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This research was conducted to gain an understanding of the prevalence of cyberbullying among students in Malaysian higher learning institutions. Additionally, the present research also attempted to find out the common platforms where cyberbullying occurred and coping strategies used by cyber victims. A set of questionnaire was developed for the purpose of data collection. A total of 712 public and private college/university students participated in this research. The research findings revealed that 66% of the respondents reported having been cyberbullied; the prevalence rate for female was higher compared to male cyber users; Malays students yielded highest percentage of cyber victims compared to other ethnic groups. Current findings also indicated that Facebook and mobile phone social apps were the most common platforms where cyberbullying took place. The exploration of cyberbullying effects showed that most of the cyber victims became over sensitive towards their surrounding and developed emotional changes. Apart from that, the findings also indicated that the most common coping strategy was seeking assistance from friends and classmates. Pragmatic and effective steps have to be taken by higher leaning institutions in order to help students deal with problems in cyberbullying and more importantly to prevent cyberbullying from happening.
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RESEARCH ARTICLE Adv. Sci. Lett. 23(2), 781784, 2017
1
Copyright © 2015 American Scientific Publishers Advanced Science Letters
All rights reserved Vol.23(2), 781-784, 2017
Printed in the United States of America
Prevalence of Cyberbullying among Students in
Malaysian Higher Learning Institutions
Lai, C.S.1*, Mohamad, M. M.2, Lee, M.F.3, Mohd Salleh, K.4, Sulaiman, N.L.5
Rosli, D.I.6 & Chang, W.V.S.7
1,2,3,4,5,6 Faculty of Technical & Vocational Education, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia
7Community College Sandakan, Bandar Labuk Jaya, 90000, Sabah, Malaysia
This research was conducted to gain an understanding of the prevalence of cyberbullying among students in Malaysian
higher learning institutions. Additionally, the present research also attempted to find out the common platforms where
cyberbullying occurred and coping strategies used by cyber victims. A set of questionnaire was developed for the purpose of
data collection. A total of 712 public and private college/university students participated in this research. The research
findings revealed that 66% of the respondents reported having been cyberbullied; the prevalence rate for female was higher
compared to male cyber users; Malays students yielded highest percentage of cyber victims compared to other ethnic groups.
Current findings also indicated that Facebook and mobile phone social apps were the most common platforms where
cyberbullying took place. The exploration of cyberbullying effects showed that most of the cyber victims became over
sensitive towards their surrounding and developed emotional changes. Apart from that, the findings also indicated that the
most common coping strategy was seeking assistance from friends and classmates. Pragmatic and effective steps have to be
taken by higher leaning institutions in order to help students deal with problems in cyberbullying and more importantly to
prevent cyberbullying from happening.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Gender differences; Cyberbullying platform; Higher learning institution
1. INTRODUCTION
With the advent of advanced internet and communication
technologies, cyber users are now able to bully someone
else electronically without having face-to-face contact.
This is known as cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a new
form of bully via internet technologies which has been
spreading over the world. Some surveys have been
conducted to investigate the prevalence and impacts of
cyberbullying on cyber victims in some countries. For
instance, Beran and Li [1] investigated cyber harassment
in the United States of America (USA). In the United
Kingdom (UK), Smith et al [2] conducted a research to
look into the nature and impacts of cyberbullying on
secondary school pupils. Likewise, Riebel, Jaeger, and
Fischer [3] also carried out a study to explore the
prevalence of cyberbullying among teenagers in Germany.
More recently, Zhou et al [4] have performed a research
to study cyberbullying among Chinese high school
students in central China.
For the case of Malaysia, cyberbullying has not
yet been fully researched. According to the latest data
reported in a local newspaper, a total of 389 cases of
cyber bullying were reported in 2013. This number has
increased 55.6% compared to 250 cases in 2012 [5].
However, this statistical number is not sufficient to reflect
the real situation of cyberbullying in Malaysia. We
strongly believe that the real number of cyberbullying
incidents is much higher than the reported cases. One of
the possible reasons to explain why the victims of
cyberbullying silenced themselves might be that, the
victims feel depressed, embarrassed, helpless, and they do
not know the proper channel to report the cyberbullying
incidents [6].
