ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Plant extracts in water or chemical solvents; crude oil, essential oils and other allelochemicals of several plant species were tested at the laboratory as contact poison and/or fumigant. Most of them acted as repellent to insects and mites. Toxicity effect was dose-dependent and varied as per plant species and organism tested. In some instances, plant-derived products causing mortality were less effective than synthetic pesticides. However, considering possible environmental contamination of synthetics and the eventual toxicity to non-target organisms, plant-derived products against household and structural pests have been recommended by researchers. The major pest species with mode of actions of plant products and integrated strategies for effective, practical and ecofriendly pest control are discussed throughout this review.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Copyright © 2017 Ruparao T. Gahukar. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which
permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 6 (2) (2017) 22-28
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
doi: 10.14419/ijbas.v6i2.7483
Research paper
Use of plant-derived products to control household and
structural arthropod pests
Ruparao T. Gahukar *
Arag Biotech Pvt. Ltd., Plot 220, Reshimbag, Nagpur 440 009, India
*Corresponding author E-mail:
Plant extracts in water or chemical solvents; crude oil, essential oils and other allelochemicals of several plant species were tested at the
laboratory as contact poison and/or fumigant. Most of them acted as repellent to insects and mites. Toxicity effect was dose-dependent and
varied as per plant species and organism tested. In some instances, plant-derived products causing mortality were less effective than
synthetic pesticides. However, considering possible environmental contamination of synthetics and the eventual toxicity to non-target
organisms, plant-derived products against household and structural pests have been recommended by researchers. The major pest species
with mode of actions of plant products and integrated strategies for effective, practical and ecofriendly pest control are discussed throughout
this review.
Keywords: Allelochemicals; Insects; Mites; Plant Extracts; Mode of Action; Household and Structural Pests.
1. Introduction
Household insect pests are important in dwellings, particularly in
urban areas [1]. Currently, these insects are controlled mostly by
sprays and aerosols containing chemical insecticides such as,
abamectin, fipronil, indoxacarb, imidacloprid, chlorpyriphos,
propoxur and chlorfenapyr. Other formulations found in the market
include gel, powder, dust, paste and pellets. Structural pests are
controlled with oil paints or coating of pesticides at very low
concentrations. Few commercial products with low toxic contents
have also been promoted by private companies such as, killer bait
gel of hydramethylnon (2.15%) used in sticky traps [2]. Generally,
the chemical application in residences can be quite hazardous to
human health due to contact toxicity, fumigant action and
environmental pollution. Therefore, consumer’s preference
paradigm is nowadays shifting from toxic chemicals to natural
products. Nevertheless, fewer toxic chemicals such as, pyrethrins,
silica gel, boric acid and hydramethylnon have been generally
recommended for quick effects,
Concerning effectiveness, most of the chemicals do not provide
long-term control of certain pests. For example, cockroaches taste
food before eating and avoid chemically-treated products. In
perspective, alternative measures have therefore been developed
and applied with varied degrees of control. Baiting and trapping are
successful only on a limited scale because if dust in baits gets wet
and then dries and cakes, it loses its electrostatic charge and may
not be picked up readily by insects. Pheromone traps can facilitate
monitoring the presence and incidence, particularly in hiding sites,
of the pest species. Essential oils (EOs) as green pesticides being
effective and economically profitable could be used against
household and structural pests [3-5]. The common EOs
experimented in laboratory are shown in Table 1. As such, it is often
advised to restrict to biodegradable, residue-free pesticides that are
safe for applicators and residents alike. Currently, published
information on chemical-free treatments is limited and not easily
available. To fill in this gap, I have compiled literature (2000-2016)
and discussed in this review, the use of plant-derived products
against important household and structural insect and mite pests
with perspective of choice for potential products.
Table 1: Essential Oils Used Against Household and Structural
Pests in Laboratory
Essential Pest species Essential oil Mode of Reference
oil used as action
Citral Perplaneta americana CON, FUM IN, RE [6]
Eugenol P. americana CON IN, RE [6]
Optotermes formosanus CON, FUM AF, IN [26)
Solenopsis invicta CON RE [65]
Geranol P. americana CON, FUM IN, RE [6]
Limonene P. americana CON RE [7]
C. formosamus CON, FUM IN [41]
Methyl Dermatophagoides CON AC [71[
eugenol furvus
AC= acaricide, AF= antifeedant, CON= contact pesticide, FUM=
fumigant, IN= insecticidal, RE= repellent.
2. Control of insects and mites
2.1. Cockroaches (Blattodea)
2.1.1. American cockroach
In control of American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L.
