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Nutritional Potential of the Leaves and Seeds of Black Nightshade-Solanum nigrum L. Var virginicum from Afikpo-Nigeria

  • Alex Ekwueme Federal University Ndufu Alike Ikwo

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The nutritional potential of the leaves and seeds of Solanum nigrum L. Var virginicum was assessed by determining proximate and phytochemical composition. Results indicate protein content of the leaves and seed as 24.90% and 17.63% respectively. Other findings are ash 10.18% and 8.05%, crude fibre, 6.81% and 6.29 and carbohydrate, 53.51 and 55.85% for the leaves and seed respectively. Mineral analysis revealed the order Mg>K>Ca>Fe>Na>Mn>Zn in the leaves and Mg>K>Fe>Ca>Na>Mn>Zn in the seeds. Phosphorus and sulphur levels were 75.22 and 8.55 mg/100g in the leaves and 62.50 and 14.48, g/100g in the seeds. Vitamin content indicate the order vit C>vit B,>Folic acid>Vit E>Vit A in both the leaves and seeds. Phytochemical analysis revealed high oxalate, phenol but low sterol content in the studied plant materials. Cyanide levels were higher in the leaves compared to the seeds. These results suggest that S. nigrum L. Var virginicum to be nutritive despite the presence of some anti-nutritive components like oxalate.
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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6 (4): 323-326, 2007
ISSN 1680-5194
© Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2007
Nutritional Potential of the Leaves and Seeds of Black Nightshade-
Solanum nigrum L. Var virginicum from Afikpo-Nigeria
I.E. Akubugwo, A.N. Obasi and S.C. Ginika
Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, PMB 2000, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria
Abstract: The nutritional potential of the leaves and seeds of Solanum nigrum L. Var virginicum was
assessed by determining proximate and phytochemical composition. Results indicate protein content of the
leaves and seed as 24.90% and 17.63% respectively. Other findings are ash 10.18% and 8.05%, crude fibre,
6.81% and 6.29 and carbohydrate, 53.51 and 55.85% for the leaves and seed respectively. Mineral analysis
revealed the order Mg>K>Ca>Fe>Na>Mn>Zn in the leaves and Mg>K>Fe>Ca>Na>Mn>Zn in the seeds.
Phosphorus and sulphur levels were 75.22 and 8.55 mg/100g in the leaves and 62.50 and 14.48, g/100g
in the seeds. Vitamin content indicate the order vit C>vit B,>Folic acid>Vit E>Vit A in both the leaves and
seeds. Phytochemical analysis revealed high oxalate, phenol but low sterol content in the studied plant
materials. Cyanide levels were higher in the leaves compared to the seeds. These results suggest that S.
nigrum L. Var virginicum to be nutritive despite the presence of some anti-nutritive components like oxalate.
Key words: Solanum nigrum, proximate and photochemical composition
Traditional societies have always exploited edible wild
plants to provide adequate nutrition, food security and
income generation (Omoti and Okyi, 1987; Antia et al.,
2006; Dhellot et al., 2006a). These wild plants serve as
an indispensable constituent of human diet supplying
the body with minerals, vitamins and certain hormone
precursors, in addition to protein and energy (Onyenuga
and Fetuga, 1995; Fleuret, 1979; Edmonds and Chweya,
1997). However, many of these inexpensive nutritive wild
plants are yet to be adequately studied and utilized.
Among these leafy vegetables are the leaves and seed
(fruits) of Black nightshade.
Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L. Var virginicum) is
an annual herbaceous plant (and may sometimes be
perennial) which can reach up to 100cm in height. The
stem may be smooth or bear small hairs (trichomes).
The flowers usually white in colour, have five regular
parts and are up to 0.8cm wide. The leaves are alternate
and some what ovate with irregularly toothed wavy
margin and can reach 10cm in length and 5cm in width.
The fruit is a round fleshy berry up to 2cm in diameter
and yellowish when ripe. The seeds are brown and
numerous. It is a common species in arable lands, near
rivers and old walls, grows everywhere in Africa and
America (Edmonds and Chewya, 1997).
Occasionally, the leaves and seeds (berries) are used
as vegetable in soup, Yam and coco yam porridges and
as spinach in some parts of Nigeria particularly among
the Igbos and Efik-Ibibio people of South-Eastern
Nigeria. Besides being used for human consumption,
the leaves serve as fodder and browse for domestic
herbivorous animals.
