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Chia, Salvia hispanica L., is a medicinal and dietary plant species used since ancient times by Mayan and Aztec. Its product is a dry indehiscent fruit which is commonly called seed. In recent times, there was an increasing attention and diffusion of the seeds of the plant for their health benefits and uses in cooking. In fact, seeds are a rich source of nutrients first of all the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids that protect from inflammation, enhance cognitive performance and reduce the level of cholesterol. Seeds are also rich in polyphenols derived from caffeic acid that are antioxidant compounds protecting the body from free radicals, aging and cancer. In addition, carbohydrate based fibers, present at high concentration levels, are associated with reducing inflammation, lowering cholesterol and regulating bowel function. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the seeds of this plant, with special emphasis on the nutritional, and phytochemical analysis of the plant, including the recently developed metabolomic studies.
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Chia seeds products: an overview
Bruna de Falco .Mariana Amato .Virginia Lanzotti
Received: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published online: 9 May 2017
ÓSpringer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017
Abstract Chia, Salvia hispanica L., is a medicinal
and dietary plant species used since ancient times by
Mayan and Aztec. Its product is a dry indehiscent fruit
which is commonly called seed. In recent times, there
was an increasing attention and diffusion of the seeds
of the plant for their health benefits and uses in
cooking. In fact, seeds are a rich source of nutrients
first of all the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids that
protect from inflammation, enhance cognitive perfor-
mance and reduce the level of cholesterol. Seeds are
also rich in polyphenols derived from caffeic acid that
are antioxidant compounds protecting the body from
free radicals, aging and cancer. In addition, carbohy-
drate based fibers, present at high concentration levels,
are associated with reducing inflammation, lowering
cholesterol and regulating bowel function. This review
summarizes the current knowledge on the phytochem-
istry and pharmacological properties of the seeds of
this plant, with special emphasis on the nutritional, and
phytochemical analysis of the plant, including the
recently developed metabolomic studies.
Keywords Salvia hispanica Seeds Phytochemical
analysis Nutritional value Antioxidant activity
Industrial uses Oil Fiber Mucilage
Introduction
Salvia hispanica L. (Lamiaceae), also known as Chia,
is an annual herbaceous plant, native of southern
Mexico and northern Guatemala. The genus Salvia
consists of ca 900 species (Ayerza and Coates 2005)
and its name comes from the latin word ‘‘salvere’’,
referring to the curative properties of the well known
culinary and medicinal herb Salvia officinalis (Dweck
2005). Nowadays, some species are still used all over
the world for their nutritional properties and their
beneficial effect on human health. The species S.
hispanica produces numerous dry indehiscent fruits
which are commonly called seeds. These small white
and dark seeds in pre-Columbian times, along with
corn, beans and amaranth, were one of the basic foods
in the diet of several Central American civilizations
including Mayan and Aztec populations. The seeds
had also been used like a tribute to the capital of Aztec
Empire (Codex Mendoza 1542) and offered to Aztec
gods (de Sahagun 1579). Due to its religious impli-
cations chia was banned under the rule of the European
B. de Falco V. Lanzotti (&)
Dipartimento di Agraria, Universita
`di Napoli ‘‘Federico
II’’, Via Universita
`100, Portici, 80055 Naples, Italy
e-mail: lanzotti@unina.it
M. Amato
Scuola di Scienze Agrarie, Forestali, Alimentari ed
Ambientali, Universita
`della Basilicata, Viale dell’Ateneo
Lucano 10, 85100 Potenza, Italy
123
Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760
DOI 10.1007/s11101-017-9511-7
conquerors and was re-discovered in the 1990s. Since
then it has spread in Argentina, Australia, Bolivia,
Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru and outside
America, in Australia, Africa and Europe (Bochicchio
et al. 2015). Chia is a macrothermal short-day
flowering plant. This means that Chia needs to be
sown in late spring and will not flower until late
summer or fall at high latitudes; therefore, its chances
of producing seed are low since grain filling is
hampered by frost (Ayerza and Coates 2005). As
there was no source of natural long day Chia available,
Jamboonsri et al. (2012) developed early flowering
Chia germplasm by genetic mutations. The metabo-
lomic profile of four Chia seeds early flowering
genotype, G3, G8, G17, W13.1, was studied by de
Falco et al. (2017) and compared to the profile of
commercial black and white seeds by
1
H NMR
spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis.
Results showed that W13.1 has the highest content of
many bioactive compounds, such as sucrose, raffinose,
flavonoids genistein and quercetin, as well as the
caffeoyl derivatives caffeic, chlorogenic and ros-
marinic acids. The relative content of the identified
amino acids was significantly lowest in the G3 and
highest in G17 which also showed the highest content
of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Chia seeds
commercialized today have a coat colour ranges from
black and black spotted to white. Ayerza (2013a)
showed that there is no difference in the chemical
composition between two genotypes Tzotzol and
Iztac, which produce black-spotted and white seeds,
respectively. Chia seeds is also used to increase the x-
3 fatty acid content of animal products like eggs,
poultry and rabbit (Peiretti and Meineri 2008). Several
classes of secondary metabolites belong to the sage
seeds such as flavonoids and their glycosides,
polyphenols, which are mainly composed by caffeic
acid building block, anthocyanins and proanthocyani-
dins. Fiber is one important component of Chia seeds
studied for its insoluble and soluble fraction that can
be used as foam stabiliser, suspending agent and
emulsifier for food and pharmaceutical purpose due to
its physical properties (Reyes-Caudillo et al. 2008)
including water holding capacity and viscosity
(Va
´zquez-Ovando et al. 2009). However, the chemical
composition and the amount of each class of com-
pounds in Chia seeds vary depending on several
factors including genetic modifications, environmen-
tal conditions and agricultural practices.
Chemical composition
Chia seeds have a very important role as functional
food and nutritional supplement (Coelho et al. 2014).
