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Travelling for Umrah: Destination attributes, destination image, and post-travel intentions

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Abstract

This paper examines the links between cosmopolitanism, self-identity, and a desire for social interaction perceived destination image and behavioural intentions. A model tested using a sample of 538 Iranian visitors to Mecca for the purpose of Umrah. The result from the structural model suggests that destination attributes influence perceived destination image. Further, such tourists are likely to revisit or recommend Islamic destinations if their experience matches their perceived image of the destination. This implies that, while the religious characteristics of the destination remain important, destination managers cannot disregard the tangential, non-religious attributes of a destination which are crucial in order to satisfy more conventional tourist desires. As such, this study suggests that those managing religious travel destinations should endeavour to foster a welcoming image, where experience, interaction and tolerance are at the forefront of the destination’s offering.

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... Yen and Croy ( (Gannon et al., 2017) or online (e.g., Yen & Croy, 2016). Surely, it is rational if the pretrip DI is investigated and the survey is conducted not in the destinaton and to nonvisitors, but it seems that it is not always the case. ...
... Foroudi et al. (2018) found strong connection between place identity and DI for visitors of London. Gannon et al. (2017) studied the religous trip of muslims to Mecca and found self identity of visitors have positive impact on DI. ...
... Desire for social interaction can be a part of involvement and act as an important forerunner to travel (Rosenbaum, 2015). Especially, it might be the main motivator for travelers who visit a destination for religous purposes that also influence the destinaton image (Gannon et al., 2017; Table 4). ...
Article
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In this review study, it is aimed to reveal the antecedents of destination image (DI) through analyzing the findings of quantitative studies published between 1999 and 2019. Findings suggest that DI could be handled with pretrip and posttrip DI separately. Antecedents of pre and post DI are divided as destination-based and personal-based antecedents. Making such a categorization and mapping the findings of studies accordingly helps to clarify our understanding about the DI formation process. A model is suggested considering the pre and posttrip destination and personalbased antecedents in the literature to explain the affective, cognitive, and overall DI.
... small pilgrimage) and visiting the Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) Mosque in Madina City; the second Holy City in Saudi Arabia (Bokhari, 2018). Umrah, a voluntary religious trip, is a ritual neither time-restricted nor compulsory (Gannon et al., 2017). In many ways, Umrah can be closely related to tourism because it is performed at the time of the pilgrim's choice and can be performed repeatedly. ...
... Since intentional behaviors are the main drivers of actual responses, behavioral intentions are perceived as internal notions which may lead to some action in the future (Jaccard & King, 1977). Prior studies emphasize the role of intention to visit as an outcome behavior in religious tourism context (Gannon et al., 2017;Eid, 2015). Gannon et al. (2017) examine the impact of cosmopolitan, self-identity, and the desire for social interaction on perceived destination image and behavioral intentions. ...
... Prior studies emphasize the role of intention to visit as an outcome behavior in religious tourism context (Gannon et al., 2017;Eid, 2015). Gannon et al. (2017) examine the impact of cosmopolitan, self-identity, and the desire for social interaction on perceived destination image and behavioral intentions. The study utilizes a sample of visitors to Makkah for the purpose of performing Umrah, and the findings show that social, and not solely religious, elements of Umrah play critical role in encouraging visitors to recommend voluntary religious travel to others, and this subsequently motivates intentions to revisit the destination (Gannon et al., 2017). ...
Article
This study investigates the relationship between religious servicescape and service experience and subsequent intentions to revisit. The context is “Umrah,” a journey focusses on spirituality. The study looks at service experience at a fine granular level of the dimensions, i.e. hedonic value, peace of mind, novelty. A mixed-method approach was utilized. The model then extended to investigate the boundary conditions of these relationships using rejuvenation as a moderator. A sample of 278 pilgrims participated in 2018. The findings suggest that servicescape is an antecedent for service experience and service experience have a positive influence on the intention to revisit.
... Given tourism's socio-cultural significance, it is unsurprising that religion, hospitality, and travel have been associated in academic scholarship (Sharpley, 2009). While this is sometimes restricted to examining the interface between religion and tourism manifest as pilgrimage (Poria et al., 2003), an increasing number of studies investigate how religion shapes tourism development and the supply of hospitality services (Henderson, 2016); local community perceptions and attitudes towards tourism (Rasoolimanesh et al., 2019;Gannon et al., 2020); and tourist consumption behaviour therein (e.g., destination selection, visitation patterns, and preferred experiences) (Gannon et al., 2017). To this end, hospitality literature asserts that destination planners must recognise and adapt offerings to meet the religious needs of travellers, with religion representing a core symbolic expression and identity marker in consumers' decision-making processes (Arnold, 2004). ...
... Yet literature indicates that service inconsistencies and concerns from failing to adequately address Muslims' religious needs emerge as a potential threat to consumer satisfaction (Han et al., 2019). Accordingly, many Muslims prefer to travel to Islamic countries or to destinations perceived as 'Muslim-friendly' (Gannon et al., 2017). Nevertheless, the Muslim travel and hospitality market is not homogeneous, with variations in the extent to which individuals demonstrate religious commitment . ...
... Non-religious destination attributes thus remain important in stimulating Muslim consumer satisfaction (Gannon et al., 2017), particularly for those travelling for leisure purposes. Irrespective of religion, a variety of shopping and food amenities and high-quality attractions are valued by travellers (Okumus et al., 2020;Olya and Al-ansi, 2019). ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the combinations of religiosity, cosmopolitanism and perceived destination image leading to satisfaction and loyalty amongst Muslim consumers within the Maldivian tourism and hospitality context. Design/methodology/approach Using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), this study reveals that diverse combinations of religiosity, cosmopolitanism and destination image dimensions stimulate satisfaction and loyalty in Muslim consumers. Findings Multiple recipes can be used to design compelling destinations that balance the desire for religiosity and cosmopolitanism characteristic of contemporary Muslim consumers. The results confirm the applicability of complexity theory in explaining Muslim consumer behaviour within the Islamic destination context. Practical implications Several implications for the hospitality and tourism industry are drawn from the results, with suggestions for future research provided. Each fsQCA recipe identifies distinct suggestions to shape the design of destination attributes and hospitality offerings to stimulate consumer satisfaction and loyalty. Originality/value Complexity theory was applied to assess the complex causal relationships among Muslim consumers’ religiosity, perceived destination image, cosmopolitanism, satisfaction and loyalty.
... For instance, important questions concerning 'who we are with?' and 'how much do we know about the site we are visiting?' signifi cantly aff ect visitors' experiences of cultural heritage (Gannon et al. 2017 ). While this is consistent for both new and fi rst-time visitors, locals also consume cultural heritage, most of whom have considerably more entrenched knowledge, memories and emotional feelings for the objects, experiences and interactions manifest within their local cultural consumption spaces (Belk 1990 ;Black 2009 ;Kotler, Kotler and Kotler 2008 ). ...
... While this is consistent for both new and fi rst-time visitors, locals also consume cultural heritage, most of whom have considerably more entrenched knowledge, memories and emotional feelings for the objects, experiences and interactions manifest within their local cultural consumption spaces (Belk 1990 ;Black 2009 ;Kotler, Kotler and Kotler 2008 ). Regarding those with prior knowledge of the content contained within cultural places, the visiting experience becomes more enjoyable as their level of engagement increases; they go beyond merely interacting with objects contained within cultural heritage sites, with their sense of engagement extended by creating bonds with others who share similar feelings towards the context and content contained therein (Gannon et al. 2017 ). This study contends that this social bond can intensify the nostalgic feelings visitors experience towards objects found within cultural heritage sites. ...