According to (Pereez et al., 1998) and (Son et al., 2003),
the extract of its fruits have anti-tumour and neuro-
pharmacological properties and can be used as an anti-
oxidant and cancer chemo preventive matter. Though
information on the pharmacological properties seems to
abound in literature, there is little information on the
chemical compositions of Solanum nigrum L. Var
virginicum leaves and seeds. The present study
therefore aimed at assisting in closing this gap in
knowledge on Black nightshade leaves and seeds
especially from the Eastern part of Nigeria. This
information will highlight the usefulness or otherwise of
this under-utilized plant.
Materials and Methods
The leaves and seeds (berries) of Solanum nigrum L.
Var virginicum were obtained from Eke main market,
Afikpo North Local Government Area, Ebonyi State,
Nigeria and identified by a taxonomist in the Department
of Plant Science and Biotechnology, of Abia State
University, Uturu. The leaves were cleaned destalked,
weighed and oven dried at 60 C for 24hrs.
After drying, the leaves and seeds were ground
separately into a fine powder using a mortar and pestle,
sieved and stored in an air-tight contained, kept in a
desiccators until analyzed.
Proximate composition, mineral elements and the
vitamins (A, B, C, folic acid and E ) were determined by
the method of (AOAC, 1984).
Moisture content determination involved drying a known
weight of sample to a constant weight at 60 C in an oven
(Gallen kamp hot box).
Determination of ash content involved incineration in a
muffle furnace (Gallen kamp hot box) at 550 C for 8hrs.
Crude fat determination involved Soxhlet extraction of a
known weight of sample with petroleum ether (b, p 40-
Akubugwo et al.: Nutritive Value of S. nigrum Seed and Leaves
Table 1: Proximate of Composition Solanum nigrum L. Var.
virginicum leaves and seeds in
Parameters %Dry Matter %Dry Matter
of Leaves of Seeds
Caloric value (Kcal) 355.04±0.19 43.54±0.19
Ash content 10.18±0.02 8.05±0.04
Crude fat 4.60±0.01 12.18±0.02
Crude Protein 24.90±0.02 17.63±0.01
Crude fibre 6.81±0.01 6.29±0.01
Carbohydrate 53.51 0.01 55.85±0.03
Moisture content 84.70±0.01 76.86±0.04
Values are mean±S.D of triplicate determinations
Table 2: Elemental Composition of Solanum nigrum L. Var.
virginicum leaves and seeds
Mineral Elements Composition (Mg- Composition (Mg-
/100g) of Leaves /100g) of Seed
Calcium, Ca 17.33±0.03 11.82±0.02
Magnesium, Mg 247.59±0.01 201.36±0.01
Iron, Fe 13.01±0.01 12.91±0.01
Zinc, Zn 0.07±0.01 0.05±0.01
Potassium, K 42.89±0.02 37.19±0.02
Sodium, Na 2.71±0.02 2.11±0.02
Manganese, Mn 1.52±0.02 0.86±0.01
Phosphorus, P 75.22±0.02 62.50±0.00
Sulphur, S 8.55±0.01 14.48±0.01
Values are mean±S.D of triplicate determinations
60 C) and methanol mixed properly in the ration 1:1.
Determination of crude protein was done using the
micro Kjeldahl nitrogen method which involves the
digestion of a given weight of the sample with
concentrated H SO and catalyst to convert any organic
2 4
nitrogen to ammonium sulphate, (NH ) SO in solution
4 2 4
followed by the decomposition of ammonium sulphate
with NaOH. The ammonia liberated was distilled into
5%boric acid. The nitrogen from ammonia was deduced
from titration of the trapped ammonia with 0.05NHCl
using methylene red and methylene blue (double
indicator solution) indicators. The value of nitrogen
obtained was multiplied by the general factor (6.25) to
give the % crude protein.
Crude fibre was obtained from the loss in weight on
ignition of dried residue remaining after digestion of fat-
free samples with 1.25% each of sulphuric acid and
sodium hydroxide solutions under specified condition
i.e. Loss of weight of ignition x 100
% crude fibre =-----------------------------------------
Weight of sample used
Carbohydrate content was determined by subtracting the
total ash content, crude fat lipid), crude protein and crude
fibre from the total dry matter.
The caloric value estimation was done by summing the
multiplied values for crude protein, crude fat (lipid) and
carbohydrate (excluding crude fibre) by their respective
AT WATER factors (4,9,4).
The mineral elemental constituents (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, K,
Na, Mn, P and S) in Solanum nigrum L. Var virginicum
leaves and seeds were analyzed separately, using
atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Hitachi 26100
model) after acid digestion of the samples.