The composition and the concentration of their bioac-
tive compounds depend on several factors: climatic
conditions, geographical origin and by the extraction
methods (Ayerza and Coates 2004,2009a,b,2011;
Capitani et al. 2012; Ixtaina et al. 2011). Seeds are
composed by total dietary fiber from 47.1 to 59.8%
(Weber et al. 1991) and contain up to 40% of oil with
high content of unsaturated fatty acids, of which a-
linolenic acid represents up to 68% (Ayerza 1995;
Taga et al. 1984). Moreover, they are a good source of
proteins (19.0–26.5%), dietary fiber, vitamins, miner-
als and antioxidants (Bushway et al. 1981). These data
capture the attention of researchers because in the last
few years there was an increasing interest in all of these
compounds (Capitani et al. 2012; Ayerza and Coates
2004,2011). Furthermore, Chia seeds do not contains
toxic compounds and gluten, thus making seeds a safe
ingredient also for gluten free diets (Menga et al. 2017).
Caffeic acid derivatives
Caffeic acid plays an important role from both
chemical and biological point of view in Chia seeds
extract. This phenolic acid, composed by a dihydroxy-
phenyl group linked with acrylic acid, represents the
molecular skeleton of several metabolites in the
Lamiaceae family. Caffeic acid, also classified as
hydroxycinnamic acid, can be bound to quinic acid in
different positions to give rise to a class of metabolites
named caffeoylquinic acids, of which chlorogenic acid
is the most abundant in the polar extract of Chia seeds
(Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-Lo
´pez et al. 2014).
Moreover, in the metabolome of Chia seeds, are
presents monomers of caffeic acid building block but
also condensation products such as polymers
(Table 1). Monomeric derivatives including caffeic
acid itself and ferulic acid have been isolated from
Chia seeds (Ixtlahuaca
´n, Colima, Mexico) by ultra-
high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)
(Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-Lo
´pez et al. 2014). The
authors found a concentration of caffeic acid
(0.0274 mg/g) higher than that reported for mango
(0.0077 mg/g), papaya (0.0159 mg/g) and blueberry
(0.0216 mg/g), but lower than that reported for peach
746 Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760
123
Table 1 Caffeic acids derivatives and flavonoids from Salvia hispanica seeds
Chemical constituent Quantification Origin Analytical
technique
References
Caffeic acids derivatives
Caffeic acid 0.0274 mg/g Chionacalyx
(Mexico)
UHPLC Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-
Lo
´pez et al. (2014)
0.139–0.149 mg/
g
Tzotzol and Iztac
(Ecuador)
HPLC Ayerza (2013b)
0.003–0.006 mg/
g
Jalisco and Sinaloa
(Mexico)
HPLC Reyes-Caudillo et al. (2008)
0.030 mg/g l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo,
Brazil)
UPLC Coelho et al. (2014)
6.6 910
-3
mol/
kg
l.m. (West
Lafayette, US)
TLC, GLC
and UV
Taga et al. (1984)
Ferulic acid T Chionacalyx
(Mexico)
UHPLC Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-
Lo
´pez et al. (2014)
Chlorogenic acid 0.226–0.218 mg/
g
Tzotzol and Iztac
(Ecuador)
HPLC Ayerza (2013b)
0.102–0.045 mg/
g
Jalisco and Sinaloa
(Mexico)
HPLC Reyes-Caudillo et al. (2008)
0.004 mg/g l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo,
Brazil)
UPLC Coelho et al. (2014)
Rosmarinic acid 0.9267 mg/g Chionacalyx
(Mexico)
UHPLC Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-
Lo
´pez et al. (2014)
Flavonoids
Myricetin 3.1 910
-3
mol/
kg
l.m. (West
Lafayette, US)
TLC, GLC
and UV
Taga et al. (1984)
0.115–0.121 mg/
g
Tzotzol and Iztac
(Ecuador)
HPLC Ayerza (2013b)
Quercetin 0.2 910
-3
mol/
kg
l.m. (West
Lafayette, US)
TLC, GLC
and UV
Taga et al. (1984)
0.150–0.268 mg/
g
Jalisco and Sinaloa
(Mexico)
HPLC Reyes-Caudillo et al. (2008)
0.007–0.006 mg/
g
Tzotzol and Iztac
(Ecuador)
HPLC Ayerza (2013b)
0.17 lg/g l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo,
Brazil)
UPLC Coelho et al. (2014)
Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760 747
123
(0.0371 mg/g) (Balasundram et al. 2006). Ayerza
(2013a), after HPLC analysis, also reported the
chlorogenic acid as the most abundant phenol
(0.222 mg/g) followed by caffeic acid (0.144 mg/g).
These results are in agreement with those reported by
Reyes-Caudillo et al. (2008), who also analyzed Chia
seeds from Mexico using by HPLC. Particularly, he
found chlorogenic acid as the most abundant phenols
followed by caffeic acid, but the concentrations are
slightly lower (0.102 and 0.003 mg/g respectively) if
compared to Ayerza results. On the contrary, Coelho
et al. (2014) showed a high content of caffeic acid
among phenols. Caffeic acid dimers are also frequent
in Chia samples and among them rosmarinic acid is the
most abundant one. Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-Lo
´pez
et al. (2014) also reported the rosmarinic acid as the
major phenolic compound of Chia seeds (0.9267 mg/
g). Several biological activities have been described
for rosmarinic acid such as antioxidant, astringent,
anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antimutagen,
antibacterial and antiviral (Huang and Zhang, 1991;
Parnham and Kesselring 1985; Zou et al. 1992).
Looking at the details, trimers and tetramers of caffeic
acid building block, including salvianolic acid A–K
Table 1 continued
Chemical constituent Quantification Origin Analytical
technique
References
Kaempferol 1.1 910
-3
mol/
kg
l.m. (West
Lafayette, US)
TLC, GLC
and UV
Taga et al. (1984)
0.360–0.509 mg/
g
Jalisco and
Sinaloa
(Mexico)
HPLC Reyes-Caudillo et al. (2008)
0.025–0.024 mg/
g
Tzotzol and Iztac
(Ecuador)
HPLC Ayerza (2013b)
Daidzin 0.006 mg/g Chionacalyx
(Mexico)
UHPLC Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-
Lo
´pez et al. (2014)
Glycitein 0.0005 mg/g Chionacalyx
(Mexico)
UHPLC Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-
Lo
´pez et al. (2014)
Glycitin 0.0014 mg/g Chionacalyx
(Mexico)
UHPLC Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-
Lo
´pez et al. (2014)
Genistein
0.0051 mg/g Chionacalyx
(Mexico)
UHPLC Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-
Lo
´pez et al. (2014)
Genistin 0.0034 mg/g Chionacalyx
(Mexico)
UHPLC Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-
Lo
´pez et al. (2014)
Ttraces, l.m. purchased from local market
748 Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760
123
Table 2 Chemical constituents from Oil of chia seeds
Chemical constituent Quantification
(%)
Origin Analytical technique References
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Arachidonic acid
(C20:4)
0.13 l.m. (Yucatan, Mexico) GC–MS Segura-Campos et al.