Chapter
It is broadly acknowledged that festivals are powerful, interactive venues that have the potential to stimulate feelings of nostalgia. Festivals and cultural events serve as one of the main cultural places where individuals engage in the process of ‘sense making’, ‘self-exploration’, ‘self-discovery’ and ‘yearning for a past’ through interactive sociality. Our key objective in this chapter is to draw the attention of marketing and consumer behaviour scholars to the ‘transformative’ and ‘nostalgic’ nature of festivals and events in our ever- changing society. In doing so, data is collected from visitors to different types of cultural events (e.g., music, dance, art) at Cappadox festival, Turkey. Our research follows an inductive qualitative approach. Several implications can be drawn from the study findings and pertinent directions for future research are also provided. In festivals, the consumption experience extends beyond the offering’s core consumption stage (i.e., it is a transformative consumer experience) as consumers feel nostalgia for satisfactory experiences (e.g., emotional outcome, strong nostalgic memories and WoM) and engage in discussions about their experience with others. This is likely influenced by the entertainment, escapism, flow and learning dimensions associated with the festival. In other words, festival consumption experiences carry symbolic value and engender interpersonal meanings for consumers.
... To this end, we argue that local food experiential value (TLFEV) and local food consumption value (TLFCV) are crucial in shaping food tourists' attitudes toward local food (ATLF) and play a significant role in molding food destination image (FDI). Gaining a deeper understanding of the relationship between experiential value, consumption value, tourists' attitudes and food destination image within the context of food tourism is crucial, as each has the potential to impact upon the postconsumption behavioral intentions of food tourists (Gannon et al., 2017); a positive attitude and image of a culinary destination can create behaviors capable of building a sustainable food tourism destination (e.g. intention to revisit; recommending it to others; Kivela and Crotts, 2006). ...
... Following travel experiences, behavioral intentions (e.g. the intention to revisit a destination and/or the desire to recommend the destination and experiences undertaken therein to others) are formed (Gannon et al., 2017;Tian-Cole et al., 2002). Cognitive and affective images resulting from an experience are considered antecedents of future behavioral intentions toward a destination (Qu et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aims to develop a framework to identify the drivers underpinning food tourists' behavioral intentions (BIs). This framework centers on examining how local food consumption value (TLFCV), local food experiential value (TLFEV) and social media influencers (SMIs) impact upon tourists’ attitudes toward local food (ATLF) and food destination image (FDI). The impact of ATLF and FDI on tourists’ BIs is also examined. Design/methodology/approach PLS-SEM was used to test the hypothesized relationships using survey responses from 379 tourists visiting Rasht, Iran. Findings The results demonstrate that TLFCV, TLFEV and SMIs can be used to populate a theoretical framework for predicting and understanding the factors influencing tourists’ ATLF and FDI. Specifically, positive ATLF and FDI stimulated positive BIs (e.g., intending to recommend Iranian food to others and intending to revisit Iran in future for culinary tourism purposes). Practical implications The findings provide managers and practitioners within the culinary tourism industry with suggestions for how best to strategically market their offerings to increase inbound food tourism. Originality/value This study is one of the first to empirically evaluate the drivers of food tourists' BIs, presenting a newly developed model for deployment in future research. Originality is also established by simultaneously investigating TLFCV and TLFEV within the context of food tourism.
... Destination attributes can affect the interest in visiting a tourist destination [10], [11], [12] and even the interest to visit again [13], [14], [15] . Destination attributes are the overall services obtained and felt or enjoyed by tourists in the tourist destinations visited [16], [17], [18]. Tourism product attributes are represented by four indicators, namely destination attraction, destination facilities, accessibility, and images [18], [19]. ...
... Destination attributes [25], [6], [15], are all forms of services tourists enjoy since he leaves his residence while in the tourist destination visited until he returns to his place of origin. [16], also mentions that Destination Attributes is a collection of various products produced by companies that are given direct services to tourists when travelling. Three essential elements make up the product of the tourism industry [18], [11]. ...
... Destination attributes can affect the interest in visiting a tourist destination [10], [11], [12] and even the interest to visit again [13], [14], [15] . Destination attributes are the overall services obtained and felt or enjoyed by tourists in the tourist destinations visited [16], [17], [18]. Tourism product attributes are represented by four indicators, namely destination attraction, destination facilities, accessibility, and images [18], [19]. ...
... Destination attributes [25], [6], [15], are all forms of services tourists enjoy since he leaves his residence while in the tourist destination visited until he returns to his place of origin. [16], also mentions that Destination Attributes is a collection of various products produced by companies that are given direct services to tourists when travelling. Three essential elements make up the product of the tourism industry [18], [11]. ...
Conference Paper
This study analyses the effect of destination attributes and Tourism Promotion on Visit Intention on tourism visiting Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park through destination branding. The population in this study were tourists who visited the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. The sampling method used is by distributing questionnaires to respondents who have visited Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park. The variables used are as many as four variables. The analytical tool used is Path Analysis. The results of the study indicate that: 1) There is an influence of Destination Attributes and Tourism Promotion on Visit Intention to visit Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park; 2) There is an effect of destination branding on Visit Intention to visit Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park; 3) There is the influence of Destination Attributes and Tourism Promotion through the destination branding of Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park.
... It is imperative to note that tourism is multifaceted in nature and has strong back and forth intersectoral linkages and multiplier effects that promise enormous potentials for marginalized regions in the least developed regions and countries [16,17]. In this regard, while destination managers endeavor to develop tourism in marginalized or rural areas, marketers are keen on the attributes that create destination appeal and affect traveler's choice [18,19]. An attractive tourist destination can thus be built based on the inherent characteristics of a region, which, among others, include quiet and peaceful environment [20], diversity of active sports and outdoor activities, cultural events, shopping, a friendly and hospitable community, beautiful landscapes and associated biodiversity [18,21,22]. ...
... In this regard, while destination managers endeavor to develop tourism in marginalized or rural areas, marketers are keen on the attributes that create destination appeal and affect traveler's choice [18,19]. An attractive tourist destination can thus be built based on the inherent characteristics of a region, which, among others, include quiet and peaceful environment [20], diversity of active sports and outdoor activities, cultural events, shopping, a friendly and hospitable community, beautiful landscapes and associated biodiversity [18,21,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Community-Based Tourism (CBT) has been pushed as one of the strategies for poverty alleviation and it might enhance the sustainability of marginalized regions and communities. However, tourism has also been argued to carry seeds for its own destruction and therefore presents a great dilemma and developmental paradox. This research sought to establish perceptions of the citizenry towards community-based tourism as a sustainable development strategy for rural regions in Kenya. The study focused on the awareness levels of CBT, and perceived contributions of CBT to the socio-economic and physical sustainability of rural regions in Kenya. A descriptive research design was adopted with a sample of 395 respondents. Data collected were collated and analyzed using SPSS 25 and Nvivo 12. Findings revealed that agriculture and other economic activities can be integrated with tourism and hospitality to deliver sustainable development in rural regions given the vast resources and attributes ideal for CBT. The majority of the respondents were noted to have a fair understanding of what CBT entails and thus calling for more capacity building, training and appropriate technical support to unlock the full potential of CBT as a sustainable development strategy. Overall results showed favorable perceptions towards CBT as a tool that can contribute to the sustainability of the socio-economic and physical environments in Kenya’s rural region.
... Tourists often travel to an identical destination for dissimilar motivations and service requirements. Cordiality among visiting tourists is hereby achieved when destination attributes including religiosity and physical environments matched their specific identities (Gannon et al., 2017). Service quality and locational impression have demonstrated respective tenacity on destination image and loyalty. ...
... Reflected through the previous findings by Cham et al. (2020), tourists would withhold favourable judgment on visited locations upon experiencing mediocre and subpar servicing. The proposition by Gannon et al. (2017) regarding eminence of cultural and environmental characteristics in addressing both empathy and appreciation among visitors from similar backgrounds would then be complimented by courteous and respectable hospitality. Besides expectation surpassing which yields individualistic gratifications, positive evaluation of touristic service is directly interposed to the general interpretation of its encountered destination. ...