For the phytochemicals, Alkaloids, Saponins, Flavonoids
Anthocyanin, and sterols were determined by the
methods of (Harborne, 1973). Tanins, Phytic acid and
Hydrogen cyanide were determined by alkaline titration
methods (A.O.A.C, 1984) and total Polyphenol was
determined by the method of (Swain, 1979). This
method involves extraction of polyphenol with methanol
at 80 C for one hour and then quantifying the bluish
extract spectrophotometrically at 760nm. Total oxalate
was determined by the permanganate titration method
of (Dye, 1956).
Results and Discussion
Proximate composition of leaves and seeds of solanum
nigrum L. Var virginicum is as presented in Table 1. Ash,
fibre, crude protein and moisture contents were higher
in the leaves compared to the seeds.
The ash content of the leaves (10.18%) is similar to the
values reported for some commonly consumed leafy
vegetable in Nigeria, including Ocinum graticinum,
Hibiscus esculenta and Ipomea batata. It is however;
lower than the reported value of 20.05% for Talinum
triangulare (Akindahunsi and salawu, 2005; Antia et al.,
2006). Ash content of the seeds obtained in the present
study is 8.05%. This value compares favourably with a
reported value of 7.18% for S. nigrum from Congo
Brazzavile (Dhellot et al., 2006b).
The lipid content observed for S. nigrum leaves is
similar to those reported for calchorus africa,
Amaranthus hybidus I. triangulare but about half the
value for Bacsilla alba leaves (Ifon and Basir, 1979;
Akindahunsi and salawu, 2005) lipid content of the seed
of S. nigrum observed in this study is similar to that of a
number of tropical plant seeds chrysophyllum albidum
and Dacroydes edulis (Akubugwo and Ugbogu, 2007),
but much lower than the values for canarium
schweinfurthii, Balanites aegyptiaca.
Pulp and Cotton (kapseu et al., 1997; Kapseu and
Permantier, 1997; Kapseu et al., 1999; Dzondo et al.,
2005). Therefore, S. nigrum seed contains moderate
lipid content.
The fibre, carbohydrate and crude protein content of both
the leaves and seeds of S. nigrum observed in this study
are similar to reported values for a number of tropical
plants (Afolabi et al., 1986; Dhellot, 2006 a, b).
Compared to the energy content value of 304.99Kcal for
Xanthosoma sagittofolium and 355.19 kcal for colocosia
esculenta leaves, (Davidson et al., 1975), S. nigrum is a
good source of energy.
Mineral element analysis as shown in Table 2 indicates
that S. nigrum contains high levels of magnesium and
phosphorus but relatively low level of zinc. This study
also indicates the vit C content to be high while vit A is
Akubugwo et al.: Nutritive Value of S. nigrum Seed and Leaves
Table 3: Vitamin Composition of Solanum nigrum L. Var
Virginicum leaves and seeds
Vitamins Composition (Mg- Composition (Mg-
/100g) of Leaves /100g) of Seeds
Vitamin A 4.66±0.02 1.71±0,03
Vitamin B1 17.14±0.01 10.91±0.01
Vitamin C 35.18±0.02 23.38±0.01
Folic acid 11.61±0.01 8.13±0.02
Vitamin E 9.72±0.02 5.71±0.01
Values are mean ± S.D of triplicate determinations.
Table 4; Phytochemical Compositions of Solanum nigrum L. Var.
virginicum leaves and seeds
Phytochemicals Composition (Mg- Composition (Mg-
/100g) of Leaves /100g) of Seeds
Alkaloids 1.62±0.02 1.07±0.05
Saponins 0.25±0.01 0.16±0.01
Falvonoids 0.81±0.01 1.01±0.01
Anthocyanim 0.13±0.01 0.08±0.01
Sterols 0.05±0.00 0.00±0.00
Tannins 0.19±0.01 0.00±0.00
Total Oxalate 78.65±0.04 58.81±0.01
Phytic acid 0.82±0.01 04.48±0.02
Total Polyphenol 13.17±0.02 14.69±0.01
Cyanide 10.63±0.02 1.53±0.02
Values are mean±S.D of triplicate determinations.
low. In deed, as shown in Table 3, the order of
magnitude of the studied vitamins is vit C>vit B>
Folicacid>vit E>vit A. Though the vitamins content of the
samples are low, consumption of this plant material will
contribute in meeting the daily vitamin requirement as
stipulated for healthy adults (National Academy of
Science, 2004).