(2014a)
Eicosatrienoic acid
(C20:3)
0.01 l.m. (Yucatan, Mexico) GC–MS Segura-Campos et al.
(2014a)
0.03 l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil) GC Coelho et al. (2014)
a-linolenic acid (C18:3) 62.02 l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil) GC Coelho et al. (2014)
64.5 and 63.3 Tzotzol and Iztac
(Ecuador)
HPLC Ayerza (2013b)
57.71 and 58.39 Peru and Australia HPLC–MS Amato et al. (2015)
68.52 l.m. (Yucatan, Mexico) GC–MS Segura-Campos et al.
(2014a)
69.0 l.m. (West Lafayette,
US)
GLC Taga et al. (1984)
62.80 l.m. (Santiago, Chile) GC-EASI(?)-MS da Silva Marineli et al.
(2014)
63.4 Catamarca (Argentina) GLC Ayerza (1995)
62.7
62.4
52.0
60.7
63.20 Northwestern Argentina GLC Ayerza and Coates (2004)
57.50
58.55
54.20
62.00
62.20
61.65
64.20
64.5 and 66.7 Argentina and
Guatemala
Pressing and solvent extract,
GC
Ixtaina et al. (2011)
65.6 and 69.3
Linoleic acid (C18:2) 17.5 and 18.4 Tzotzol and Iztac HPLC Ayerza (2013b)
18.82 and 20.74 Peru and Australia HPLC–MS Amato et al. (2015)
17.36 l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil) GC Coelho et al. (2014)
15.3 l.m. (West Lafayette,
US)
GLC Taga et al. (1984)
20.40 l.m. (Yucatan, Mexico) GC–MS Segura-Campos et al.
(2014a)
18.23 l.m. (Santiago, Chile) GC-EASI(?)-MS da Silva Marineli et al.
(2014)
19.8 Catamarca (Argentina) GLC Ayerza (1995)
20.2
20.8
20.3
20.3
18.00 Northwestern Argentina GLC Ayerza and Coates (2004)
Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760 749
123
Table 2 continued
Chemical constituent Quantification
(%)
Origin Analytical technique References
19.25
19.10
20.50
20.30
20.10
21.05
18.35
20.3 and 17.5 Argentina and Guatemala Pressing and solvent extract,
GC
Ixtaina et al. (2011)
19.7 and 16.6
Monounsaturated fatty acids
Oleic acid (C18:1) 6.65 and 6.8 Tzotzol and Iztac
(Ecuador)
HPLC Ayerza (2013b)
10.55 l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil) GC Coelho et al. (2014)
7.30 and 7.04 Peru and Australia HPLC–MS Amato et al. (2015)
7.6 l.m. (West Lafayette, US) GLC Taga et al. (1984)
2.43 l.m. (l.m. (Yucatan,
Mexico)
GC–MS Segura-Campos et al.
(2014a)
7.04 l.m. (Santiago, Chile) GC-EASI(?)-MS da Silva Marineli et al.
(2014)
7.3 Catamarca (Argentina) GLC Ayerza (1995)
7.8
7.3
7.6
8.2
3.40 Northwestern Argentina GLC Ayerza and Coates (2004)
3.50
10.30
13.25
7.15
6.75
6.85
6.90
5.4 and 5.5 Argentina and Guatemala Pressing and solvent extract,
GC
Ixtaina et al. (2011)
5.3 and 5.8
Palmitoleic acid
(C16:1)
0.09 l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil) GC Coelho et al. (2014)
T l.m. (West Lafayette, US) GLC Taga et al. (1984)
0.06 l.m. (l.m. (Yucatan,
Mexico)
GC–MS Segura-Campos et al.
(2014a)
0.08 l.m. (Santiago, Chile) GC-EASI(?)-MS da Silva Marineli et al.
(2014)
750 Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760
123
Table 2 continued
Chemical
constituent
Quantification
(%)
Origin Analytical technique References
Saturated fatty acids
Stearic acid (C18:0) 2.67 l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil) GC Coelho et al. (2014)
3.65 and 4.1 Tzotzol and Iztac
(Ecuador)
HPLC Ayerza (2013b)
2.99 and 3.19 Peru and Australia HPLC–MS Amato et al. (2015)
2.9 l.m. (West Lafayette, US) GLC Taga et al. (1984)
0.29 l.m. (l.m. (Yucatan,
Mexico)
GC–MS Segura-Campos et al.
(2014a)
3.36 l.m. (Santiago, Chile) GC-EASI(?)-MS da Silva Marineli et al.
(2014)
3.3 Catamarca (Argentina) GLC Ayerza (1995)
3.1
3.1
3.1
3.7
3.40 Northwestern Argentina GLC Ayerza and Coates (2004)
3.50
3.55
3.55
2.95
2.75
2.75
3.00
3.1 and 4.4 Argentina and Guatemala Pressing and solvent extract,
GC
Ixtaina et al. (2011)
3.0 and 2.7
Margaric acid
(C17:0)
0.06 l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil) GC Coelho et al. (2014)
0.07 l.m. (Santiago, Chile) GC-EASI(?)-MS da Silva Marineli et al.
(2014)
Palmitic acid
(C16:0)
12.32 and 10.17 Peru and Australia HPLC–MS Amato et al. (2015)
5.2 l.m. (West Lafayette, US) GLC Taga et al. (1984)
6.5 and 6.2 Tzotzol and Iztac
(Ecuador)
GC Ayerza (2013b)
6.69 l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil) GC Coelho et al. (2014)
7.47 l.m. (Yucatan, Mexico) GC–MS Segura-Campos et al.
(2014a)
7.07 l.m. (Santiago, Chile) GC-EASI(?)-MS da Silva Marineli et al.
(2014)
6.2 Catamarca (Argentina) GLC Ayerza (1995)
6.3
6.4
7.1
6.9
7.25 Northwestern Argentina GLC Ayerza and Coates (2004)
Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760 751
123
and lithospermic acid, were reported from other Salvia
species such as S. miltiorrhiza,S. officinalis, S.
cavaleriei,S. flava,S. chinensis (Ai et al. 1994;Ai
and Li 1992; Lu and Foo 1999,2001; Zhang and Li
1994). However, from the best of our knowledge, there
are no reports showing the presence of salvianolic and
lithospermic acids in Chia seeds.