Article
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Innovative endeavours targeting the tourism industry has prevailed as crucial attempts in cultivating tourist satisfaction and restoring destination image, while overcoming severe backlash of the Covid-19 pandemic in recent years through reconstructing destination loyalty. Founded above the established groundwork of Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) Theory, this study aims to examine the influence of service innovation on destination loyalty in the Malaysian tourism industry. A self-administered survey was conducted among 400 international tourists who visited Malaysia. Usable data was collected from 322 international tourists and analysed using the structural equation modelling technique. Obtained findings indicate the significance of interrelationships between service innovation, tourist satisfaction, destination image, and destination loyalty, with destination image being a mediating factor on tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty. Given intense competition of the tourism industry within the Asia Pacific region, current results are useful for tourism practitioners to formulate and implement effective and innovative marketing strategies towards sustainable competitive advantage. Generated knowledge enables tourism practitioners to benchmark service innovation practices in creating positive destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty.
... For instance, important questions concerning 'who we are with?' and 'how much do we know about the site we are visiting?' signifi cantly aff ect visitors' experiences of cultural heritage (Gannon et al. 2017 ). While this is consistent for both new and fi rst-time visitors, locals also consume cultural heritage, most of whom have considerably more entrenched knowledge, memories and emotional feelings for the objects, experiences and interactions manifest within their local cultural consumption spaces (Belk 1990 ;Black 2009 ;Kotler, Kotler and Kotler 2008 ). ...
... While this is consistent for both new and fi rst-time visitors, locals also consume cultural heritage, most of whom have considerably more entrenched knowledge, memories and emotional feelings for the objects, experiences and interactions manifest within their local cultural consumption spaces (Belk 1990 ;Black 2009 ;Kotler, Kotler and Kotler 2008 ). Regarding those with prior knowledge of the content contained within cultural places, the visiting experience becomes more enjoyable as their level of engagement increases; they go beyond merely interacting with objects contained within cultural heritage sites, with their sense of engagement extended by creating bonds with others who share similar feelings towards the context and content contained therein (Gannon et al. 2017 ). This study contends that this social bond can intensify the nostalgic feelings visitors experience towards objects found within cultural heritage sites. ...
... Brand awareness reflects the strength of the brand node in the consumer mind (Kladou & Kehagias, 2014), with destination brand awareness defined as the tourist's ability to recall and recognize a destination (Gómez, Lopez, & Molina, 2015). Thus, destination brand awareness can play a vital role in the decision-making process, as it encapsulates the presence and strength of the destination image in the minds of potential tourists (Gannon, Baxter, Collinson, & Maxwell-Stuart, 2017). ...
Article
In response to the increasing ubiquity of social media platforms, improved consumer choice, and technological progress, the importance of consumer-generated content (CGC) continues to grow for organizations marketing their destinations, products, and services to tourists. Yet, despite the importance tourists place on CGC and information shared via social media, there remains a lack of academic focus in this area. To address this gap, we use a rigorous multi-step scale development procedure to create a scale centered on understanding the importance consumers attach to social media sharing (ISMS) from a tourists' perspective. Studies conducted across different contexts (Turkey and Scotland), comprising 1183 participants, were used to validate the newly developed ISMS scale. The scale indicates internal consistency and reliability, alongside construct and predictive validity. Directions for future research and the practical implications of the newly developed ISMS scale are discussed by way of conclusion.
... This numbers are anticipated to increase to 17 million by 2025 as the Muslim population of the world is increasing, which is expected to reach 26.4 per cent of the overall world population (Kumaladewi et al., 2017). "Hajj and Umrah" are types of pilgrimages that are made essential in the holy Quran, based on the following ayat: "And complete the Hajj and Umrah for Allah" (Gannon et al., 2017). Moreover, nowadays, the expanded offer of low air freight air transportation facilitates travelling to Mecca in view of accomplishing Umrah. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose With growing mobility in a globalized world and an estimate of more than 300 million people going on religious pilgrimages every year, various researchers have been focusing on pilgrimage-driven travel services. In this context and within the Islamic religious tradition, the “Umrah” is used as a case study in this paper. In addition, this study also investigated the effects of Umrah SMM (promotion, place, people, product, price, process, physical evidence, marketing communication and after sale service) on customer satisfaction and loyalty toward Umrah travel agents in “Malaysia.” Design/methodology/approach Convenience sampling technique at four international airports in “Malaysia” was used to obtain data from Umrah travelers who had used Umrah services at least once. A total of 384 usable questionnaires were collected from this study and the data were analyzed using the partial least square. Findings The result indicated that the marketing mix has a significant positive effect on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction both directly and indirectly. This study will be of interest to the Umrah travel industry, for Malaysia and all the other countries, in understanding how marketing mix strategies are essential in maintaining a long-term relationship with customers. Originality/value The literature on Umrah travel services revealed that the traditional service marketing mix (SMM) of 7P’s is inadequate. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap and examine an innovative service marketing mix strategy for “Umrah Service” including marketing communication and after sales service. It investigates the effects of enhanced Umrah SMM on customer satisfaction and loyalty towards Umrah travel agents in “Malaysia”.
... Further, composite reliability (CR) and average variance extracted (AVE) were investigated (Gannon et al., 2017). To establish reliability and convergent validity, the loadings, CR, and AVE values should surpass 0.7, 0.7, and 0.5 respectively . ...
Article
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Framed by social exchange theory and Weber's theory of substantive and formal rationality, this study investigates the mediating role of residents' perceptions of tourism impacts. It examines whether community attachment, environmental and cultural attitudes, economic gain, and community involvement directly impact upon residents' support for tourism development, or if their influences are mediated by perceptions of tourism impacts. Data were collected from residents within two historical cities in Iran: Kashan and Tabriz. The findings reveal that residents' perceptions of tourism impacts play a significant mediating role in shaping the relationships between community attachment, environmental attitudes, and economic gain on support for tourism development. However, the results do not support the indirect effects of cultural attitudes and involvement on support for tourism development. This study thus extends extant knowledge by highlighting the mediating role played by residents' perceptions of tourism impacts, comparing direct and indirect effects on support for tourism development.
... These are primarily concerned with how consumers identify and respond to others' behaviors (Grove and Fisk 1997). In tourism, this social environment typically comprises fellow travelers and employees (Choo and Petrick 2014), and is important as travelers seek environments that encourage socialization and provide opportunities for interaction (Gannon et al. 2017;Sheng, Simpson, and Siguaw 2017). ...
Article
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Underpinned by complexity theory, this study investigates whether the influence of social and physical servicescape on international travelers' dissatisfaction and misbehavior differs between two characteristically different international airports in Iran. Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Multi-Group Analysis (MGA) were employed to test the conceptual model. The results revealed significant differences between the effects of physical servicescape on travelers' dissatisfaction and misbehavior across both airports. However, the results did not support any differences between the effects of social servicescape on travelers' dissatisfaction and misbehavior between both airports. Additionally, using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), this study identified multiple configurations of physical and social servicescape dimensions leading to traveler dissatisfaction and misbehavior. In doing so, the results highlighted the conditions leading to low traveler dissatisfaction and misbehavior scores, confirming the applicability of complexity theory in explaining international traveler behavior in airports, providing implications and directions for future research in the process.
... The tourists in value for money which is the trade between tourist sacrifices price and receivables are employed (Bahrin, Mahdzar, Hamid, & Ghani, 2017). Most of all time, price of the ticket will be main reason for tourist expectation which consists a value and included its own quality assessment (Gannon et al., 2017) Tourist Satisfaction ...
... Thereby, this study empirically verifies the relationships between CBE, customer-brand relationships and brand loyalty. In the context of tourism and hospitality, significant research has studied the concept of engagement under different settings (Cordina et al., 2017;Gannon et al., 2017;So et al., 2014;Taheri et al., 2014). Some studies have explored the nature of engagement (So et al., 2014;Taheri et al., 2014), whereas other studies have focused on the scope of engagement in affecting visitor behavior (Rasoolimanesh et al., 2019;Rather et al., 2019). ...