Results of phytochemical evaluation are as presented in
Table 4. The result indicates that oxalate levels were
high in both leaves and seed of S. nigrum, and that
sterols and tannins were below detectable levels in the
seed. Apart from total phenols and flavonoids, the level
of other studied phytochemical was higher in the leaves
relative to the seed. The oxalate level is similar to that
reported for Telferia occidentalis and Vanonia amygdalin
(Mc-Graw, 1987). Oxalate is an anti-nutrient.
Consumption of S. nigrum may though elicit adverse
physiological responses. However, initial processing
such as cooking is known to significantly reduce total
oxalate content of vegetables (Akwaowo et al., 2000).
This may therefore mitigate the potent adverse effect of
consuming the plant that Phytochemicals have potential
beneficial effects such as polyphenols which reduce
blood pressure while saponins may prevent cancer.
(Richelle et al., 2001; Sharp, 1997) .
Conclusion: This study showed that S. nigrum L. Var
virginicum leaf and seed from Ebonyi state, Nigeria
contain appreciable levels of protein, fibre and
carbohydrate. The study further revealed that it is a good
source of magnesium phosphorus and the water
soluble vitamins such as vit C, B and folic acid.
Though the leaves in particular contain relatively high
levels of oxalate and cyanide, the processing methods
prior to consumption which may include cooking reduce
their final consumed amount. In summary therefore, the
plant has high nutritional value and is recommended as
a cheap source of plant protein, energy and mineral
elements such as magnesium and phosphorus.
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Dietary Allowance http://www.nap,edu.
... The determination of the proximate constituents is necessary for assessing the nutritional quality of the leaf which is a commonly consumed vegetable in south-east Nigeria (Akubugwo et al., 2007). There are very few reports on the proximate composition of S. nigrum leaf. ...
... There are very few reports on the proximate composition of S. nigrum leaf. Solanum nigrum from South Africa was reported to be low in carbohydrate (20.0%) but high in fibre (26.9 ± 0.0%), ash (12.4 ± 0.5 %) and protein (32.3 ± 1.6%) (Akubugwo et al., 2007). Solanum nigrum from India also had higher moisture (9.7%), ash (12.9%) protein (15.12%) and fat (3.98%), but lower carbohydrate (25.4%) and crude fibre (14.32%). ...
Solanum nigrum is a vegetable plant belonging to the family of Solanaceae. The ability to ascertain the quality and quantity of the chemical composition of a plant provides an insight on the possible optimum exploitation of the plant for ethnomedicinal and pharmaceutical purposes. This study was carried out to determine the phytochemical constituent and proximate composition of Solanum nigrum leaf from Ojo area of Lagos, Nigeria. Phytochemical screening and the proximate composition of Solanum nigrum leaf was performed using standard procedures. From the study, qualitative analysis of the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum reveals that alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, tannin, phenol, terpenoids, cardiac glycoside were present while anthraquinone and steroid were not detected. Quantitative phytochemical analysis showed the constituents to be in the following concentrations: phenol (38.17 ±0.33mg/100g), flavonoids (34.78 ± 0.26 mg/100g) and terpenoids (34. 92 ± 0.28 mg/100g), tannin (30.32 ± 0.24 mg/100g), cardiac glycoside (30.23 ± 0.22 mg/100g), saponin (18.06 ± 1.39 mg/100g) and alkaloid (12.61 ± 0.81 mg/100g). Proximate composition included carbohydrate (71.91± 0.43%), protein (2.21 ± 0.06%), crude fat (0.49 ± 0.10), moisture (1.65 ± 0.09%), ash (3.49 ± 0.17%) and crude fibre (20.23 ± 0.19%). Phytoconstituents of S. nigrum from Ojo area of Lagos State are comparable to those from other parts of the world. With the exception of steroids, phytoconstituents of S. nigrum from Ojo area of Lagos State are comparable to those from other parts of the world. The presence of these phytoconstituents suggests their medicinal value.
... A method described by (Akubugwo et al., 2007) was followed to determine the ash content of raw and thermally processed Moringa Oleifera pods. 3g of fresh and thermally processed Moringa pods paste were taken into a crucible. ...
... Solanum nigrum is widely distributed across the world and is capable of growing in the wild and exists in similar nature to that of famine food crops ( Edmonds & Chweya, 1997 ). The leaf of Solanum nigrum is consumed as a leafy green vegetable across the world in countries like, Ethiopia, Uganda, India, Sri Lanka and other south-east Asian countries ( Akubugwo et al., 2007 ). The leaves of this crop are known for its rich phenolic and antioxidant content and still being explored for therapeutic usage for diseases like liver cirrhosis and cancer ( Huang et al., 2010 ;Jin et al., 2007 ;Lee et al., 2005 ). ...