______________________________________________
* Email Address: lcsern@uthm.edu.my
Adv. Sci. Lett. X, XXXXXX, 2015 RESEARCH ARTICLE
2
Several research [7, 8] on cyberbullying have been
conducted in Malaysia, however those studies have some
limitations. For instance, Faryadi [7] only took research
sample from a single educational institution and
Balakrishnan [8] only focused on urban young adults.
Due to the scarcity of research on cyberbullying in
Malaysia, the quantitative and qualitative scientific
information on this issue is fairly limited in the literature.
Since many aspects of cyberbullying in Malaysia
remain unknown, many questions arise. For example,
how prevalent is cyberbullying in Malaysia? Who is the
main target of cyberbullying? What are the common
cyberbullying platforms? What are the impacts of
cyberbullying on cyber victims? Those questions are
closely related to college and university students for at
least three reasons. First, we are confident to assume that
all college and university students are computer and
internet literate due to the needs of their studies.
Therefore, they can be considered as cyber users who are
in risk of being cyberbullied. Second, college and
university students can easily and freely access to internet
and computer facilities because colleges and universities
are usually equipped with those facilities for free. This
might provide a higher chance for students to expose
themselve to the world of cyber, and thereby increasing
their chance to cyberbullying. Third, the mode of learning
has been shifted from traditional learning method to web-
based learning and mobile learning strategies. This
changes require students to use computer and internet
technology for a longer time and more frequently. This
reflects the fact that college and university students are
the main contributors to the percentage of cyber users.
Therefore, college and university students are worthwhile
to be investigated concerning the issue of cyberbullying.
Specifically, this research project was conducted to (i)
determine the percentage of cyberbullying victims among
students in higher learning institutions based on
demographic data; (ii) identify the common platforms of
cyberbullying; (iii) determine the effects of cyberbullying
on students; and (iv) find out the coping strategy taken by
cyber victims when they are faced with cyberbullying.
2.1 Definition and Causes of Cyberbullying
In general, cyberbullying can be defined as any cruel act
to another cyber user by sending or posting hurtful
materials (e.g., pornographic text, photo, and video) or
using other means of social aggression through internet or
any other digital technologies [9]. Cyberbullying may
occur on personal websites or it may take place via e-
mail, social, networking sites, chat rooms, message
boards, instant messaging or cell phones [10,11].
According to Calvete et.al [12], cyberbullying is
significantly associated with the use of proactive
aggression, justification of violence, exposure to violence
and less perceived social support of friends.
In most cases, cyberbullying occurs when cyber users
are at home. However, it may also happen in other places
as well, such as school. Many schools have already taken
precautious steps by installing filtering software in school
computers in order to prevent cyberbullies from using the
school computers to bully other students. Similar to
traditional forms of bullying, cyberbullying is often
deliberate and relentless, but it can be even more
unnerving because of the anonymous nature of the assault
[13].
Cyberbullying may occur in many different
platforms. The following section will discuss the common
platforms where cyberbullying takes place.
2.2 Platforms of Cyberbullying
The electronic gadgets, such as mobile phone and
tablets, have become an integrated part of our life. Those
electronic gadgets can be used to access to internet due to
wireless capabilities. Many people connect to internet
merely for social activities on social media [14]. For
instance, Facebook and Twitter are two common social
media sites that allow users to communicate freely with
one another. Photos and video clips are also possible to be
shared with anyone on those sites. Likewise, various
mobile phone social applications (e.g., Wechat,
Telegram) also provide similar features that enable users
to chat with others using texts, photos, and videos. On the
one hand, those social media allow users to keep in touch
with their friends and family and, at the same time,
broaden the social networking. On the other hand,
however, it might put the users at risk of cyberbullying.
According to the website StopItcyberbullying.com,
social media sites are the most common platform where
cyberbullying occur. Many people share their photos to
get possible feedback on social media but end up with the
cyberbully that makes nasty comments or insulting their
appearance.
