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Combining landscape suitability and habitat connectivity to conserve the last surviving population of cheetah in Asia

  • Research Group of Biodiversity and Biosafety, Research Center for Environment and Sustainable Development


Aim The Asiatic cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, a critically endangered large felid, has disappeared from vast tracks of its historical range across south-western Asia. It is currently confined to the arid ecosystems of central Iran for which little is known about its distribution and habitat linkages. We proposed the first evaluation of Asiatic cheetah's distribution and developed models of landscape suitability and connectivity to inform future conservation planning. Location Central Iran. Methods We analysed presence data of a 14-year-long cheetah monitoring programme according to environmental and anthropogenic factors, and generated an ensemble model of habitat suitability based on seven species distribution models (SDMs). We then used the concept of circuit theory and landscape connectivity prioritization (LCP) on resultant core habitats and landscape suitability to evaluate potential linkages between core areas. Results Core habitats, that is, the areas hosting the largest continuous suitable habitats for Asiatic cheetahs, covered approximately 49,144 km2 (c. 6.3% of the study area). Availability of prey species, avoidance of human-dominated areas and their infrastructures, and rough landscapes covered with sparse vegetation were the most predictive factors of the core habitats for the last cheetah population in Asia. Although relatively vast, the area of potential core habitats available to cheetahs appeared to be fragmented with limited connectivity between the northern and southern parts of this distribution. Main conclusions Our approach highlights the importance of distribution models to recognize, at a coarse-scale level, a spatial population structure and habitat suitability characteristics for a large carnivore surviving at very low density. We have identified specific areas of suitable habitat where developing new landscape protection and adaptive conservation management; and improving the safety of important linkages between core habitats are likely to promote the conservation of the last surviving population of cheetah in Asia.
| Diversity and Distributions. 2017;23:592–603.© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12560
Combining landscape suitability and habitat connectivity to
conserve the last surviving population of cheetah in Asia
Mohsen Ahmadi1| Bagher Nezami Balouchi2,3| Houman Jowkar3|
Mahmoud-Reza Hemami1| Davoud Fadakar1| Shima Malakouti-Khah1|
Stéphane Ostrowski4
1Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan
University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran
2Department of Natural Resources and
Environment Sciences, University of
Environment, Karaj, Iran
3Conservation of Asiatic Cheetah Project
(CACP), I.R. Iran Department of Environment,
Teheran, Iran
4Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Bronx,
Mohsen Ahmadi, Department of Natural
Resources, Isfahan University of Technology,
Isfahan, Iran.
Funding information
DoE of the Islamic Republic of Iran; Global
Environmental Facilities (GEF); United Nations
Development Program (UNDP); Wildlife
Conservation Society (WCS)
Editor: Piero Visconti
Aim: The Asiatic cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, a critically endangered large felid,
has disappeared from vast tracks of its historical range across south- western Asia. It is
currently confined to the arid ecosystems of central Iran for which little is known
about its distribution and habitat linkages. We proposed the first evaluation of Asiatic
cheetah’s distribution and developed models of landscape suitability and connectivity
to inform future conservation planning.
Location: Central Iran.
Methods: We analysed presence data of a 14- year- long cheetah monitoring pro-
gramme according to environmental and anthropogenic factors, and generated an en-
semble model of habitat suitability based on seven species distribution models (SDMs).
We then used the concept of circuit theory and landscape connectivity prioritization
(LCP) on resultant core habitats and landscape suitability to evaluate potential linkages
between core areas.
Results: Core habitats, that is, the areas hosting the largest continuous suitable habi-
tats for Asiatic cheetahs, covered approximately 49,144 km2 (c. 6.3% of the study
area). Availability of prey species, avoidance of human- dominated areas and their in-
frastructures, and rough landscapes covered with sparse vegetation were the most
predictive factors of the core habitats for the last cheetah population in Asia. Although
relatively vast, the area of potential core habitats available to cheetahs appeared to be
fragmented with limited connectivity between the northern and southern parts of this
Main conclusions: Our approach highlights the importance of distribution models to
recognize, at a coarse- scale level, a spatial population structure and habitat suitability
characteristics for a large carnivore surviving at very low density. We have identified
specific areas of suitable habitat where developing new landscape protection and
adaptive conservation management; and improving the safety of important linkages
between core habitats are likely to promote the conservation of the last surviving
population of cheetah in Asia.
arid environment, cheetah conservation planning, circuit theory, ensemble model, Iran, species
distribution model
Apex predators play a fundamental role in many ecosystems as key-
stone species and are also important flagship species for conservation
(Ford et al., 2014; Ripple et al., 2014), but they are among the most
controversial and challenging groups of species to be conserved in the
face of human development in modern world (Chapron et al., 2014).
While conservation of large carnivores seems an effective strategy
for protecting habitat necessary for their prey and associated species
(Kunkel, Atwood, Ruth, Pletscher, & Hornocker, 2013; Sergio et al.,
2008), large carnivores management strategies and their conserva-
tion implications face many challenges. For example, it is difficult to
dedicate to them spatially extensive heterogeneous landscapes to ful-
fil their broad ecological requirements and range- wide home ranges
(Chapron et al., 2014; Ripple et al., 2014; Santini, Boitani, Maiorano,
& Rondinini, 2016). In many cases, they require action on a scale
that is seldom seen in terrestrial conservation, including coordinated
trans- boundary initiatives (Farhadinia et al., 2015; Rabinowitz & Zeller,
2010). Also identifying and preserving connectivity among large car-
nivore’s heterogeneous habitats appears crucial for the maintenance
of functional ecological linkages, and vital to their long- term survival
(Crooks, Burdett, Theobald, Rondinini, & Boitani, 2011; Dickson,
Roemer, McRae, & Rundall, 2013; Santini, Saura, & Rondinini, 2016).
The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus; Griffith, 1821) is a
critically endangered large feline now confined to the arid landscapes
of central Iran and is thought to number <100 individuals (Hunter et al.,
2007). Similar to the critically endangered Saharan cheetah (A. j. hecki),
also living in desert habitats, the Asiatic cheetah is wide ranging and
occurs at very low density compared to cheetahs in more productive
habitats (Belbachir, Pettorelli, Wacher, Belbachir- Bazi, & Durant, 2015;
Farhadinia et al., 2013). Although the Asiatic cheetah has been regularly
reported from a number of protected areas scattered across central Iran
(Hunter et al., 2007; Moqanaki & Cushman, 2016), it does not seem to
be confined to these sites and has been documented to move long dis-
tances, over large stretches of deserts between distant areas (Farhadinia
et al., 2013). Overall, habitat suitability criteria for the Asiatic cheetah
are poorly understood, and as a corollary, the extent of environmental,
biological and anthropogenic factors affecting the connectivity within
this habitat and the proportion of suitable habitat receiving some level of
protection are unknown. These uncertainties hinder the implementation
of effective land use planning across its vast landscape to maintain con-
nectivity between suitable habitats and mitigate conflicts with humans.
The deteriorating situation of the Asiatic cheetah requires conserva-
tion measures that are supported by accurate information on its distri-
bution patterns and dispersal possibilities (Hunter et al., 2007). Species
distribution models (SDMs) have been used in many studies to better un-
derstand habitat suitability criteria for large carnivores (Almasieh, Kaboli,
& Beier, 2016; Brito, Acosta, Álvares, & Cuzin, 2009; Farhadinia et al.,
2015) and have enabled to prioritize large carnivore’s conservation actions
(Farhadinia et al., 2015; Rabinowitz & Zeller, 2010; Sanderson, Redford,
et al., 2002). Nonetheless most range- wide priority- setting attempts to
achieve conservation goals for carnivores have been confronted with the
difficulty of addressing corridors and habitat connectivity (Rabinowitz &
Zeller, 2010). To ensure that populations of large carnivores are conserved
within a sustainable habitat complex, it is necessary to have a connected
network of protected areas or functional conservation networks (Crooks
et al., 2011), which aim to increase connectivity and promote dispersal of
large mammals between core habitats or/and population units (Almasieh
et al., 2016; Rabinowitz & Zeller, 2010).
