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Using digital footprints in entrepreneurship research: A Twitter-based personality analysis of superstar entrepreneurs and managers

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Abstract

Research indicates that individuals’ digital footprints, for example in Twitter and Facebook, can reveal remarkably valid information about their personality characteristics. In this study, we use digital footprints to gain insights into the personality of superstar entrepreneurs and managers, a largely understudied population in entrepreneurship research. Specifically, we compare the personality characteristics of 106 of the most influential business leaders employing a computerized text analysis tool based on the individuals’ Twitter messages (Receptiviti). Our findings are surprising and indicate that superstar managers are more entrepreneurial in many personality characteristics than superstar entrepreneurs. However, we also found some indications that superstar entrepreneurs seem to show features of a classic “Schumpeterian” entrepreneurial personality with respect to being creative, independent rule-breakers.

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... As personality is projected through language (see, for example, Borkenau et al., 2016;Hirsh & Peterson, 2009;Yarkoni, 2010), this kind of analysis makes it possible to use interviews or other spoken or written material to infer personality traits. This approach was successfully applied to examine how people fit into their profession (Kern et al., 2019), particularly so, in a study of successful entrepreneurs, managers, and politicians (Obschonka & Fisch, 2018;Obschonka et al., 2017). It was also demonstrated that although the validity of personality inferences based on text-based analyses of social media sources was mediocre when compared to the results of standardized personality inventories, it seemed more appropriate for between-group comparisons and predicted online behaviors (Golbeck, 2016). ...
... with a core based on Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC 2015;Pennebaker et al., 2015). Receptivity combines LIWC dictionaries with machine learning; it provides measures typical of the LIWC application and "composite" scores on personality traits, thinking styles, and social orientation (Obschonka et al., 2017; see also online supplementary material-for the detailed categories Receptivity returns). The Receptivity API normalization process uses spoken and written language, with over 10 million data points. ...
... The second limitation is associated with Receptivity, the software we used to perform the language analysis. Although it is based on (LIWC 20015), well-established in psychology (Block et al., 2019;Obschonka & Fisch, 2018;Obschonka et al., 2017); the algorithm that calculates scores for personality traits is proprietary, confidential, and not available for detailed testing. Therefore, it might be argued that the validity of the scores obtained requires further evidence. ...
... Only Obschonka et al. (2017) specifically adopt a universal perspective, drawing from trait approach theory (Stogdill, 1974). By analyzing the language used to communicate via Twitter, the authors identify the personality characteristics that distinguish the most successful managers and entrepreneurs. ...
... The evolution of C-level roles Gerth and Peppard, 2016;Bekkhus and Hallikainen, 2017;Grafström and Falkman, 2017;Obschonka et al., 2017;Tsai and Men, 2017 Leaders' skills in the Digital Era Coutu, 2000;Rosenbloom, 2000;Lynn Pulley and Sessa, 2001;Diamante and London, 2002;Horner-Long and Schoenberg, 2002;Robin et al., 2011;Avolio et al., 2014;Lu et al., 2014;Bygstad et al., 2017;Boe and Torgersen, 2018;Dimitrov, 2018;Foerster and Duchek, 2018;Petrucci and Rivera, 2018;Roman et al., 2018;Schwarzmüller et al., 2018;Sousa and Rocha, 2018;Stolze et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2018 Leading virtual teams Avolio et al., 2000Avolio et al., , 2014Lynn Pulley and Sessa, 2001;Bartol and Liu, 2002;Hambley et al., 2007;Lee, 2009;Jawadi et al., 2013;Sullivan et al., 2015;Gheni et al., 2016;Gupta and Pathak, 2018;Roman et al., 2018;Schwarzmüller et al., 2018 have increasingly become the key players in driving positive results from the investments on digital tools and technologies. ...
... As described before, digital technologies are not only used to support internal processes, but are also a way to build relationships with different actors in the external environment. Social media platforms in particular, are de facto powerful tools that C-level executives use to build communications channels with their followers (Obschonka et al., 2017). In a study analyzing the rhetoric of CEOs in social media, Grafström and Falkman (2017) suggest that CEOs' willingness and ability to construct a continuative dialogue through digital channels is a powerful way not only to manage organizational crisis but also to sustain the reputation and the image of the organization, positioning the brand and communicating the organizational values. ...
Article
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Digital technology has changed organizations in an irreversible way. Like the movable type printing accelerated the evolution of our history, digitalization is shaping organizations, work environment and processes, creating new challenges leaders have to face. Social science scholars have been trying to understand this multifaceted phenomenon, however, findings have accumulated in a fragmented and dispersed fashion across different disciplines, and do not seem to converge within a clear picture. To overcome this shortcoming in the literature and foster clarity and alignment in the academic debate, this paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of studies on leadership and digitalization, identifying patterns of thought and findings across various social science disciplines, such as management and psychology. It clarifies key definitions and ideas, highlighting the main theories and findings drawn by scholars. Further, it identifies categories that group papers according to the macro level of analysis (e-leadership and organization, digital tools, ethical issues, and social movements), and micro level of analysis (the role of C-level managers, leader's skills in the digital age, practices for leading virtual teams). Main findings show leaders are key actors in the development of a digital culture: they need to create relationships with multiple and scattered stakeholders, and focus on enabling collaborative processes in complex settings, while attending to pressing ethical concerns. With this research, we contribute to advance theoretically the debate about digital transformation and leadership, offering an extensive and systematic review, and identifying key future research opportunities to advance knowledge in this field.
... Several studies have highlighted the important roles of entrepreneurs in value creation and open innovation [6][7][8]. The extant literature has suggested that digital ventures and digital entrepreneurs are different from other types of ventures and entrepreneurs, in terms of demographic characteristics and personality traits [9][10][11]. This study is interested especially in digital entrepreneurs in the artificial intelligence and data analytics (AIDA) field. ...
... Twitter API was then used to collect their tweets and metadata [10]. A machine learning approach was utilized to extract demographic and personality traits from the Twitter data. ...
... The term, digital entrepreneurs, refers to those primary actors driving the growth of digital entrepreneurship through new practices in communication, customer interaction, employment, and new product/service development. The literature suggests that digital entrepreneurs differ from traditional entrepreneurs in several aspects, including age, gender, risk-taking and cultural diversity [9,10]. Along this line, in the literature there have been two streams of research on individual entrepreneurs. ...
Article
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Digital technologies are key resources for entrepreneurial activities and there is great interest in digital entrepreneurship. While much research has focused on the role of digital technologies in entrepreneurship and how they are shaping the field, there has been relatively little research on those key players of digital entrepreneurship. Using data from Crunchbase and Twitter API and a learning machine, this study attempts to answer the question of “who are digital entrepreneurs?” This study reports that digital entrepreneurs in the artificial intelligence and data analytics (AIDA) industry are more likely to be male and to be active and connected online than non-digital entrepreneurs. In addition, they tend to be more extroverted and less conscientious and agreeable than other, non-digital, entrepreneurs. Our findings help to develop a clearer picture of digital entrepreneurs, which would be of great interest to investors, policy makers, current and future digital entrepreneurs and educators.
... These findings further support the argument that entrepreneurship is associated with more positive emotional expressions on social media platforms, and demonstrate that, controlling for the characteristics of the entrepreneur, entrepreneurial actions are associated with increased positivity. Finally, our study contributes to recent research that has examined the digital footprints of entrepreneurs using computerized text analyses [47][48][49]. ...
... The results indicate that the financial, social, and psychological consequences of failure are reflected in entrepreneurs' tweets [26]. Obschonka et al. (2017) [48] compared the digital footprints of 57 superstar entrepreneurs and 49 superstar managers using text analysis based on the individuals' Twitter messages (called tweets) and found significant differences between the personalities of superstar entrepreneurs and managers. ...
... The results indicate that the financial, social, and psychological consequences of failure are reflected in entrepreneurs' tweets [26]. Obschonka et al. (2017) [48] compared the digital footprints of 57 superstar entrepreneurs and 49 superstar managers using text analysis based on the individuals' Twitter messages (called tweets) and found significant differences between the personalities of superstar entrepreneurs and managers. ...
Article
Sentiment analysis is an evolving field of study that employs artificial intelligence techniques to identify the emotions and opinions expressed in a given text. Applying sentiment analysis to study the billions of messages that circulate in popular online social media platforms has raised numerous opportunities for exploring the emotional expressions of their users. In this paper we combine sentiment analysis with natural language processing and topic analysis techniques and conduct two different studies to examine whether engagement in entrepreneurship is associated with more positive emotions expressed on Twitter. In study 1, we investigate three samples with 6.717.308, 13.253.244, and 62.067.509 tweets respectively. We find that entrepreneurs express more positive emotions than non-entrepreneurs for most topics. We also find that social entrepreneurs express more positive emotions, and that serial entrepreneurs express less positive emotions than other entrepreneurs. In study 2, we use 21.491.962 tweets to explore 37.225 job-status changes by individuals who entered or quit entrepreneurship. We find that a job change to entrepreneurship is associated with a shift in the expression of emotions to more positive ones.
... It has also helped the entrepreneurs to partner, collaborate, meet the demands, and develop new solutions and standards. This has given a new direction to entrepreneurial minds to exploit maximum opportunities with minimum resources (Obschonka et al., 2017;Elia et al., 2020). Previously many studies have been carried out from different perspectives to understand what personal and behavioral intentions of entrepreneurs distinguish them from ordinary people. ...
... This makes the use of this platform for reaching new ventures and stakeholders like Netflix, meeting multidimensional demands like Uber, getting paid for work done online like Upwork and Fiverr (Elia et al., 2020). Using the Big Five model of personality to measure digital entrepreneurial intentions is suitable because previously, many studies have been conducted where Big Five models have yielded surprisingly accurate results (Back et al., 2010;Boyd and Pennebaker, 2016;Obschonka et al., 2017). ...
... Previous research has examined that emotional intelligence is a strong forecaster of entrepreneurial behavior. However, personality traits have been an important constituent of entrepreneurial studies (Obschonka et al., 2017;Alexandru et al., 2019). An individual's confidence in his abilities to be successful in his tasks and intentions has also been a vital factor for their entrepreneurial achievements. ...
Article
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The basic aim of the study was to understand the role of the Big Five model of personality in predicting emotional intelligence and consequently in triggering the entrepreneurial behavior of the employees. The emotional intelligence of the individuals plays a very important role in decision making, enhancement of quality of living, and many other social realms. Hence, the intelligent use of emotions can make or break an individual's future considering their attitude toward exploiting the entrepreneurial opportunities available. This study has measured the impact of personality traits on emotional intelligence and EI's role in digital entrepreneurial behavior. The population used in this study was the middle management employees in the corporate sector of the mainland in China. The sample size taken in this study was 260 and selected through convenient sampling. The data was collected through a structured questionnaire measuring each variable. The data collected was employed to SmartPLS 3.3 for analyzing through structural equation modeling to measure the hypotheses. The study has found the partial effect of the Big Five model of personality on emotional intelligence, which significantly predicted the digital entrepreneurial behavior of the employees. The organizations can use the study findings to anticipate the employees' possible prospects and endeavors regarding their digital entrepreneurial behaviors.