Article
Engagement has surfaced as a vital tool in marketing to enhance the customer’s relationships and loyalty with brands. Despite this, there is dearth of empirical studies focusing on the role of customer engagement within the context of brands. Thus, the main objective of this study is to investigate the role of customer brand engagement in building customer-brand relationships and brand loyalty within the context of hotel industry. Using convenience sampling technique, a sample of 418 respondents has been collected through self-administered questionnaire method from the users of hotel services in India. The study findings suggest that different dimensions of customer brand engagement vary in terms of their influence on customer-brand relationships and brand loyalty. In addition, customer-brand relationships exhibit positive and significant influence on brand loyalty. This present study enhances the understanding of customer brand engagement construct by empirically verifying its relevance in determining the long-term success of firms/brands.
... Participants actively seek to extend this knowledge, demonstrating their own expertise to others in the process. This desire to display one's identity and skills, alongside opportunities for self-development, complement the traditional motives of learning and socialisation associated with experiential tourism (Gannon et al., 2017). ...
Purpose Recognising tourists’ increasing desire for authentic destination-specific experiences, the hospitality industry has responded by increasing provision of innovative culinary activities. This study aims to use the concepts of serious leisure and terroir to examine how knowledge, physical environment and service quality influence co-creation within the culinary tourism context. Design/methodology/approach Following cooking class participation, 575 domestic Iranian tourists were surveyed. These educational classes provide opportunities to learn about local foods alongside peers in an interactive setting. Consistent with the benefits of serious leisure, this consumption context could prove conducive to stimulating co-creation. Findings Prior knowledge strongly influences tourists’ reflective and recreational motives for participation (i.e. the benefits of serious leisure). This shapes how tourists evaluate physical environments and service quality therein; influencing value co-creation and supporting serious leisure as the conceptual lens through which to understand experiential culinary consumption. Research limitations/implications The proposed conceptual model was tested on domestic tourists following class participation. However, in suggesting that visually-stimulating, tactile premises with the olfactory appeal can encourage co-created experiences, the findings are relevant to service touch-point management more generally. Originality/value Recognizing the influential role played by the physical and social aspects of experiential consumption, the serious leisure framework improves an extant understanding of value co-creation.
... Yet, despite growing interest in heritage attractions (Taheri, Gannon, Cordina, & Lochrie, 2018), outbound tourism (Gannon et al., 2017), and the nation's travel industry more generally (Taheri, Bititci, Gannon, & Cordina, 2019), residents' perceptions of tourism development and domestic growth within the Iranian context remain largely overlooked (Seyfi, Hall, & Kuhzady, 2019). As a result, this study turns to residents of one of Iran's most historic cities, Tabriz, in order to investigate the effects of influencing factors on residents' perceptions of tourism development, while also identifying whether differences exist in the perceptions of male and female residents. ...
... Yet, despite growing interest in heritage attractions (Taheri, Gannon, Cordina & Lochrie, 2018), outbound tourism (Gannon et al., 2017), and the nation's travel industry more generally , residents' perceptions of tourism development and domestic growth within the Iranian context remain largely overlooked (Seyfi, Hall & Kuhzadi, 2019). As a result, this study turns to residents of one of Iran's most historic cities, Tabriz, in order to investigate the effects of influencing factors on residents' perceptions of tourism development, while also identifying whether differences exist in the perceptions of male and female residents. ...
Chapter
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This study investigates the effects of influencing factors (community attachment, environmental and cultural attitudes, economic gain, and involvement) on residents’ perceptions of heritage tourism, and whether these effects differ between male and female residents. Data were collected from residents of the historic Iranian city of Tabriz, and analyzed using partial least squares – structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and Multi-Group Analysis (MGA). Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) was also performed to gain greater insight into how these antecedent factors influence residents’ perceptions toward tourism development across gender. The findings show significant differences between male and female residents for the effect of environmental attitudes on residents’ perceptions toward tourism development. However, the IPA results demonstrate that the most important antecedent of female residents’ perceptions is economic gain. Conversely, environmental attitude serves as the most important antecedent of male residents’ perceptions toward tourism development. Therefore, this study presents a significant theoretical contribution, serving as one of the first to compare the effects of influencing factors on residents’ perceptions toward tourism development between male and female residents. In doing so, it offers practical suggestions for achieving sustainable tourism in Iran.
... It is also not meant to be interpreted as a substitute for Hajj. However, both are demonstrations of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God. (Gannon et al., 2017) Considering the number of India outbound Traveling with a religious purpose as another main purpose of travel. But due to the limitation imposed by the destination country, the number does not increase or decrease in a wide range from the past to the present. ...
Conference Paper
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India Outbound Tourism with a Special Reference to Indian Tourism in Thailand This paper presents a study of factor that can promote and undermine Indian traveler to Thailand. Due to continued economic growth from 2013 - 2018, the rise of the Indian middle class, as a result, India becomes a new marvelous target of world tourism. Due to the statistics of India Outbound traveling abroad Southeast Asia Countries as the main destination. The country with the second-highest number of Indian tourists in Thailand and the Republic of Singapore. The advantage of Thailand is the price, distance, tourist attraction. Tourism Authority of Thailand has organized tourism promotion in 4 main target groups which are family groups, couple groups, business negotiation groups, and honeymoon group. Through public relations directly from the tourism industry such as roadshow activities and buying media from a travel magazine. Factors that will promote the number of Indian tourists is to create awareness through online and offline media, create partners in providing services and expand tourist base. Factors that undermine impact tourism are monotonousness’ tourism forms of travel agents in Thailand, The negative image of Thailand. In conclusion, Thailand tourism should promote the identity of Thailand as a new tourism campaign. TAT should provide more Destination Management Company (DMC) to create a verity of destination and travel activity in Thailand. Negotiating cooperation between the Ministry of Tourism and Sports of Thailand and the Ministry of Tourism the Ministry of Culture of India to use India's top athletes as Thai cultural tourism ambassadors. Finally, Thailand should focus on tourism that is tied to the culture, and traditions, that will be a sustainable growth of Thailand tourism. Keywords: Tourism development, Tourism policy, Indian Traveler, Thailand Tourism, Promoting and undermining factor, Prefer destination
... Previous literature classified destination attributes in physical and non-physical ones (Eid and Elbanna (2018). Destination service quality attributes are the group of disparate elements that promote tourists to a destination (Kim, 2014;Gannon et al., 2017). The American perspective model of quality of service is being widely used by professionals and academics. ...
Preprint
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The purpose of the article is to examine the impact of destination service quality on revisit intention on international Sikh spiritual tourists for pilgrimage to sacred places of Pakistan. It was completed by 525 international Sikh tourists using a survey questionnaire and tested using Smart-PLS SEM. Empirical results via structural equation modelling demonstrate that the impact of the Destination Service Quality (DSQ) and tourist's satisfaction played a significant role on revisit intention. Participants were selectively drawn from the population of international Sikh visitors. Contribution regarding the impact of destination service quality and tourist satisfaction on revisit intention through accommodation, food, transport, security among International Sikh spiritual tourist would be helpful to maintain quality service criteria on destinations. From this research marketers and professionals can formulate strategies to increase spiritual tourist revisit intentions in emerging markets. The empirical results provide academic contribution to the current knowledge in the marketing of religious tourism. Using quantitative data analysis eventually enables future researchers to use the contribution of the present study to understand the importance of quality of service destination among spiritual tourists.
... The researchers started by looking at the outer loadings of the items that were associated with each construct. Additionally, composite reliability (CR) and average variance extracted (AVE) were examined (Gannon et al., 2017). The loadings, CR, and AVE should be greater than 0.7, 0.7, and 0.5, respectively, to establish convergent validity and reliability (Ali et al., 2018). ...