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The functional soup formulated with leaves of Solanum nigrum, an underutilized food crop, was studied for the comparison between two different types of sensory analysis to identify the sample with the most preferable sensory acceptability and to determine the sensory attribute that influences the overall acceptability of the product. Hedonic scale analysis and Fuzzy logic sensory analysis were performed on 11 combinations of formulated soup mix obtained by D-optimal mixture design. The hedonic and fuzzy logic analysis revealed that flavour and taste had higher contribution towards overall acceptability of the soup, based on hedonic sensory score and higher similarity index values. The consumers preferred these parameters primarily and these influenced towards the consumer acceptability of the product. Linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation of the hedonic data expressed that flavour and taste had major influence and correlation to the overall acceptability. The soup samples with moderate levels of leaf powder (3%), starch (35%) and spice mix (62%) were found to be the most organoleptically acceptable hedonically amongst all 11 combinations with the highest hedonic sensory score of 6.4 but based on fuzzy analysis sample 3 of leaf powder (1%), starch (28%) and spice mix (68%) had higher similarity index of 0.92.
... The results showed that the vegetables are rich source of Phosphorus. Phosphorus levels in this study were lower compared to 75.22mg/100g Phosphorus in the leaves of S. nigrum [62] but were higher than those obtained in the leaves of O. grattisimum (13.8 mg/100g), V. amygdalina (13.1 mg/100g) and 15.08 mg/100g for Telferia occidentalis [43]. Magnesium content in the leaves of the selected vegetables revealed high occurrence of Mg. in C. crepidiodes (195.85mg ...
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Aim: Fruits and common vegetables are now becoming too expensive for the poor consumers in Nigeria. The search for cheap, readily available and (locally sourced for the people in need of) nutritious food prompted this research work. Study Design: Six underutilized wild vegetables (Solanum microcarpon, Strichium sparganophora, Crassocephalum crepidiodes, Solanum nigrum, Myrianthus arboreus and Sterculia tragacantha) from Ado- Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria were evaluated for their nutritional, mineral and anti-nutritional potentials. Place and Duration of Study: The collection of the samples were done in the month of December, 2020 in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria and air dried for three weeks. Methodology: Young shoots of five indigenous vegetables were collected, washed thoroughly, air dried, pulverized and analysed using standard methods of AOAC. Results: The proximate analyses of the vegetables indicated that the moisture content, ash, fat, crude fiber, crude protein and carbohydrates ranged as follows: 6.17-8.85%, 4.73-6.59 %, 2.00-3.13%, 3.89-7.27%, 7.77-12.23% and 63.84-70.61% respectively. The total energy ranged from 1,367.85 to 1,467.85KJ/100g with low Coefficient of Variation (CV%) of 2.22. Mineral contents are of the following order K>Mg>Ca> P>Na>Fe>Zn. The result of the mineral ratio showed that the calculated mineral ratio for Na/K, K/ Na, Ca/P, Ca/Mg, Ca/K, Zn/Cu and [K/(Ca+Mg)] were below the critical level. The calculated mineral safety indexes (MSI) were lower than the tabulated values. The anti-nutrient contents (Cyanide, Saponins, and Oxalate) were below the threshold levels, Conclusion: Low MSI means that the vegetables could not pose health risk when consumed. The low anti-nutrient contents of the samples is an indication that the consumer would not suffer from mineral overload. The nutrition and mineral potentials of these vegetables could suggest their uses as nutritional supplements and are highly promising for food security and sustainability for the populace.
... A method described by (Akubugwo et al., 2007) was followed to determine the ash content of the dried Moringa leaf powder. Approximately 3 g of Moringa leaf powder was taken into a crucible. ...
