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Abstract

The relationship between alcohol and the violent behavior, expressed as branches of hooliganism, is receiving considerable theoretical attention in social and psychological literature along the past decades while empirical researches on that matter are taken for granted. The falling in appreciate such empirical approach relies on the difficult it requires to compare of two different realities; one with alcohol intake and another without it, in order to evaluate whether it might drive sport spectators into a violent behavior, holding everything else constant. This work provides such robust statistical assessment taking into consideration a Brazilian state law 13748 of April 2009, which prohibited the sale of alcoholic beverages in Pernambuco's football stadiums. We consider the effectiveness of alcohol intervention on hooligan behavior by means of non-parametric test and a autoregressive moving average series, resorting to over ten years of data (before and during the criminalization) with regard aggression and unruly conduct committed by fans before in football matches within 3 miles from the stadium. Our results bring support to the decision of Pernambuco State Legislature to abolish in January 2016 the law in favor of the legalization of alcoholic beverages sales.

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... The first trend shows the relationships between the group dynamics of what are called bars and violent behaviors around the acts of accompaniment to football teams (Bermúdez-Amaya, 2017;Blázquez et al., 2015;Cabrera & Assusa, 2017;Garrica Zucal, 2006, 2011, 2016Miranda Bastidas et al., 2015;Moreira, 2007;Muñoz-Muñoz, 2015;Nepomuceno et al., 2017;Newson et al., 2018;Ostrowsky, 2014;Rivera Rangel et al., 2018;Uribe-Aramburo, 2018;Vélez-Maya & Arboleda-Ariza, 2016). ...
... The second trend is related to barrismo and the consumption of psychoactive substances as ways of identifying the members of these groups, and which in turn, becomes an inciting behavior of violent acts (Castaño-Pérez et al., 2014;López-Quintero & Neumark, 2012;Nepomuceno et al., 2017;Ostrowsky, 2014). ...
... The action as a possibility of initiation (Arendt, 2005), is what favors the transit from barras bravas to popular bars. This transit, through processes of reflexivity of the members of these groups, is crossed by the interest of social contribution for the transformations of the territories, in addition, these findings allow to expand the understanding of the social phenomenon of barrismo, beyond the deficient and pathologizing looks shown in the first two trends found in the studies that served as investigative antecedents, namely, relationships between the group dynamics of what are called bars (Bermúdez-Amaya, 2017;Blázquez et al., 2015;Cabrera & Assusa, 2017;Garrica Zucal, 2006, 2011, 2016Miranda Bastidas, Urrego Sáenz, & Vera Erazo, 2015;Moreira, 2007;Muñoz-Muñoz, 2015;Nepomuceno et al., 2017;Newson et al., 2018;Ostrowsky, 2014;Rivera Rangel, Duque Gil, & Agudelo Padilla, 2018;Uribe-Aramburo, 2018;Vélez-Maya & Arboleda-Ariza, 2016), and the relationship between barrismo, consumption of psychoactive substances and violence (Castaño-Pérez, Uribe-Aramburo, & Restrepo-Escobar, 2014;López-Quintero & Neumark, 2012;Nepomuceno et al., 2017;Ostrowsky, 2014). In this regard, Barrista 12 relates: ...
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Based on anonymous survey responses from 31 nurses, results showed that the average nurse extended her work breaks each week without authorization by over 25 minutes. Moreover, nursing personnel most likely to lapse over into unauthorized break time (a) scored reliably higher on a dishonesty test measuring attitudes, values, and perceptions toward theft and (b) had significantly higher scores on a burnout scale than nurses who strictly adhered to their work break schedules. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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Italian soccer (aka football, or in Italian, calcio) fans are called tifosi, a nickname that equates their passion to the typhoid fever. This article gives a brief history of the ultras, the groups of hardcore tifosi that cheer, sing, protest and occasionally fight at soccer stadiums in Italy. These fans enact cultural performances that reflect Italian society and push society to change. The article decsribes the rivalry between Roman clubs A. S. Roma and S. S. Lazio as a prime example of a cultural performance. Italian Ultras culture is constantly evolving in response to changing economic and cultural conditions and opportunities. This article critiques these practices during the first part of the 21st century.
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This short paper seeks to explain the activities of Scottish fans in Genoa and Turin, during the 1990 World Cup, by drawing on some key concepts offered by contemporary writers in the field of post-modernism and post-structuralism. These writers include Foucault, Derrida, Barthes and Baudrillard. All emphasize a re-empowerment of agency, evading more conventional forms of domination: Foucault within the domain of enabling discourse, Derrida on the open interpretation of the sign's apparent meaning, Barthes on the ‘nature’ of jouissance and the body principle, and Baudrillard on the public toying with their media representation. It is argued that Scottish fan behaviour in Italy was structured by two opposing forms of ‘self-knowledge’, relating to either expressions of violent machismo or instrumentally ambassadorial conduct. The eventual triumph of the latter is most clearly shown through an application of Goffman's conception of ‘impression management’, as the social interaction of Scottish fans with other ‘teams’ in Italy is detailed chronologically. The paper concludes with some recommendations aimed at the relevant authorities, with a view to maximizing the internationalism of Scottish fans at future competitions.