... Our study's main contribution is twofold. First, we contribute to research on entrepreneurs' digital identities (e.g., Fischer and Reubder, 2011;Obschonka et al., 2017;Smith et al., 2017). While this research has mostly assessed cross-sectional differences in digital identities, we analyze digital identities in a longitudinal setting. ...
... Information based on an individual's digital self-representation is commonly referred to as a digital footprint, which can be used to assess the individual's digital identity (e.g., Obschonka et al., 2017;Youyou et al., 2015). The analysis of digital footprints is common in psychology (in particular in personality psychology) and computer science (e.g., Chen et al., 2017;Kosinski et al., 2013;Youyou et al., 2015). ...
... A stream of the literature that focuses more narrowly on entrepreneurs' digital identities uses methods based on digital footprints to capture an entrepreneur's personality and digital identity. For example, Obschonka et al. (2017) and Obschonka and Fisch (2018) We build on these studies and assess whether and how entrepreneurial failure changes entrepreneurs' digital identities. While prior studies mostly use cross-sectional research designs, our study explores digital footprints to answer longitudinal or process-related entrepreneurship research questions. ...
Article
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We assess whether and how entrepreneurs' digital identities change in response to entrepreneurial failure based on a sample of 760 entrepreneurs who experienced failure. We analyze a longitudinal dataset of Twitter messages before, during, and after a business failure with a language-based method of computerized text analysis. The results of our explorative research indicate that the financial, social, and psychological consequences of failure are reflected in entrepreneurs' Tweets and lead to changes in their digital identities. Among others, entrepreneurs' language decreases in emotional tone and indicates increased psychological distress. Simultaneously, we observe higher levels of self-assurance and reflection after failure. We conclude by outlining the potential of using Twitter-generated digital footprints in future entrepreneurship research.
... Furthermore, the Big Five personality model has recently been used in understanding personality based on social media postings. Previous studies incorporating the Big Five model investigated diverse types of subjects, starting from entrepreneurs and managers (Obschonka et al. 2017), celebrities (Dutta et al. 2017), to political extremists (Alizadeh et al. 2017). ...
... Previous studies (Alizadeh et al. 2017;Dutta et al. 2017;Obschonka et al. 2017) revealed that one's personality could be understood by analyzing the language he/she uses in his/her postings on social media using an online computer program called IBM Watson Personality Insights. The program analyzes one's personality, including characters, way of thinking, and possible preferences. ...
... The program analyzes one's personality, including characters, way of thinking, and possible preferences. IBM Watson Personality Insights has been used in understanding personality traits based on online postings in various contexts (Dutta et al. 2017;Hu et al. 2016;Mostafa et al. 2016;Obschonka et al. 2017;Thies et al. 2016). Relying on the analysis of one's language, this personality assessment technique is arguably more objective than the current, widely used debtor's character assessment method that merely depends on interviews. ...
Article
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The objective of this research was to analyze the personality traits of successful Indonesian start-up entrepreneurs whose businesses were in the top 200 based on start-upranking.com. Using IBM Watson Personality Insights, the Big Five personality traits from 27 samples were measured. The Big Five personality traits include openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and mean comparison. Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the difference in personalities between genders, while the Spearman test was utilized to identify the correlation between education level and personalities. The results revealed that Indonesian start-up entrepreneurs tended to be more open, more conscientious, moderate in extraversion, less agreeable, and more neurotic (O+, C+, E, A-, N+). There was no personality difference in different genders and no correlation between education level and personality traits either. The results of this study should serve as a point of departure for future studies on start-up entrepreneurs’ personality traits in Indonesia. Additionally, future studies are suggested to employ a larger number of samples from different countries. Keywords: angel investors, big five personality traits, Indonesian entrepreneurs, social media analysis, start-up
... Similar studies conducted before usually used an ex-post approach [9,41]; • Homogeneity of the sample: All the entrepreneurs who participated in the study were at the same point in their entrepreneurial career (after they have decided to set up their business, but before they know the results of their endeavor), so they create, from this perspective, a reasonably homogenous group. Similar studies conducted before compared the traits of successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs at different stages of their entrepreneurial career, or the traits of entrepreneurs and those of employees [9,57,58]. ...
... It is important to note here that the analysis of the personal characteristics was conducted by comparing the two groups between them, and not with other types of populations (i.e., employees, managers, or entrepreneurs at other stages of their career), which is an innovative approach compared to previous similar studies [9,57,58], because we addressed a more homogenous group (nascent entrepreneurs) and thus eliminated a series of variations that could have impacted the findings in ways that are hard to trace. ...
Article
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Entrepreneurship plays an essential role in modern urban growth and development. Successful businesses engage more growth potential, but also failed ones produce significant losses. Therefore, in order to reduce losses, it becomes important to understand what contributes to entrepreneurial success. Based the character-based approach, the current study considers the entrepreneur a critical agent for the survival and success of the business, and aims to examine the differences between successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs in terms of human capital and personal characteristics. The sample consisted of 123 Romanian nascent urban entrepreneurs who participated in a government sponsored entrepreneurial support program and competed for a subsidy to start their business. A positive outcome in the competition (achieved by 39 study participants) was considered as entrepreneurial success. Based on the competition outcome, we split the sample in successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs and analyzed the differences between the two groups from the perspective of human capital and personal characteristics. In terms of human capital (education, professional experience, age, and sex), the results showed small differences between the successful and unsuccessful entrepreneurs in the sample. In terms of personal characteristics, compared to their unsuccessful counterparts, the successful entrepreneurs registered increased levels of entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and of problem-solving confidence, higher levels of trust in their capacity of taking up challenges, increased levels of adaptive assertiveness, and a greater confidence in their ability to control their entrepreneurial behaviour. No significant differences were recorded for the need for autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity, risk-taking propensity, impulsivity, and interpersonal reactivity. The findings indicate that the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs may have different influences on their success, depending on the stage in their entrepreneurial career.
... In contrast, entrepreneurship research on digital identities is still nascent. Initial studies highlight the importance of using digital footprints and studying digital identities (e.g., Nambisan, 2017;Smith et al., 2017) and demonstrate that research on digital identities can deliver novel and timely insights into entrepreneurship (e.g., Obschonka et al., 2017;Smith and Smith, 2019). ...
... Relatedly, while we are limited to the dimensions included in LIWC, future research could employ different software tools that enable the measurement of further identity components in a similar way. For example, a stream of prior entrepreneurship research uses digital footprints to infer the Big Five personality traits based on a method that combines artificial intelligence and language analysis (e.g., Obschonka et al., 2017;. ...
Article
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Schumpeterian entrepreneurs are considered agents of innovation and technology transfer. However, to fulfill this role, they need entrepreneurial finance. From the perspective of digital identity, we examine the relationship between a Schumpeterian digital identity and venture capital (VC) funding. Because the VC industry celebrates innovative and visionary entrepreneurship, we posit that a founder’s digital identity as a Schumpeterian-type entrepreneur influences the venture’s chances of receiving VC funding. A quantitative analysis of the language used by 3,313 founders in a large sample of Twitter messages, however, provides a mixed picture. While some dimensions of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship have a positive relationship with the acquisition of resources from VC firms (entrepreneurial vision and optimism), other dimensions seem to have no (uncertainty tolerance and rationality) or even a decreasing (achievement motivation) effect. The negative relationships observed can be explained by the particularities of the VC business model, which does not align with Schumpeterian entrepreneurship in all respects. Our study contributes to research on Schumpeterian entrepreneurship, the financing of technology transfer, and the link between entrepreneurial digital identity and entrepreneurial finance. From a practical perspective, the results of our study demonstrate the limits of VC with regard to the financing of technology transfer and highlight the need for public funding through governmental VC or agencies for (disruptive) innovation.
... Using digital technologies to build relationships with different actors in the external environment is as important as using them to support internal processes. For C-level executives, social media platforms, in particular, are extremely useful tools for establishing communications with their followers (Obschonka et al., 2017). To better manage organizational crises, Grafström and Falkman (2017) looked at CEO rhetoric on social media and found that CEOs' willingness and ability to build a continuous dialogue through ISBN: 978-81-950236-2-2 ...
... Despite the fact that the leadership practice model has remained constant over time, the authors acknowledge some changes in the way those practices are implemented. Only Obschonka et al. (2017) use trait approach theory to adopt a universal perspective (Stogdill, 1974). The authors identify the personality traits that distinguish the most successful managers and entrepreneurs by analyzing the language used on Twitter. ...
Chapter
Digital technology has had a profound and long-lasting impact on organizations. Digitalization is reshaping organizations, the workplace, and processes in the same way that movable type printing did in the 1800s, posing new problems for leaders to solve. Scholars in the social sciences have been working to unravel the complexities of this complex phenomenon, but their findings have been dispersed and fragmented across different fields, with no clear picture emerging. As a result of this gap in the literature, and in order to promote greater clarity and alignment in the academic debate, this paper examines the contributions made by studies on leadership and digitalization, identifying common themes and findings across various social science disciplines, such as management and psychology. In addition to defining key terms and concepts, it also highlights the most important theories and conclusions reached by academics. As a result, it distinguishes between categories that group papers according to the macro level of analysis (e-leadership and organization), the micro level of analysis (leadership skills in the digital age, and practices for leading virtual teams), and the macro level of analysis (ethical and social movements). Researchers found that leaders are crucial to the development of digital culture because they need to build relationships with numerous and dispersed stakeholders while also focusing on enabling collaborative processes in complex settings while also attending to pressing ethical concerns. A major contribution of this study is that it offers an extensive and systematic review of the digital transformation debate, as well as identifying important future research opportunities to advance knowledge in this field.
... In Hybrid entrepreneurs' second-step choice, Thorgren et al. (2016) show that, when the whole transition from employment to self-employment is considered, dabbling at entrepreneurship is different from committing to it. Finally, Obschonka et al. (2017) in Using digital footprints in entrepreneurship research invite to revisit the way we capture personality traits in entrepreneurship and that there are ways to get around the self-reporting problem. ...
... their papers,Roundy et al. (2017),Honig and Samuelsson (2014),Mandl et al. (2016),Thorgren et al. (2016) andObschonka et al. (2017) have all wondered about the bigger picture. In The resilience of entrepreneurial ecosystems,Roundy et al. (2017) take a different take on a growing trend showing us that diversity needs coherence to create resilience in ecosystems. ...
Article
In this editorial, we take stock of the Journal of Business Venturing Insights (JBVI) as it turns five years old. We reflect on the unique niche that JBVI fills in the realm of journals focused on research in entrepreneurship and highlight the papers that have gained the most traction within this short period. We reflect on the role that JBVI can play in the landscape of the entrepreneurship research and outline the types of papers that can drive the journal forward.
... For example, it is not possible to "befriend" someone like on Facebook. However, this also means that the growing body of research in entrepreneurship, investigating the role of social media for entrepreneurs (e.g., Obschonka et al., 2017), can only give us a vague idea of how entrepreneurs interact with online communities. ...
... This study is based on a large set of submissions and comments from an online community of entrepreneurs during the COVID-19 pandemic. In line with other studies that investigate big datasets in the entrepreneurship literature (e.g., Bloh et al., 2020;Obschonka & Fisch, 2018;Obschonka et al., 2017Prüfer & Prüfer, 2020), we used a stepwise process to access information within the vast amount of posts, which helps us answer our research question. More precisely, we investigate community conversations in four steps (Table 1). ...