Flavonoids
Flavonoids, ubiquitous compounds present in plants,
belong to a polyphenolic subclass having a fifteen-
carbon skeleton which consist of two benzene rings (A
and B) linked via a heterocyclic pyrane ring (C). They
are the major responsible for color, taste and preven-
tion of fat oxidation in food (Yao et al. 2004).
Flavonoids have many biochemical activities such as
antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, anti-in-
flammatory, anticancer and antiviral (Critchfield et al.
1996; Cushnie and Lamb 2005; Li et al. 2000; Zandi
et al. 2011; Zhu et al. 2012). They are widely
distributed in Chia seeds and their synthesis increase
as a result of microbial infection (Dixon et al. 1983).
Taga et al. (1984) reported the presence of myrcetin,
quercetin and kaempferol in methanolic hydrolyzed
extracts of Chia seeds and evaluated their antioxidant
activity (see below and Table 1). Reyes-Caudillo et al.
(2008) also studied both hydrolyzed and crude extracts
of Chia seeds obtained from two different regions of
Mexico. They identified quercitin-phenolic glycosides
and kaempferol–phenolic glycosides as the major
components of the crude extract. After hydrolysis of
the extract the authors quantified the free aglycon
forms as quercitin 0.150 and 0.268 mg/g and kaemp-
ferol 0.360 mg/g e 0.509 mg/g in Jalisco and Sinaloa
Table 2 continued
Chemical constituent Quantification (%) Origin Analytical technique References
7.65
7.60
7.65
6.55
7.40
6.95
7.15
6.6 and 5.9 Argentina and
Guatemala
Pressing and solvent
extract, GC
Ixtaina et al. (2011)
6.2 and 5.5
Pentadecanoic acid
(C15:0)
0.05 l.m. (Santiago, Chile) GC-EASI(?)-MS da Silva Marineli et al.
(2014)
0.03 l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil) GC Coelho et al. (2014)
Myristic acid (C14:0) 0.07 l.m. (Santiago, Chile) GC-EASI(?)-MS da Silva Marineli et al.
(2014)
0.03 l.m. (Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil) GC Coelho et al. (2014)
Tocopherols
a-Tocopherol 7.53–7.46 mg/kg Peru and Australia HPLC Amato et al. (2015)
d-Tocopherol 12.99–13.45 mg/kg Peru and Australia HPLC Amato et al. (2015)
c-Tocopherol 457.38–489.52 mg/
kg
Peru and Australia HPLC Amato et al. (2015)
225 and 325 mg/kg Argentina and Guatemala Pressing and solvent
extract, HPLC
Ixtaina et al. (2011)
250 and 410 mg/kg
Pigment
Chlorophyll 1.80–2.40 mg/kg Peru and Australia spectrophotometry Amato et al. (2015)
% of total fatty acids; mg/kg of oil chia seed
Ttrace, l.m. purchased from local market
752 Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760
123
seeds, respectively. On the contrary, Ayerza (2013a)
reported myrcetin as the major flavonols in the Tzotzol
and Iztac Chia seeds genotypes (0.115 and 0.121 mg/g
respectively) followed by kaempferol and quercitin.
Another research on Chia seeds var. Chionacalyx from
Mexico was achieved by Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-
Lo
´pez et al. (2014), who detected daidzin, glycitin,
genistin, glycitein, and genistein as the major
isoflavones in the phenolic extract. Daidzin was found
at the concentration of 0.066 mg/g of sample. To note
that recently Lowe et al. (2008) reported such
compound at high concentration (4.685 mg/g) in
Kudzu roots, Pueraria lobate, as naturally occurring
anti-alcohol-addiction agent in complex with human
mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.
Oil composition
Since ancient times oil extracted from Chia seeds has
been used in the traditional medicine against eye
infections and for the treatment of stomach disorders
(Lu and Foo 2002; Reyes-Caudillo et al. 2008). Chia
seeds oil ranges from 25 to 50% and contains high
concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (Bush-
way et al. 1981; Taga et al. 1984) (Table 2; Fig. 1).
Research demonstrated that oil extracted from Chia
seeds also contain several phenolic compounds such as
tocopherols, phytosterols and carotenoids with their
related antioxidant activity that play a very important
role in the deterioration of the oil due to lipid oxidation
(Matthaus 2002; Ixtaina et al. 2011). A consumption
of 7.3 g of chia seed per day provides 100% of the
recommended intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which
help to prevent chronic diseases related to diet. It was
widely demonstrated that in S. hispanica seeds x-3 is
the most abundant component among fatty acids, in
particular, the content of a-linolenic acid (C18:3) is
over than 50% of all fatty acids (Palma et al. 1947;
Ayerza 1995,2011; Segura-Campos et al. 2014a).
Therefore, Chia seed can be considered as a natural
source of x-3 which play a very important role in
human nutrition and in human health due to its anti-
inflammatory, antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic
activity (Garg et al. 2006; Geelen et al. 2004; Din
et al. 2004; Wall et al. 2010). da Silva Marineli et al.
(2014) characterized the Chia seed oil from Chile
using the positive ion easy ambient sonic-spray
ionization mass spectrometry (EASI MS) technique
and reported ranks of fatty acids abundance in the
following order: a-linolenic acid (62.8%), linoleic
acid (18.23%), palmitic acid (7.07%), oleic acid
(7.04%) and stearic acid (3.36%). These results are
in agreement with those reported in other studies
(Ayerza 1995; Ayerza and Coates 2004). Amato et al.
(2015) reported the first data on the quality of Chia
seeds produced in Europe, from an experiment
conducted in Basilicata (South Italy), particularly the
oil extracted from Italian Chia seeds was not signif-
icantly different from those grown in traditional area
(Peru) and in a new area (Australia). However, the oil
extracted in Italy was more rich in chlorophyll,
carotenoids and a-linolenic acid but showed a higher
Fig. 1 Chemical structures
of fatty acids from chia
seeds
Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760 753
123
free acidity and peroxides. As mentioned previously,
chemical composition and oil yield can be affected by
several factors such as extraction technique and
geographical area. For example, Ixtaina et al. (2011)
used two extraction techniques to obtain oil from Chia
seeds purchased from different source, Argentina and
Guatemala. In both seeds, the oil yield was much
lower in pressing than in solvent extraction (20.30 and
24.8% compared to 26.70 and 33.6%, respectively).