2.3 Effects of Cyberbullying
Cyberbullying can negatively affect everybody including
those who are bullied, those who bully, and those who
witness bullying. Cyberbullying is associated with many
negative impacts including mental health and developing
suicidal thought. According to Nixon [15], the victims of
cyberbullying can experience mental and physical issues.
For instance, they are very likely to experience
depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Apart from that,
they might also feel insecure, unhappy, and lonely [16].
These negative effects will gradually turn the victims to
be cautious, sensitive and shy. In a long term, the feelings
of depressed and insecure might lead to changes in sleep,
eating pattern, and loss of interest in activities they used
to enjoy [17]. Therefore, very often, the victims are
physically weaker than their peers. In worse case, it might
cause suicide if guidance and assistance are not given to
them to get rid of cyberbullying.
RESEARCH ARTICLE Adv. Sci. Lett. 23(2), 781784, 2017
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3.1 Sample
A total of 712 respondents of public and private colleges
and universities from all over Malaysia had voluntarily
participated in the current research. Of the total
respondents, 310 respondents were male (43.5%) and 402
respondents were female (56.5%). The age of respondents
ranged from 19 to 24 years old (average age=20.84, SD =
1.55). The sample was composed of 374 Malays, 64
Chinese, 109 Indian, 160 Borneo native tribes, and 5
other ethnic group.
3.2 Instrument
A self-developed questionnaire, which was composed of
two parts, was used for data collection. The first part was
concerning the demographic data of the respondents.
Whereas, the second part was designed to measure
different variables related to cyberbullying, such as
common cyberbullying platforms, the impact of
cyberbullying, and the coping strategies. The selecting
responses or tick boxes format was used in the
questionnaire. The respondents were required to tick at
the box if s/he agrees with the statement.
4. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Cyber victims based on demographic data
In general, a total of 470 respondents (66%)
reported that they experienced cyberbullying before.
When gender was examined, we find out that the
prevalence rate for female cyber users outnumbered male
cyber users. A total of 264 female respondents (56.2%)
and 206 male respondents (43.8%) reported having been
cyberbullied. See Table 4.1.
Table 4.1: Percentages of cyber victims
Was cyberbullied
Not cyberbullied
Number of
respondent
(percentage)
470 (66.0%)
242 (34.0%)
Male
206 (56.2%)
104 (43.0%)
Female
264 (43.8%)
138 (57.0%)
Malays
278 (74.3%)
96 (25.7%)
Chinese
28 (43.8%)
36 (56.2%)
Indian
57 (52.3%)
52 (47.7%)
Borneo
native tribes
105 (65.6%)
55 (34.4%)
other
2 (40.0%)
3 (60.0%)
The prevalence rates in terms of ethnic groups were
examined. The results indicated that the Malays College
and university students yielded highest rate of victims in
cyberbullying (74.3%). It is followed by the students of
Borneo native tribes, such as Iban and Kadazan, which
recorded 65.6%. Apart from that, the percentages of cyber
victims among Chinese and Indian students were 43.8%
and 52.3% respectively.
4.2 Common Platforms of Cyberbullying
The specific platforms through which
respondents had been cyberbullied were investigated.
Based on the outcome of the analysis (Figure 4.1), 65.7%
and 60.2% of cyber victims reported that they had been
cyberbullied on Facebook and mobile phone applications,
such as Wechat and Telegram, respectively.
Figure 4.1: Cyberbullying platforms.
Other platforms, such as Twitter, Youtube,
Instagrams, online forum or chatroom, email, blog, and
instant test messenger, have also been used for
cyberbullying (see Figure 4.2). The results indicate that
17.4% of cyber victims reported that cyberbullying
occurred on online chatroom, 9.8% and 17.4%
respondents reported that they were bullied on Instagram
and Twitter respestively. Meanwhile, those who reported
that they were bullied on Youtube, email, blog, instant
test messenger, other platforms (e.g., gaming websites)
ranged between 3% 7%. Althought the percentages are
lower compared to Facebook and mobile phone apps,
those platforms might become a major platform for
cyberbullying if its use is not controlled and monitored.
