerols, monoacylglycerols, cholesterol esters), complex lipids (phospholipids), and liposoluble compounds (sterols, cholesterol esters, hydrocarbons). The average fat globule size is smallest (<3.5 m) in sheep milk followed by goat and cow milk. Five fatty acids (C10:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, and C18:1) account for >75% of total fatty acids in goat and sheep milk. Levels of the metabolically valuable short and medium chain fatty acids, caproic (C6:0) (2.9%, 2.4%, 1.6%), caprylic (C8:0) (2.6%, 2.7%, 1.3%), capric (C10:0) (7.8%, 10.0%, 3.0%), and lauric (C12:0) (4.4%, 5.0%, 3.1%) are significantly higher in sheep and goat than in cow milk, respectively. Principal caseins (CN) in goat, sheep and cow milk are s1 -CN, s2 -CN, -CN and -CN. The main forms of caprine and ovine caseino-macropeptides (CMP), which are the soluble C-terminal derivatives from the action of chymosin on -casein during the milk clotting process of cheesemaking, have been identified and are a good source of antithrombotic peptides. Sheep and goat milk proteins are also important sources of bioactive angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides and antihypertensive peptides. They can provide a non-immune disease defence and control of microbial infections. Important minor milk proteins include immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, transferrin, ferritin, proteose peptone, calmodulin (calcium binding protein), prolactin, and folate-binding protein. Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) contents of goat and human milks are higher than in cow milk. Taurine in goat and sheep milk derived from sulphur-containing amino acids has important metabolic functions as does carnitine, which is a valuable nutrient for the human neonate. Mineral and vitamin contents of goat and sheep milk are mostly higher than in cow milk.
Caprine milk is a nutritional and therapeutic food. The unique and beneficial characteristics of caprine milk that are superior to bovine milk include: better digestibility; greater buffering capacity; fat globules that are smaller in diameter and better distributed in the milk emulsion; higher content of short-chain fatty acids in the milk fat; higher content of zinc, iron and magnesium; stronger lactoperoxidase (antimicrobial) system as well as better immunological and antibacterial characteristics. The larger amounts of some minerals, such as calcium, zinc and magnesium, in caprine milk may influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria since they are a normal part of some enzymatic complexes involved in lactose fermentation. The higher whey protein content could also be significant because Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacteria grow better in the presence of higher levels of some amino acids (valine, glycine, hystidine). The use of caprine and ovine milk in cheesemaking is well known, but the production of fermented caprine milk via probiotics has not yet been developed, although many studies have highlighted the requirements for production of that kind of healthy food. During fermentation caprine milk loses its characteristic ‘goaty’ taste, which is unacceptable to many consumers. Moreover, the nutritive value of caprine milk increases during fermentation. The rise in the number of goat farms in Croatia has created the need to find other products that can be produced using caprine milk. According to the present situation in Croatia, there is no real possibility of producing fermented caprine milk for the global market, but many studies of fermented caprine milk have been performed.