This finding is in agreement with that reported by
Da˛browski et al. (2016), who also evaluated the
influence of the extraction method on the composition
of Chia seed oil. In fact, the recovery of oil was
reported lower by pressing than by extraction
methods.
Another important example is the study conducted
on the effect of six different ecosystems of South
America on the protein and oil contents, fatty acid
composition and peroxide index of Chia seeds from
Argentina (Ayerza and Coates 2004; Ayerza 2013b).
The authors demonstrated that the chemical compo-
sition of the seeds is widely affected by the location
and environmental factors such as temperature, light
and soil type.
Storage proteins
Olivos-Lugo et al. (2010) determined the thermal,
functional and nutritional properties of chia seeds
proteins by differential scanning calorimetry, gelling,
foaming, water-holding capacity and oil-holding
capacity, amino-acid profile, chemical score and
in vitro digestibility tests. They found the protein
fraction composed by albumins (39 g/kg protein),
globulins (70 g/kg protein), prolamins (538 g/kg pro-
tein) and glutelins (230 g/kg protein). Ayerza and
Coates (2011) determined the total protein content of
chia seeds grown at different altitudes as crude
nitrogen composition by a standard micro-Kjeldahl
method using a 5.71 conversion factor. They found a
general decrease of protein content as the altitude of
the seed grown location increased. On 2012 the seed
storage proteins of chia seeds were studied by
Sandoval-Oliveros and Paredes-Lo
´pez that reported
the main protein fraction corresponding to globulins
(52%). This fraction was showed to contain mostly
11S and 7S proteins whose molecular sizes ranged
from 15 to 50 kDa and electrophoretic experiments,
under native conditions, confirmed four bands of
globulins in the range of 104–628 kDa. The denatu-
ration temperatures of crude albumins, globulins,
prolamins, and glutelins were 103, 105, 85.6, and
91 °C thus indicating a good thermal stability for
albumins and globulins. Selected globulin peptides
analyzed by mass spectrometry showed homology to
sesame proteins. A good balance of essential amino
acids was found in the seed flour and globulins,
especially for methionine and cysteine (Sandoval-
Oliveros and Paredes-Lo
´pez 2012).
Fibers
Chia seeds constitute a potential ingredient in food
industry applications due to its dietary fiber content.
Since the early 1950s, it was discovered the impor-
tance of the fibers for human health and nutrition. On
1953, Hipsley first coined the multiple term ‘‘dietary
fiber’’. Later on, Trowell redefined the term as the
remnants of plant components that are resistant to
hydrolysis by human alimentary enzymes (Hipsley
1953; Trowell et al. 1976). Nowadays the definition
is broader including not only the plant components
but all the carbohydrate polymers with C10 mono-
meric units, which are not hydrolyzed by the
endogenous enzymes in the small intestine of
humans (Codex Alimentarius Commission 2009).
Dietary fiber is a class of compounds including
oligosaccharides and polysaccharides such as cellu-
lose and hemicellulose that may be associated with
other components (e.g., lignin, pectins, gums and
mucilage). The total dietary fiber (TDF) has become
an important component of the diet, especially for
their physiological functionality based on the swel-
ling property after water absorption, due to the
presence of carbohydrates with free polar groups that
interact with hydrophilic links within the matrix
leading to formation of gel and consequent increase
of peristalsis. Published reports indicate that many
health benefits are associated to the intake of TDF. In
fact, the fiber has prebiotic effect and it is active on
coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, dia-
betes, obesity and gastrointestinal disorders (Lairon
et al. 2005; Liu et al. 1999; Montonen et al. 2003;
Petruzziello et al. 2006; Steffen et al. 2003; Whelton
et al. 2005). Chia seed is a good source of TDF,
which are composed by soluble dietary fiber (SDF)
and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF). Particularly, the
754 Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760
123
SDF are partially expelled from the seed as
mucilaginous gel when it comes in contact with
water, and fermented in the colon (Anderson et al.
2009). On the contrary, IDF may only be fermented
to a limited extent in the colon (Anderson et al.
2009). TDF in Chia seeds from Chile were analysed
using enzymatic gravimetric AOAC method by da
Silva Marineli et al. (2014) which reported higher
amount of TDF (37.50 g/100 g) with predominant
IDF (35.07 g/100 g), these findings agree with other
reports (Capitani et al. 2012; Weber et al. 1991), but
lower amount were reported by Ayerza (2013a)
(TDF 24.56 g/100 g with IDF 14.35 g/100 g). The
same analytical technique was used by Reyes-
Caudillo et al. (2008), who characterized TDF in
Jalisco and Sinaloa seeds (S. hispanica L.), partic-
ularly, the SDF and IDF content of Jalisco seeds
were 6.84 and 34.9 g/100 g, respectively, while in
Sinaloa seeds 6.16 and 32.87 g/100 g, respectively.
The main component found in IDF was the Klason
lignin, which plays an important role in the protec-
tion of unsaturated fats and it is responsible for the
hypocholesterolemic activity associated with fiber
intake (Tolba et al. 2011). The percentage of neutral
sugars was also reported in both fractions,
13.79–14.97% and 4.69–5.12% for IDF and SDF,
respectively. Highest amount of the insoluble fiber-
rich fraction (FRF) was also detected in S. hispanica
seeds from Mexico by Va
´zquez-Ovando et al.
(2009). Particularly they evaluated the FRF obtained
by dry processing of defatted flour of Chia seeds and
reported 29.56 g/100 g of crude fiber content,
56.46 g/100 g of TDF content, of which 53.45 g/
100 g was IDF and 3.01 g/100 g was SDF. Com-
pared to other reports, these values clearly show that
dry fractionation with 100 mesh effectively concen-
trated TDF content.
A part of the fiber in chia is located in the outer cells
of the fruit and is partly extruded from the fruit surface
upon hydration in the form of a clear mucilaginous
capsule which adheres firmly to the fruit itself.