4.3 Effects of Cyberbullying
The effects of being cyberbullied on the victims range
from mild to severe effects. For instance, the mild effect
can be the rejection or avoiding the use of internet or
electronic gadgets. In a severe case, a victim of
cyberbullying may develop suicidal thought which leads
to an attempt of commit suicide.
In the current research, we discovered that majority of
the cyber victims (49.4% of total cyber victims) became
over sensitive to their surroundings. The data are shown
in Figure 4.2. Apart from that, there are 44.7% of cyber
victims reported that they experienced emotional changes
and 38.1% of cyber victims developed insecure feelings
Adv. Sci. Lett. X, XXXXXX, 2015 RESEARCH ARTICLE
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when surfing on internet. Another reported negative
effects on the respondents are nervous when receiving
messages and emails (29.6%); behavioral changes
(35.1%); and avoid mixing with family, friends, and
crowd (26.8%); sleep disorder (25.7%); avoid using
computer and mobile phone (17.0%); change of appetide
(17.0%); and attempt to commit suicide (1.5%).
Figure 4.2: Effects of cyberbullying.
In short, the present outcomes showed that the
most common effect of cyberbullying on Malaysian
students in higher learning institutions is the development
of over-sensitive behavior towards their surroundings.
Another common effect of cyberbullying is the
development of emotional changes. Emotional changes
includes difficult in controling emotion and easily get
angry over little things
4.4 Coping Strategy Taken by Cyber Victims
Friends are important in our life. This is especially true
for those who are faced with cyberbullying. According to
our findings, cyber victims (78.3%) tended to get advices
from or complain to their friends instead of seeking helps
from professional bodies, such as university counselling
centers or non-governmental organisations (NGO). See
Figure 4.3. Although family members and relatives are
the closest person to the cyber victims, only 41.1% of
them asked for advices from family members when they
were cyber bullied. The current findings also shows that
seeking assistance from professional bodies was not the
main option for cyber victims. Only 17.7% cyber victims
looked for counsellors, whereas 10.0% cyber victims filed
a police report and 5.1% cyber victims acquired
assistance from NGO.
Figure 4.3: Actions taken by cyber victims.
5. Discussion
Like in other part of the world, cyberbullying is a
growing trend in Malaysia especially among students in
higher learning institutions. This has been evidenced in
the present research in which the prevalence rate of
cyberbullying (60%) was very high among the college
and university students. This result is quite similar to the
situation in UK where an online safety website [18]
reported that 69% of young people had been cyberbullied.
In contrast, it is interesting to note that the trend in
Malaysia is quite different from the USA. The findings of
MacDonald and Roberts-Pittman [19] showed that only
21.9% of college students in the USA reported having
been cyberbullied.
As far as gender is concerned, the current
findings revealed that more than half (56.2%) male
students were cyberbullied and female cyber victims was
43.8%. This result reflects that male students are more
likely to be cyberbullied in comparison to female students.
The outcome of this study is in contrast to the findings of
others. For instance, Hinduja and Patchin [20] discovered
that girls had higher tendency to be threatened by
cyberbullies than boys (40.6% vs 28.2%), whereas Li [21]
found that the percentage of cyber victim between male
and female were quite similar (male=25%;
female=25.6%). Likewise, MacDonald and Roberts-
Pittman [19] also yielded similar trend of results
(male=21.9%; female=22%).
As far as ethnicity is concerned, the current
findings indicated differences between ethnic groups in
which cyberbullying was exceptionally prevalent among
Malays students. In contrast, MacDonald and Roberts-
Pittman [19] did not find any significant differences
between the rates of cyber victim for different ethnic
groups.
In terms of cyberbullying platform, the present
findings showed that cyberbullying most often took place
on Facebook and mobile phone social apps. This outcome
supports the facts reported by Gayle [22] who stated that
Facebook was the main social networking site for
cyberbullying. In his article, Gayle reported that around
87% of cyber victims were bullied on the Facebook. On
RESEARCH ARTICLE Adv. Sci. Lett. 23(2), 781784, 2017
5
the other hand, Osborne [23] found out that mobile
devices, such as mobile phone, that have wireless
capabilities can be linked to cyberbullying rate among
young people.