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Ecotourism offers several economic, environmental, and cultural benefits; however, even after all these years, achieving ecotourism sustainability is still complex because of multiple stakeholders with diversified interests and influence. This study focused on the multiple stakeholders' complexity and management for achieving sustainable ecotourism in Penang Hill in Malaysia. Understanding the existence of multiple stakeholders with varying interests and their respective power of influence is critical for a tourism destination to be sustainable. This study aimed to create a multi-stakeholder management framework and understand stakeholder management's mediating role toward ecotourism sustainability in Penang Hill. Data were collected from Penang Hill key stakeholders and analyzed using SmartPLS and fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). The findings revealed that stakeholder management plays a significant mediating role in achieving ecotourism sustainability. Stakeholders’ interests and their level of influence should be understood to develop engagement, empowerment, and monitoring strategies for managing stakeholders. Thus, the study contributes by validating the results through symmetric and asymmetric techniques, offering solutions to the emerging issues during the Covid-19 pandemic, and recommending policy changes. Lastly, the study also extends prior literature by displaying the mediating role played by stakeholder management on ecotourism sustainability, comparing indirect and total effects on stakeholder management support for achieving sustainable ecotourism in Penang Hill.
... This signify that the image of the Muslim-friendly hotels and value perception play an important mediator role with the guests' attachment and with the loyalty of the hotels, which supports the formal research (Al-Ansi & Han, 2019; Etemad-Sajadi & Ghachem, 2015; Mohsin Butt & Aftab, 2013). The Muslim consumers have a multi-sensitive issue regarding selections when they select products and services , so the religious factor would then be the answer to attract the Islam market in the tourism industry (Gannon et al., 2017). Furthermore, satisfaction can be an effective competitive edge in increasing market share (Peng & Li, 2021). ...
Article
Halal has become one of the core measures among the hotels’ global competitions, which is based on the growth of the Muslim population. This research is managed to understand the quality of the halal-friendly attributes’ impact on the loyalty of a Muslim-friendly hotel. Qualitative and quantitative employing methods were used for the survey. Our results demonstrated that two of the elements, which included halal service-encounter quality and halal physical environment quality, affirmatively influenced the image of a hotel and value perception, and these two elements significantly influence the customers’ loyalty. In addition, the image of a Muslim-friendly hotel, value perception, and attachment to the hotel functioned as mediators. In accordance with these findings, this research provides an idea for hospitality researchers and marketers, which is about the area of the quality they need to improve to attract Islam guests and enhance the loyalty to a Muslim-friendly hotel.
... The first phase of the questionnaire was prepared in English and translated into different languages (Turkish, German, Russian and Chinese) by a professional translation centre. The re-translation process in English was applied to ensure the consistency of the meaning of each item and if they were translated robustly (Gannon et al., 2017). No mistakes were detected in the translation and proofreading process. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the dimensional structure of visitor experience in a sacred place based on the framing process. Design/methodology/approach Mix-method research was conducted in Turkey–Virgin Mary House which featured a sacred and popular tourist destination. Qualitative research, including interviews and expert panels, was used to create a set of knowledge for further analysis. Quantitative research, including two field studies comprising 842 participants, was used to validate the framing of visitor experiences in a sacred place providing reliability and construct validity. Findings The six dimensions were found within three framing axes of religious, environmental and organizational: inner experience; religious experience; physical environment; history; tour organization and service experience. Originality/value Current studies on visitor experience in a sacred place have mainly focused on emotions, motivations or physical dimensions. By synthesising the framing process and theoretical approaches, this study contributes to the literature by analysing the unique characteristics of visitors' experiences in sacred places, regardless of their religious identities.
... Therefore, it was suggested that Umrah travelling agencies should focus and encourage any initiative to improve quality in Umrah services from time to time towards delivering high value to their customer, leading to customer loyalty. For example, Umrah traveling agencies should perform the services at the promised time, provide physical facilities by Umrah travel agent, be reliable in handling problems or need, having friendly relationships between employees and customers, providing reinforcement of employees to handle customers needs, and trust in the information given by employees (Eid 2012; Almuhrzi and Alsawafi, 2017; Gannon et al., 2017). For quality added service, possible initiatives such as the discipline of employees at Umrah travel agencies, reliable in handling problems or needs, courteousness of the employees, and understanding of employees on specific needs of Umrah customers should ensure the customer are aware of the valuable features. ...
Article
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The main aim of this study is to explore the impact of the dimensions of Umrah service quality on customer satisfaction for Umrah and customer loyalty for Umrah in the travel industry. Increasingly intense competition and structural shifts in the business environment are now pushing companies to adopt a customer-focused strategy that elevates the value of customer-related constructs such as customer satisfaction, quality of service, and consumer loyalty in describing the success of a company. Umrah service efficiency, Umrah customer satisfaction, and Umrah customer loyalty were calculated from the literature using a 5-point Likert scale. Structural equation modeling was carried out to analyze the impact of Umrah service quality on customer satisfaction in Umrah and customer loyalty in Umrah. The result showed that all dimensions of service quality influenced customer satisfaction and loyalty of Umrah's customers. The study's key drawback is that it was confined only to the Malaysian nation. Second, the present study only focuses on the traveling industry in Umrah. The results clearly indicate the dimensions of the quality of Umrah service that the practitioners must concentrate on in order to provide a better quality of service.
... Within the religious travel and tourism context, the intention to revisit is highlighted as an outcome behaviour (Eid, 2015;Gannon et al., 2017;Alhothali et al., 2021). In this study, the intention to revisit is defined as the inner desire to revisit the place (Luo and Hsieh, 2013). ...
Article
Purpose In recent days, there has been an increasing interest towards achieving sustainable tourism objectives globally and specifically in Saudi Arabia. The benefits can be maximized if the government is successful in attracting current pilgrims and influence their future intention to revisit the country as tourists. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to measure pilgrims’ revisit intentions to understand more about the possibility of their potential contribution towards the Saudi tourism and hospitality industry in the evolving circumstances. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses configuration theory to identify the “ideal” type of the pilgrims and compares this to the rest to establish if they differ and if that difference matters. Data were collected from 278 visitors to the Holy Mosque in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, to perform Umrah. Findings The findings show that a large deviation from the “ideal pilgrim” is negatively related to revisiting intentions and dissemination of positive word of mouth (PWOM). Research limitations/implications The development of profiles gives a better understanding of organizations or people across several dimensions looked at holistically. Fundamental to the theory is that there are only a limited number of configurations that achieve optimal performance (however defined). Originality/value The analytical approach adopted in this paper leads to achieving verbal and statistical correspondence in tests of “gestalts”. The interest is in establishing whether this difference matters to intentions to revisit and providing PWOM.
... Tourist destinations (DT) are composed of various attributes that significantly affect tourists at different stages. Destination attributes are considered a group of dispersed elements that promote visitors to a destination [27]. In this sense, Ramón [28] reported that a tourist destination is a territorial system that integrates primary elements that make up its attractiveness and motivate the trip and secondary elements that facilitate consumption (accommodation, restaurants, and commerce). ...
Article
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Expectations about a destination influence the tourist experience during the travel process stages. In the post-COVID-19 normalcy, people are adjusting their priorities and social values. Therefore, it becomes crucial to identify tourists’ expectations before traveling. The objectives of this research were: (a) identify the preferences of tourists; (b) establish the attitudes of tourists; and (c) determine the expectations of tourists for post-COVID-19 destination selection. The study analyzed a sample of 491 people during pandemic lockdowns in Guayaquil, Ecuador. Statistical techniques such as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were used in data analysis. The results show that after the pandemic, tourists prefer urban tourism, followed by cultural tourism and traveling with relatives. It also shows a more responsible and supportive attitude when traveling. Likewise, the results support the dimensional structure that explains a set of post-pandemic tourist expectations. Five factors were identified: Smart Care, pricing strategy, safety, comfort, and social distancing. Finally, the theoretical and managerial implications of the results that will guide for tourism destination managers were discussed.
... Indeed, a burgeoning number of studies examine the effects of destination attributes on tourist decision-making and behaviour, confirming their influence not only on destination selection but also on tourist experience and satisfaction, word-of-mouth and revisit intention among other variables (e.g. Eom et al., 2020;Gannon et al., 2017;Han et al., 2019;Kim, 2014;Moon & Han, 2018). ...