Recently, the concept of habitat permeability and landscape
connectivity prioritization (LCP) has proved a powerful approach for
wildlife conservation planning (e.g., Carroll, McRae, & Brookes, 2012;
Dickson et al., 2013; Visconti & Elkin, 2009). Functional connectiv-
ity allows biologists to take into account the effect of compositional
structure of the landscape on ecological and evolutionary processes
of species dispersal, gene flow and population dynamics (Carroll et al.,
2012; McRae & Beier, 2007). Furthermore, identifying patches requir-
ing extra protection improves the maintenance of ecological integrity
and enables conservation planning to prompt long- term population
viability (Saura & Pascual- Hortal, 2007; Visconti & Elkin, 2009). This
approach may prove appropriate for the Asiatic cheetah, which shows
exceptionally high degree of mobility across patchily dispersed strong-
holds, all vulnerable to habitat deterioration (Farhadinia et al., 2013).
This study, which is based on all reliable Asiatic cheetah presence
data compiled over the past 14 years, is the first attempt to under-
stand the global distribution patterns of the species in Iran. Recently,
Moqanaki and Cushman (2016) proposed a landscape connectivity
model among the Iranian conservation areas (CAs) for the Asiatic
cheetah. However, their results were limited by the facts that they
did not use data on cheetah presence, they considered CAs as the
only cheetah strongholds across the landscape and did not use habitat
suitability and patterns of distribution along the environmental gradi-
ents outside CAs. In the current study, we present an approach that
combines SDM, circuit and graph theories to (1) identify habitat suit-
ability and the remaining core habitats for cheetahs, (2) evaluate the
most important environmental factors influencing their distribution,
(3) assess landscape permeability among core habitats and (4) priori-
tize core habitats and linkages based on their contribution to maintain
long- term connectivity.
2.1 | Study area
The central plateau of Iran covers approximately 780,000 km2 of
land limited by the Alborz and Zagros mountain chains to the north
and west/south- west, respectively, and the international border with
Afghanistan and the Sistan- Baluchistan desert to the east and south-
east, and is administered by nine provinces (Figure 1). The area is char-
acterized by a warm arid climate and is composed of vast flat drylands
with patchily distributed mountainous areas. It is part of the Irano-
Turanian floristic region in which xerophytic plant taxa of Artemisia
sp., Stipa sp. and Salsola sp. dominate (Manafzadeh, Salvo, & Conti,
2014). Starting in the early 1970s, the Department of Environment
(DoE) of Iran has been creating and administrating an expanding net-
work of CAs with the aim to protect and manage the faunal, floral and
   AHMADI et Al.
geological diversity of Iran (Makhdoum, 2008). Ten CAs created in the
central plateau, including three National Parks, five Wildlife Refuges
and two Protected Areas (corresponding to management categories
II, IV, and V, respectively, of the IUCN protected areas categories sys-
tem), have been implementing since 2001 targeted conservation ef-
forts to protect the Asiatic cheetah, its habitat and prey.
2.2 | Asiatic cheetah locations
The “Conservation of the Asiatic Cheetah Project” (CACP) of DoE has
compiled cheetah occurrence information via a country- scale monitoring
programme, extending from 2001 to 2014. The preliminary data subset
used in the study included the totality of the 680 presence locations of
this compilation, corresponding to direct observations (i.e., field patrols
of guards, 485 presence points) and camera trap photographs (195 pres-
ence points) of free- ranging cheetahs, because this information might
have suffered spatial biases in sampling effort, resulting in over- fitting
of spatial models in areas with clumping of presence points (Dormann
et al., 2007; Kramer- Schadt et al., 2013). We performed a spatial filter-
ing procedure to account for spatially biased records (Kramer- Schadt
et al., 2013). We ran a Global Moran’s I test to evaluate the spatial auto-
correlation of the presence data across the study area. We then filtered
presence points to only single points within a 5 km- distance from others,
which resulted in 205 unique locations with decreased spatial autocor-
relation, upon which we based the SDM approach.
2.3 | Environmental variables
We selected 10 environmental and anthropogenic variables likely to
affect the distribution of the cheetah (Pettorelli, Hilborn, Broekhuis, &
Durant, 2009; Farhadinia & Hemami, 2010; Burton, Sam, Balangtaa, &
Brashares, 2012; Andresen, Everatt, & Somers, 2014; Table 1). Land
cover classes including low canopy rangelands, moderate canopy
rangelands, shrublands and barelands (see Table 1 for list of variables
FIGURE1 Documented cheetah presence locations in the nine provinces of the central plateau of Iran between 2001 and 2014. Cheetah
conservation areas are those with specific management aiming at conserving cheetahs
Saudi Arabia
Persian Gulf
Iraq Afghanistan
Caspian Sea
Presence points
Study area
Cheetah conservation areas
0200 40010
Makran Sea
and descriptions) were extracted from maps developed by the Iranian
Forests, Ranges and Watershed Management Organization (IFRWO).
To provide continuity for the extracted categories (Franklin, 2010), we
calculated the proportion of each cover type within a 5 × 5 km grid by
running the ArcMap Neighborhood statistic tool.
To take into account the anthropogenic effects in our model-
ling approach, we used the human footprint model developed by
Sanderson, Jaiteh, et al (2002) which integrates data on population
density and the presence of infrastructures including road networks,
land transformation and human access. Because of the coarse preci-
sion of the human footprint model, we also included the density of
villages in the study area estimated from a kernel density function ap-
plied to village point layer obtained from a topographic military map of
Iran (1:25,000). Using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)
elevation model (, we also considered altitude
and topographic roughness (i.e., standard deviation of altitude of all
raster cells within a grid of 5 × 5 km) in the modelling method as the
most important variables affecting physiographic heterogeneity.
To account for the availability of the main cheetah prey species; the goi-
tered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), Jebeer gazelle (G. bennettii), wild sheep
(Ovis orientalis) and Persian ibex (Capra aegagrus) (Farhadinia & Hemami,
2010; Harrison & Bates, 1991), we used distributional data compiled in
the “Atlas of Mammals of Iran” (Karami, Ghadirian, & Feizollahi, 2013) at a
25 × 25 km grid scale. We overlaid shape files of these four preys’ distribu-
tion to obtain a composite map of presence. We then calculated distance
to areas hosting prey species by running ArcMap Spatial Analyst Tools.
All the explanatory variables were prepared in ArcgIs 9.3 (Esri,
2010) at a grid size of 1 × 1 km. Before starting the modelling work,
we calculated Pearson correlation coefficients to test for multicol-
linearity among predictors, but detected no high correlation (more
than 0.7) between any pair of explanatory variables.
2.4 | Distribution modelling approach
To predict cheetah distribution, we used biomod2 package (Thuiller,
Lafourcade, Engler, & Araújo, 2009) in R environment v. 3.1.2
(R Development Core Team, 2014). Because different modelling
methods can yield widely varying results, using this method allowed
us to simultaneously take into account results from multiple model-
ling approaches and build a consensus model called as “ensemble”
model (Araújo & New, 2007; Thuiller et al., 2009). We used three
regression- based methods: generalized linear models (GLM), gen-
eralized additive models (GAM) and multiple adaptive regression
splines (MARS), and four machine learning algorithms: general-
ized boosting model (GBM), random forest (RF), maximum entropy
(MaxEnt) and artificial neural network (ANN) to obtain an integrative
prediction of Asiatic cheetah’s distribution in the study area. As all
these models require background data (e.g., pseudo- absence points),
we generated a randomly drawn sample of 5,000 background points
from the extent of study area excepting occurrence cells. We cali-
brated models using the 75% of occurrence points as training data,
and evaluated models prediction based on the remaining 25% of
data set as test data. Models were evaluated using area under the
curve (AUC) of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot and the
true skill statistic (TSS) because of their independence from preva-
lence in the species data (Allouche, Tsoar, & Kadmon, 2006).