From the aspect of cyberbullying effects, the
current findings indicated that majority of cyber victims
were over-sensitive towards their surroundings and
experienced emotional changes. This finding is supported
by Cowie [24] who stated that the common consequences
of cyberbullying is related to social and emotional
difficulties. Cyber victims might experience social
isolation which, in turn, might lead to low self-esteem,
depression, paranoid, and in worse case, suicidal ideation
can be developed.
Universities (e.g., counselling center) and many
social organisations provide many forms of assistance for
cyber victims to deal with cyberbullying. However, the
present findings showed that cyber victims seldom sought
assistance from those professional agencies. Conversely,
cyber victims were more comfortable with sharing their
problem with their friends or classmates. This findings
similar to what has been discovered by Price and
Dalgleish [25] who stated that young people are more
likely to find it helpful to confide in peers.
In conclusion, cyberbullying among students in
higher learning institutions in Malaysia has reached
alarming level. From the educational perspective,
cyberbullying will deteriorate academic performance of
victims due to mental and physical health issues induced
by cyberbullying [26]. They are more likely to miss, skip,
or drop out of school. Therefore, educational institution
authorities, educators, as well as parents must work hand
in hand to combat cyberbullying.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The present research was financially supported by the
Malaysian Institute for Research in Youth Development
(IYRES) with project grant vot A055.
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... There are some different courses of action in cyberbullying. There were studies that describe how cyberbullying commences like texting, social media, Facebook, mobile phone apps, text messages, phone calls, and social networking sites [5][14] [15]. Based on these premises, the technological attributes contribute to the overwhelming prevalence of cyberbullying. ...
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In the advent of the "new normal" during the pandemic era, strategies to teach and learn switched to online. Students' behavior and attitude also shifted from face-to-face to online. This study aims to assess the students' profiles and the prevalence of cyberbullying in the higher education institutions in Central Luzon, Philippines. The study used a descriptive-cor-relational technique with the help of an online survey to gather data. Using a convenience sampling technique, 300 higher education students participated in the online survey during the first semester of 2021-2022. In order to attain the objective of the study, the investigators used a standardized instrument. With the help of SPSS 23, the data analyst analyzed the gathered data using the following statistical tools: frequency, weighted mean, and non-parametrical tests like Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman rho. The investigator found that the student-respondents were "never" cyberbullying victims or offenders. Furthermore , statistical inferences showed a variation for cyberbullying offenders as to age and sponsorship/scholarship and a weak indirect relationship between cyberbullying offenders and sponsorship/scholarship characteristics of the students. The investigators recommended pertinent implications for the new normal of learning among students and the institution from the study results.
... According to lai.et. al [32], research on cyberbullying in Malaysia needs further attention; they investigated a sample of 712 Malaysian students studying at various public and private universities of Malaysia and found that 66% of the respondents were cyberbullying victims. They revealed that the prevalence rate of cyberbullying was high among female respondents as compared to male respondents. ...
... The majority of the available studies on cyberbullying have mainly focused on the early years of school children [43]. Unfortunately, cyberbullying is still prevalent after school years, which has not been studied extensively [18].Only a handful of studies which focused on university students in Malaysian context, haven't investigated the factors which drive undergraduates towards cyberbullying behavior [32] and covered very few aspects of cyberbullying [18]. ...