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Although a considerable body of experimental research supports the contention that alcohol facilitates aggression, some investigators have argued that these findings cannot be generalized to actual occurrences of aggression. Moreover, controversy continues concerning whether expectancies supporting alcohol's influence on aggression moderate the relationship. The present study is an event-based examination of the relationship between alcohol consumption, personality characteristics, contextual variables, and the occurrence and severity of male-to-male bar aggression. Men (n=190) who experienced either a physically aggressive episode or an incident of threat in a bar were assessed with respect to stable individual difference factors, such as personality factors, trait anger, and alcohol-aggression expectancies. The participants were also interviewed about the circumstances surrounding the most severe episode of bar aggression or threat that occurred in the past year. Logisitic regression analyses indicated that while alcohol consumption did not predict the occurrence of aggression, heavy alcohol consumption by the participant and the opponent was associated with aggression severity and physical harm, and that this relationship was present after controlling for personality and situational factors. The belief that alcohol was a cause of aggression was associated with the occurrence of aggression, but it was not related to severity or harm, and did not appear to moderate the alcohol-aggression relationship. These results suggest that alcohol expectancies may facilitate the occurrence of aggression. However, the results also support the contention that alcohol use may contribute to the severity of aggression occuring in bar contexts. Aggr. Behav. 29:346–365, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc..
Article
It has been claimed that the rational choice perspective, which sees criminal behavior as the outcome of decisions and choices made by the offender, can provide a useful framework for analyzing crime control policies. By developing the concept of “choice-structuring properties,” which refers to the constellation of opportunities, costs, and benefits attaching to particular kinds of crime, this paper attempts to develop rational choice theory in order to improve analysis of crime displacement—a concept frequently invoked by the critics of opportunity-reducing measures of crime prevention.
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Alcohol consumption increases aggression, but only in some drinkers. This study examines how expectancies for alcohol-induced aggression and dispositional aggression moderate the link between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related violence, building on previous studies that have employed limited measures of alcohol-related violence and included few women. A sample of 212 men and women reported their alcohol consumption, alcohol-aggression expectancies, dispositional aggression, and incidents of alcohol-related aggressive acts. Alcohol-aggression expectancies and quantity of alcohol consumed interacted to predict alcohol-related aggression. Alcohol-aggression expectancies covaried with alcohol-related aggressive acts, particularly in heavier drinkers. Dispositional aggression also correlated with alcohol-related aggression among heavier drinkers. These results help identify that alcohol might increase aggression only among heavy drinkers who expect alcohol to increase aggression or who are dispositionally aggressive. Aggr. Behav. 32:517–527, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The non-parametric Mann–Whitney (MW) statistical test for assessing the significance of a shift in median or mean requires a tested series to be serially independent. However, hydrological time series such as water quality, streamflow, and others may frequently display serial correlation. In such cases, the existence of serial correlation might alter the ability of the test to detect a shift in mean. This study investigates this issue by means of the Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation results indicate that: (i) when there is no shift or a moderate shift in mean, the existence of positive serial correlation will increase the possibility to reject the null hypothesis of no shift while it might be true; and the existence of negative serial correlation will reduce the possibility to detect a shift; (ii) when a bigger shift occurs in a time series, for a series with smaller sample size, the influence of serial correlation on the test is similar to that in (i), but it is much less than that in (i); while for a series with larger sample size, the influence of serial correlation on the test is opposite to (i), i.e., positive serial correlation reduces the power of the test for detecting a shift while negative serial correlation slightly increases the power of the test for identifying a shift; and (iii) removal of serial correlation by pre-whitening can effectively remove the serial correlation and eliminate the influence of the serial correlation on the test.
Article
The current study set to examine whether there are inter-generational and gender-based differences between family members self-assessing their ability to drive under normal conditions and while under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. Participants were 135 young-adults and both their parents, consisting 45 family triads, who received self-assessment questionnaires relating to their driving skills in various road scenarios. Each family triad was randomly assigned to one of three groups: either requested to base the assessments on normal driving conditions, or under the influence of either drugs or alcohol, thus forming a control group, and two experimental groups (alcohol and drugs), respectively. The findings indicate the assessments of both the alcohol and drugs groups were more severe than those of the control group. The alcohol group assessments were less strict than the drug group assessment (non-significantly). Inter-generational differences indicated that the parents' driving-skills assessments were lower than those of their offspring, corresponding with previous findings (Elkind, 1967; Finn and Bragg, 1986). A significant within-subject interaction has been found between the respondent's gender and familial relations regarding the self-assessment of driving skills: male respondents assessed better driving skills compared to the self estimates of both parents (which did not significantly differ). In contrast, female respondents' estimates did not differ from their fathers' and both fathers' and daughters' estimates were significantly higher than that of the mothers in each family.
Article
Let $x$ and $y$ be two random variables with continuous cumulative distribution functions $f$ and $g$. A statistic $U$ depending on the relative ranks of the $x$'s and $y$'s is proposed for testing the hypothesis $f = g$. Wilcoxon proposed an equivalent test in the Biometrics Bulletin, December, 1945, but gave only a few points of the distribution of his statistic. Under the hypothesis $f = g$ the probability of obtaining a given $U$ in a sample of $n x's$ and $m y's$ is the solution of a certain recurrence relation involving $n$ and $m$. Using this recurrence relation tables have been computed giving the probability of $U$ for samples up to $n = m = 8$. At this point the distribution is almost normal. From the recurrence relation explicit expressions for the mean, variance, and fourth moment are obtained. The 2rth moment is shown to have a certain form which enabled us to prove that the limit distribution is normal if $m, n$ go to infinity in any arbitrary manner. The test is shown to be consistent with respect to the class of alternatives $f(x) > g(x)$ for every $x$.