Using BIOMOD framework, we estimated the contribution (i.e.,
importance) of variables in the cheetah’s distribution models, and the
response of the species distribution to the gradient of explanatory
variables was also evaluated based on the response curves derived
from GLM, GBM and RF models.
Finally, we implemented the ensemble model by weighted- averaging
the individual models proportionally to all their evaluation metrics scores
(Thuiller et al., 2009). In addition to obtaining final cheetah’s distribution
model, we also intended to find the most suitable areas as core habitats
for cheetahs and evaluate habitat connectivity among them. For this
reason, instead of a binary classification of presence/absence from the
final ensemble model, we overlaid presence/absence map of the seven
aforementioned models using a map algebra procedure. Using stacked
binary map of presence/absence models, we obtained a composite map
of suitable/unsuitable areas with raster values of 0–7 in which 0 score
indicates areas being unsuitable in all models and 7 represents areas
identified as suitable by all models and categorized as core habitats.
To identify habitat patches with minimum areas capable of sustaining
cheetahs, we focused on patches larger than 1,700 km2. We selected
this threshold value based on preliminary telemetry results (H. Jowkar,
personal communication, 2007) and the estimated mean home- range
size of the Saharan cheetah, a subspecies living in a comparable arid
ecosystem (i.e., 1,583 km2; Belbachir et al., 2015).
2.5 | Cheetah habitat connectivity
To evaluate the connectivity within cheetah’s suitable habitats in the vast
desert of central Iran, we used the concept of circuit theory and cIrcuItscApe
software (McRae & Shah, 2009). Through identifying multiple alternative
Variable Description
Overlaid shape file of the distribution of main prey
Low canopy
Sparse vegetation with density ≤ 25%
Mod canopy
Mixture of grassland–scrubland with density ≥ 25%
Shrubland Patches covered by scrubs–shrubs with canopy
cover ≥ 10%
Bareland Uncovered areas including sand dunes and salty lands
Altitude Elevation above sea level
Roughness SD of altitude of all raster cells within a 5 × 5 km grid
Cropland Agricultural properties including dry and irrigated farms
Village density Number of villages within a 5 × 5 km grid
Integrated index of population density, land
transformation, human access and presence of
TABLE1 Environmental variables used in species distribution
modelling for evaluating Asiatic cheetah distribution in arid
ecosystems of central Iran
   AHMADI et Al.
pathways, this method provides a detailed exploration of potential linkage
and connectivity variability (Walpole, Bowman, Murray, & Wilson, 2012).
Circuit theory treats cells in a landscape as electrical nodes connected to
neighbouring cells by resistors, with resistance values determined by the
cells’ landscape resistance/conductance values (McRae, Dickson, Keitt, &
Shah, 2008). Furthermore, using this method, we identified “pinch points”
as areas where current densities are high and alternative pathways are not
available (see McRae et al., 2008 for more details). We used core habitats
as source patches, and the ensemble distribution model as a measure of
conductance (i.e., conductance of each raster point for movement).
2.6 | Landscape connectivity prioritization
For LCP, we focused on the probability of connectivity (PC) index,
which is among the most well- performing indices in landscape con-
nectivity analysis (Bodin & Saura, 2010; Saura & Pascual- Hortal,
2007). The characteristic that used to derive PC index can refer to
different attributes such as patch area (i.e., core habitat in this study),
area- weighted habitat quality, carrying capacity or other relevant at-
tributes (Saura & Pascual- Hortal, 2007; Visconti & Elkin, 2009). In this
study in addition to typically used patch area, we tested, as a novel
FIGURE2 (a) Ensemble distribution model of Asiatic cheetah based on weighted- averaging seven species distribution models (SDMs). (b) Stacked
binary prediction as an ensemble model based on overlaid suitable/unsuitable distribution models used to identify Asiatic cheetah’s core habitats.
[Colour figure can be viewed at]
Presence point
Study area
Ensemble score
High : 964
Low : 36
Conservation areas
Cheetah conservation areas
Overlaid suitability score
0200 400100km
procedure, the current values of cheetah’s core habitats that were de-
rived from circuit theory as the patch quality characteristic. Moreover,
the prioritization of core habitats (i.e., their contribution to overall
habitat connectivity) was calculated from the percentage of the varia-
tion in PC (dPC) caused by the removal of each individual patch from
the landscape (Saura & Pascual- Hortal, 2007), both for patch area
(dPC A) and patch current (dPC C). A description of the dPC calcula-
tions is provided in Appendix S1. We calculated dPC values at two
dispersal distances of 50 km and 150 km using conefor 2.6 software
(Saura & Torné, 2009). conefor needs distance- probability values cor-
responding to dispersal ability of the targeted species. Although there
is little information on Asiatic cheetah movements, we chose 50 km
as a reasonable median dispersal distance and 150 km as a maximum
dispersal distance estimated based on camera trap recapture data
(Farhadinia et al., 2013). Accordingly, we set distance- probability val-
ues of 0.5 and 0.05 for 50 km and 150 km dispersal distances, respec-
tively, as recommended by Saura and Torné (2009).
Our ensemble model indicated a patchily distributed suitable habi-
tat for Asiatic cheetah in the central plateau of Iran (Figure 2). GLM,
MaxEnt, GBM and RF distribution models showed excellent predictive
performance with respect to AUC metric (i.e., model’s discrimination
capacity) and GAM, MARS and ANN good performance (Table 2). The
prediction accuracy was good (e.g., TSS ˃ 0.6) for all models (Table 2).
The average importance of the variables among the models
showed that the prey availability, human footprint, roughness, village
density and low canopy rangeland variables contributed the most to
the cheetah distribution (Table 3). The response curves produced to
evaluate cheetah’s response to environmental gradient revealed an al-
most similar pattern between GLM, GBM and RF (Figure 3), all indicat-
ing that the highest probability of cheetahs’ presence occurs in areas
with highest prey availability. The effect of anthropogenic variables
(i.e., human footprint and village density) indicated that with increasing
human presence cheetahs’ occurrence decreased. Finally taking land-
scape attributes into account, response curves also depicted a high
preference of the Asiatic cheetah for rough landscapes covered by
sparse vegetation with avoidance of bare lands (Figure 3).
Overlaying presence/absence distribution maps to obtain an in-
tegrated suitability map of all models indicated that 40.5% of the
study area was identified as suitable habitat by at least one of the
distribution models (i.e., areas with suitability score of 1–7; Table 4).
Accordingly, 59.5% of the study area was not identified as suitable by
any of the seven distribution models (Table 4). We identified five core
habitats that represented areas of highest environmental suitability
for the species in Iran (Figure 4). We also included an additional core
habitat in North Khorasan Province (see Figure 1). Although this patch
of habitat has an area smaller than the estimated mean home- range
size for Asiatic cheetah, it hosts a documented population of cheetahs,
possibly as a result of an unusually abundant population of gazelles
(Farhadinia et al., 2012). Accordingly, we estimated that the current
core habitats for cheetahs in Iran stretch over 49,144.5 km2 or approx-
imately 6.3% of the central plateau.
Connectivity analysis using a circuit theory based approach re-
vealed that while there is strong permeability within southern and
northern populations, the connectivity between these two distribu-
tion patches is limited (Figure 4), as a result of low landscape suitabil-
ity between them (Figure 2). Moreover, our cumulative current map
highlighted the existence of several pinch points across the predicted
linkages, which, as landscape bottlenecks, may contribute to constrain
cheetah’s movements.
Landscape connectivity prioritization analysis showed a differ-
ent pattern of patch prioritization depending on whether using the
extent of core habitats or circuit current as patch characteristics.
Based on the extent of core habitats, core habitats 5, 6 and 4 were
the most important patches for sustaining connectivity, respectively
(Table 5). However, with respect to circuit current as patch charac-
teristics, core habitats ranking was 6, 4 and 5, respectively (Table 5).