Capitani et al. (2013) described this process using
scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after 5, 10, 30
and 60 min after Chia seeds become wetted. Chia
mucilage is part of the SDF (Ayerza and Coates 2001;
Reyes-Caudillo et al. 2008) and in order to obtain high
amount of mucilage, Mun
˜oz et al. (2012a) performed
the extraction with different seeds/distilled water ratio,
pH and temperature condition. An optimum yield
value (7%) was achieved at 80 °C with pH =8 and
seed/water ratio of 1:40. Chia seed gum (CSG) is
mainly composed by sugars as xylose, glucose,
arabinose, galactose, glucuronic and galacturonic
acids, but little is known about the whole chemical
structure of mucilage (Timilsena et al. 2016). From the
best of our knowledge, the only tentative structural
identification of mucilage was proposed by Lin et al.
(1994), who obtained b-D-xylose, a-D-glucose and
4-O-methyl-a-D-glucuronic acids by acid hydrolysis
and characterized a tetrasaccharide with 4-O- methyl -
a-D-glucoronopyranosyl residues occurring as
branches of b-D-xylopyranosyl on the main chain
using by mass spectrometry and
13
CNMR
spectroscopy.
Total polyphenolic content and their antioxidant
activity
Chia seeds and oil contain a large number of natural
antioxidant such as tocopherols, phytosterols, carote-
noids (A
´lvarez-Cha
´vez et al. 2008), polyphenolic
compounds which are mainly constructed from the
caffeic acid building block and flavonoids, including
the flavones myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. This
class of compounds is the main responsible for the
antioxidant activity of Chia seeds due to their ability to
scavenge free-radicals, to chelate metal ions and to
donate hydrogens. In particular, the B ring of flavones
is the major responsible of ROS and RNS scavenging
activity because the transfer of a hydrogen and an
electron to hydroxyl, peroxyl, and peroxynitrite rad-
icals, that stabilize them giving rise to a relatively
stable flavonoid radical (Cao et al. 1997). Antioxidant
compounds reduce the risk of chronic diseases
including cancer and heart disease, they offer protec-
tion against some disorders such atherosclerosis,
stroke, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases such
as Alzheimer and Parkinson (Vuksan et al. 2007;Wu
et al. 1998; Yagi et al. 1989; Zhao et al. 1996). The
highest amount of total polyphenol was found by
Martı
´nez-Cruz and Paredes-Lo
´pez et al. (2014)
(1.6398 ±0.2081 mg GAE/g of Chia seed, S. his-
panica L. var. Chionacalyx) who developed an
ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography
(UHPLC) method for the analysis of phenolic com-
pounds and isoflavones content. Although, the results
of Amato et al. (2015) are lower (0.53–0.98 mg
Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760 755
123
GAE/g of Chia seed), they are in agreement with other
studies (de Falco et al. 2017; da Silva Marineli et al.
2014; Porras-Loaiza et al. 2014; Reyes-Caudillo et al.
2008; Coelho et al. 2014). The antioxidant activity of
hydrolysed and nonhydrolyzed extract of Chia seeds
was also evaluated by using the oxidation reaction of
b-carotene and linoleic acid (Miller 1971). Results
showed flavanols glycosides as the major antioxidant
in the nonhydrolyzed extract followed by chlorogenic
acid and caffeic acid, while in the hydrolysed fraction
caffeic acid is the major antioxidant source and
myricetin has ca. 1.5 times the activity of quercetin
followed by kaempferol (Taga et al. 1984). Other
methods were used over the years to evaluate the
antioxidant activity, for example ABTS
?
, DPPH
, and
FRAP were used by Sargi et al. (2013) to analyse Chia
seeds obtained from Brazil and they reported
2.56 ±0.03; 1.72 ±0.09 and 2.86 ±0.10 mmol
TEAC/g, respectively. Antioxidant activity, quantified
with the ABTS
?
decolorization assay, was also
evaluated on Chia seeds obtained from Mexico and
Argentina, but lower values were detected, 0.446 and
0.488 mmol TEAC/g, respectively (Capitani et al.
2012;Va
´zquez-Ovando et al. 2009). As mentioned
before, the growth of Chia in different places can
affect the chemical composition of seeds. da Silva
et al. (2017) reported that Chia grown in Rio Grande
do Sul showed higher concentration of lipids, minerals
and antioxidant capacity (478.2 ±0.02 lmol TEAC/
g sample) than Chia grown in Mato Grosso
(466.3 ±0.06 lmol TEAC/g sample).
Industrial uses
Chia gum
Dietary fibers in foods have not only physiological
functionality for their beneficial effect on human
health but also technological functionality which
greatly depends on hydration properties (Borderı
`as
et al. 2005). These are water-holding and absorption
capacity, solubility and swelling, viscosity and
gelling.
Chia is a starting material in the food industry for its
dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from
dietary fiber fraction of Chia by treatment of seeds
with water for use as an additive to control viscosity,
stability, texture, and consistency in food systems
(Capitani et al. 2015). The gum is also stable at high
temperature (up to 244 °C), thus making gum
extracted from chia seed as a promising agent in high
value food formulations (Timilsena et al. 2016).
Segura-Campos et al. (2014b) studied the chemical
and functional properties of Chia seed gum and
reported the ability to water holding (110.5 g/g) as
an important physicochemical characteristic in the
food industry. Chia gum was shown to contain the
26.2% of fat and when submitted to fat extraction
produced two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum
partially defatted (PDCG) (Segura-Campos et al.
2014b). The PDCG has high content of protein, ash
and carbohydrate than the FCG. The authors compared
functional properties of fatted and defatted Chia gum
reporting lower oil holding ability (11.67 g/g) and
water absorption (36.26 g/g) in defatted gum, and
greater retention oil holding (25.79 g/g) and water
absorption (44.08 g/g) in fatted gum.