Article
This study examines the chaordic systems influencing holidaymakers' travel intentions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis, it examines the perceptions of 400 UK holidaymakers travelling to Cyprus. A complementary Necessary Condition Analysis evaluates the size effects of the examined conditions. Moreover, semi-structured interviews with Cypriot industry stakeholders shed light on the relationships that describe the generated configurations. Two solutions were generated: (i) cultural and destination attributes, and (ii) travel attitudes, whereas qualitative findings revealed that industry stakeholders agree that destination attributes, especially the cultural aspects of a place, and a combination of positive and negative travel attitudes are influential on travel intentions. The results showcase the complexity upon travel intentions during uncertainty, yielding significant theoretical and practical implications. ARTICLE HISTORY
... While studies debate the differences between "tourist" and "pilgrim", and their motivations for visiting sacred destinations [73,74], they exhibit many of the same characteristics, behaviors, and expectations [75]. Cordina, Gannon, and Croall found that some like-minded groups, typically people with similar interests in religion, sports, or music, have a sense of belonging through interactions [76]. ...
Article
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This study examines tourist trust in a government-initiated tourism brand from the perspective of the economic sustainability of the tourism industry. Its antecedents comprise traveler visit motivation, visitor experience perception, and willingness to visit/revisit, and the study assesses the moderating role of believers/nonbelievers in developing a tourism brand. The data were obtained from 20 notable religious-themed attractions listed among the “100 Religious Attractions” in Taiwan. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to respondents who had visited, or were planning to visit, the listed attractions. Three hundred and eighty-five valid questionnaires were collected with the hypotheses developed and examined using the SEM method. This study analyzes the motivational and experiential differences between religious-oriented and ordinary visitors to the “100 Religious Attractions” and its brand effect concerning peripheral industry consumption behavior (e.g., food and beverage, religious items, and surrounding sightseeing sites). Last, this study discloses that the willingness to visit/revisit determinants, service value perception, and spiritual experience significantly affect tourism brand trust. These results offer a better understanding for both scholars and practitioners of religious-themed attractions regarding how tourists’ visit/revisit intentions and their willingness to consume affect the creation of tourism destination brand trust that is sustainable.
... Pariwisata dikenal dalam istilah bahasa Arab dengan kata "al-siyahah, al-rihlah, dan al-safar" yang berarti perjalanan, perlawatan, wisata (Baalbaki, 1995). Perjalanan dalam Islam dikenal dalam beberapa bentuk, musafir, rihlah, siyahah, umrah, dan haji (Eickelman, Piscatori, James P., 1990); (Gannon et al., 2017). Barangkali perjalanan ibadah yang dikenal oleh sebagian besar penduduk bumi adalah umroh dan haji, dimana Muslim yang berkecukupan melakukan perjalanan ibadah ke tanah suci Mekkah setidaknya sekali seumur hidup. ...
Chapter
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wisata halal, pengertian, karakteristik wisata halal, wisata dalam islam
... According to Pereira et al. (2019), a positive attitude toward a destination is derived from tourists' motivation to visit a destination and the perceived image resulted from the visit. Also, Gannon et al. (2017) exerted that destination image guides the visitor's behavior before, during, and after travel. ...
Article
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This paper aims to develop a natural-disaster theme museum visitor satisfaction model by integrating authenticity, involvement, and destination image by applying Arnolds’ theory of emotion. This study takes place at Aceh Tsunami Museum, Indonesia. An Importance-Performance Map Analysis is applied to identify the performance and the importance of the museum attributes in determining visitor satisfaction. Using an adapted questionnaire, 199 usable data gathered from the Aceh Tsunami Museum were analyzed using Partial Least-Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). The result showed that authenticity, involvement, and destination image as the predictors of visitor satisfaction with image as the highest predictor of visitor satisfaction. This study also found that image plays as a mediator in the relationship between authenticity, involvement and satisfaction. Subsequently, this study identifies two paths to reach visitor satisfaction in the natural-disaster theme museum. They are authenticity-image-satisfaction and involvement-image-satisfaction with the latter path have higher contribution to the visitor satisfaction. From IPMA analysis, it is found that activities that adding knowledge to the visitors are deemed important to create visitors satisfaction.
... Travel decisions are akin to decisions regarding purchase of branded products. They are driven by personal experiences, motivations, individual traits, and characteristics (Gannon et al. 2017). Kim and Prideaux (2003) studied the impact of the socio-demographic identity and culture and its effect on the perceived image of the destinations. ...
Article
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Places hosting religious sacred events provide opportunities for visitors to find spiritual growth and also afford glimpses into the local culture, community, and hosting religious group. This study looks at tourists’ intended behavioral loyalty to a religious sacred event place as determined through motivations, shared beliefs, and emotional solidarity with other visitors, and memorable religious experiences. Data were collected from 985 visitors (556 domestic and 429 international) during the 2019 Kumbh Mela, held in Prayagraj, India. Contrary to previous studies, results indicated that emotional solidarity did not significantly influence attendees’ intended behavioral loyalty (among domestic visitors). Furthermore, in employing an invariance structural test for paths mentioned in the model, results revealed that the effects of shared beliefs, motivations, emotional solidarity, and memorable religious experiences differed among domestic and international visitors. Study implications and limitations are provided at the close of the paper, giving way to future research opportunities.
... If a tourist's image in accordance with the experience is pleasant, this will then increase the tourist's intention to revisit the destination. Although destination attributes play a key role with tourists choosing a place to visit, how to fulfill the typical travel wishes of the tourists and present enjoyable travel experience are more important with regard to meeting tourists' expectations (Gannon et al., 2017). ...
Article
Developing rural tourism is a comprehensive strategy for improving the rural economy. The Structure Equation Model (SEM) approach was applied to test how attraction and experiential values of a rural region affect the tourists’ satisfaction and their decision to revisit. After interviewing 353 tourists during their trip to Hakka County, Miaoli, Taiwan, the new finding of this study is that rural life and culture are more attractive than rural scenery to tourists. This implies a strong preference for tourists to experience agricultural knowledge and engage with rural life and farming work. Furthermore, the experiential response generated from the indirect mediation effect of satisfaction had a significant effect, supporting the concept that satisfaction brings additional experiential values to the intentions of tourists to revisit and thus creates more revisit opportunities to those tour sites.
... The tourists in value for money which is the trade between tourist sacrifices price and receivables are employed (Bahrin, Mahdzar, Hamid, & Ghani, 2017). Most of all time, price of the ticket will be main reason for tourist expectation which consists a value and included its own quality assessment (Gannon et al., 2017) Tourist Satisfaction ...
Article
This study aims to explore the effects of host sincerity on tourists’ perceived destination image, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. Data were collected via an on-site survey in China and analyzed using structural equation modeling analysis. The findings suggest that local hosts should show their sincerity toward tourists in tourist-host interactions to create a positive destination image and trigger positive behavioral intentions of tourists for sustainable development of the travel destination. Residents can be active partners and co-producers of destination branding. This study highlights interactions between tourists and local residents as important attributes of the destination experience.
Chapter
The Middle East and Sorth Africa (MENA) is a large, complex, and diverse region and is viewed as a huge centre of cultural and travel influence. Nevertheless, the region has been plagued by geopolitical tensions, political turmoil, instability, and conflict over the decades. The conflict-ridden and controversial image of the region in many tourism-generating markets has negatively affected the flow of tourists to the region and hindered the development of tourism despite its wealth of cultural heritage endowments, a climate conducive to tourism, and leisure resources. More recently, in the aftermath of the ‘Arab Spring’ and the advent of Islamic extremism and fundamentalism, cultural heritage in parts of the region has been placed at risk and has witnessed large-scale devastation, destruction, and looting. The latter has stressed the urgency for post-conflict reconstruction in the Middle East context. The introductory chapter provides an introduction and background to the MENA region from a geographical and historical perspective in general and the cultural and heritage tourism in the region in particular and the challenges it faces. It will also outline the development of tourism in the MENA region and identify key issues in the region with links to the chapters in the book. © 2021 selection and editorial matter, C. Michael Hall and Siamak Seyfi.