Nonetheless, we found that for both patch area and patch circuit
current the connectivity ranking of core habitats correlated posi-
tively with their characteristics, and was independent of the disper-
sal distances.
AUC 0.901 0.837 0.872 0.905 0.913 0.902 0.876
TSS 0.730 0.655 0.652 0.707 0.713 0.727 0.670
AUC, area under the curve of ROC plot; TSS, true statistical skill.
For models description, see “Methods”.
TABLE2 Performance of discrimination
capacity and accuracy of different
algorithms to predict Asiatic cheetah
distribution in central Iran
TABLE3 Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the contribution of
environmental variables in seven Asiatic cheetah’s distribution
models in central Iran. Contribution values were calculated based on
the difference in Pearson correlation scores between general model
and randomized (e.g., permuted) models for each variable
Variables Mean SD
Prey availability 0.521 0.091
Human footprint 0.223 0.056
Roughness 0.169 0.102
Villages density 0.110 0.056
Low canopy rangeland 0.083 0.030
Bareland 0.056 0.048
Altitude 0.033 0.038
Cropland 0.031 0.026
Shrubland 0.016 0.024
Mod canopy rangeland 0.013 0.015
   AHMADI et Al.
Setting priority actions for species conservation should be primarily
conducted based on reliable, detailed and spatially explicit understand-
ing of the species requirements, and available conservation options
(Rabinowitz & Zeller, 2010; Sanderson, Redford, et al., 2002). In the
present study, we propose the first combined evaluation of habitat
suitability and connectivity for the Asiatic cheetah, an apex predator
that suffered considerable contraction of its distribution range for at
least the past 100 years (Harrison & Bates, 1991). We used the most
complete compilation of recent locations collected for this cheetah
subspecies and a sophisticated ensemble modelling approach that ac-
counts for SDMs- specific uncertainty (Araújo & New, 2007; Thuiller
et al., 2009). The stacked binary prediction as the ensemble model
achieved 100% sensitivity, which means that all cheetah presence lo-
cations were correctly predicted as suitable by the overlaid suitabil-
ity maps. Although such an approach is likely to decrease the model’s
specificity (i.e., correctly predicted pseudo- absence), here estimated at
65%, it minimized the omission of potentially suitable areas for chee-
tahs. Decreasing the omission error compared to the commission error
seems an acceptable choice in the case of a species on the brink of
extinction and requiring generous and immediate conservation efforts.
The comparison of SDMs results revealed that GLM has the highest
TSS value (Table 2), confirming the efficiency of this simple regression-
based model to correctly classify out- of- sample data when doing ex-
trapolations (Franklin, 2010; Merow et al., 2014). However, machine
learning methods (MaxEnt, GBM and RF), that have good propensity
for interpolation, showed the best performance based on discrimina-
tion capacity (i.e., AUC) values (Table 2), a result supported by compar-
ative examinations of SDMs (Elith & Graham, 2009; Elith et al., 2006).
The present study confirms that availability of prey species is a fun-
damental criterion of landscape suitability for cheetah in Iran. Habitat se-
lection for areas with high prey abundance has been largely reported for
other large felids including the African cheetah (A. j. jubatus) in South Africa
(Rostro- García, Kamler, & Hunter, 2015). Relative availability of natural
FIGURE3 Response curves of Asiatic cheetah’s distribution to the gradient of the most important predictors for habitat suitability. Results
shown are for GLM (blue line), GBM (red line) and RF (black line) models. For description of variables, see Table 1. Human footprint (ratio of 100),
low canopy rangeland and bareland (for both ratios of 1) are adimensional variables. [Colour figure can be viewed at]
TABLE4 Surface and proportion of
suitable/unsuitable habitats for the Asiatic
cheetah in central Iran
score Area (km2)
of study area
Protected by all
CAs in km2 (%)
Protected by cheetah’s
CAsa in km2 (%)
0 464,466 59.5
1–7 316175.7 40.5 73,818.86 (23) 51,512.65 (16)
7 49,144.5 6.3 30,759.16 (63) 26,130.45 (53)
aConservation areas (CAs) for cheetahs are protected areas with specific management aiming at con-
serving cheetahs.
prey versus livestock has also been shown a good predicator of landscape
suitability for cheetahs in Botswana (Winterbach, Winterbach, Boast,
Klein, & Somers, 2015). The Asiatic cheetah mainly relies on medium-
sized ungulate prey, with a preference for the Jebeer and goitered gazelles
(Farhadinia & Hemami, 2010; Farhadinia et al., 2012), two species that
have suffered severe declines in population size and distribution in Iran
since the 1970s (Mallon, 2007). Therefore, the high dependency on prey
identified by our distribution model may provide support for the hypothe-
sis that the Asiatic cheetah is likely to be ecologically constrained in its last
stronghold in Asia due to the decline of its favoured prey species.
Cheetahs in Iran are scattered predominantly through low can-
opy rangelands (e.g., sparse vegetation with density <25%; Table 3) in
relatively rough terrains. The high contribution of topographic rough-
ness in the current distribution of the Asiatic cheetah is in contrast
with what has been documented for sub- Saharan African cheetahs,
which live in flat to undulating grasslands, savannas and shrublands
and only occasionally in montane areas (e.g., see Andresen et al., 2014;
Rostro- García et al., 2015). The widespread use by Asiatic cheetahs
of the rugged parts of the predominantly flat central plateau of Iran
is coherent with the relatively low habitat selectivity of cheetahs
compared to other carnivores (Durant et al., 2010), and may reflect
in Iran a shift in prey selection. Because cheetahs prefer prey within a
body mass range of 23–56 kg (Hayward, Hofmeyr, O’brien, & Kerley,
2006), thus with the decline of Jebeer and goitered gazelles, the wild
sheep and Persian ibex, two mid- sized species inhabiting rough areas
(Esfandabad, Karami, Hemami, Riazi, & Sadough, 2010), have emerged
as the most available wild prey species for cheetahs in Iran (Farhadinia
& Hemami, 2010). This possibly resulted in cheetahs increasingly using
rough habitats. The hypothesis of a contemporary shift in prey selec-
tion is supported by the historical distribution of cheetahs in south-
west Asia, which extended largely in accordance with the presence
of plain- dwelling gazelles (Harrington, 1977; Harrison & Bates, 1991).
Unsurprisingly the Asiatic cheetah prefers areas without humans
and associated activities, supporting the documented trend that conflict
FIGURE4 Habitat permeability
between the six Asiatic cheetah’s core
habitats based on circuit theory. Stepping
stone areas are proposed temporary
strongholds between core areas for moving
cheetahs. Hatched conservation areas (CAs)
are those with specific management aiming
at conserving cheetah. [Colour figure can
be viewed at]
Primary road
Core habitat
Stepping stone
Conservation areas
Circuitscape current
High : 2.355
Low : 00150 30075 km
TABLE5 Patch characteristics and results of landscape
connectivity prioritization (LCP) to identify the most important core
habitats for maintaining landscape connectivity within Asiatic
cheetah distribution range. Patches (or core areas) are identified by
species distribution modelling using BIOMOD method, and the
current is derived from cIrcuItscApe software. The values of 50 km
and 150 km correspond to assumed median and maximum dispersal
distance of the species. dPC A and dPC C are the percentage of PC
index value loss for patch area and patch current, respectively. The
geographical location of patches is shown in Figure 4
Area (km2)
50 km 150 km
Patch 1 8093.58 2.25 9.65 20.83 7.98 17.95
Patch 2 766.084 1.62 0.57 11.82 0.38 10.63
Patch 3 4560.55 1.43 5.52 9.97 3.73 7.69
Patch 4 7278.62 2.27 25.56 36.21 21.30 34.26
Patch 5 17,491.84 2.07 65.89 35.01 66.17 32.36
Patch 6 10,953.92 2.35 45.26 39.79 45.03 39.81
   AHMADI et Al.
with humans is a primary factor decreasing large carnivore survival
(Winterbach, Winterbach, Somers, & Hayward, 2013). Major demo-
graphic changes have occurred in Iran since the 1930s with a 6- fold
increase of the total human population and a doubling of the rural pop-
ulation over the period (Amiraslani & Dragovich, 2011). Even so the last
remaining stronghold for cheetahs in the central plateau, hosts the low-
est human population densities in Iran (NPHC, 2011), these demographic
shifts together with developmental changes have created a situation in
which more anthropogenic pressure is being exerted on the cheetah
habitat, particularly in relation to an increase in infrastructure and live-
stock numbers. Livestock overgrazing and desertification have resulted
in an intensification of food resource degradation for the main cheetah
prey species (Hunter et al., 2007; Karami, Hemami, & Groves, 2002),
while guard dogs accompanying livestock herds have proved dangerous
predators for cheetahs and their prey (CACP database, unpublished).