Fiber fraction
As mentioned before, the FRF is mainly composed of
insoluble dietary fiber (94.6%) with only a very minor
amount of soluble fiber (5.4%) (Va
´zquez-Ovando
et al. 2009). The authors obtained FRF from defatted
Chia flour to determine its possible applications in
products requiring hydration. The FRF water-holding
capacity was 15.41 g/g, higher than reported for soy
bean, wheat and maize hulls (Mongeau and Brassard
1982; Yeh et al. 2005). This may be due to the
particular structure of the mucilage and to hemicellu-
lose and lignin ratio. In contrast, Chia FRF had a low
oil-holding capacity of 2.02 g oil/g sample. They also
evaluated other two important properties of Chia FRF,
that were the emulsifying activity, which is the ability
to facilitates the solubilization or dispersion of two
immiscible liquids, and the emulsifying stability, the
ability to maintain an emulsion (53.26 mL/100 mL
and 94.84 mL/100 mL, respectively). Its emulsifying
activity may be due to the high content of protein
28.14 g/100 g in FRF, which are strong emulsifying
agents (Pearce and Kinsella 1978). It can be therefore
a valid alternative in foods as foam stabilizer and
emulsifier. Microstructural features of Chia seeds
were also studied by light and scanning electron
microscopy by Mun
˜oz et al. (2012a), who explained
the great capacity of Chia mucilage hydration report-
ing a water retention of 27 times of its own weight,
756 Phytochem Rev (2017) 16:745–760
123
almost double that those reported by Va
´zquez-Ovando
et al. (2009), in which only the FRF was hydrated.
Later on, they produced a mixture of mucilage of S.
hispanica and whey protein concentrates in propor-
tions 1:3 and 1:4 as a new source of polymer blends to
develop coatings and edible films which may be used
as protective water vapor barrier (Mun
˜oz et al. 2012b).
It is also used as such or in whole-seeds as a
component of biodegradable film (Capitani et al.
2016), thickening agent for bread and pasta, especially
in gluten-free formulations (e.g., Menga et al. 2017),
cosmetic use and medical uses (Vuksan et al. 2010).
Recent studies demonstrated that Chia seeds have
great potential on the development of healthy and
good-quality meat and fish products. Scapin et al.
(2015) reported that hydroethanol extract of chia seeds
at concentration of 2% decreases lipid oxidation of the
pork sausages and can be used as a natural antioxidant.
A more recent report conducted by Ding et al. (2017)
demonstrated that a combination of Chia (1%) and
carrageenan (0.5%) increases production yield of
restructured ham-like products and decreases lipid
and protein oxidation. Chia oil also contributed to an
enhancement in the nutritional quality of tilapia fillets
(Oreochromis niloticus), both in terms of fatty acids
content (especially omega-3) and total antioxidant
capacity (Montanher et al. 2016). It has been reported
that macerated chia seeds in methanol show an anti-
corrosion effect on steel mainly attributed to the
unsaturated fatty acids (Hermoso-Diaz et al. 2014).
Conclusion
Salvia hispanica L. is a plant known since ancient
times whose seeds were used as a basic food in the diet
of Mayan and Aztec populations. Chia seeds are a
good source of nutraceuticals and a number of reports
have shown their beneficial effects on human health
due to their chemical composition. They are rich in
dietary fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids, espe-
cially a-linolenic acid. S. hispanica seeds also contain
high amount of polyphenols, including caffeic and
chlorogenic acids, myricetin, quercetin and kaemp-
ferol, which give rise to high antioxidant activity. Due
to its mucilaginous gel, Chia seeds can be also used in
cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food companies as
protective agent against moisture, foam stabilizer
and emulsifier agents for its particular composition
rich in carbohydrates. However, further studies are
needed to fully clarify the molecular structure of Chia
mucilage.
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... According to data from 2014, the global artificial cultivation of S. hispanica accounted for 370,000 ha in 33 countries (Benetoli da Bordin-Rodrigues, 2021;Grancieri et al., 2021). In recent years, Chia seeds have become one of the world's most recognizable foods based on their nutritional properties and medicinal values (De Falco et al., 2017;Das, 2018;Mohd Ali et al., 2012). The yield of CSO was found to be near 26.6% in the Australian, Mexican, Guatemalan, and Bolivian chia seeds (Segura-Campos et al., 2014) rather higher for Argentinian chia seeds, which is approximately 35.6−38.6% and slightly lesser than groundnuts (37.8%), sunflower seeds (∼48.0%), and rapeseeds (∼36.0%) ...
... The latter one enhances inflammation while omega 3 reduces it (Gil, 2002). CSO also contains caffeic acid derivatives like rosemaric acid, which has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities (De Falco et al., 2017). Mohamed et al. (2020) proved that CSO which was extracted by pressing method (oil yield 33%) has anti-inflammatory potential when tested on rats (Obese and non-obese) in his study. ...
... Chia seeds were believed to be "novel natural food" in ancient culture due to its therapeutic and nutritional benefits to human health (Kulczyński et al., 2019). Similarly, chia seeds were traditionally employed in the preparation of folk food, cosmetics, religious rituals, and medicines in Columbian communities (De Falco et al., 2017). Nevertheless, studies that were conducted to understand the nutritional qualities have described chia seeds as a powerhouse of various active ingredients such as omega-6-fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, vitamins (A, B, K, E, D), minerals, high-quality proteins, and a wide array of polyphenolic antioxidants (KnezHrnčič et al., 2019;Ullah et al., 2016). ...
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Chia seed oil (CSO) has been recently gaining tremendous interest as a functional Q2 food. The oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), tocopherols, phenolic acids, vitamins, and antioxidants. Extracting CSO through green technologies has been highly efficient, cost-effective, and sustainable, which has also shown to improve its nutritional potential and proved to be more eco-friendly than any other traditional or conventional process. Due to the presence of valuable bioactive metabolites, CSO is proving to be a revolutionary source for food, baking, dairy, pharmaceutical, livestock feed, and cosmetic industries. CSO has been reported to possess antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, insect-repellent, and skin-healing properties. However, studies on toxicological safety and commercial potency of CSO are limited and therefore the need of the hour is to focus on large-scale molecular mechanistic and clinical studies, which may throw light on the possible translational opportunities of CSO to be utilized to its complete potential. In this review, we have deliberated on the untapped therapeutical possibilities and novel findings of this functional food, its biochemical composition, extraction methods, nutritional profiling, oil stability, and nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications for its health benefits and ability to counter various diseases.
... Chia seed has widely been accepted for different food applications, including breakfast cereals, bread, cookies, snacks, bars, fruit juices, and yogurt [22,23]. Previously, as a soluble gel, the chia mucilage was incorporated in the pound cake, and almost 25% fat reduction was made without any major change in the cake quality [5]. ...