Article
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Plain English Summary As an entrepreneur (during the COVID-19 pandemic), start looking for support in online communities—they are more than just knowledge repositories! While access to support is severely hampered by social distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, entrepreneurs can still access support in online communities. Yet, depending on how entrepreneurs approach them, communities offer more than just simple advice: depending on how entrepreneurs frame their posts and interact with the community, they can manage what support they receive from online communities. (1) Online communities can help resolve problems and collect critical resources in times of crisis, such as digital marketing tools to compensate client loss. (2) Online communities can support entrepreneurs to waterproof ideas in early venture stages through feasibility checks so that entrepreneurs can better evaluate opportunities. (3) Online communities can help understand and reflect on new emerging topics, such as work from home. (4) Online communities can provide tailor-made plans for entrepreneurs by engaging in frequent interaction with support seekers. Taken together, online communities can assist entrepreneurs in their actions which are especially important in times of great uncertainty.
... Using digital technologies to build relationships with different actors in the external environment is as important as using them to support internal processes. For C-level executives, social media platforms, in particular, are extremely useful tools for establishing communications with their followers (Obschonka et al., 2017). To better manage organizational crises, Grafström and Falkman (2017) looked at CEO rhetoric on social media and found that CEOs' willingness and ability to build a continuous dialogue through ISBN: 978-81-950236-2-2 ...
... Despite the fact that the leadership practice model has remained constant over time, the authors acknowledge some changes in the way those practices are implemented. Only Obschonka et al. (2017) use trait approach theory to adopt a universal perspective (Stogdill, 1974). The authors identify the personality traits that distinguish the most successful managers and entrepreneurs by analyzing the language used on Twitter. ...
Chapter
People who can use critical and creative thinking to solve problems as a group are in high demand today and tomorrow. The way knowledge is acquired, constructed, and communicated has undergone radical change as a result of technological advancements. It's debatable whether education can produce critical and creative thinkers who can meet the demands of today's social and economic world and those of the future. Computers and smart devices, on the other hand, put students' learning at risk by undermining the authority of teachers in the classroom. This has led to the use of terms like guide, facilitator, and coach in place of the word teacher. Schools are well-known for being children's learning environments. However, it's unclear how much they actually learn or how much of it is aided by modern technology. In an era where people are constantly exposed to technology at work, school, and elsewhere, smart devices and technological tools have advanced far too quickly. Education research and pedagogical approaches that incorporate education technologies have progressed faster than the advancements in the everyday technological devices that we use. Thus, utilizing technologies in education has the potential to ensure innovation in educational activities. The goal of this research is to demonstrate that educational innovation must be handled with care. If you'd like to create innovative learning environments, you'll need to review previous studies on innovation as a pre-requisite and revise your strategies for successfully adapting technology to the field of education. To summarize, innovation is critical in reshaping and reconstructing learning environments, curricula, the teacher's role, and teacher training.
... Using digital technologies to build relationships with different actors in the external environment is as important as using them to support internal processes. For C-level executives, social media platforms, in particular, are extremely useful tools for establishing communications with their followers (Obschonka et al., 2017). To better manage organizational crises, Grafström and Falkman (2017) looked at CEO rhetoric on social media and found that CEOs' willingness and ability to build a continuous dialogue through ISBN: 978-81-950236-2-2 ...
... Despite the fact that the leadership practice model has remained constant over time, the authors acknowledge some changes in the way those practices are implemented. Only Obschonka et al. (2017) use trait approach theory to adopt a universal perspective (Stogdill, 1974). The authors identify the personality traits that distinguish the most successful managers and entrepreneurs by analyzing the language used on Twitter. ...
... The Receptiviti tool has been initially validated against personality self-reports of social media users (from Facebook and Twitter) from four different datasets (Golbeck, 2016). For instance, in the larger dataset (with 8,569 Facebook users), correlations between the Receptiviti-based FFM scores and self-reports ranged from .20 to .24. Obschonka et al. (2017) also replicated the relationships between LIWC categories and the FFM reported by Yarkoni (2010) using automated FFM scores from Receptiviti, and found correlations ranging from .40 to .78. Obschonka et al. (2017) then showed that Receptiviti-based FFM scores from Twitter posts can help differentiate successful managers from entrepreneurs. ...
... For instance, in the larger dataset (with 8,569 Facebook users), correlations between the Receptiviti-based FFM scores and self-reports ranged from .20 to .24. Obschonka et al. (2017) also replicated the relationships between LIWC categories and the FFM reported by Yarkoni (2010) using automated FFM scores from Receptiviti, and found correlations ranging from .40 to .78. Obschonka et al. (2017) then showed that Receptiviti-based FFM scores from Twitter posts can help differentiate successful managers from entrepreneurs. ...
Article
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We compared self-reports or test-based assessments of personality, cognitive ability, and likelihood or tendencies to engage in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) from experienced workers (targets, N = 154) with one approach to rate these traits based on LinkedIn profiles using hiring professionals (panel raters, N = 200), graduate students in Industrial-Organizational Psychology (I-O raters, N = 6), and automated assessments with the language-based tool Receptiviti (for personality only). We also explored potential for adverse impact associated with this approach of LinkedIn profile assessments and how profile elements are associated with ratings. Results demonstrated that raters can reliably assess personality, cognitive ability, and OCB with one-item measures. LinkedIn showed little promise for valid assessments of personality (except some weak evidence for honesty-humility) and OCB tendencies for all data sources. And, we only found modest evidence of convergent validity for cognitive ability. Automated assessments of personality with Receptiviti were more consistent with raters’ assessments than targets’ self-reports. LinkedIn-based hiring recommendations did also not differ on the basis of gender, race, or age. Finally, in terms of profile content, longer LinkedIn profiles with more professional connections, more skills listed, or including a professional picture were viewed more positively by both types of raters. But these content elements were largely unrelated to targets’ self-reports or test scores. Thus, organizations should be careful when relying on LinkedIn-based assessments of applicants’ traits.
... For example, it is not possible to "befriend" someone like on Facebook. However, this also means that the growing body of research in entrepreneurship, investigating the role of social media for entrepreneurs (e.g., Obschonka et al., 2017), can only give us a vague idea of how entrepreneurs interact with online communities. ...
... This study is based on a large set of submissions and comments from an online community of entrepreneurs during the COVID-19 pandemic. In line with other studies that investigate big datasets in the entrepreneurship literature (e.g., Bloh et al., 2020;Obschonka & Fisch, 2018;Obschonka et al., 2017Prüfer & Prüfer, 2020), we used a stepwise process to access information within the vast amount of posts, which helps us answer our research question. More precisely, we investigate community conversations in four steps (Table 1). ...
... For a successful entrepreneur to commit to entrepreneurial performance, three soft skills must come together: entrepreneurial passion, values, and personality (Tasnim et al. 2014). Obschonka et al. (2017) also studied soft skills of successful entrepreneurs and managers, but through a historiometric analysis (digital footprint) using Twitter timeline. They recognized the factors of independency, power driven, competitive skills and work alcoholism as the main indicators for achievement. ...
... Within the framework of our research (success factors of entrepreneurship in startups), the method used by Prüfer and Prüfer (2020) also applied a text analysis as the basis for data mining for entrepreneurship research; similarly, Cardon et al. (2011), use text analysis applied to newspapers to extract content analysis related to failed companies. Similarly, Saura et al. (2019) carry out a sentiment analysis on Twitter based on the identification of content through text, while Obschonka et al. (2017) apply it to the identification of soft skills of successful entrepreneurs and managers, placing them in historical context through the date (historiometric analysis). In addition, the text analysis is relevant in the meta-analytic approach, because the last one uses as support keywords or expressions based on previous text research, such as in Pasayat et al. (2020), who identified categories related to success process. ...
Article
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What are the most important factors for the success of a startup? This study aims to shed light on this issue through the statistical analysis of a bibliographical sample of 60 recent articles. Through a detailed study of the selected literature, but from the perspective of business experience, we have identified the comparative relevance of those factors that recent research has highlighted as the main drivers of start-up success. Our analysis allows us to define a core of seven practical business success factors supported by the academic literature (Core-7 SF). This core makes it possible to identify the intersection between success in business practice and academic research. Our Core-7 SF shows that the most important variable to predict the success of a start-up is the Idea, followed by the CEO’s Leadership, the Business Model, the Marketing approach, and the Entrepreneurial Team. In addition, we found some differences between the geographic areas of affiliation of the authors, suggesting that cultural characteristics influence the weight given to the various reasons for success.
... In Hybrid entrepreneurs' second-step choice, Thorgren et al. (2016) show that, when the whole transition from employment to self-employment is considered, dabbling at entrepreneurship is different from committing to it. Finally, Obschonka et al. (2017) in Using digital footprints in entrepreneurship research invite to revisit the way we capture personality traits in entrepreneurship and that there are ways to get around the self-reporting problem. ...
... their papers,Roundy et al. (2017),Honig and Samuelsson (2014),Mandl et al. (2016),Thorgren et al. (2016) andObschonka et al. (2017) have all wondered about the bigger picture. In The resilience of entrepreneurial ecosystems,Roundy et al. (2017) take a different take on a growing trend showing us that diversity needs coherence to create resilience in ecosystems. ...
Article
Hybrid entrepreneurship—where an individual simultaneously engages in startup activities as well as wage-based employment—is an increasingly common career transition path. Yet, relatively little research has explored entrepreneurial characteristics during these unique career transitions. We provide exploratory insight into the longitudinal relationship between self-efficacy and persistence for hybrid entrepreneurs’ (N = 29) across a twenty-week period during which aspiring entrepreneurs engaged in activities related to venture startup while maintaining wage employment. As such, we propose that entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and entrepreneurial persistence are malleable concepts that change over time. Using our longitudinal sample, we find evidence that ESE predicts entrepreneurial persistence change over time. Perhaps more importantly, we model how changes in ESE over time affect changes in entrepreneurial persistence for hybrid entrepreneurs. In sum, our work provides a foundation from which future research can examine the longitudinal transition of nascent entrepreneurs moving from an occupational setting as an employee to launching their own venture.
... ;Vianna, Marian, Kalokyri, Borgida & Nguyen, 2019), Twitter(Garcia & Rimé, 2019;Obschonka, Fisch & Boyd, 2017;Liu, Huang & Gao, 2019; Gracia, Tessone, Mavrodiev & Perony, 2014;Chen, Seo, Lin & Crandall, 2018; Salas-Olmedo, Moya-Gomez & Garcia-Palomares, 2018; Vianna, Marian, Kalokyri, Borgida & Nguyen, 2019), Foursquare (Vianna, Marian, Kalokyri, Borgida & Nguyen, 2019; Chen, Chen, Wang, Ma, Wang, Liu, Guo & Zhou, 2017; Salas-Olmedo, Moya-Gomez & Garcia-Palomares, 2018; Vianna, Marian, Kalokyri, Borgida & Nguyen, 2019; Yang, Zhang, Yu, Yu & Zeghlache, 2014), YouTube (Yang, Zhang, Yu, Yu & Zeghlache, 2014), Flickr (Preis, Moat, Bishop, Treleaven & Stanley, 2013; Chen, Chen, Wang, Ma, Wang, Liu, Guo & Zhou, 2017), Sina Weibo (Luo, Pan & Zhu, 2015; Yi, Du, Liang, Tu, Qi & Ge, 2019) dan Linkedin (Vikas Arya, Deepa Seethi & Justin Paul, 2019). ...