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Higher education requires access to Information and communication technologies (ICT's). This exposure and access to ICT, coupled with the excessive usage of social media, has augmented the problem of cyberbullying among university students. Previous studies have investigated cyberbullying among school students while overlooking university students, who are actually more engaged in cyberbullying perpetration. In view of the gravity of the situation and its impact on the wellbeing of the university students, this study aims to understand the role of personal and psychological factors dragging Malaysian undergraduate students of public and private universities towards cyberbullying behaviour. In order to develop the framework, the study has utilized the 'Theory of planned behavior' and 'Social Cognitive Theory'. The study is based on a quantitative research approach and employs a self-administered survey to collect data. The data has been analyzed through the Structured Equation Modeling (SEM) technique using SmartPLS. The results reveal that individual factors including cyberbullying awareness and personality traits are not associated with Malaysian undergraduate students' cyberbullying behaviour. However, psychological factors, including self-esteem, internalizing behavior, and antisocial behavior, play an instrumental role in developing Malaysian undergraduate students' cyberbullying attitude. The study also confirms that subjective norms assert a powerful positive impact on cyberbullying attitude of Malaysian undergraduates. Lastly, the study aims to contribute to the research on cyberbullying behavior by offering a conceptual validated model that predicts Malaysian university students' cyberbullying behavior. This study also found that social media usage plays moderating role between cyberbullying intention and cyberbullying behavior. Parents, universities, and governments will benefit from this study by understanding factors to be considered when making a policy to reduce cyberbullying among university students. INDEX TERMS Cyberbullying, personal factors, psychological factors, higher education, university students , theory of planned behaviour and socio-cognitive theory.
... A study among young adults in Malaysia showed that respondents who spent 2 to 5 h a day on the Internet were more likely to commit cyberbullying than those who spent less than an hour (Balakrishnan, 2015). Additionally, a study among students in Malaysian higher learning institutions found that 66% of the students were victims of cyberbullying (Lai et al., 2017). Furthermore, Cyberbullying has been shown to increase detrimental behaviors such as heightened suicidality and a tendency to smoke or consume alcohol (Nikolaou, 2017;Wiguna et al., 2018). ...
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Communication applications and social media sites serve as a platform for users to distribute information and connect to other users, potentially allowing perpetrators to perform antisocial behaviors. The current study examined the relationship between Dark Tetrad of personality (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, sadism) and antisocial cyber-behaviors (i.e., cyberbullying, cybertrolling) by surveying young Malaysians (n = 323) aged from 18 to 26. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) revealed that Machiavellianism was not related to cyberbullying and cybertrolling, while narcissism was positively related to cyberbullying but not related to cybertrolling. Meanwhile, psychopathy and sadism were positively related to cyberbullying and cybertrolling. The results of this study contribute to the cyber-behaviors literature, knowledge about the antisocial cyber-behaviors in Malaysia, supports sadism as a dark personality and the study acts as a reference to minimize these behaviors.
... Cyberbullying is an act of violence that causes actual or potential harm to others through repeated hostile attacks using electronic means such as email, phone calls, instant messaging contacts, social networking sites and personal web pages (Chung & Shin, 2020;Ijachi, 2019). There are many types of cyberbullying, from electronic means to verbally abuse others, spread rumors, incitement, threats, publish or share private pictures and videos of others without consent, and deliberately prohibit others from entering online social circles (Lai et al., 2017;Pawar, Raje, & Ieee, 2019;Salas Catalan, Levette Bonilla, Redondo Pacheco, & Luzardo Briceno, 2017), also increasingly harmful (Adediran, 2020;Kraft, 2006). Individuals who have been subjected to cyberbullying develop negative emotions such as anger, sadness, and fear, as well as obsessivecompulsive characteristics such as anxiety and nervousness, and depressive states such as helplessness and hopelessness, thus forming a degree of social exclusion (Bochkareva & Strenin, 2021;Buelga, Cava, & Musitu, 2012). ...
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Objective To explore the relationship between parental autonomy support and cyberbullying victimization and the role of mobile phone addiction and teacher-student relationships. Method Using the Perceived parental autonomy support scale, the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Teacher-Student Relationship Questionnaire, and the Cyberbullying Victimization Scale, 1297 high school students were surveyed and a model based on latent moderated structural equation method was adopted. Results (1) Parental autonomy support can predict the level of cyberbullying victimization of high school students; (2) Mobile phone addiction plays a part of the mediating role between parental autonomy support and high school students' cyberbullying victimization; (3) With the increase of the level of teacher-student relationship, the predictive effect of parental autonomy support on mobile phone addiction gradually increases, and the predictive effect of parental autonomy support and mobile phone addiction on internet victimization becomes insignificant. Conclusion A good teacher-student relationship helps to enhance the positive effect of parental autonomy support on high school students' mobile phone addiction and alleviate the negative effects of parental autonomy support as well as mobile phone addiction on increasing the risk of cyberbullying victimization among high school students.