Article
Purpose This study investigated how customer orientation and relationships influenced relational benefits via employees' attitudes toward travel agencies and partnership management. Design/methodology/approach Survey questionnaires were mailed to experts of travel agencies in Taiwan. The hypothesis of this study was tested and used a research model characterized by the SEM-PLS approach. Findings The findings of this study indicate that the travel service involves a wide range of firms, regardless of internal or external partner management, and to develop the Muslim tourism market sustainability. Research limitations/implications From a theoretical perspective, it was found that customer orientation of travel agencies and relationship selling among travel agencies affects partnership management of travel agencies and their employees' attitudes, which were positively associated with the relational benefit of travel agencies. Practical implications Travel agencies must maintain continuous collaborative relationships to ensure the sustainable development of the Muslim tourism market. Originality/value This study provides a meaningful model for investigating the trend and tourism products of the Muslim tourism market regarding collaboration between travel agencies and partners.
Article
Tourists in growing numbers are visiting historical sites for their historical value as well as for the association with tragedy and death. As one of these sites, the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) has received significant attention from tourists and scholars, largely because of its education, historical, geographical, heritage, and economic importance. This study is designed to explore DMZ tourists’ through examining their perceived destination image, place dimensions, engagement, and future intentions. The result showed tourists’ destination image had a significantly positive effect on tourists’ engagement and future intention, while tourist’s engagement had a significantly positive effect on future intention. In addition, tourist’s engagement partially mediated the relationship between destination image and future intention. This study offers valuable implications for practitioners and government agencies, including countries with potential dark tourism attractions, as well as empirically validated the theory application to the proposed model.
Purpose Underpinned by the consumer-based model of authenticity (CBA), this study aims to investigate whether leisure involvement, object-based and existential authenticity, host sincerity and engagement stimulate positive memorable visitor experiences in a distinctive commercial hospitality setting: a living history site. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative data were gathered from living history site visitors ( n = 1,004), with partial least squares structural equation modeling used to test the hypothesized relationships. Findings The results confirm the inclusion of the hypothesized relationships between leisure involvement, sincerity and authenticity, relative to engagement and subsequent memorability. The findings suggest that engagement can be a predictor of a positive memorable experience, contingent on CBA constructs (sincerity; object-based authenticity; existential authenticity). The significant association between object-based authenticity and memorable experience identified herein differs from some published studies, while other results are broadly consistent with extant research. Results also reveal significant differences for visitors who purchased souvenirs when compared to those who did not. Research limitations/implications The research extends the CBA by positing sincere hospitality as a relationship-based encounter between host and guest that influences social interaction, engagement and memorability within the novel living history site context. Further, the ability to differentiate visitors based on their purchases at the site is illustrated. Originality/value Given the ubiquity of engagement and authenticity as precursors to memorable experiences within contemporary commercial hospitality and heritage discourses, the findings apply to hospitality experiences beyond the living history site context examined herein.
Article
This study investigates differences in tourists' conservation commitment at developed and developing heritage sites. It examines relationships between conservation commitment and related concepts: cultural motivation, place attachment, and participation. Data was collected from two troglodyte heritage sites: Kandovan, Iran (developing) and Cappadocia, Turkey (developed). Five hundred eighteen survey responses were collected at Kandovan and 627 at Cappadocia. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was employed to perform analysis. Multigroup analysis findings indicate that direct relationships among conservation commitment, cultural motivation, place attachment, and participation were significantly higher in the developing context; encouraging industry managers to use participative feedback to stimulate conservation commitment.
Chapter
The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a large, complex, and diverse region and is viewed as a huge center of cultural and travel influence. Nevertheless, the region is plagued by geopolitical tensions, political turmoil, instability and conflict over the decades. The conflict-ridden and controversial image of the region in many tourism generating markets has negatively affected the flow of tourists to the region and hindered the development of tourism despite its wealth of cultural heritage endowments, a climate conducive to tourism and leisure resources. More recently, in the aftermath of the ‘Arab Spring ‘and the advent of Islamic extremism and fundamentalism, cultural heritage in parts of the region have been placed at risk and have witnessed large-scale devastation, destruction and looting. The latter has stressed the urgency for post-conflict reconstruction in the Middle East context. The introductory chapter provides an introduction and background to the MENA region from a geographical and historical perspective in general and the cultural and heritage tourism in the region in particular and the challenges it faces. It will also outline the development of tourism in the MENA region and identify key issues in the region with links to the chapters in the book.
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Religious tourism is one of the oldest forms of tourism and a rapidly expanding economy. Religious tourism to pilgrimage sites has existed since the dawn of time in every part of the world. People frequently went on pilgrimages despite journey inconveniences. Hence, it begs the question of the purpose of their visit and what makes their visit most efficient? The present study examined the purposes of religious tourism in the present times vs. Vedic times and proposed considerations for holistic religious tourism. For different purposes, tourists visit religious sites to obtain benefits i.e. 1) religious, 2) spiritual, 3) academic, and 4) pleasure purposes. However, this model of religious tourism is not holistic. In the Vedic model, pilgrimage sites should have religious-pious personalities and a spiritual environment for effectively guiding tourists for new resolutions in life holistic model. In addition, the pilgrimage should result in nation-building and social-cultural benefits besides building the economy. For the same purpose, spiritual practices like Yagyas and Ashwamedha were performed in Vedic times at pilgrimage sites resulting in a holistic model of religious tourism i.e. 1) pilgrimage site has Rishi like personalities, 2) tourists, locals aid in preserving natural resources, 3) culture and social upliftment resulted in nation-building. The core of keeping a holistic pilgrimage site was Yagya. Yagya is a core practice keeping Teerth alive. The Cultural campaign of Ashwamedha and live Teerth is capable of reversing the maladies that have entered public minds. The current study presents that the Ashwamedha Yagya can act as an important component of religious tourism and gives a newer dimension to religious tourism by providing holistic development of the participants at religious sites through Ashwamedha for national unity, peace, and harmony.
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Compared with China’s domestic and outbound tourism, China’s inbound tourism has developed relatively slowly. An understanding of cultural similarities and differences can support destination managers in formulating strategies and increase the satisfaction of inbound tourists. As one of the best tourist cities in China, Chengdu is an important destination for inbound tourists. Meanwhile, American tourists are the major source of tourists for Chengdu’s inbound tourism. Based on the Cultural Dimensions Theory proposed by Hofstede, this research focuses on a cross-cultural comparison of two important markets for Chengdu tourism: Chinese and American tourists. In addition, electronic word-of-mouth (E-WOM) has become an important source of tourist information, the analysis of E-WOM may provide more insights into users’ feelings than questionnaires. This study uses content analysis to quantify online reviews and importance performance analysis to compare the importance and satisfaction of Chinese and American tourists with destination attributes. The results clearly show the comparison between the two groups in destination assessment.
Article
Purpose Heritage management is underpinned by preservation, sustainability and generativity; concerns of obvious interest to domestic audiences. However, domestic tourists are not homogenous and can be differentiated by various characteristics, including proximity to the sites they visit. Drawing upon the consumer-based model of authenticity, this study investigates whether the influence of authenticity, self-connection and serious leisure hold over experience memorability differs for distinct domestic visitor groups. Design/methodology/approach To investigate perceptual differences between “local” and “non-local” domestic visitors, the authors developed and tested a conceptual model using a sample of 320 heritage site visitors within Tabriz, Iran, investigating the effects of self-connection, serious leisure and perceived authenticity on memorable tourism experiences (MTEs) for both groups. Findings Significant inter-group differences regarding the influence of serious leisure and self-connection on visitors' perceptions of authenticity emerged. Similarly, the extent to which serious leisure, self-connection and authenticity influenced MTEs also differed. The effect sizes for all proposed relationships were larger for local visitors. Originality/value Hospitality and tourism literature often focuses on the boon that inbound international and non-local domestic tourism can bring to local sites and attractions. However, the findings encourage heritage tourism managers to focus greater attention on attracting custom from “closer to home”. With local visitors demonstrating strong pre-, during and post-visit outcomes, the findings suggest local domestic visitors are a market ripe for greater investigation given ongoing international travel restrictions and Iran's historically-limited international appeal.