Conference Paper
Data digital boleh digambarkan sebagai segala aktiviti pengguna secara atas talian. Semasa berinteraksi secara atas talian, pengguna akan meninggalkan data digital yang dapat dikesan melalui pelbagai aktiviti digital seperti penggunaan Web Browser, checked-in, YouTube, photo-tagged dan rekod pembelian. Bahkan, penggunaan semua aplikasi media sosial juga termasuk dalam aktiviti atas talian yang boleh dikesan. Oleh itu, kajian ini dijalankan untuk mengenalpasti kebolehgunaan data digital untuk mengukur akhlak dan meramal tingkahlaku individu. Satu kajian sistematik telah dilakukan terhadap 48 kajian untuk mengenalpasti data digital yang digunakan. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa terdapat pelbagai jenis data dari atas talian seperti data berstruktur, data tidak berstruktur, data geografi, data siri masa, data peristiwa, data rangkaian dan data pautan. Kesemua data digital ini telah pun digunakan dalam pelbagai bidang. Kesimpulannya, penggunaan data digital merupakan cara baharu dalam mengukur dan meramal tingkahlaku dan akhlak seseorang individu. Penggunaan data digital juga menawarkan potensi yang besar dalam pengukuran semasa agar lebih tepat berbanding kaedah konvensional. Beberapa isu, kekangan dan cadangan untuk mengukur tingkahlaku dan akhlak individu dengan menggunakan data digital dibincangkan di akhir kajian. Digital data can be defined any data related to any online activity. When engaging, the user leaves digital data that can be tracked across a range of digital activities, such as web explorer, checked-in location, YouTube, photo-tag and record purchase. Indeed, the use of all social media applications is also part of the digital footprint. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the usability of digital data to measure akhlaq and predict individual behavior. A systematic analysis of 48 studies was undertaken to examine which form of digital footprint was taken into account in ongoing research. The results show that there are different types of data from digital footprints, such as structured data, unstructured data, geographic data, time-series data, event data, network data, and linked data. In conclusion, the use of digital data is a new way of measuring and predicting the behavior and morals of an individual. The use of digital data also offers great potential in current measurements to be more accurate than conventional methods. Several issues, constraints, and suggestions for measuring individual behavior and morals using digital data are discussed at the end of the study.
... Les questions ont été mesurées à l'aide d'une échelle de type Likert en 5 points, allant de 1 (tout à fait en désaccord) à 5 (tout à fait d'accord) avec un point neutre (Gavard-Perret et al., 2008;Roussel et Wacheux, 2006). Cette échelle à 5 points est une meilleure option pour mesurer les opinions des participants, car elle fournit des résultats plus fiables (Bryman et Bell, 2007;Zikmund et al., 2009 (Obschonka, Fisch et Boyd, 2017). Les chercheurs utilisent généralement un modèle de recherche commun consistant à la collecte des traces digitales issues des réseaux sociaux numériques, puis à leur traitement pour extraire une ou plusieurs métadonnées (Azucar, Marengo et Settanni, 2018;Baudet et Point, 2017 Au niveau de notre travail de recherche, nous avons mobilisé la stratégie mixte pour analyser les quatre cas étudiés, ce choix peut se justifier par l'adéquation de cette stratégie d'analyse avec l'objet de notre recherche. ...
Thesis
Depuis les années 2000, le monde des affaires est marqué par de fortes mutations. Plusieurs facteurs d’ordres économiques et géopolitiques sont en cause, notamment les effets de mondialisation, les flux migratoires croissants et la rareté des ressources. Ces conditions ont favorisé la création d’un nouveau contexte concurrentiel turbulent où la recherche d’une « main-d’œuvre » qualifiée et capable de générer un avantage compétitif durable (App, Merk et Büttgen, 2012) à moindre coût a poussé plusieurs entreprises à externaliser leurs activités (Elidrissi, 2006; Peslak, 2011). Dans cette logique, certaines entreprises ont opté pour la délocalisation d’une partie de leur production à l’extérieur du pays où les charges salariales sont très abordables, notamment dans les pays émergents ou en voie de développement. Au Maroc, les entreprises internationales se sont massivement installées depuis le début des années 2000. Ces activités d’Offshorring constituent un secteur porteur pour le pays (Makkaoui, 2012), et plus particulièrement le segment de gestion de la relation client (GRC) employant plus de 75.000 personnes. L’émergence du Royaume en tant que destination clé des activités délocalisées est un phénomène relativement récent dû à la libéralisation de l’économie marocaine, chose qui a ouvert les portes aux investisseurs étrangers. L’installation des filiales internationales s’est faite dans une multitude de secteurs à savoir les industries, notamment le textile, l’industrie automobile et aéronautique… mais aussi les services, et principalement les centres d’appels, appelés également Call Centers. L’installation de ceux-ci a connu un grand succès. Les facteurs de ce succès sont nombreux, nous citons, la disponibilité d'un vaste bassin de « main-d’œuvre » qualifiée, le soutien important du gouvernement au secteur de l’Offshoring, les nombreux incitatifs fiscaux (services d’exportation largement exemptés d’impôts), le faible décalage horaire entre le Maroc et ses principaux clients (basés principalement en Europe), ainsi que l'avantage compétitif des coûts nationaux qui ont largement contribué à la croissance rapide de ce secteur. Tous ces facteurs ont favorisé une croissance exceptionnelle du nombre des centres d’appels depuis une dizaine d’années au Maroc. Cependant, le principal problème rencontré par ces structures est la rétention de leurs effectifs. En effet, il n’est pas rare que le taux de turnover y atteigne 70% dans certains pays (Pierre et Tremblay, 2012). Selon Valle, Ruz et Masias (2017), le taux mondial moyen du turnover dans les centres d’appels est de 20%, ce taux peut varier selon le pays d’implantation : 39% en Inde, 26% au Brésil, 25% en Pologne, alors qu’il est seulement de 10% en Allemagne, 13% en Autriche et 4% en Suède. Au Maroc, le taux du turnover dans les centres d’appels varie entre 15 et 25% selon la nature de l’activité de l’entreprise (émission/réception d’appels). Un taux élevé de turnover serait un facteur de dysfonctionnement et une source de surcoûts importants nécessaires pour le remplacement des départs et la formation des nouvelles recrues. Le turnover, phénomène courant dans les entreprises, peut entraîner des coûts cachés importants, les causes de cette rotation excessive des employés dans le segment de la relation client sont l’image métier des centres d’appels en général et aux conditions de travail relatives à chaque entreprise en particulier (Buscatto, 2002). La charge du travail et la rémunération non équitable parfois rendent l’attractivité des chercheurs d’emploi très difficile. La recherche des talents hautement qualifiés et leur fidélisation incitent donc quelques Centres de la Relation Client au Maroc à se distinguer sur le plan des politiques de ressources humaines. Cette différentiation s’obtient grâce à plusieurs pratiques managériales dans le cadre du marketing RH et de la communication dont le management de la marque employeur qui est considéré comme l’un des aspects modernes de gestion des ressources humaines. La Marque Employeur est un concept novateur dans le jargon de l’entreprise, son management revêt un aspect stratégique en termes d’attraction et de fidélisation des employés (Backhaus, 2016; Charbonnier-Voirin et Lissillour, 2018; Charbonnier-Voirin et Vignolles, 2015). Ambler et Barrow (1996) indiquent que la marque employeur procure des avantages importants, tels que des taux de rétention plus élevés des employés et une plus grande attraction des talents par les employeurs. De son côté Kapoor (2010) précise que le management de la marque employeur est l'une des rares solutions conçues pour fournir un flux constant de candidats potentiels et ainsi de mettre fin au problème de la « pénurie des talents ». Dès lors, la marque employeur est devenue populaire chez les professionnels RH, leur offrant la possibilité de penser stratégiquement à la promotion de l'entreprise (Bondarouk et al., 2013). Le déploiement de cette stratégie doit émaner du top management de l’entreprise et s’effectue selon un processus à plusieurs étapes (Backhaus et Tikoo, 2004) : • La proposition de valeurs (façonnement de la marque employeur) : consiste à créer une offre cohérente destinée aux collaborateurs actuels et aux candidats potentiels, cette offre comprend les attributs de l’entreprise tels que le style de management et les avantages en termes de rémunération, de conditions de travail et de réputation organisationnelle en vue de concevoir une facette attractive faisant de l’entreprise un lieu désirable où il fait bon travailler. Des sondages externes et des enquêtes internes de satisfaction doivent avoir lieu avant le façonnement de la marque employeur afin de prendre en considération les besoins des employés. • Le marketing RH externe (attraction des candidats potentiels) : vise la diffusion de la marque employeur auprès des chercheurs d’emplois en vue de les recruter et générer un bouche-à-oreille positif dans le marché de l’emploi afin de promouvoir la réputation de l’entreprise en tant qu’employeur de marque. • Le marketing RH interne (fidélisation des collaborateurs) : consiste à retenir les employés à travers le respect des promesses prononcées par l’employeur lors de la phase d’embauche des nouvelles recrues. Cette étape est très cruciale dans le sens où les collaborateurs sont censés être les ambassadeurs de leur entreprise (Kapoor, 2010). Plusieurs canaux de communication peuvent être mobilisés dans la mise en place d’une stratégie de marque employeur (Viot et Benraïss-Noailles, 2014). Dans ce sens, internet et ses technologies digitales, notamment les réseaux sociaux numériques (RSN), ont permis aux organisations de gérer et développer quotidiennement leurs différentes activités. Ainsi, à l’ère du digital où les collaborateurs issus de la génération Y envahissent les marchés de l’emploi (Dalmas et Lima, 2016; Eisner, 2005; Jeannerod-Dumouchel, 2016; Pauget et Dammak, 2012; Pichault et Pleyers, 2012; Soulez et Guillot-Soulez, 2011), les réseaux sociaux numériques s’avèrent incontournables afin d’aboutir à des résultats significatifs en termes de marketing RH (Bissola et Imperatori, 2013; Bondarouk et al., 2013; Kaplan et Haenlein, 2011). La réduction des coûts de recrutement est l’avantage phare de l’usage de ces technologies digitales, de plus les entreprises qui utilisent les RSN peuvent se rapprocher de leurs cibles en procédant par une communication proactive, crédible et plus adaptée aux nouvelles générations, notamment celles présentes sur le marché de l’emploi. L’évolution des technologies digitales opère une transformation profonde au sein de l’entreprise en termes de gestion des ressources humaines. Les annonces d’emploi sont publiées sur Facebook et Twitter, les compagnes de recrutement et le sourcing se font avec des chasseurs de têtes sur LinkedIn et Viadeo. Le déploiement d’une stratégie de marketing RH sur les RSN offre aux entreprises de nombreuses perspectives notamment en termes de promotion de leur marque employeur, de valorisation de leur image métier, de veille e-réputation et d’ambassadorat digital. L’objectif de notre recherche est de comprendre comment s’effectue l’opérationnalisation d’une stratégie de marque employeur sur les RSN chez les centres de la relation client au Maroc. Ainsi la problématique de notre recherche s’énonce comme suit : Comment les centres de la relation client au Maroc gèrent leur marque employeur via les réseaux sociaux numériques ? Dans l’enjeu d’apporter des éléments de réponse à la problématique susmentionnée, il convient tout d’abord d’explorer les contours du management de la marque employeur dans le segment de gestion de la relation client, d’aborder le rôle que peuvent jouer les collaborateurs dans ce sens et cerner les objectifs sous-jacents du management digital de la marque employeur. D’où découlent les trois questions principales de recherche : • Dans quelle mesure le management de la marque employeur peut-il participer à l‘attraction et la fidélisation des employés dans le segment de gestion de la relation client au Maroc ? • Peut-on parler d’un ambassadorat digital de la marque employeur chez les employés des centres de la relation client au Maroc ? • Comment le management de la marque employeur peut lutter contre le turnover et valoriser l’image métier des centres de la relation client au Maroc ? Afin de répondre à ces questions de recherche, un cadre méthodologique a été mobilisé afin de permettre l’opérationnalisation de notre recherche et l’accès au réel.