(Blattidae), mint/mentha (Mentha spicata L.) oil containing
terpenoids, terpenes and phenols (especially, citral, citronellal,
gernaniol and eugenol) exerted both repellent and insecticidal
activities through fumigant and contact actions when applied to
paper at 250 g oil/g [6]. Citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco) oil
containing limonene repelled adults up to 98%. However, when it
was mixed at 10% with soybean oil, repellency was reduced to 86%
[7]. It means soybean oil can act as antagonist. Both oils were toxic
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
to oothecae with 96.7% egg mortality when mixed with onion
(Allium cepa L.) 5% extract in water [8]. In another experiment,
10% clove oil exhibited 90% and 100% repellency against nymphs
and adults, respectively [9]. When used as fumigant at 7.5 ul/l, 10
ul/l and 8.2 ul/l of air against first instar nymphs, fourth instar
nymphs and adults, respectively, it resulted in 100% mortality [10].
Clove oil has also been found stronger surface contact toxic with
LC50 of 0.0001-0.0077 ul/cm2 than rosemary (Rosmarinus
officinalis L.) oil with LC50 of 1.92-2.25 ul/cm2. In this experiment,
first instar nymphs were more sensitive than the fourth instar
nymphs followed by adults. Consequently, LT50 values in
continuous exposure test correlated negatively with concentration
A dose of 10,000-80,000 ppm (1-8%) of essential oil of Piper
aduncum L. deterred only nymphs [12] whereas oil of C. citratus
gave 100% repellency to adults after 24 h of application [13].
Among three local plants from Thailand (clove, lemon grass and
Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle), essential oils extracted from
lemon grass in ethyl alcohol and mixed in soybean oil gave 100%
repellency, and this mixture had been recommended as contact
poison by Sittichok et al. [9]. Insect growth regulatory (IGR) effects
were observed with Azadirachtin (AZ, a limonoid from neem) and
two other allelochemicals, e.g. quassin (a triterpenoid from Quassia
amara (L.), and cinnamaldehyde (an organic compound from
Cinnamomum cassia [Nees & Nees) Presl.]. These studies
demonstrated that physiological effects of these allelochemicals do
not ease the primary insecticidal actions [14]. Mode of action of
these two products however needs further studies as they can rather
act as repellent only. Conclusively, crude oil (lemon grass, citrus or
clove) or essential oils when mixed with vegetable oil (sesame or
soybean) were more effective than when used alone. To be cost-
effective, water extract (5%) should be recommended as it is easy
to prepare and apply to structures and places where cockroaches
take shelter.
2.1.2. German cockroach
Against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.)
(Blattelidae), nearly 80% repellency of acetone extract of catnip
(Nepeta concolor Boiss. & Heldr. ex Benth,) at 900 ug/cm2[15] or
osage orange [Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid] at 157 ug/cm2 [16]
was demonstrated. Ethanol and petroleum ether extract of leaves or
fruits of the American pepper (Schimus molle L.) when applied
topically, adults were not only repelled but later, they were killed
[17]. Likewise, crude aqueous extract or acetone extract of pandan
leaves initially attracted nymphs but later the repellency was as high
as 93% due to musky odor emitted by aromatic compound 2-acetyl-
1-pyrroline present in leaves [18].
Sittichok et al. [19] tested EO of eight plants at 0.24 ul/cm2 of filter
paper and noted knock-down effect an hour after treatment and
complete mortality after 24 h. The most effective oil was extracted
from mint (Mentha piperita L.) with LT50 values of 4.17 h. On the
contrary, essential oils from Myristica fragrans Houtt. Seeds
exerted fumigant action resulting in 35-72% mortality [20]. Thus,
both adults and nymphs were effectively controlled with EO (1,8-
cineole) which was significantly better in bioefficacy than other 11
essential oils. However, any of the EO tested did not prevent
hatching of oothecae. Consequently, multiple applications have
been recommended in order to eliminate recurrent infestations [21].
Among hundred plants from family Myrtaceae tested for toxicity,
EOs of six species of Eucalyptus and Melaleuca uncinate Br.
exhibited strong fumigant action with 100% mortality in male
adults whereas EO of five species of genus Eucalyptus, M. uncinata
and Melaleuca dissitiflora Muell., were toxic to both male and
female adults. Also, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with
LC50 value of 0.22 mg/ml was reported with isoeugenol [22].
Likewise, essential oil of Eucalyptus robusta Sm. or Illicium verum
Hook. leaves, both applied at 5 ppm, and nut grass (Cyperus
rotundus L.) at 1 ppm repelled nymphs. On the contrary, essential
oils of I. verum and Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm. were found
attractive at 1 ppm [23]. Essential oils extracted from osage orange
fruit (raw/ripe) acted as repellent because of content of two
isoflavones (osajin, pomiferin), seven ses-terpenoids
(elemol/hedycaryol, alpha-copaene, alpha-cubebene, beta-elemene,
beta-carpophyllene, alpha-ylangene/valencene, (Z, E)-farnesol) and
a green volatile compound (hexyl hexanoate) [24]. In a test of five
plants [Allium sativum L., Thymus vulgaris (L.), Oregano dubium
(L.), onion and rosemary], only EO from A. sativum at 5 ul/l air
caused 95% mortality within 48 h [25]. All oils besides their strong
repellent action, were toxic and exerted IGR effects resulting in pest
Contact toxicity of (E)-anethole isolated from I. verum fruit was
evident to 80% mortality in adults caused at the dose of 0.159
mg/cm2 on the first day-after application. It also acted as a fumigant
causing 100% mortality at 0.398 mg/cm2 making this treatment
more effective up to 3 d compared to 2 d for deltamethrin [26]. A
monoterpenoid allyl isothiocyanate isolated from horse-radish
(Armoracia rusticana Gaetn., Mey. & Schreb.) exhibited fumigant
action resulting in 100% mortality at a dose of 2.5 ul/l of air within
18 h whereas other monoterpenoids (eugenol, carvacrol, citronella)
did not affect pest survival [25]. Unfortunately, these studies were
not continued to know the physiological changes that may take
place in insect body.