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Profile of physicochemical and antioxidant activity of dried Moringa leaves from Bangladesh are presented. Moringa is beneficial for health because it has a lot of nutritional and medicinal values. The leaves were collected and washed with distilled water at different temperatures in an oven dryer, and then the fine powder is taken as a sample by grinding and sieving method. This research was done to compare the changes in physicochemical and antioxidant elements at different temperatures (60°C, 70°C and 80°C) and to find the right temperature at which the nutrient loss will be the lowest. This study showed that as the drying temperature changed, so did the nutrient component of Moringa leaves. Physicochemical parameters (moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, fat, color) and antioxidant activity (Total phenol content, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, vitamin C, and ß-carotene) were extracted using a variety of methods. The protein content, carbohydrate content was estimated by the Kjeldahl and phenol sulfuric acid method respectively. Total phenol content (38.30 mg/100g), DPPH (77.79%), and ßcarotene (22.71mg/100g) were measured by the spectrophotometric method. And the colorimeter instrument is used for determining the optical properties. It can be seen that the moisture, ash, protein, carbohydrate, Total phenol content, Vitamin C, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ß-carotene contents decrease significantly with increasing drying temperature, whereas fat content increases. At 60°C drying temperature the nutrient loss was lowest compared to 70°C and 80°C drying temperature, so it can be concluded that 60°C is the most suitable temperature for drying Moringa leaves.
... reported by Antia et al. (2006) for sweet potatoes leaves. The result revealed low level of oxalate in both samples when compared with other plants seeds including Buccholzia coricea (1.06 mg/100 g) in Amaechi (2009), Solanum nigrum (58.81 mg/100 g) in Akubugwo et al. (2007), Gnetum africanum (209.00 mg/100 g) in Ekop (2007), Solanum incanum (22.4±0.21-23.0±0.01 mg/100 g) in Auta et al. (2011), sweet potatoes leaves (308.00±1.04 mg/100 g) in Antia et al. (2006) and Treculia africana (8.01±0.04 to 11.37±0.10 ...
Poor folate status is implicated in a wide variety of health disorders including megaloblastic anaemia, neural tube defects, and cardiovascular diseases. Human diet remains the main provider par excellence. Despite several public-health options to overcome this micronutrient deficiency, dietary folate intakes of women of childbearing age and children are still below recommendations in many African countries. Therefore, this review aims at presenting the current knowledge on folate contents in various African foods, and on folate losses during food processing. Seventy one food sources were evaluated in this study. These various food sources included thirty six vegetables, six cereals, height cereal products, six processed leafy vegetables, six pulses, three fruits, three legumes and three roots. All of them were originated from six African countries including Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and South Africa. Folate content ranged between 11 and 73.4 μg/100 g in cereals, 1.8 and 39 μg/100 g in cereal-based processed foods, 8.48 and 48.6 μg/100 g in cooked leafy vegetables, 11.6 and 633 μg/100 g in vegetables, 10 and 22 μg/100 g in pulses, 52 and 148 μg/100 g in legumes, 8 and 106 μg/100 g in fruits. The structure of the food matrix has been shown to influence folate digestibility in foods. High bioaccessible folate, assessed by in vitro digestion, was observed among food products with dense porosity structures while low bioaccessible folate was recorded among food products with open porous structures such as porridges and some gelatinized doughs. Numerous food processing steps have also been shown to influence negatively folate contents in foods.
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The acute toxicity of Mangifera indica seed extract was conducted on Clarias gariepinus juveniles under a static bioassay for 96 hours. Ten (10) juveniles of C. gariepinus were stocked in each of the six rectangular plastic tanks, each with a replicate. The fish were allowed to acclimatize for one (1) week. The water quality parameters, behavioural changes, haematology, biochemistry and histopathology of the test fish were studied on the concentrations of M. indica seeds extract at 4.00, 2.00, 1.00 and 0.5 g/L while 0.00 served as the control. The results of water quality parameters revealed that pH range between 5.86 and 6.79, free carbon dioxide ranged between 2.04 and 4.50 ppm, alkalinity ranged from 5.41-6.20. The biochemical parameters showed a significant difference (P< 0.05) as compared to the control. Also, the histopathology showed a clear variation in their appearance when compared with the control. All these alterations could be induced by the efficacy of the plant extract (M. indica). The 96 hours LC₅₀ of M. indica extract on the juveniles of C. gariepinus was 0.7079 g/L with the upper and lower confidence limits of 0.5424 and 0.9239 respectively. This finding clearly suggests that the plant extract has deleterious effects on aquatic fauna especially fish. Therefore, concerted effort should be made to prevent the plant material (M. indica) seeds from reaching water bodies.