... Cyberbullying can cause anxiety, low self-esteem, insecurity, and loneliness in addition to depression [29], [30]. A study conducted by Lai [31] found the unfavorable consequence of cyberbullying will cause the victims to become more cautious, sensitive, and introverted over time. In the long run, melancholy and insecure sentiments may lead to changes in sleep, eating habits, and a loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities. ...
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March 2020 has seen thousands of people across the globe have been infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Apart from that, the pandemic has affected the learning of billions of students worldwide. As a result, educational institutions throughout the world have turned to online learning using online platforms. Online platforms not only cater to virtual learning, but the students will also have unrestricted access to their social media accounts and online games. Due to this situation, there has been an increase in violence and hate online, which includes bullying. The study reviewed articles to identify cyberbullying victimization during COVID-19. Articles published during COVID-19 pandemic from January 2020 to April 2021 were identified for review. The article search was conducted in April 2020 using the search engine on the National Centre for Biotechnology and Information (NCB) website and Google Scholar. Nineteen articles were chosen as being appropriate for the study's scope. The review highlights the presence and the psychological effects of cyberbullying during COVID-19. The current preventive measure in place is the legal measures. However, the legal measures are found not to be effective in combating cyberbullying.
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This essay argues for a balance that need to be struck between freedom of expression, on the one hand, and social responsibility, on the other. Sections II explains the concept of cyberbullying, while Section III is concerned with the responsibilities of the education system in fighting against bullying and cyberbullying. Some concrete proposals are made to prevent violence and harm against adolescents. It is argued that effective counter-bullying methods can reduce and prevent violence and harm.
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Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China. Findings revealed that cyberbullying among high school students in the heartland of central China is relatively common with 34.84% (N=501) of participants reported having bullied someone and 56.88% (N=818) reported having been bullied by online. Significant gender differences were found, suggesting that boys are more likely to be involved in cyberbullying both as perpetrators and victims. Students with lower academic achievement were more likely to be perpetrators online than were students with better academic achievement. Students who spend more time on online, have access to the internet in their bedrooms, have themselves experienced traditional bullying as victims, and are frequently involved in instant-messaging and other forms of online entertainment are more likely to experience cyberbullying. Increased parent and teacher supervision reduced students' involvement in cyberbullying. Implications for intervention are explored.
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Cyberbullying has become an international public health concern among adolescents, and as such, it deserves further study. This paper reviews the current literature related to the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health across multiple studies worldwide and provides directions for future research. A review of the evidence suggests that cyberbullying poses a threat to adolescents' health and well-being. A plethora of correlational studies have demonstrated a cogent relationship between adolescents' involvement in cyberbullying and negative health indices. Adolescents who are targeted via cyberbullying report increased depressive affect, anxiety, loneliness, suicidal behavior, and somatic symptoms. Perpetrators of cyberbullying are more likely to report increased substance use, aggression, and delinquent behaviors. Mediating/moderating processes have been found to influence the relationship between cyberbullying and adolescent health. More longitudinal work is needed to increase our understanding of the effects of cyberbullying on adolescent health over time. Prevention and intervention efforts related to reducing cyberbullying and its associated harms are discussed.
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To examine the relationship between children's and adolescents' experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying and psychological health, physical health, and academic performance. Nine hundred thirty-one students in grades 6 through 12 completed an anonymous survey examining their experiences with cyberbullying and traditional bullying. Also included were measures of anxiety, depression, self-esteem, physical well-being, school attendance, and academic performance. Participants were categorized as belonging to one of four groups: cyber victims, cyberbullies, cyber bully/victims, and those not involved in cyberbullying. A similar categorization was done with traditional bullying. Those in the bully/victim groups (and particularly the cyber bully/victim group) had the most negative scores on most measures of psychological health, physical, health, and academic performance. There appears to be a substantial, although not perfect, overlap between involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Additionally, the physical, psychological, and academic correlates of the two types of bullying resembled one another.