Landscapes that retain more connections between patches of
otherwise isolated habitat are assumed to be more likely to maintain
dispersal pathways for large mammals and increase demographic and
genetic population size (Mills & Allendorf, 1996). Although one and
half time larger than the Serengeti/Mara/Tsavo landscape in Kenya and
Tanzania, which hosts the largest population of cheetahs in Africa, the
area of potential core habitats remaining available to cheetahs in Iran
appears fragmented with possibly a limited connectivity between the
northern and southern populations. Although cheetahs display a high
mobility and excellent dispersal abilities (Boast, 2014), better conserved
connecting habitats would help the species to persist, recolonize empty
habitat patches and exchange individuals and genes among subpopula-
tions (Hanski & Ovaskainen, 2000; Mech & Hallett, 2001). Our connec-
tivity model predicts that linkages between core areas exist, although
their functionality for dispersal might be to some extent affected by a
lack of protection and the risk of road- kill accidents (Figure 4).
The analysis of patch prioritization revealed that for both patch area
(i.e., extent of the core habitats) and patch current (i.e., circuit flows
through core habitats), patch prioritization was positively correlated
with the patch characteristic regardless of the dispersal ability of the
species. We also found that core habitats will have a lower chance of
being reached by a cheetah when dispersal distances become larger.
These results have been documented in other studies (Saura & Rubio,
2010; Zhao et al., 2014). However, our finding highlights that consider-
ing different patch characteristics might results in different pattern of
patch prioritization. For example, while core habitats 5 and 6 have high-
est dPC value based on patch area characteristic, core habitats 6 and 4
are the most important patch when using patch current. Although spa-
tial aggregation of patches and the variance of the patch characteristics
determines the appropriateness of the application of metrics for LCP
analysis (Visconti & Elkin, 2009), our approach reveals that, using the
same metrics and spatial aggregation, including patch characteristics
that are intrinsically more related to the movement of the species (e.g.,
patch circuit current vs. patch area), might provide better understand-
ings of the patch contribution for maintaining landscape connectivity.
Using circuit theory allows calculating cumulative current (i.e., land-
scape permeability) terminating to each of the patch habitats and could
potentially be used as habitat characteristic for landscape prioritization.
4.1 | Conservation implications
The present study supports that CAs with dedicated resources to chee-
tah conservation currently protect only 53% and 16% of cheetah core
and suitable habitats, respectively (Table 4). Because of its crucial impor-
tance for conservation, the network of CAs and associated conservation
resources for cheetahs would therefore benefit from being expanded to
achieve more effective conservation coverage of cheetah habitats in Iran.
Currently, high priority core habitats 1, 2 and 5 are fairly well covered by
CAs, but the protection coverage would deserve being expanded to the
south- east of core area 3, the north of core area 4 and between existing
CAs in core area 6. In combination, this landscape protection scheme
will strengthen the role of core areas 4, 5 and 6 for cheetah dispersal as
revealed by the patch prioritization analysis. Also, to ensure the cohe-
sion between core habitats in the north and the south we propose to
establish new intermediate CAs located in corridors of suitable habitats
between core areas 1 and 3, and 3 and 4 (Figure 4). As featured for other
large carnivores (Cushman et al., 2012; Riordan et al., 2015) these areas,
as stepping stones, would provide temporary strongholds between core
areas for moving cheetahs and reconnect through suitable landscapes
the northern and southern parts of the cheetah range.
New CAs in the central plateau of Iran as well as their associated
management policies should be developed with the specific objective
of cheetah conservation. They should include large extents of habitats
favoured by gazelles and support in priority their conservation. In ad-
dition, the water and food supplementations actively implemented in
CAs during summers and droughts should be implemented to support
in priority gazelles in their favoured habitats. Hence, this management
policy would less likely support the mountain dwelling Persian leopard
which, besides being a predator to cheetahs (Hayward et al., 2006),
competes with them on prey resources.
Our connectivity approach showed that linkages within and between
adjacent cheetah core habitats still exist across the central plateau of Iran
(Figure 3). Unfortunately, these pathways are nowadays dissected by main
through roads that carry large volume of traffic, putting cheetahs at risk of
car collisions. Of 33 documented cheetah mortalities between 2001 and
2016 due to various causes, at least 14 were killed on roads within or be-
tween core areas, making it the major cause of documented mortality for
cheetahs in Iran (CACP database, unpublished). By providing an applicable
tool to identify with accuracy the most important portions of roads to be
secured against cheetah car collisions, the circuits approach together with
connectivity metrics could help prioritize mitigation measures, increase
their cost- effectiveness and likelihood of success. Our connectivity anal-
ysis supports that securing primary roads within core areas and between
the core areas 1 and 2, and 3 and 4 would be critical to reduce the risk
of cheetah car collisions. Fencing of dangerous stretches of roads partic-
ularly in combination with wildlife passages has indeed been suggested
as one of the most effective methods to minimize car- collision risk with
large mammals (Bissonette & Adair, 2008; Ascensão et al., 2013). Large
carnivores differently respond to crossing structures given to taxon- and/
or habitat- specific factors (Ng et al., 2004; Clevenger & Waltho, 2005).
To our knowledge, anticar- collision methods have not been developed
specifically for cheetahs, and therefore, methods and structures used for
other large carnivores (e.g., Clevenger & Waltho, 2005) will have to be
tested for the Asiatic cheetah and adjusted to the Iranian context.
The value of identifying core habitats and linkage areas for Asiatic
cheetah at country scale is to inform targeted land planning and better
conservation management. Species distribution modelling in combina-
tion with circuit theory and LCP analysis provide a robust representa-
tion of most suitable habitats for cheetahs in Iran and offers possible
adaptive measures for country- scale management of cheetah habitats.
Extending landscape protection over larger stretches of suitable hab-
itat, developing in parallel cheetah- specific conservation actions aim-
ing at increasing the size and distribution of gazelle populations, and
improving the safety of important linkages between core habitats are
likely to promote the conservation of the last surviving population of
cheetah in Asia. In the future, evaluating the long- term persistence of
the Asiatic cheetah over its last remaining strongholds in Asia would
also require studies on metapopulation dynamics based on patch pop-
ulation growth models.
We are grateful for the financial and technical support of the DoE of the
Islamic Republic of Iran, the Global Environmental Facilities (GEF), the
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) representation in Iran,
and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). The work of WCS in Iran
would not have been possible without the long- standing support of the
Flora Family Foundation. Our special thanks go to all contributors to
the Conservation of the Asiatic Cheetah Project, and particularly suc-
cessive managers, to directors of the DoE operations in the provinces
covered by this study, to managers of CAs and their staff who were the
kingpins of all data collection efforts. We thank anonymous referees
for helping to improve an earlier version of the manuscript.
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Mohsen Ahmadi is a research associate at the Department of Natural
Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Iran. His primary inter-
est is in methods for evaluating spatial and temporal dynamics of bio-
diversity and species distribution models, with a special interest in the
incorporation of new knowledge into conservation goals.
Additional Supporting Information may be found online in the
supporting information tab for this article.