... According to Basardien, Friedrich, and Twum-Darko (2016) achievement orientation (AO) refers to how a person interprets and reacts to certain tasks and challenges, resulting in different designs of cognition, behavior, and affect. Designed within a social cognitive model, achievement objective theory suggests that an individual's motivation and business achievement-related behaviors can mainly be determined by considering the reasons and objectives they adopt while engaged in business and entrepreneurial activities (Obschonka, Fisch, & Boyd, 2017a). According to Saebi, Foss, and Linder (2019), the major focus is on how entrepreneurs think about their business, their responsibilities, and their business performance. ...
... Previous studies have noted the opportunities and benefits of Twitter for entrepreneurs and small businesses [57][58][59][60]. In the venture financing literature, recent research suggests that there is a relationship between social media activity of entrepreneurs, start-up engagement and venture financing [61]. ...
Article
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Together, social media and crowdsourcing can help entrepreneurs to attract external finance and early-stage customers. This paper investigates the characteristics and discourse of an issue-centered public on Twitter organized around the hashtag #crowdfunding through the lens of social network theory. Using a dataset of 2,732,144 tweets published during a calendar year, we use exploratory data analysis to generate insights and hypotheses on who the users in the #crowdfunding network are, what they share, and how they are connected to each other. In order to do so, we adopt a range of descriptive, content, network analytics techniques. The results suggest that platforms, crowdfunders, and other actors who derive income from the crowdfunding economy play a key role in creating the network. Furthermore, latent ties (strangers) play a direct role in disseminating information, investing, and sending signals to platforms that further raises campaign prominence. We also introduce a new type of social tie, the "computer as a social actor", previously unaddressed in entrepreneurial network literature, which play a role in sending signals to both platforms and networks. Our results suggest that homophily is a key driver for creating network sub-communities built around specific platforms, project types, domains, or geography.
... Social media have been used to helps managers to promote their products and services and get them selected at the screening stage and also indirectly to attract the attention of investors during the negotiation in the last stage of the venture capital process (Aggarwal & Singh, 2013). Besides, helped to identify the personality of people (e.g., entrepreneurs, managers, employees) through their tweets allowing cross-comparison of entrepreneurial characteristics (Obschonka et al., 2017), in order to understand their strategy implementation. ...
Conference Paper
This paper aims to assess the 9 th SDG: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, are integrated within the public discourse in social media of FinTech firms. Using Social Media Analysis (SMA), we tracked the user-generated content published in Twitter. Based on the empirical material of 32,716 user-generated twits, we identify in average that 8.175% of the total entries are related explicitly or implicitly with innovation, while only 0.875% are related to SDGs. Our results show different discourses according to their activity, we have classified them, but only financial infrastructure, lending, personal finance have a discourse related to innovation and SDGs. This paper adds to previous literature by assessing and describing the role played by social media with regards to the interplay between entrepreneurial finance and sustainable goals.
... This "hidden curriculum" reflects more than just lessons learnt inside the class as it also includes the beliefs and unspoken values about entrepreneurship that are inherent to society, as well as the knowledge that students learn from their engagement with a wider society (Farny et al. 2016). For instance, the idea of entrepreneurs as heroes of society (Anderson and Warren 2011;Farny et al. 2016), the role of social media entrepreneurs or star entrepreneurs (Swail et al. 2014;Obschonka et al. 2017) and the perceived opportunities of becoming an entrepreneur (Lüthje and Franke 2003;Giacomin et al. 2011;Maresch et al. 2016) are just some of the societal elements that are able to influence aspiring entrepreneurs. ...
Article
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Although a great deal of attention has been paid to entrepreneurship education, only a few studies have analysed the impact of extra-curricular entrepreneurial activities on students’ entrepreneurial intention. The aim of this study is to fill this gap by exploring the role played by Student-Led Entrepreneurial Organizations (SLEOs) in shaping the entrepreneurial intention of their members. The analysis is based on a survey that was conducted in 2016 by one of the largest SLEOs in the world: the Junior Enterprises Europe (JEE). The main result of the empirical analysis is that the more time students spent on JEE and the higher the number of events students attended, the greater their entrepreneurial intention was. It has been found that other important drivers also increase students’ entrepreneurial intention, that is, the Science and Technology field of study and the knowledge of more than two foreign languages. These results confirm that SLEOs are able to foster students’ entrepreneurial intention. The findings provide several theoretical, practical and public policy implications. SLEOs are encouraged to enhance their visibility and lobbying potential in order to be recognized more as drivers of student entrepreneurship. In addition, it is advisable for universities and policy makers to support SLEOs by fostering their interactions with other actors operating in the entrepreneurial ecosystem, who promote entrepreneurship and technology transfer activities. Lastly, this paper advises policy makers to assist SLEOs’ activities inside and outside the university context.
... The data points are separated based on their events/ similarities. Here, the logistic hyper-plane is used to acquire a higher accuracy rate [23] [24]. The kernel vector is estimated to approach the real datasets. ...
Article
The use of social media and leaving a digital footprint has recently increased all around the world. It is being used as a platform for people to communicate their sentiments, emotions, and expectations with their data. The data available in social media are publicly viewable and accessible. Any social media network user's personality is predicted based on their posts and status in order to deliver a better accuracy. In this perspective, the proposed research article proposes novel machine learning methods for predicting the personality of humans based on their social media digital footprints. The proposed model may be reviewed for any job applicant during the times of COVID'19 through online enrolment for any organisation. Previously, the personality prediction methods are failed due to the differing perspectives of recruiters on job applicants. Also, this estimation is modernized and the prediction time is also reduced due to the implementation of the proposed hybrid approach on machine learning prediction. The artificial intelligence based calculation is used for predicting the personality of job applicants or any person. The proposed algorithm is organized with dynamic multi-context information and it also contains the account information of multiple platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. The collection of the various dataset from different social media sites constitute to the increase in the prediction rate of any machine learning algorithm. Therefore, the accuracy of personality prediction is higher than any other existing methods. Despite the fact that a person's logic varies from season to season, the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms other existing and traditional approaches in predicting a person's mentality.
... Indirectly, social media also helps attract the attention of investors during negotiations in the last stage of the venture capital process [25]. In addition, social media helps with the identification of the personalities of individuals (e.g., entrepreneurs, managers, employees) via their tweets, thus allowing cross-comparison of entrepreneurial characteristics [26] to understand their strategy implementation. Najib et al. [27] noted that "FinTech managers need to use social media and increase the involvement of competent and influential figures in public conversations on social media about FinTech". ...
Article
Full-text available
Financial technology-based firms (FinTech) are crucial to promoting new technologies and advances in innovations related to the financial field, sustainable development, and financial inclusion. This paper aims to assess the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and open innovation integrated within the public discourse in the social media of FinTech firms, using machine-learning-based social media analysis (SMA). Accordingly, we tracked the behavior of 21 firms based on the empirical material of 32,716 posts on Twitter. The outcomes showed dissimilar discourses based on FinTech firms’ activities. However, it was found that only financial infrastructure, lending, and personal finance fields have a discourse related to innovation and, to a lesser extent, related to the SDGs thematic. Thus, awareness of sustainable objectives is still far from being a relevant issue for FinTech, which, in general, has neglected to significantly mention SDGs; nonetheless, innovation and related terms are a consistent topic in this area. Furthermore, hints of the implementation of the open innovation paradigm and interest in novel technologies are demonstrated, in addition to the promotion of different actors and events on social media that serve as a showcase for firms that have a presence on Twitter.
... In turn, advances in data science methods and software tools increasingly allow entrepreneurship scholars to leverage web-scraped data to develop and test theories (George et al., 2016;Prüfer & Prüfer, 2019). Recent studies indeed illustrate how applying techniques such as machine learning and text mining to web-scraped data can offer new insights into entrepreneurial phenomena (Kolkman & van Witteloostuijn, 2019;Lee et al., 2017;Obschonka et al., 2017). It is important to note, however, that researchers must be aware of the weaknesses of web-scraped data and be extremely careful in designing and executing theory-driven web-scraping projects, allowing them to better address ethical concerns and draw more meaningful conclusions (for guidelines, see Braun et al. (2018) and Landers et al. (2016)). ...
Article
Reflecting on common empirical concerns in quantitative entrepreneurship research, recent calls for improved rigor and reproducibility in social science research, and recent methodological developments, we discuss new opportunities for further enhancing rigor in quantitative entrepreneurship research. In addition to highlighting common key concerns of editors and reviewers, we review recent methodological guidelines in the social sciences that offer more in-depth discussions of particular empirical issues and approaches. We conclude by offering a set of best practice recommendations for further enhancing rigor in quantitative entrepreneurship research.
... Coding structures like positive/neutral/negative can be employed in order to explore sentiments vis-à-vis certain innovations or firms (Laurell et al., 2019b;Laurell and Sandström, 2016) and the popularity of products and services has also been studied by using SMA (Pensa et al., 2016). Other scholars have made use of SMA and software protocols in order to study the personalities of entrepreneurs and managers (Obschonka et al., 2017). Scalability seems to be an advantage of using SMA. ...
Article
How are historical, practice-oriented, and critical research perspectives in management affected by digitalization? In this article, we describe and discuss how two digital research approaches can be applied and how they may influence the future directions of management scholarship and education: Social Media Analytics and digital archives. Our empirical illustrations suggest that digitalization generates productivity improvements for scholars, making it possible to undertake research that was previously too laborious. It also enables researchers to pay closer attention to detail while still being able to abstract and generalize. We therefore argue that digitalization contributes to a historical turn in management, that practice-oriented research can be conducted with less effort and improved quality and that micro-level data in the form of digital archives and online contents make it easier to adopt critical perspectives.