... In the case of crust color, a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in cake lightness was noticed with increasing the CSF level from 0 to 7% (Table 6). e carotenoids and chlorophyll in the chia seed coat [22] might have rendered the cake color relatively darker than the control (CSF0). Moreover, the enhanced production of Maillard reaction products due to higher proteins in the cake batter might have enhanced the darkness of the cake crust. ...
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... The bioactive components in chia Table 3 Transparency (T), moisture content (ω), tensile strength (TS) and elongation at break (E) of nanocomposite polymer films. seeds may vary depending on different factors such as climatic conditions, geographical origin, agricultural practices, and accordingly the efficiency of the obtained extract may also change [55]. It is seen that SC2 is the most remarkable mucilage among chia seed mucilages obtained at different temperatures. ...
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Abstract Grain-based food products constitute an important part of the daily diet. Throughout history cereals have been an important source of protein, dietary fiber, bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and they still maintain their importance today. Cereal-based foods such as bread and porridge were already an important part of the human diet in prehistoric times. There is strong evidence that prehistoric man was able to prepare gruel from grain and water. Nowadays, there is now a renewed interest in foods based on ancient grains, as consumers often consider such foods to be healthy and sustainable. Due to the increasing demands for adaptation and the urgent need to preserve genetic diversity, interest in ancient grains is increasing day by day in farmers and the food industry. However, in the narrowest sense “grains that have not changed genetically in the last few hundred years” is defined as whereas; in the most general sense, it can be defined as “certain types of cereal grains, pseudocerealsand pulses that have been traditionally grown and consumed for hundreds of years and have undergone a relatively limited genetic change”. The importance of genetic resources derived from ancient grains has also been emphasized by many authors as they can adapt to changing environmental conditions resulting from global climate change. In this review, information about the compositional properties of ancient grains and their potential effects on human health and their current use (potential) has been tried to be summarized. Keywords: Ancient grains, nutrient composition, pulses, wholegrain
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome. Diabetes has become more common in recent years. Chemically generated drugs are used to lessen the effects of DM and its following repercussions due to unpleasant side effects such as weight gain, gastrointestinal issues, and heart failure. On the other hand, medicinal plants could be a good source of anti-diabetic medications. This article aims to determine any plant matrix’s positive potential. Food restriction, physical activity, and the use of antidiabetic plant-derived chemicals are all being promoted as effective ways to manage diabetes because they are less expensive and have fewer or no side effects. This review focuses on antidiabetic plants, along with their bioactive constituent, chemically characterization, and plantbased diets for diabetes management. There is minimal scientific data about the mechanism of action of the plant-based product has been found. The purpose of this article is to highlight anti-diabetic plants and plantderived bioactive compounds that have anti-diabetic properties. It also provides researchers with data that may be used to build future strategies, such as identifying promising bioactive molecules to make diabetes management easier.
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The metabolic profile of the seeds of seven Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) populations, three commercial (two black, and one white) and four early flowering genotypes (G3, G8, G17, W13.1), was investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The research aimed at evaluating the chemical composition of the different genotypes both from a qualitative point of view, through the identification of the major classes of organic compounds by NMR analysis, and from a quantitative point of view, through the integration of NMR spectra followed by Principal Component Analysis and chemometrics. Results showed that apolar organic extracts were mainly composed of mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as-linolenic acid, while polar organic extracts contained the sugars glucose, raffinose and sucrose as the main metabolites, together with caffeoyl derivatives, flavonoids, organic acids, and free amino acids. Tashinone I and 15,16 dihy-dro Tanshinone I were detected in Chia seeds for the first time. Chemometric results showed significant differences in the metabolic fingerprinting of the different populations, with the content of most of the detected metabolites showing higher variation in the seeds of early flowering genotypes compared to commercial seeds. In particular, black genotypes are richest in carbohydrates comparing to the early flowering and white genotypes. The analysis was also extended to two black samples grown in Basili-cata (Southern Italy) to evaluate the effect of agronomic management, such as fertilization with mineral nitrogen, on the metabolite composition. The obtained data indicated that the effect of mineral nitrogen supply positively affected the content of aliphatic free amino acids, and negatively that of the main carbohydrates and flavonoids, while the pools of caffeoyl derivatives, organic and fatty acids remained almost unaffected.
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A gluten-free pasta was prepared adding chia at rice flour for testing the thickening and nutritional properties of this specie. Chemical analysis showed chia is a source of protein (19.52% and 15.81%, seeds and mucilage respectively), insoluble/soluble dietary fiber ratio (4.3 and 1.79 seeds and mucilage respectively), fat and ash content. The total phenolic acids content ranged from 734.5 μg/g to 923.9 μg/g for seeds and mucilage respectively. Chia was a good thickening agent and, improved the nutritional profile of enriched samples compared to CGF. After cooking TPAs increased in all samples, ranging from 5.3% in DW to 52.8% in CM5. The addition of chia seeds also increased the slowly digestible starch fraction of rice flour, commonly known to have a high glycemic index. Results suggest that chia should be added as thickening agent in the formulation of GF pasta for conferring healthier characteristics.
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This study investigated and compared the occurrence and concentration of macronutrients, moisture, ash, dietary fiber, fatty acids, minerals, carotenoids, vitamins, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, phytate and tannin in Brazilian chia seeds grown in the states of Mato Grosso (MT) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). High concentrations of lipids (31.2 g.100 g⁻¹, on average), proteins (18.9 g.100 g⁻¹, on average), dietary fiber (35.3 g.100 g⁻¹, on average), vitamin E (8,203.6 μg.100 g⁻¹, on average) were observed. Similar values for total phenolic compounds and phytic acid in chia seeds from both regions were observed. Chia grown in RS showed higher antioxidant activity than chia grown in MT, and the tannin concentrations were higher in chia seeds grown in Mato Grosso (19.08 ± 1.08 eq.catequina/g sample). In conclusion, Brazilian chia seeds showed high concentrations of lipids, proteins, total dietary fiber, minerals and vitamin E.
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This study evaluated the influence of the extraction method on the composition, quality and oxidation stability of chia seed oil. Commercial chia seeds were purchased from a local market and oils were obtained using various methods: classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane and acetone, supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 at 70°C and 90°C, and screw-pressing from native seeds (cold process) and from seeds conditioned at 110°C (hot process). The oils were characterized by their contents of sterols, tocochromanols, phenolic compounds, carotenoids and squalene, acid and peroxide values and induction times.