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To evaluate the evolution of the pilgrimage brand journey before and during covid, the present study obtains the pilgrims' consumer profiles and brand journey maps during the Umrah experience of the Bangladeshi Muslim urban elite. The initial data is collected from the in-depth interview, transcribed, codified, and then analyzed ethnographically using thematic analysis. The study findings offer significant implications in the destination brands domain, implying that brand consumption is essential to brand loyalty and advocacy, thereby extending the body of knowledge of brand love and brand loyalty.
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The success of cultural destinations often centres on whether consumers trust the provenance and integrity of the heritage assets, activities, and services therein. However, few studies examine whether this ‘perceived trust’ influences the authenticity, sincerity, and memorability of cultural heritage consumption. To investigate the relationships between these constructs, we surveyed 320 visitors to Iranian cultural heritage sites. The findings suggest that perceived trust positively influences visitors’ perceptions of sincerity, existential authenticity, and object-based authenticity, stimulating memorable experiences in the process. This, in turn, emphasises the antecedent importance of perceived trust in shaping consumption. In the face of increasing commercialisation within the cultural heritage sector more generally, we therefore encourage practitioners to prioritise safeguarding the integrity of their offerings, promoting heritage assets in a manner that stimulates perceived trust.
Article
This study was designed to identify the attributes of a halal-friendly hotel and evaluate the role of these attributes in motivating the behavioral intentions of Muslim customers. Qualitative and quantitative approaches identified 30 validation and reliability items involving five distinctive dimensions, which included halal-friendly service, facilities, foods and beverages, privacy, and customer-service equality. The findings from the structural model indicate that the proposed model sufficiently explains the variance in intentions; three attributes were positively related to cognitive evaluation, and four attributes had significant influence on affective evaluation. In addition, the results indicated that cognitive and affective evaluation worked as mediators.
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Building on prior studies in environmental behaviour and employee micro level CSR, this paper examines the role of generativity, encompassing thoughts towards the well-being of future generations and contribution to future society, and specific environmental attitudes on environmental behaviour in the home and workplace. The paper examines the relationships between these variables, including assessing spillover effects between home and workplace environmental behaviour via a quantitative survey methodology, within the hospitality industry in Iran. Analysis using PLS found generativity to be important in determining attitudes and, in turn, environmental behaviour both in the workplace and the home. However, a spillover effect between home and workplace behaviours was not found. Thus, this research adds to the limited literature on CSR at the micro employee level in tourism studies and highlights the effects of generativity on home and workplace behaviours, as well as potential directions for internal social marketing campaigns within tourism organisations.
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An expert is one who knows more and more about less and less until he knows absolutely everything about nothing”― Nicholas Murray Butler Services marketing emerged as a distinct discipline, within marketing, in the 1980’s. At the time, the first service scholars focused on conceptual investigations that explored how intangible services differed from tangible goods, and how these differences impacted management. About a decade later, service researchers codified these differences in seminal frameworks. Then, their focus turned to empirical investigations regarding how service industries could improve corporate profitability by focusing on service quality and on service design. Indeed, during the 1990’s, the famous SERVQUAL survey was conceived and tested as a driver of customer satisfaction, and ultimately, profitability in a myriad of global studies. As the millennium came to a close, service researchers focused on exploring the role of relationship marketing and more specifically, how social bonds between and among employees and customers in service settings resulted in value creation. Now that we are into the millennium, service researchers are actively exploring how the world’s largest service provider, the World Wide Web, impacts service industries.
Book
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As the Middle East continues to grow as a predominant force within the international marketplace, research into Islamic practices and culture is necessary to promote business success in the region. Emerging Research on Islamic Marketing and Tourism in the Global Economy offers in-depth perspectives on the influence of Islam on consumer behavior, the travel industry, product development, and the promotion of goods and services. Focusing on current trends and tools, comprehensive interviews, questionnaires, and emerging research, this book is an essential reference source for academicians, entrepreneurs, policymakers, university students, and educators interested in research surrounding the impact of Islam on business.
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The year 1999 marked the 300th anniversary of Khalsa when the Sikh religion was given a formal identity at Anandpur Sahib in Punjab, Northern India. Today the Sikh Diaspora stretches over many countries of the world. Sikhism, a monotheistic religion based on the universal equality of humankind, was founded in 1469 by Guru Nanak, whose message was carried on by nine successors who provided a distinct shape to the Sikh community in terms of written language, religious scriptures, and institutions. This paper examines the role of pilgrimage in Sikh scriptures and concludes that although Sikhism officially places no importance on pilgrimage, adherents travel great distances to visit sites associated with their history and traditions. The paper also investigates the reasons why so many Sikhs travel to sacred sites even though it is not encouraged or required.
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Like some other Asia-Pacific destinations Korea inbound tourism focuses primarily on Japan and China's source markets. However the rapid increase of visitation by Asian Muslim tourists in general and from Malaysia in particular is noteworthy.The present paper presents an analysis of destination brand positioning and concludes that although Korea is perceived more favorably than China, it lags Japan in terms of brand image domains other than“access to Muslim culture”.The brand awareness, association and loyalty for Korea was found to be somewhere between the equivalents for China and Japan. Respondents perceived China as more familiar than Korea and that Korea lies somewhere between the two other destinations for emotion-related items. Analyses of Muslim tourists’ preferences concluded that Malaysian Muslim tourists have different tour planning preferences and gift-giving behaviors on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics.
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Although Muslims make up one of the largest tourist markets in the world, knowledge related to the Islamic perspective on tourism is still less represented in the related literature. This study aims to assemble the theoretical foundations of Islamic tourism thoughts in relation to modern tourism paradigms. It aims to investigate the moderating effect of Islamic religiosity on the relationship between Muslim customer perceived value (MCPV) and Muslim customer satisfaction. It studies a sample of 537 Muslim tourists and employs a positivist research approach with a quantitative basis of enquiry, a survey strategy through questionnaires, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Six dimensions of Muslim customer perceived value (quality, price, emotional value, social value, Islamic physical attributes value and Islamic non-physical attributes value) were found to have positive effects on Muslim consumer satisfaction. The findings of the study suggest that Islamic religiosity moderates the effects of Islamic physical attributes value and Islamic non-physical attributes value on Muslim customer satisfaction. The findings reinforce the importance of religiosity in understanding Muslim customer satisfaction and behavior.
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Discriminant validity assessment has become a generally accepted prerequisite for analyzing relationships between latent variables. For variance-based structural equa-tion modeling, such as partial least squares, the Fornell-Larcker criterion and the examination of cross-loadings are the dominant approaches for evaluating discriminant validity. By means of a simulation study, we show that these ap-proaches do not reliably detect the lack of discriminant valid-ity in common research situations. We therefore propose an alternative approach, based on the multitrait-multimethod ma-trix, to assess discriminant validity: the heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations. We demonstrate its superior performance by means of a Monte Carlo simulation study, in which we compare the new approach to the Fornell-Larcker criterion and the assessment of (partial) cross-loadings. Finally, we provide guidelines on how to handle discriminant validity issues in variance-based structural equation modeling.
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The success of marketing destinations for Muslim tourists could be guided by observing Islamic teachings in tourism activities. This study is a trial to explore which Islamic attributes of destinations could be used a base for tailoring Halal tourist packages. Qualitative data were collected by conducting two focus group discussions and fifty three interviews in Malaysia. Two major aspects are identified which may attract Muslim tourists. Some suggestions are also presented to satisfy Muslim tourists. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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