... It can be problematic to rely on self-report questionnaires as the "gold standard" scores for personality research because of potential response biases and self-knowledge constraints (Paulhus and Vazire, 2007). Linguistic analysis has become a technique for personality researchers to assess personality in a less biased and more reliable way (Yarkoni, 2010;Ireland and Mehl, 2014;Obschonka et al., 2017;Kern et al., 2019). A more "psychologically telling" and psychometrically parsimonious method of determining individual differences is language styles or how an individual says things, rather than differences in language content or what an individual says (Yarkoni, 2010;Ireland and Mehl, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to be among the first attempts to validate linguistic analysis as a method of creativity assessment and second, to differentiate between individuals in varying scientific and artistic creativity levels using personality language patterns. Creativity is most commonly assessed through methods such as questionnaires and specific tasks, the validity of which can be weakened by scorer or experimenter error, subjective and response biases, and self-knowledge constraints. Linguistic analysis may provide researchers with an automatic, objective method of assessing creativity, and free from human error and bias. The current study used 419 creativity text samples from a wide range of creative individuals mostly in science (and some in the arts and humanities) to investigate whether linguistic analysis can, in fact, distinguish between creativity levels and creativity domains using creativity dictionaries and personality dimension language patterns, from the linguistic inquiry and word count (LIWC) text analysis program. Creative individuals tended to use more words on the creativity keyword dictionaries as well as more introversion and openness to experience language pattern words than less creative individuals. Regarding creativity domains, eminent scientists used fewer introversion, and openness to experience language pattern words than eminent artists. Text analysis through LIWC was able to partially distinguish between the three creativity levels, in some cases, and the two creativity domains (science and art). These findings lend support to the use of linguistic analysis as a partially valid assessment of scientific and artistic creative achievement.
... White papers, for example, had considerable variance in format, focus, and depth of detail. Social media posts, meanwhile, offered an attractive means of capturing the changing perspectives of entrepreneurs (Obschonka et al. 2017), but as curated content, arguably suffered from certain presentational biases. Nonetheless, our preliminary analysis served as a foundation upon which to develop initial first-order observations relating to venture-level perceptions of external enablers. ...
Article
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Our study explores the work undertaken by entrepreneurial ventures when engaging with external enabling technologies. Specifically, we examine a unique sample of early-stage ventures who are using blockchain technologies in an attempt to disintermediate the music recording industry. We carry out a preliminary analysis of 36 venture ‘white papers’, before constructing and inductively analyzing 11 new venture case studies. In doing so, we identify three interlinked enablers of new venture ideas in this context: blockchain, ideology, and market volatility. Furthermore, we identify a range of venture-level shaping practices and field-level work that describes the framing and legitimizing activities undertaken by entrepreneurs to unlock the potential of external enablers. This extends recent conceptual work on external enablers of entrepreneurship. In particular, we propose a novel category of actor-dependent enabler should be advanced to capture engagement with the uniquely editable, interactive, distributed properties of digital technologies.
... Five studies utilized secondary data (e.g., Secundo, 2020;David-West, 2018;Li et al., 2017;Toniolo et al., 2020); in joint position with surveys (5 out of 23) (e.g., Yin et al., 2019;Bouncken et al., 2020;Balocco et al., 2019). One study (Obschonka et al., 2017) revealed an obvious bias towards interviews in the way empirical data was collected by DE studies in the last decade. Although interviews allow researchers to collect data from large samples which make the findings more representative of the target population. ...
Article
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The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects ICT has on the sustainability of Digital Entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Furthermore, this paper seeks to determine if the utilization of ICT can forecast the rate of start-ups in the Digital Entrepreneurship sector and interrogate the characteristics and inter-relationships inherent in Digital Entrepreneurship. To achieve this objective, a systematic literature review using the Systematic Quantitative Assessment Technique (SQAT) was the methodology used to review 45 DE articles published over the last decade (2012 – 2021). To provide a thorough, impartial amalgam of the reviewed articles, this paper analysed the time distribution, geographic distribution, types and data collection methods of the 45 DE articles. The review revealed that existing research has been both empirical and conceptual in equal measure with only one instance in mixed mode. The parity suggests that future researchers should endeavour to conduct more conceptual research to underpin the envisaged accelerated growth of DE.
... It can be problematic to rely on self-reportِquestionnairesِasِtheِ"gold standard"ِ scores for personality research because of potential response biases and self-knowledge constraints (Paulhus & Vazire, 2007). Linguistic analysis has become a technique for personality researchers to assess personality in a less biased and more reliable way (Ireland & Mehl, 2014;Kern et al., 2019;Obschonka et al., 2017;Yarkoni, 2010). A moreِ"psychologicallyِtelling"ِandِpsychometricallyِparsimoniousِmethodِofِ determiningِindividualِdifferencesِisِlanguageِstylesِ(anِindividual'sِuseِofِfunctionِorِ "stop"ِwords), how an individual says things, rather than differences in language content (anِindividual'sِuseِofِnouns,ِverbs,ِadjectives,ِandِmostِadverbs),ِwhat an individual says (Ireland & Mehl, 2014;Yarkoni, 2010). ...
Thesis
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Creativity is most commonly assessed through methods such as questionnaires and specific tasks, the validity of which can be weakened by scorer or experimenter error, subjective and response biases, and self-knowledge constraints. Linguistic analysis provides researchers with an automatic, objective method of assessing creativity, free from human error and bias. This study used 419 creativity text samples from a wide range of creative individuals (Big-C, Pro-C, and Small-c) to investigate whether linguistic analysis can, in fact, distinguish between creativity levels and creativity domains using creativity dictionaries and personality dimension language patterns in the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) text analysis program. Creative individuals used more words on the creativity dictionaries as well as more Introversion and Openness to Experience Language Pattern words than less creative individuals. Regarding creativity domains, eminent artists used more Introversion and Openness to Experience Language Pattern words than eminent scientists. Text analysis through LIWC was able to successfully distinguish between the three creativity levels, in some cases, and the two creativity domains with statistical significance. These findings lend support to the use of linguistic analysis as a partially valid form of creativity assessment.
... Prior research has found that personality traits can be predicted from word usage (Fast & Funder, 2008;Golbeck et al., 2011). Further research has found this psycholinguistic approach to be valid (for example, Harrison et al., 2020;Obschonka et al., 2017). Indeed, from a psycholinguistic perspective, narratives express emotions, behaviors, and thoughts which comprise personality (Park et al., 2015;Yarkoni, 2010). ...
Article
Catastrophic events challenge the resilience of society and require entrepreneurs to act proactively. Government COVID-19 responses forced thousands of businesses to close, resulting in a staggering loss of revenue for small businesses. Many small business entrepreneurs turned to crowdfunding to make public funding appeals. Through the lens of the identifiable victim effect, we examine how donations to affected businesses are related to language-based cues of personality traits embedded in appeals. Using the IBM Watson Personality Insights algorithm, we assess charitable appeals for language-based cues that convey entrepreneurs’ Big Five personality traits. We test our model using 6,803 donation-based campaigns between March and May 2020. We further tested how crisis salience influenced prosocial behavior, discovering that donation effects were increased for appeals that highlighted the pandemic’s impact on the business. Our results suggest that language-based cues of personality traits have significant associations with public support when embedded in charitable appeals.
... With reference to Twitter, it must be noted that social media in particular can include impulsive texts that arise due to certain events or states of mind. Even though Twitter is considered one of the most studied social media systems and is known to predict the personality of the authors very accurately (Adi et al., 2018;Ahmad and Siddique, 2017;Golbeck et al., 2011;Obschonka et al., 2017;Quercia et al., 2011), minimal variations in personality from the real personality cannot be ruled out. Various factors play a role, such as whether tweets are filtered by managers or staff, or whether the deletion of certain tweets is recommended by any third-party person, or whether players may adapt their communication unnaturally. ...
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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to use Twitter data to mine personality traits of basketball players to predict their performance in the NBA. Design/methodology/approach: Automated personality mining and robotic process automation was used to gather data (player statistics and big five personality traits) of n=185 professional basketball players. Correlation analysis and multiple linear regressions were computed to predict the performance of their NBA careers based on previous college performance and personality traits. Findings: Automated personality mining of Tweets can be used to gather additional information about basketball players. Extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness correlate with basketball performance and can be used, in combination with previous game statistics, to predict future performance. Practical implications: The study presents a novel approach to use automated personality mining of Twitter data as a predictor for future basketball performance. The contribution advances the understanding of the importance of personality for sports performance and the use of cognitive systems (automated personality mining) and the social media data for predictions. Scouts can use our findings to enhance their recruiting criteria in a multi-million dollar business, such as the NBA.
... In this paper [10] the authors present a method for predicting a user's personality using DISC (Dominance, Influence, Compliance, and Steadiness) evaluation and information mapping accessible to the public on their personal Twitter account. The author utilize digital footprints to get insights into the personalities of superstar potential entrepreneurs in this study [11], a demographic that has been relatively understudied in research literature. The goal of this study [12] is to determine how and to what degree personality characteristics, as evaluated by the Big Five model, are linked to online picture sharing and like. ...
Chapter
The statistics presented by the World Health Organization attributes depression to be a primary cause of concern globally, leading to suicide in majority of the cases if left undetected. Nowadays, Social media is a great point for its users to express their opinions through text, emoticons, photos or videos thus reflecting their sentiments and moods. This has created an opportunity to study social network for understanding the mental state of the users. Studies show that depression generally has an impact on the writing style and corresponding language use. In addition, user persona on social media can also provide us a lot of information about the mental state of the user. The primary aim of our research is to study user’s persona and posts on Twitter and identify the attributes that may indicate depressive symptoms of online users. We used machine learning approaches and natural language processing techniques for training our data and evaluating the efficiency of our proposed method. We proposed a two-level depression detection in which the social media features, personality trait and sentiment analysis of user’ biography provide us an opportunity to identify suspected depressed users. We combined these attributes with other Linguistic features (N-Gram+TF-IDF) and LDA and achieved an accuracy of 89% using Support Vector Machine classifier. According to our research, proper feature selection and their combinations help in achieving better improvement in performance.
... Our study also sheds some light into the use of digital footprints in entrepreneurship research which is one of the new theoretical gaps that need to be fulfilled (Obschonka et al., 2017). We have extended the development of an innovative entrepreneurship indicator that measures social media influencer in the consultancy KIBS ecosystem as proposed in other related studies (Low & Isserman, 2015). ...
Experiment Findings
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The analysis of the use of social media for innovative entrepreneurship in the context has received little attention in the literature, especially in the context of Knowledge Intensive Business Services (KIBS). Therefore, this paper focuses on bridging this gap by applying text mining and sentiment analysis techniques to identify the innovative entrepreneurship reflected by these companies in their social media. Finally, we present and analyze the results of our quantitative analysis of 23.483 posts based on eleven Spanish and Italian consultancy KIBS Twitter Usernames and Keywords using data interpretation techniques such as clustering and topic modeling. This paper suggests that there is a significant gap between the perceived potential of social media and the entrepreneurial behaviors at the social context in business-to-business (B2B) companies.
... The use of digital platforms is characterised by change, uncertainty and unpredictability (Nambisan 2017), yet few researchers Baron 2013, 2019) examine how this has contributed to entrepreneurial risk, conflict and stress. Entrepreneurs may evidence certain types of traits when using digital platforms, like sociability (Smith et al. 2017) and networking (Avgerou and Li 2013;Obschonka et al. 2017). For example, entrepreneurship online usually involves cocoordination between varied actors such as customers and other entrepreneurs and or businesses (Nambisan 2017). ...