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Participants were 439 college students who were asked how often they had experienced each of a series of bullying behaviors since they have been in college. Results indicated that 38% of college students knew someone who had been cyberbullied, 21.9% had been cyberbullied, and 8.6% had cyberbullying someone else. It was apparent that some forms of electronic media are more commonly used to cyberbully others than are other forms. All the cyberbullying behaviors and traditional bullying behaviors were significantly positively inter-correlated. There were no significant gender or ethnic group differences in any of the cyberbullying behaviors.
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A total of 432 students from grades 7-9 in Canadian schools reported their experiences of cyber-harassment, which is a form of harassment that occurs through the use of electronic communications such as e-mail and cell phones. More than two-thirds of students (69%) have heard of incidents of cyber-harassment, about one quarter (21%) have been harassed several times, and a few students (3%) admitted engaging in this form of harassment. In addition, victims of cyber-harassment reported a variety of negative consequences, especially anger and sadness, and had experienced other forms of harassment. These results suggest several avenues of research needed to explain how and why adolescents use technological advances to harass their peers.
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Cyberbullying impacts on the wellbeing, schooling, family and peer relationships of many young people. The current study of 548 young Australians revealed that cyberbullying is a group phenomenon most prevalent during the transitional ages between primary and secondary school. It takes on many forms and shows an overlap in roles between 'bully' and 'victim'. Despite the serious emotional impacts of cyberbullying, over a quarter of victims did not seek support from others, which highlights the need for more information and support to be given to young people to encourage them to speak out.
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This study investigated the extent of young adults’ (N = 393; 17–30 years old) experience of cyberbullying, from the perspectives of cyberbullies and cyber-victims using an online questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence rate shows cyberbullying is still present after the schooling years. No significant gender differences were noted, however females outnumbered males as cyberbullies and cyber-victims. Overall no significant differences were noted for age, but younger participants were found to engage more in cyberbullying activities (i.e. victims and perpetrators) than the older participants. Significant differences were noted for Internet frequency with those spending 2–5 h online daily reported being more victimized and engage in cyberbullying than those who spend less than an hour daily. Internet frequency was also found to significantly predict cyber-victimization and cyberbullying, indicating that as the time spent on Internet increases, so does the chances to be bullied and to bully someone. Finally, a positive significant association was observed between cyber-victims and cyberbullies indicating that there is a tendency for cyber-victims to become cyberbullies, and vice versa. Overall it can be concluded that cyberbullying incidences are still taking place, even though they are not as rampant as observed among the younger users.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging issue. Design/methodology/approach The data are collected from 351 students using a survey, which contains limited choice, scaled response, and open‐ended questions. This qualitative/quantitative design enables collection of data from a large population along with rich qualitative data that expand and explain students' experiences. Findings The paper reveals that cyberbullying emerges most commonly from relationship problems (break‐ups, envy, intolerance, and ganging up); victims experience powerfully negative effects (especially on their social well‐being); and the reactive behavior from schools and students is generally inappropriate, absent, or ineffective. Research limitations/implications This is self‐reported data collected from a group of students in one institution, who are asked to recall instances from their pre‐college experience. Additional research on from a variety of age groups and cross‐culturally would add another layer of understanding about cyberbullying among teens. Practical implications Technological advances have created new challenges for schools in keeping students safe. This paper has implications for educational policy and practice, including steps school leaders can take to curtail cyberbullying. Originality/value This paper builds on a small body of research on cyberbullying and focuses on underlying causes, categories of psychological effects, and specific remedies.
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This study investigates the nature and the extent of adolescences' experience of cyberbullying. A survey study of 264 students from three junior high schools was conducted. In this article, 'cyberbullying' refers to bullying via electronic communication tools. The results show that close to half of the students were bully victims and about one in four had been cyber-bullied. Over half of the students reported that they knew someone being cyberbullied. Almost half of the cyberbullies used electronic means to harass others more than three times. The majority of the cyber-bully victims and bystanders did not report the incidents to adults. When gender was considered, significant differences were identified in terms of bullying and cyber- bullying. Males were more likely to be bullies and cyberbullies than their female counterparts. In addition, female cyberbully victims were more likely to inform adults than their male counterparts.