How to cite this article: Ahmadi M, Balouchi BN,
Jowkar H, et al. Combining landscape suitability and habitat
connectivity to conserve the last surviving population of
cheetah in Asia. Divers. Distrib. 2017;23:592–603.
... Nonetheless, it is needed to inform spatial planning for conservation measures, i.e., what prey and which habitat to be prioritized for protection, and potentially restoring the extinct range of cheetahs in Asia [1]. As a a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 consequence of anthropogenic pressures, the Asiatic cheetahs are reported to have experienced a shift in their habitat use from flat areas to more unsuitable habitats, such as hilly and mountain habitats, which may have induced also diet changes from gazelles (Gazella spp.) to mountain ungulates, notably urial (Ovis vignei) [2][3][4]. To evaluate this assumption, we ask what was the prey base of Asiatic cheetahs in historical times when prey density and diversity was higher? ...
... In Iran, where the only extant population persisted, cheetahs appeared to have switched to mountain ungulates such as urial, bezoar goat (Capra aegagrus) and mouflon (O. melina) as their prey because of the scarcity of gazelles [2,3]. ...
... Lack of agreement on these issues contributed to a widespread debate among conservation practitioners on the most effective initiatives for the recovery of Asiatic cheetahs [18]. For example, differing opinions arose among conservationists as to whether to prioritize gazelle or urial populations and habitats to restore cheetahs given the limited conservation resources [2][3][4]19]. ...
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Understanding key ecological adaptations, such as foraging, when a predator is almost extinct is complex. Nonetheless, that information is vital for the recovery of the persisting individuals. Therefore, reviewing historical, ethnobiological and recent records can assist in exploring the species behavioral ecology. We applied this approach to Asiatic cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), which once roamed most west and central Asian countries but now is confined to a few dozens in Iran, at historical (pre-1970) and recent (post-1970) scales. We addressed a widely popular perception that Asiatic cheetahs were subjected to prey shifts from gazelles (Gazella spp.) in open plains areas to urial (Ovis vignei) in mountains because of gazelle populations declines due to anthropogenic influences. We also quantified recent prey choice of Asiatic cheetahs and their behavioral plasticity in foraging different prey species types. Although ethnobiological and historical records suggested that gazelle species were the main prey for cheetahs across their Asian range. However, urial were also commonly reported to be hunted by cheetahs across their historical Asian range, showing that the predation on mountain ungulates is not an emerging hunting behavior in Asiatic cheetahs. We found spatiotemporal plasticity in recent hunting behavior of cheetahs with selective predation on adult urial males. There was temporal overlap in hunting times for plains dwelling versus mountain ungulates, albeit with some minor differences with morning mostly for gazelles while the predation on mountain ungulates was predominantly post-midday. We provided three management implications for the recovery and restoration of cheetahs in Asia. Our work highlighted the importance of historical studies in informing the behavioral ecology of rare species.
... Recent assessments of factors affecting habitat suitability identified prey availability as the most important factor limiting the distribution of the Asiatic cheetah, followed by human-and climate-related variables (Ahmadi et al. 2017;Khalatbari et al. 2018). Indeed, over the last Zamen-e Ahoo National Park (NP); and Southern Subpopulation composed by (3) Naybandan WR, (4) Kamki Bahabad Hunting Prohibited Area (HPA), (5) Bafq Protected Area (PA), (6) Ariz HPA, (7) Dareh Anjir WR, and (8) Kalmand WR. ...
... These changes have likely influenced the population structure and the connectivity of remaining cheetah individuals. Several studies have assessed the population connectivity of Asiatic cheetahs based on distinct methodological approaches (resistant kernel and factorial least-cost path connectivity, Moqanaki and Cushman, 2016; ensemble model and circuit theory, Ahmadi et al. 2017). These studies suggested that despite the large Euclidean distance (about 600 km) between subpopulations, the core areas inhabited by subpopulations are connected through stepping stones and corridor habitats. ...
... Such knowledge is especially important because ca. 70% of the predicted suitable cheetah habitats are located outside protected areas (Ahmadi et al. 2017;Khalatbari et al. 2018) and also because the putative corridors linking the two remaining subpopulations are threatened by the expanding road network (Mohammadi et al. 2018). Studies evaluating vehicle collision of wildlife (Mohammadi and Kaboli 2016) have identified hotspots of cheetah potential collision in some of the putative corridors. ...
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Decreasing genetic diversity, gene flow rates and population connectivity can increase inbreeding rates and extinction risks. Asiatic cheetah is a critically endangered mammal with large home range that suffered from extreme range reduction and population decline. Their population is now fragmented into two subpopulations. We used genetic markers to estimate genetic diversity, relatedness, minimum effective population size and gene flow, and to assess population structure. Putative corridors connecting subpopulations were inferred using connectivity models based on topography, land cover and human footprints resistance variables. Individual pairwise genetic relatedness was compared with resistance values obtained from these models and with Euclidean distances between samples to assess the most important factors shaping the current genetic structure. The estimated effective population size was extremely low (Ne = 11 to 17). Both Northern and Southern Subpopulations exhibited low genetic diversity and high relatedness. Several signatures of gene flow and movement of individuals between subpopulations were observed suggesting that inferred corridors potentially connecting subpopulations are functional. However, no traces of gene flow were observed for the latest generations, maybe due to a decrease of functional connectivity in recent years. The resistance model including all variables was best related to genetic relatedness, whereas population differentiation is mostly driven by isolation by distance. The very low estimated effective population size, decreased genetic diversity, and high relatedness of Asiatic cheetah suggests that population reinforcement, removing obstacles to connectivity and boosting prey population conservation in stepping stones are urgently needed to prevent the imminent extinction of iconic biodiversity.
... Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are practical tools that explore the variables governing species distribution and habitat use through multivariate analysis of ecological niches and production of landscape-level habitat suitability maps. They have extensively been used to identify suitable habitats under the influence of environmental variables , model habitat connectivity and gene-flow corridors (Ahmadi et al. 2017;DeMatteo et al. 2017), investigate conservation gaps and spatial conservation prioritisation Ahmadi et al. 2020), compare patterns of habitat use and niche partitioning among sympatric species (Hemami et al. 2018;Ashrafzadeh et al. 2020), and evaluate the climate change effect on species distribution (Sheppard et al. 2014;Ahmadi et al. 2019). ...
... Considering that the leopard's current suitable habitats in the Hyrcanian forests already include high-altitude ranges, the species has to experience range contraction in the future. Given the arid climate of the Saharo-Sindian and Irano-Turanian ecoregions, water resources act as a vital limiting factor to wildlife species that are predominantly available in mountainous areas (Ahmadi et al. 2017). These ecoregions will become warmer and drier in the future, forcing the leopard to shift to higher altitudes in search of water resources. ...
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Large carnivores, despite being sensitive to specific habitat conditions, are able to distribute in a wide range of natural habitats. Such pattern of distribution raises the question of whether ecoregional differences should be considered when developing habitat suitability models. We assessed habitat suitability of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana) as an example of a wide-ranging predator across four different biogeographic zones of Iran. We used the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) to perform a general and ecoregion-specific habitat suitability model and projections of the future distribution of the species for the year 2050. The results showed that the habitat use of leopards in each ecoregion differed depending on the habitat conditions and that, due to smoothing response curves of the explanatory variables, the ecoregion-specific distribution models were suppressed in the general model. Topographic ruggedness, access to prey, NDVI, and human presence affect species' habitat suitability in different orders and gradients across the four ecoregions. We also found that the leopard's response to future climate change varies depending on ecoregions and climate change scenarios. While habitat loss is greater than habitat gain in Hyrcanian and Saharo-Sindian regions, this pattern reversed in Irano-Turanian and Zagros ecoregions. We argued that zoning across wide geographical ranges in niche modelling of widespread species, while may underestimate their environmental tolerance, allows for proper judgments on the required conservation measures in different ecoregions.