Thesis
Digital platforms are used by entrepreneurs globally and have changed the way entrepreneurs interact. However, while digital platforms are expected to change the processes and practices of entrepreneurship their influence on entrepreneurship is insufficiently examined. When influence is considered, culture and social norms are usually ignored, and it is assumed that digital technology can and should be used to overcome barriers entrepreneurs face. Existing research also tends to focus on developed countries and high-growth entrepreneurship. This leaves a gap in our understanding of developing countries and low-growth entrepreneurship, which represents most entrepreneurial activity. This study asks questions about the influence of digital platforms on entrepreneurship in the context of Trinidad and Tobago, a high-income, developing Caribbean country. This multicultural, twin-island state has low levels of high-growth entrepreneurship and is attempting to diversify its oil and gas economy through supporting entrepreneurship. The research takes an interdisciplinary, multi-method, qualitative approach that includes a pilot study, interviews, focus groups and secondary data. It finds that when entrepreneurs use digital platforms, the benefits accrued are in tension with platform rules that continuously change creating uncertainty, unpredictability and risk. Additionally, culture, social norms and historical structures may limit the potential for entrepreneurs to use digital platforms or capitalise on their benefits. This research contributes to the Technology Affordances and Constraints Theory (TACT) literature, which informs the research method. TACT is used to illustrate how affordances and constraints co-exist and intertwine with societal norms, cultures and structures to influence entrepreneurial activities and outcomes. Additionally, the research adopts the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystem (EE) to provide new insight into the extent to which digital platforms may influence an informal and fragmented EE. This study provides recommendations to the Trinidad and Tobago government which should help them to understand the influence of digital platforms, that simultaneously aid and mitigate their efforts to support entrepreneurship. For entrepreneurs, it provides recommendations that support a deeper understanding of digital platform use.<br/
Article
The rise of social media has led to changes in how entrepreneurs carry out their day-to-day activities. Studies on social media and entrepreneurship are relatively new and fragmented in their focus, however there is increasing interest from academia and practitioners for further research and investigation within this area. This study systematically reviews research carried out in the domain of social media and entrepreneurship. A total of 160 papers, published between 2002 and 2018 were synthesised to identify critical theories and research methods used in the domain. Based on the extent review, an integrative framework was developed to identify relationships amongst elucidated constructs. While most papers investigated the factors that drive social media adoption and use by entrepreneurs, it was found that the use of social media by entrepreneurs had transcended marketing and it is now used in business networking, information search and crowdfunding for their business. This has led to significant impact with improved firm performance and innovation enhancement being the essential outcomes. The literature review and framework further understanding of social media and entrepreneurship research, providing a useful basis for future studies and informs practice in this area.
Chapter
The influence of technology on business cannot be reversed. As the moveable type of printing altered the course of history, digitalization is transforming organizations, work environments, and processes, requiring leaders to address new challenges. Experts in the social sciences have attempted to comprehend this complex phenomenon, but their findings have been dispersed across various disciplines and do not appear to form a unified picture. In order to correct this flaw in the literature and improve the clarity and coherence of scholarly discourse, this chapter's specific purpose is to evaluate how the debate on digital transformation and leadership has evolved over the previous few years, to highlight significant theories and discoveries, and to recommend potential future study routes. The chapter looks at all of the research that has been done on leadership and digitalization, looking for patterns of thought and findings across different social science fields, like management and psychology.
Conference Paper
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Digital footprints can be defined any data related to any online activity. When engaging, the user leaves digital footprints that can be tracked across a range of digital activities, such as web explorer, checked-in location, YouTube, photo- tag and record purchase. Indeed, the use of all social media applications is also part of the digital footprint. This research was, therefore conducted to classify the types of digital footprint data used to predict psychographic and human behaviour. A systematic analysis of 48 studies was undertaken to examine which form of digital footprint was taken into account in ongoing research. The results show that there are different types of data from digital footprints, such as structured data, unstructured data, geographic data, time-series data, event data, network data, and linked data. In conclusion, the use of digital footprint data is a practically new way of completing research into predicting psychographic and human behaviour. The use of digital footprint data also provides a tremendous opportunity for enriching insights into human behaviour.
Article
How do venture capitalists (VCs) incorporate weak and strong signals in the valuation of technology-based startups? Based on a sociocognitive perspective of signaling theory, we introduce Twitter sentiment as a novel and weak signal, which we juxtapose with patents as a traditional, strong signal. While we find a positive association between both signals and VCs' venture valuations, our results reveal that Twitter sentiment does not correlate with actual long-term investment success, whereas patents do. Additionally, we identify and test novelty and experience characteristics (i.e., startup age and VC firm experience) as boundary conditions for our proposed signal-valuation relationships.
Article
Lenders in Prosper, one of the largest lending markets in the U.S., reduce their activity when playing multistate Powerball or Mega Millions lottery jackpot becomes attractive. This finding suggests that the desire for sensation seeking is an underlying motivation for participating in peer-to-peer crowdfunding markets; the thrill of winning a large lottery jackpot fulfills some lenders' desire for novelty and sensation seeking, thus decreasing their lending activity. We discuss our findings' implications for lenders, borrowers, platform organizers, and policymakers.
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This thesis sets out to explore the nature of large individual outliers in terms of fame, success, or recognition. These outliers, colloquially referred to as “superstars”, differ from the general population in that they are able to capture the vast majority of outcomes in a given scenario. These outcomes can be anything from money, over citations in scientific papers, to public recognition (or “fame”). Although there are many theories and assumptions about what causes stardom; in addition to many intuitively logical explanations; little is in fact known from a scientific perspective. Data from many different scientific fields and disciplines suggest that there is no clear-cut relationship between various measures of inputs (e.g. talent, skill, performance) and outcomes (e.g. fame, recognition, success). Research specifically pertinent to “performance, success, and stardom” is not at all conclusive about the relationship between factors of performance and factors of success. Fame and success appear to be virtually random and might be completely unpredictable. Consequently, our current understanding of the dynamics at play and our research methods appear inadequate. Here, network theory provides a novel approach to gain insights into how these vague concepts are intertwined. The phenomenon of superstars (i.e. large individual outliers) appears to not be an exception. In fact, skewed distributions (e.g. a “superstar” that is able to capture most of the public attention in a specific domain) might even be a fundamental part of the reality we live in. Power-law distributions describe systems in which very few individual outliers account for almost all of the outcomes. These distributions are found everywhere from natural to purely manmade systems and appear to permeate our universe. There is much speculation about the mechanisms that might cause these universal distributions. Some of the most widely acknowledged ones are “cumulative advantage”, “preferential attachment”, and “self- organized criticality”. This thesis provides a broad overview of past and contemporary scientific findings about the phenomenon of superstars and its root causes. Discoveries from various different scientific fields converge towards a few key insights.
Article
Social media platforms are increasingly used by SMEs who have fewer resources and need to rely on social media marketing to engage with their customers. This article investigates the extent to which social media platforms specifically Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter contribute to increased customer engagement. While past studies have concentrated on the adoption of social media in predominantly western contexts, this research is focused on SMEs in a relatively under-researched African market context, South Africa. The research design was a quantitative cross-sectional study relying on primary data collection, where hypotheses were tested using statistical analyses in terms of correlational and regression analyses. Results support the hypotheses where the use of Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter platforms show a significant and positive relationship with increased customer engagement. The findings have management implications where owner-managers should make use of social media by maintaining and growing an extensive network of ties to both collect information and identify resources, as well as to build a reputation and engage with their customers.
Article
Purpose This research explores causal combinations (personal traits, external factors and self-fulfillment) that could provide holistic views leading to sustainable start-ups via data collected from Taiwanese entrepreneurs. Design/methodology/approach The authors employ five-point Likert scale measurements in the questionnaires and fuzzy-set/Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) for the investigation. Findings The study finds four types of sustainable entrepreneurs. Conservative resilient entrepreneurs have an absence of both openness and neuroticism. Conservative achieving entrepreneurs have an absence of openness and the presence of conscientiousness. Conservative-hired entrepreneurs have an absence of both openness and unemployment. Lastly, conservative opportunistic entrepreneurs exhibit an absence of openness and the presence of business opportunity. Originality/value The results add to the authors’ knowledge and understanding of the entrepreneurship literature and also offer implications for people who are interested in entrepreneurship as well as to policymakers wanting to promote new start-ups.
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Perceptual factors explain a large part of the gender gap in entrepreneurial propensity. The study by Koellinger et al. (2013) is an influential study in this literature stream. We replicate this study with more recent data and broader country coverage. Our findings show that gender differences in entrepreneurial propensity still exist (although the effect size has been reduced substantially) and can be attributed to differences in perceptions of entrepreneurial skills. Surprisingly, the negative effect attributed to female respondents becomes positive after taking into account differences in skill perception, meaning that women have a higher entrepreneurial propensity than men. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of this surprising and important finding and provide avenues for future research.
Article
The article presents a critical review of studies concerned with competencies and behavioral models of managers in the context of remote work and digitalization of business processes. The digitalization process, being one of the leading trends in the labor market, has irreversibly changed organizations, work environments and processes by creating new challenges for leaders. More flexible organization structures are beginning actively used in different industries and organizations, for example, remote forms of work. Moreover, digital services and technologies help companies adapt more quickly and effectively to new conditions. Remote work, which is becoming a new global norm of work, opens significant opportunities for companies, but also requires another type of management — electronic. The new type of leadership implies significant changes in the relationship between a manager and employees, which makes it necessary for leaders to change their behavioral models. E-leadership, whose role is to facilitate working conditions and maintain employee motivation to achieve desired goals, offers an effective combination of electronic and traditional communication methods that can be expressed through two groups of leadership competencies: socio-communicative and socio-technological. E-leadership practices will not only be able to ensure the development and realization of an employee’s work potential, but also optimize personal relationships in the workplace. The results of this article reveal the potential of using the new concept of leadership in studies of new working conditions.
Article
Despite growth in the number of women pursuing business and entrepreneurship careers, dominance of masculine traits associated with these occupations persists. If business schools use language that subconsciously reinforces gendered stereotypes, students might perpetuate sexist expectations. Using a natural language text processing tool to analyze the written responses of 247 undergraduate students in a US‐based university, we found that student perceptions of entrepreneurs are associated with more masculine characteristics compared to student perceptions of business people. To some degree, female students were more likely to make these associations than male students. Our findings suggest that business schools must do their part to break the cycles that elevate masculine characteristics of entrepreneurship. The negative effects of this manifest in the persistent gender pay gap, rising but still minority numbers of women entrepreneurs, continued practices of rewarding masculine traits in organizations, and ongoing underrepresentation of women students in schools of business.
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This study investigates whether the personalities of Chief Marketing Officers (CMOs) of technology-based new ventures affect how the increasing maturity of new ventures translates into web traffic. Drawing on upper echelon theory and the interactionist theory of job performance, we explain how certain personality traits from the five-factor model are relevant to the job demands a CMO faces in technology-based new ventures. We build a multi-source dataset on 627 new ventures and use a novel approach to measuring personality that is based on computer text analysis—specifically, the LIWC application—which we apply to the CMOs’ Twitter accounts. Our findings indicate that a CMO’s extraversion positively moderates the relationship between a new venture’s maturity and web traffic, while a CMO’s conscientiousness is a negative moderator of this relationship. These results have useful theoretical and practical implications for the role of the CMO and for marketing new ventures in general.