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The research was aimed at determining the nutritional value and accessing the nutraceutical potential of locally processed tropical seed of Citrillus lonatus.Proximate composition, macro-mineral concentrations and phytochemical screening of seeds of Citrullus lonatus were conducted on dry weight basis using standard methods. Phytochemical screening revealed that tannin had the highest value (6.45±0.006) followed by flavonoid (3.37±0.047). Alkaloid was appreciable in value (1.35±0.006) while HCN and phytate were low in value. Moisture content was 14.77±0.013% and dry matter was 85.21±0.01%. Crude fat presented the highest value, 28.48±0.013% followed by crude protein (24.78±0.006%), total carbohydrate (18.44±0.006%), crude fiber (11.27±0.01%) and ash had the lowest value of 2.24±0.021%. The calorific value was high at 429.47±0.295 Kcal/100g sample. The concentrations of the analytes from the highest value to the lowest value in the sample was in the order potassium (457.60±0.670mg/kg), Magnesium(89.45±0.006mg/kg), Calcium (42.87±0.125mg/kg) and Sodium (38.26±0.008mg/kg) respectively .The potassium to sodium ratio was 12 (> 1) while the sodium to potassium ratio was 0.08(< 1). The results in this study showed that Citrullus lonatus seeds are rich in crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, potassium, magnesium,calcium,sodium, tannin, alkaloid and flavonoid. They may therefore serve as good sources of food nutrients and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the production of food and feed supplements.
In musculoskeletal problems, we come across more than 150 diagnoses affecting the locomotor system; muscles, bones, joints, and associated tissues such as tendons and ligaments, as listed in the International Classification of Diseases. These range from those arising suddenly but are short-lived, namely, fractures, sprains, and strains; to the lifelong conditions associated with ongoing pain and disability. The conditions in such disorders are typically characterized by pain (often persistent) and limitations in mobility, dexterity, and functional ability, reducing our ability to work and participate in social activities with associated impacts on mental wellbeing, and at a broader level impacts on the prosperity of communities. The most common and disabling conditions here are osteoarthritis, back and neck pain, fractures associated with bone fragility, injuries, and systemic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (Bruyère et al. 2019).
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Dacryodes edulis (safou) pulp oil has a high potential in Africa. But oil composition depends on fruit origin and ripening conditions. In the present study, the average safou oil extracted from raw fruits of mixed origin with those produced in the Guinea gulf are compared. The ratio of oil extracted by enzyme methods compared to the same extracted using solvents or press are reported. The level of enzyme extraction by Viscozym L was 42% while the solvent chloroform/methanol (2/1 v/v) gave 42.3% and the Soxhlet 47%. Oil extracted from fresh fruits had the same composition as that described in the Guinea gulf fruits and particularly showed the same PUFA content. Iodine, acidic, and peroxide values were low ranging to 79.6, 2.3 and 3.2, respectively, and fatty acid composition represented 50% saturated, 25% monounsaturated and 25% polyunsaturated. The thermal and rheological properties of safou pulp oil were studied showing a maximum melting point at 15 °C.
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Amaranthus hybridus is a vegetable which is eaten in Congo Brazzaville and in other countries. Two varieties of A. hybridus seeds (var 1 and 2) were selected for this study. Average oil content varies between 11 and 14%. A. hybridus seeds are also rich in proteins (17%) and minerals. Red oils obtained have a high saponification value (130-190) and the iodine value is between 100 and 113. The quantity of unsaponifiable matter (5 -7%) in these oils is important. The fatty acids composition gives the following average profile: 18: 2n-6 > 18: 1 n-9 > 16: 0 > 22: 6n-3 > 18: 0. A. hybridus seeds oils also have long chain poly unsaturated fatty acids such as DHA (5.63-21.46%) and the results indicated that the n−6/n−3 ratios were 1.48 to 5.63. The triacylglycerols analysis shows that oils extracted by Bligh and Dyer method contains 6 major TAGs in A. hybridus var1: LLnLn › OLL › POL. › OLL › PLL › LLL and Amaranthus hybridus var2: LLnLn › OLL › PLL › POL. › OLL › LLL. The A. hybridus seeds can be used as cattle food and baby complement food. These oils have nutritive and dietetic potentialities.
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With the aim of diversifying the lipids sources eaten by the African populations and those of Congo Brazzaville in particular, a physicochemical study of Solanum nigrum L seeds was carried out and three chemical methods (Soxhlet, Bligh and Dyer, and Folch) were used to extract the oil. The dry matter content of the seeds is 94.22%. Average lipids content varies between 34.5 and 37.5% dry matter, proteins content is 17% dry matter and crude ash content averages 7.18% dry matter and the principal mineral element is Mg (180 mg/100g). The acid value of the oil is about 2.5, saponification value varies between 157.3 and 190.1, peroxide value is low at 5.13 and iodine is 102.33.The fatty acid compositions of S. nigrum seeds oil shows that it has 67.9% of linoleic acid, indicating its high unsaturation. Apart from linoleic acid, other prominent fatty acids were palmitic, stearic and oleic acids. The following average profile is: 18: 2n-6 > 18: 1 n-9 > 16: 0 > 18: 0. The oil is liquid at room temperature and green in colour. Oil viscosity varies between 20 and 35 mPa.s at 25°C. Three activation energies which vary between 0.8 to 26.58 kJ.mol-1 were determined using Arrhenius's equation. The melting points estimated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry were found to be between -22.0 and -12.0°C for the Soxhlet and Folch-extracted oils. Bligh and Dyer oil have three melting points at -36.2, -15.2 and 33.7°C.