... Understanding species' distribution ranges enables us to investigate habitat connectivity. The assumption that individuals in pathways pass through suitable habitats has been the subject of numerous landscape connectivity studies (Ahmadi et al., 2017;Iannella et al., 2021;Eslamlou et al., 2022). Ecological corridors/linkages preserve gene flow and genetic diversity by facilitating the exchange of individuals between populations (Iannella et al., 2021). ...
... To detect the role of topographic (Gherghel and Papeş, 2015) and hydrological factors (Säumel and Kowarik, 2010) in the connectivity of core populations, the boundaries of the basin were defined so that all areas with a shared water flow were considered as a unit with potential for connecting core populations. In some studies, nodes or patches are identified by applying a threshold on the suitability map (Almasieh et al., 2019;Ahmadi et al., 2017;Ashrafzadeh et al., 2019;Afroosheh et al., 2019). As a pond-breeding newt, N. derjugini is present in multiple groups; therefore, to create the connecting cores, a home range size of approximately 230 m 2 was considered for the species (Sharifi and Afroosheh, 2014) was used. ...
Amphibians are among the largest endangered groups globally, with more than 2000 endangered species. As low mobility limits species' distribution, connectivity between core populations is essential. The evolutionary characteristics of amphibians, especially those more water-dependent, have faced the study of habitat connectivity with the challenge of Movement Context (MC), for which water and moisture are integral parts. This fine-scale study was performed to assess the distribution of Neurergus derjugini in western Iran and eastern Iraq and identify potential linkages between the core populations using the physical structures that play an MC role in the landscape. Distribution modeling was executed using maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt). Core populations were organized based on the home range size of N. derjugini, and the inverse of the habitat suitability was used as a resistance surface. The connectivity of core populations was modeled by integrating Electronic Circuit Theory and Least Cost Paths (LCPs) in the Linkage Mapper toolbox. The MC was characterized in the drainage basins based on the slope position and landform categories. Three scenarios were developed for connecting the core populations. In Scenario 1, drainage basins, in Scenario 2, valleys and in Scenario 3, canyons, shallow valleys, headwaters, and U-shaped valleys were considered to be MCs. Among the variables, slope and DEM diversity (H) had the greatest influence on the distribution of N. derjugini. There were 12 basins in the study area, while core populations were scattered only in three basins.Most of the presence points (63.38 %) and the highest quality linkages between the core populations were located in only one basin. Depending on movement ability and the physiological limits of the newts, the proxy did not work effectively in Scenario 1, and linkages were exaggerated. Compared to Scenario 2, linkages in Scenario 3 were more compatible with the ecological and biological characteristics of the species. Based on the results, fine-scale modeling could lead to reliable results for the MC-dependent species. Continuity in the structure of the physical landscape is crucial to the connectivity of core populations. Salamanders are irregularly distributed and dispersed.Thus, proper distribution of adjacent core populations in valleys and streams could be regarded as a successful step in the establishment of population connectivity. With the arrival of seasonal rainfall and snowmelt, temporary ponds are formed, which serve as stepping stones that increase the likelihood of distribution.
... Reducing anthropogenic disturbance and enhancing habitat connectivity are critical measures for mitigating the adverse effects of fragmentation. For example, heterogeneous habitat connectivity has been instrumental in safeguarding the remaining cheetah population in Iran [14]. In conclusion, the selection of suitable habitats for large carnivores necessitates the consideration of prey availability, environmental conditions, and human disturbance. ...
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Large terrestrial carnivores play a crucial role in the top–down control of terrestrial ecosystems by maintaining ecosystem stability and biodiversity. However, intense interspecific competition typically occurs among large sympatric carnivores, leading to population reduction or extinction. Spatial partitioning through divergent habitat selection mitigates such competition. In this study, we analyzed the main environmental factors influencing the habitat selection and fragmentation of suitable habitats in Xinlong County, Sichuan Province, using 410 infrared cameras from 2015 to 2023. By employing generalized linear and maximum entropy models, we developed an ensemble model to predict the suitable habitat distribution of leopards (Panthera pardus) and wolves (Canis lupus). The results revealed significant disparities in suitable habitat distributions of leopards and wolves as coexisting large carnivores. Leopards prefer understory, whereas wolves prefer high-altitude meadows. Wolves spatially avoid leopards, who secure relatively superior resources and relegate wolves to inferior habitats. Although suitable habitat patches for both species cluster intensely, habitat connectivity remains low owing to pronounced anthropogenic disturbances, which is especially evident in the higher fragmentation of wolf habitats. These results suggest that sympatric large carnivores can reduce spatial competition intensity and promote spatial partitioning by selecting divergently suitable habitats, thereby facilitating species coexistence.
... Reducing anthropogenic disturbances and enhancing habitat connectivity represent critical measures in mitigating the adverse effects of fragmentation. For instance, heterogeneous habitat connectivity has been instrumental in safeguarding the remaining cheetah populations in Iran [10]. In conclusion, the selection of suitable habitats for large carnivores necessitates considering prey availability, environmental conditions, human disturbances, and more. ...
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Large terrestrial carnivores play a crucial role in top-down control within terrestrial ecosystems, maintaining ecosystem stability and biodiversity. However, intense interspecific competition often arises among sympatric large carnivores, leading to population reductions or even extinctions. Spatial partitioning through divergent habitat selection helps mitigate such competition. In Xinlong County, Sichuan Province, we used 293 infrared cameras for monitoring from September to May 2016 and March to October 2022. By employing the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt), we developed an ensemble model predicting the suitable habitat distribution of leopards (Panthera pardus) and wolves (Canis lupus). We analyzed the main environmental factors influencing habitat selection and the fragmentation of suitable habitats. We found that suitable habitat distribution differed significantly between them. Both species preferred areas with gentle slopes close to settlements. While leopards' habitat selection primarily depended on the distance from settlements, the slope was predominant for wolves. Suitable habitats displayed aggregation, yet wolves exhibited higher fragmentation and more complex patch shapes, indicating greater susceptibility to human activities. These results suggest that sympatric large carnivores, such as leopards and wolves, can reduce spatial competition intensity and promote spatial partitioning by selecting divergent suitable habitats, thereby facilitating species coexistence.
... were used, with a granularity of 2.5 minutes (4.5 km 2 ), as dispersion indicators for three-time frames (the present, 2050, and 2070). The variance inflation factor was calculated prior to modeling using the usdm package (Naimi, 2015) and a correlation threshold of 0.7 was used to identify multicollinearity amongst response variables (Ahmadi et al., 2017). Six factors were ultimately chosen as potential distribution predictors.: ((i) bio1 (annual mean temperature in • C); ((ii) bio4 (temperature seasonality = standard deviation × 100); ((iii) bio5 (maximum temperature of the warmest month in • C); ((iv) bio12 (annual precipitation in mm); ((v) bio14 (precipitation of the driest month in mm); and (vi) bio19 (precipitation of the coldest quarter). ...
Climate change is predicted to have a significant impact on the geographic distribution of various flora, fauna, and insect species by expanding, contracting, or shifting their suitable climate environment. The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium is known for causing crop diseases like blight, root and stem rots, and wilts, making it the most significant mycotoxigenic genus in weeds and food across various climatic zones worldwide. In this study, we hypothesize that crop diseases caused by Fusarium spp. will increase across all four corners of the world by 2050 and 2070 in response to future climate conditions. A series of correlative species distribution models (SDMs), including a generalized linear model (GLM), maximum entropy (MaxEnt), generalized boosting model (GBM), and surface range envelope, were employed to project and compare how the niche of Fusarium spp. will change from the present time to 2050 and 2070 under two Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) of 8.5 and 4.5 (scenarios of high and low greenhouse gas emissions, respectively). Our approach (the ensemble predictions of 4 SDMs) minimizes the uncertainty (differences) of the projection results from each one of the models. The findings of this study have global implications because Fusarium spp. are associated with host species that are present on major continents such as Asia, Europe, Australia, and North and South America. The information gathered could be beneficial to farmers and planners when creating strategies to prevent the proliferation of Fusarium spp. as well as calculating the expenses associated with using pesticides to minimize contamination and increase yields.