Chapter
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In the digital humanities, it has been particularly difficult to establish the psychological properties of a person or group of people in an objective, reliable manner. Traditionally, the attempt to understand an author’s psychological makeup has been primarily (if not exclusively) accomplished through subjective interpretation, qualitative analysis, and speculation. In the world of empirical psychological research, however, the past 2 decades have witnessed an explosion of computerized language analysis techniques that objectively measure psychological features of the individual. Indeed, by using modern text analysis methods, it is now possible to quickly and accurately extract information about people – personalities, individual differences, social processes, and even their mental health – all through the words that people write and speak. This chapter serves as a primer for researchers interested in learning about how language can provide powerful insights into the minds of others via well-established and easy-to-use psychometric methods. First, this chapter provides a general background on language analysis in the field of psychology, followed by an introduction to modern methods and developments within the field of psychological text analysis. Finally, a solid foundation to psychological text analysis is provided in the form of an overview of research spanning hundreds of studies from labs all over the world.
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Understanding the psychological nature and development of the individual entrepreneur is at the core of contemporary entrepreneurship research. Since the individual functions as a totality of his or her single characteristics (involving the interplay of biological, psychosocial, and context-related levels), a person-oriented approach focusing on intraindividual dynamics seems to be particularly fruitful to infer realistic implications for practice such as entrepreneurship education and promotion. Applying a person-oriented perspective, this paper integrates existing psychological approaches to entrepreneurship and presents a new, person-oriented model of entrepreneurship, the Entrepreneurial Personality System (EPS). In the empirical part, this model guided us to bridge two separate research streams dealing with entrepreneurial personality: research on broad traits like the Big Five and research on specific traits like risk-taking, self-efficacy, and internal locus of control. We examine a gravity effect of broad traits, as assumed in the EPS framework, by analyzing large personality data sets from three countries. The results reveal a consistent gravity effect of an intraindividual entrepreneurial Big Five profile on the more malleable psychological factors. Implications for entrepreneurship research and practice are discussed.
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Innovative entrepreneurship is considered an important pillar for economic development and has sparked a lively discussion in academia and practice alike. Oftentimes, however, the debate is not sufficiently grounded on solid empirical evidence. The academic literature is growing but very scattered and is separated into several disciplines. We provide a summary that takes stock of the academic knowledge about innovative entrepreneurship and summarizes the evidence from 102 empirical studies published in the primary economics and management journals on the antecedents, behavior, and consequences of innovative entrepreneurship. Based on this state-of-the-art literature review, directions for future research are discussed.
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In the modern era, people generate data on a scale never before witnessed in human history. In particular, social media create a space where people can express their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in their own words. The language that people share online inherently reflects the precise phenomena that many social scientists seek to capture and understand. However, language data can often be difficult to quantify and understand in objective, empirical terms. How can we use a person’s language to better understand their social and psychological processes? In this chapter, we introduce readers to two broad methods of analyzing language that turn unstructured language data into meaningful psychological metrics. In discussing these approaches, we highlight software that can perform these procedures in a fast, reliable, and easy-to-use manner. Finally, we provide an overview of research that illustrates just how powerful words can be for understanding a person’s mental universe.
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Contributing to the literature on early precursors of entrepreneurship, this study investigated the role of early social competencies for an entrepreneurial career choice and entrepreneurial success in young adulthood. We utilized data from the British Cohort Study and the Thuringian Founder Study (Germany), thereby comparing results across countries, study designs (e.g., retrospective vs. prospective), and concepts of early social competencies and entrepreneurship. In the British analyses, which concentrated on self-employment among the creative class, we found that social competencies in childhood (i.e., social skills and peer popularity at age 10) predicted entrepreneurial status at age 34, continuity in entrepreneurial activity (age 30 and 34) as well as earnings among the self-employed (age 34). In the German data, we found that entrepreneurial forms of social competencies in adolescence (i.e., leadership and early commercialization activities at age 14 or 15) predicted the process of starting an innovative business in young adulthood (entrepreneurial intentions, progress in the venture creation process, and business success in the post-startup phase). The results are discussed with an emphasis on possible pathways connecting early social competencies and enterprising behavior in young adulthood.
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In spite of substantial advances, entrepreneurship research on affect and cognition remains characterized by a multiplicity of theoretical approaches, methods, variables and measures. Although this multiplicity affords a lot of richness, it also poses potential risks – from the lack of a coherent knowledge base to the dangers of an atomistic evolution, with minimum exchanges between ‘siloed’ groups of scholars, limited theoretical integration and increased chances of redundant repetitions without real advances in understanding. To help guard against these risks and in order to augment the impact and value-adding contribution of future research, the six papers in this special issue analyse the progress made in entrepreneurship research on (1) situated cognition, (2) fear, (3) how affective dynamics influences entrepreneurship, (4) intuition, (5) opportunity evaluation and (6) entrepreneurial team cognition. This short introductory essay builds on the synthesis of the literature to summarize ‘the road travelled so far’. The six papers forming this special issue are then introduced and their respective focus and contributions are detailed. The authors conclude by reflecting on these papers’ implications, and offer a number of observations about future research and the ‘road ahead’.
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Agency theory predicts that incentives will align agents' interests with those of principals. However, the resource-based view suggests that to be effective, the incentive to deliver must be paired with the ability to deliver. Using Fortune 500 boards as an empirical context, this study shows that the presence of directors who lack top-level experience but own large shareholdings is negatively associated with firm value, an effect that increases in the number of such directors. Firm value rises after such directors depart from boards, with the greatest increases occurring when many of these directors leave. While agency theory highlights the importance of the right incentives being in place, this research suggests that this can be ineffective if the right resources are not also in place. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Is there an intimate biographical relationship between entrepreneurship and antisocial tendencies? Drawing from Zhang and Arvey's retrospective study [Zhang, Z. & Arvey, R.D. (2009). Rule breaking in adolescence and entrepreneurial status: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 436–447], which found a link between entrepreneurship status of male adults and their recalled early antisocial rule-breaking behavior in adolescence, the present study utilized prospective longitudinal data from a Swedish cohort study to clarify the connection between antisocial rule-breaking, crime, and entrepreneurship by applying a developmental perspective. Regression results, which controlled for early socioeconomic background and intellectual competencies, indeed identified early antisocial rule-breaking behavior in adolescence as a valid positive predictor of a subsequent entrepreneurial career in adulthood in men (but not in women). In contrast, registered crime (teenage crime, adult crime, and prototypical trajectories of criminal behavior) as well as rule-breaking attitude in adolescence, as a more latent form of early antisocial tendencies, were relatively unimportant in the prediction of entrepreneurship in both genders. The results are discussed with a focus on rule-breaking and agency theories of entrepreneurship, youth theories, and the importance of looking at gender differences in entrepreneurial development.
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Social media sites such as Twitter provide organizations with the ability to interact directly with publics. Previous research has suggested that web-based relationship building is dependent on the level of organizational interactivity with web technology, or how the organization uses the technology to engage with its publics. This study tested if levels of organizational Twitter interactivity affected the quality of organization–public relationships. Findings suggest that an organization's level of Twitter interactivity influences relationship quality.
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Twitter, a microblogging site which allows users to deliver statements, thoughts and links in 140 characters to followers as well as a wider Internet audience, is the latest online communications technology adopted by MPs. Assessing the use by early adopters, this article considers which MPs are most likely to use Twitter (for example, tweeting), and how. Content analysis of MPs' Twitter feeds was conducted, and personal and political characteristics identified which may influence use. The data suggested that of the six characteristics tested, gender, party and seniority had most impact on adoption. Applying Jones and Pittman's 1982 typology, there is clear evidence that MPs use Twitter as a tool of impression management. Constituency service is a secondary function of the use of Twitter by MPs. Where MPs use Twitter as part of their constituency role it is to promote their local activity. This article notes that a small group of MPs use Twitter as a regular communication channel, but most are only occasionally dipping their toe into the microbloggersphere.
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A set of meta-analyses were conducted to examine the relationship of personality to outcomes associated with two different stages of the entrepreneurial process: entrepreneurial intentions and entrepreneurial performance. A broad range of personality scales were categorized into a parsimonious set of constructs using the Five Factor model of personality. The results show that four of the Big Five personality dimensions were associated with both dependent variables, with agreeableness failing to be associated with either. Multivariate effect sizes were moderate for the full set of Big Five personality variables on entrepreneurial intentions (multiple R = .36) and entrepreneurial performance (multiple R = .31). Risk propensity, included as a separate dimension of personality, was positively associated with entrepreneurial intentions but was not related to entrepreneurial performance. These effects suggest that personality plays a role in the emergence and success of entrepreneurs.
Article
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Entrepreneurship is a major factor in the national economy; thus, it is important to understand the motivational characteristics spurring people to become entrepreneurs and why some are more successful than others. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationship between achievement motivation and variables associated with entrepreneurial behavior. We found that achievement motivation was significantly correlated with both choice of an entrepreneurial career and entrepreneurial performance. Further, we found that both projective and self-report measures of achievement motivation were valid. Finally, known group studies yielded a higher validity coefficient than did individual difference studies.
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The role of personality traits in the decision to start a business and to maintain it successfully is discussed controversially in entrepreneurship research. Our meta-analysis builds upon and extends earlier meta-analyses by doing a full analysis of personality traits that includes a comparison of different traits from a theoretical perspective and by analysing a full set of personality predictors for both start-up activities as well as success. Theoretically, our article adds to the literature by matching traits to the tasks of entrepreneurs. The results indicate that traits matched to the task of running a business produced higher effect sizes with business creation than traits that were not matched to the task of running an enterprise, corrected r = .247, K = 47, N = 13,280, and corrected r = .124, K = 20, N = 3975, respectively. Moreover, traits matched to the task produced higher correlations with success, corrected r = .250, K = 42, N = 5607, than traits not matched to the task of running a business, corrected r = .028, K = 13, N = 2777. The traits matched to entrepreneurship significantly correlated with entrepreneurial behaviour (business creation, business success) were need for achievement, generalized self-efficacy, innovativeness, stress tolerance, need for autonomy, and proactive personality. These relationships were of moderate size in general and, moreover, heterogeneity suggested that future research should analyse moderator variables.
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The ability of personality traits to predict important life outcomes has traditionally been questioned because of the putative small effects of personality. In this article, we compare the predictive validity of personality traits with that of socioeconomic status (SES) and cognitive ability to test the relative contribution of personality traits to predictions of three critical outcomes: mortality, divorce, and occupational attainment. Only evidence from prospective longitudinal studies was considered. In addition, an attempt was made to limit the review to studies that controlled for important background factors. Results showed that the magnitude of the effects of personality traits on mortality, divorce, and occupational attainment was indistinguishable from the effects of SES and cognitive ability on these outcomes. These results demonstrate the influence of personality traits on important life outcomes, highlight the need to more routinely incorporate measures of personality into quality of life surveys, and encourage further research about the developmental origins of personality traits and the processes by which these traits influence diverse life outcomes. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.
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We are in the midst of a technological revolution whereby, for the first time, researchers can link daily word use to a broad array of real-world behaviors. This article reviews several computerized text analysis methods and describes how Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) was created and validated. LIWC is a transparent text analysis program that counts words in psychologically meaningful categories. Empirical results using LIWC demonstrate its ability to detect meaning in a wide variety of experimental settings, including to show attentional focus, emotionality, social relationships, thinking styles, and individual differences.
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