Levels of some nutrients and antinutrients in 14 commonly consumed tropical green leafy vegetables were evaluated and also screened for some phytochemicals. Saponin was present in all the vegetables with the exception of Hibiscus esculentus, Solanum macrocarpon and Piper guineese while only tannin was absent in Crassocephalum crepidioides, Talinum triangulare, Corchorous olitorius and Piper guineese. Crude protein, fat, fibre and ash recorded ranges from 20.59 to 38.18, 5.90 to 12.73, 6.20 to 7.20 and 8.00 to 25.49%, respectively. Na (0.64 to 8.97 g/100 g) and P (1.34 to 3.34 g/100 g) recorded the highest values of minerals. The low levels of antinutrients (phytic acid, tannic acid and oxalate) coupled with high level of zinc biovalability indicates that the studied vegetables are good dietary supplements.
In the present study, data on fatty acid composition and unsaponifiable matter content of some oily products from Cameroon are given. The classification by decreasing order of polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio of vegetable oils analysed is the following: corn (3.9), egusi seeds Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin (3.0), sesame (2.5), cotton (1.9), peanut (1.5), Canarium Schweinfurthii Engl. (0.78), safou - Dacryodes edulis (0.61), avocado (0.57), palm (0.22), shea butter (0.15), palm kernel (0.03) and coco kernel (0.02). The classification by decreasing order of unsaponifiable matter content is the following: shea butter (5.1%), avocado (2.8%), safou Dacryodes edulis (2.3%), red egusi seeds (1.6%), C. Schweinfurthii Engl. (1.3%), sesame (1.2%), white egusi (1.1%), corn (0.92%), cotton (0.52), palm (0.34%), peanut (0.33), palm kernel (0.22) and coco kernel (0.09).
Studies were conducted to determine the biochemical composition of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.) at different stages of growth. Analyses were carried out at 12 and 50 weeks after planting on stems, leaves and roots, while seeds were analysed 8 and 32 weeks, respectively, after antethesis. Proximate moisture and carbohydrate content decreased in stems, leaves, roots and seeds with age, while ash, crude fibre and crude fat increased with age in stems, leaves, and roots but not in seeds. Elemental composition generally increased with age. In older stems, magnesium (50.5 mg/100 g) and calcium (40.5/100) were highest, while phosphorus (10.6 mg/100) and zinc (6.80 mg/100 g) were highest in older leaves compared to their younger ones. Young leaves, however, had highest magnesium (8.69 m/100 g) and iron (3.60 mg/100 g). Older seeds were richer in phosphorus (954 mg/100 g), potassium (632 mg/100 g) and iron (9.82 mg/100 g) while older roots had higher potassium (883 mg/100 g), calcium (150 mg/100 g) and magnesium (103 mg/100 g) than their younger counterparts. Young roots, however, had higher levels of iron (24 mg/100 g) and copper 2.24 mg/100 g). Antinutrients increased with age in the stems, roots and seeds. Young leaves, which are often preferred for human consumption, were higher in cyanide (60.1 mg/100 g.DM) and tannin content (40.6 mg/100 g DM) than older ones. Oxalate content (10.0 mg/100 gDM) and phytate content (48.8 mg/100 gDM) were higher in the older leaves than the younger ones. Some of the antinutrients in the leaves were above safety limits for human consumption. The authors suggest that young leaves be properly cooked in order to remove antinutrient effects before consumption. Old fluted pumpkin roots had very high levels of antinutrients: oxalate (2600 mg/100 gDM), cyanides (84.2 mg/100 gDM), tannins (60.1 mg/100 gDM) and phytates (84.4 mg/100 gDM) and may constitute potent human poisons. Younger pumpkin seeds may be nutritionally preferred for consumption since they contain less antinutrients than older seeds. However, mature pumpkin seeds contain high potassium, iron and crude fat (56.24%) and hence could be further developed to increase world vegetable oil production.