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Background: Temperature, as one of the effective environmental stimuli in many aspects of species life and ecosystems, can affect amphibians in many ways. Knowing and predicting temperature change and its possible effects on the habitat suitability and movements of amphibians have led many researchers to use climate change scenarios and species distribution models (SDMs). One of the important remote-sensing products that received less attention of conservation biologists is the land surface temperature (LST). Due to the small difference between LST and air temperature, this component can be used to investigate and monitor the daily and seasonal changes of habitats. This study aims to investigate the seasonal trend of LST in the habitat suitability and connectivity of the critically endangered newt (Neurergus derjugini) in its small distribution range, using the MODIS LST time series (2003 to 2021) and with the help of SDMs, Mann–Kendall (MK) and Pettitt non-parametric tests. Results: In the last decade, the increasing trend of LST versus its decreasing trends is obvious. Based on MK and Pettitt tests, in the winter and spring, with the decrease in latitude of 35.45° and increase in longitude of 46.14°, the core populations which are located in the southeast have experienced an increase in temperature. Considering the period time of breeding and overwintering, the continuity of winter and spring can be effective on the survival of adult newts as well as larvae in the microclimate. Linkages with the highest current flow between core populations in the winter and summer are the most likely to be vulnerable. At the level of habitat, the increase in LST is proportional to the trend of thermal landscape changes, and all seasons have had an increase in LST, but in winter and summer, the largest area of the habitat has been involved. By continuing the current trend, many high-altitude southern habitats in Iran will be endangered, and the species will be at risk of local extinction. Conclusion: The increasing trend of temperature in all seasons such as winter will affect many adaptations of the species and these effects are mostly evident in the southern parts of its distribution range therefore, captive breeding and reintroduction are recommended for the populations of these areas.
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Prey availability and human-carnivore conflict are strong determinants that govern the spatial distribution and abundance of large carnivore species and determine the suitability of areas for their conservation. For wide-ranging large carnivores such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), additional conservation areas beyond protected area boundaries are crucial to effectively conserve them both inside and outside protected areas. Although cheetahs prefer preying on wild prey, they also cause conflict with people by predating on especially small livestock. We investigated whether the distribution of cheetahs' preferred prey and small livestock biomass could be used to explore the potential suitability of agricultural areas in Botswana for the long-term persistence of its cheetah population. We found it gave a good point of departure for identifying priority areas for land management, the threat to connectivity between cheetah populations, and areas where the reduction and mitigation of human-cheetah conflict is critical. Our analysis showed the existence of a wide prey base for cheetahs across large parts of Botswana's agricultural areas, which provide additional large areas with high conservation potential. Twenty percent of wild prey biomass appears to be the critical point to distinguish between high and low probable levels of human-cheetah conflict. We identified focal areas in the agricultural zones where restoring wild prey numbers in concurrence with effective human-cheetah conflict mitigation efforts are the most immediate conservation strategies needed to maintain Botswana's still large and contiguous cheetah population.
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The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal process.
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The Iranian black bear (Ursus thibetanus gedrosianus; IBB) is a critically endangered subspecies. The IBB needs connectivity to access seasonally available foods and to provide gene flow among populations in the mountains of Kerman, Hormozgan, and Sistan and Baluchistan provinces of Iran. We identified IBB cores to be used as termini for modelled corridors. We mapped 31 habitat cores based on 200 IBB presence points from studies during 2008-2013, and 70 presence points from our own observations of IBB footprints and scats in 2014. We used MaxEnt on 101 spatially independent presence points to map areas of high-quality habitat. The largest population patch (approx. 8,700 km2) covered 4 protected areas. We used least-cost modelling to model habitat corridors among 31 habitat cores. We considered a corridor locally important if it helped join nearby cores into a cluster that would support a large demographically and genetically vigorous population. We considered a corridor regionally important if it could connect the clusters united by local corridors. The most important local corridors were the corridors creating 4 clusters in the southeast of Iran. Also, we identified the 2 important regional corridors that could connect the 3 most important clusters. Although the density of roads in all habitat corridors was low (18.51 m/km2), roads crossed many important corridors. Conservation of main habitat cores and corridors for the IBB in southeastern Iran should be considered by the Department of Environment in Iran. © 2016 International Association for Bear Research and Management.
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Effective conservation solutions for small and isolated wildlife populations depend on identifying and preserving critical biological corridors and dispersal routes. With a worldwide population of ≤70 individuals, the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah Acinonyx jubatus venaticus persists in several fragmented nuclei in Iran. Connectivity between nuclei is crucial for the survival of this subspecies, but detailed information to guide conservation actions is lacking. We developed a resistance surface that predicted cost of cheetah movement as functions of topographical complexity, human development, surface water and landscape protection level. We predicted alternative models for the landscape connectivity of Asiatic cheetahs, considering the combination of relative landscape resistance and different dispersal ability scenarios. We predicted that core connected habitat patches are concentrated in three sub-regions, and within these sub-regions, populations were predicted to be broken up into two to eight isolated patches, depending on the dispersal ability scenario. Despite the achievements of recent conservation initiatives, long-term survival of the Asiatic cheetah in Iran is threatened by the combination of its small population size and fragmented distribution. We propose that conservation of the Asiatic cheetah urgently requires integrated landscape-level management to reduce mortality risk, protect core areas and corridors, and ultimately establish stepping-stone populations to integrate this fragmented population.
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Large wilderness areas are absent from Europe and land cover is mostly dominated by human activities. This chapter evaluates the ability of the protected area (PA) system to conserve viable populations of the three largest carnivores in Europe: the lynx (Lynx lynx), the wolf (Canis lupus) and the bear (Ursus arctos). Direct persecution combined with deforestation and decline in ungulate prey led European large carnivores to local extinction in many areas. The chapter considers both national protected areas (NPAs) and special areas of conservation (SACs) and the contribution of the two separately. It compares the total coverage provided by PAs to species’ suitable habitat to the coverage provided to potential viable populations. It also assesses the contribution of each individual European country to large carnivore conservation and their ability to independently conserve the species at a national level through their PAs and SACs.
This chapter reviews the role and status of legal frameworks and other commitments for protected areas. It explores the relationship between scientific evidence and political practicality in implementing current targets and achieving the more ambitious ones. Prompted by increasingly urgent scientific warnings on biodiversity loss and supported by an emerging international community of practice around protected areas, governments have been commendably responsive both through commitment and action in developing national protected area networks. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), signed at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, has gradually emerged as the most comprehensive legal framework for protected areas. Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA) remains the framework for implementing protected area goals, although it has been supplemented by the Strategic Plan Targets, the Aichi Targets, adopted at the CBD's 10th Conference of the Parties (COP 10).
Aim Millennia of human activity have drastically shaped the Earth’s surface confining wildlife in ever more rare and sparse habitat fragments. Within the strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, Aichi Target 11 aims at the expansion of the current protected area (PA) system and the maintenance and improvement of its connectivity. This study aims at providing the first overview of the functionality of the PA networks across the six continents at different dispersal distances relevant for terrestrial mammals. Location Global. Methods We used a graph theory approach to assess the connectivity of PA networks of different continents across a wide range of dispersal distances. We assessed the connectivity of country-level PA networks, the connectivity of con- tinental PA networks and the contribution of country-level PA networks to continental connectivity. Results National and continental networks are characterized by very different spatial arrangements that translate into different levels of connectivity, ranging from networks where the reachable area is mostly determined by structural connectivity within PAs (e.g. Africa) to networks where connectivity mostly depends on animal dispersal among PAs (e.g. Europe). PA size correlates positively with connectivity for all species, followed by PA number; dispersal contributes less and positively interacts with number of PAs. Main conclusions Continental networks perform worse than national networks. Transboundary connectivity is often weak and should be improved, especially for countries that are important in promoting continental connectivity. Increasing PA coverage and size is a good strategy to improve multispecies connectivity.