In topical application of 12 essential oils applied at a dose of 0.04-
0.06 mg/insect, thymol was found most toxic to adult males, gravid
females and medium nymphs with LD50 values of 0.07, 0.12 and
0.06 mg/cockroach, respectively. On the contrary, trans-
cinnamaldehyde was the most toxic component to adult females,
and small and large nymphs. In another dose-dependent assay, (-)
menthone had the greatest effect on hatching of oothecae with 20.89
nymphs/ootheca compared to 35.21 nymphs/ootheca in control
[27]. In overall performance, not a single essential oil completely
prevented hatching. In an assay on nut grass rhizome steam
distillate constituents and related compounds against female adults,
they were effective in closed but not in open containers. Using
video-tracking system, Alzogaray et al. [28] 0bserved that
monoterpenes at 70 ug/cm2produced repellent action but were less
effective than N,N-dimethyl-3-methylbenzamide indicating its low
bioefficacy. Therefore, essential oils with contact and fumigant
activity, particularly, against insecticide-resistant strains, could be
recommended to reduce highly toxic synthetic pesticides in indoor
environments [29].
As a practical solution, following measures were effective against
cockroaches. For example, raw or stewed okra fruits placed under
water sink attract cockroaches that can be killed with chemicals.
Likewise, bait containing a mixture of citrus pulp + brown sugar +
corn meal + boric acid is effective in “attract and kill technique”
[30]. Four plants (5% extract in water) from Nigeria, viz. neem
(Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), Parquetina nigrescens (Afzel)
Bullock, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) and clove, were
tested as powder mixed with biscuit at 25-100%. Feeding on
biscuits (1.5 g/6 adults) resulted in 85-100% mortality in 2 d in P.
americana adults. [31]. Similarly, Stauffer [30] suggested spraying
of rosemary or eucalyptus oil at a conc. of 18 ml/l or spreading
crushed leaves of laurel/sweet bay (Laurus nobilis L.) on floor
surface, to repel cockroaches by strong odor. Application of EOs
(20%) derived from kaffir lime, Citrus hystrix DC. exhibited cent
per cent repellency against both American and German cockroaches
resulting in up to 86% reduction in pest populations in residences
in Thailand [32]. Recently, potassium alum has been used as
controlling agent against P. americana in the laboratory [33].
Nymphs and adults died (100% mortality) 4-d and 1-mo
respectively, after consuming alum (nymphs 0.3 mg, adult male 1
mg, adult female 2.7 mg). Gravid females are highly susceptible.
Alum is cheap and available locally, even in villages, and can be
suggested for its use as curative measure.
2.1.3. Asian cockroach
Adult populations of the Asian or flying cockroach Blattella
asahinai Mizukubo (Blattellidae) were reduced up to 68% at 7 d
after treatment with essential oil-based emulsifiable concentrate
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
(EC) formulation, but control diminished to only 2% by 30 d
whereas beta cyfluthrin EC or fipronil granules killed cent per cent
pest population at 7d or 30 d, respectively in the USA [34]. In a
comparison of five mulches, there was little preference of B.
asahinai to cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. Therefore,
cypress mulch around home may help to reduce pest populations
and limit insecticide exposure to humans and animals [35].
2.1.4. Implications for cockroach management
Essential oils, plant extracts in water or chemical, and crude oil
when used through oral, topical or vapor rotes, were found less
effective than synthetic pesticides as contact poison and/or
fumigant. Thus, for an alternative to chemicals, a combination of
sanitation with traps or granular baits seems to be effective and
economic and may be recommended for practical application in
residences. All compounds extracted from plants gave reasonable
control but in most of the cases, comparative mortality was not
studied. Further, plant products, particularly water extracts are easy
to prepare, cheap due to round the year-availability of local plant
material, and should be recommended in place of two common
insecticides (dichlorvos, deltamethrin). Use of alum needs further
investigation for side effects. In all treatments, early instar nymphs
would be targeted for effective control.
2.2. Termites (Isoptera)
2.2.1. Formosan subterranean termite
Among chemicals, an IGR hexaflumuron (550-900 mg in bait
tubes) [36] or a semisynthetic agent avermectin (3% dust) (20-30 g
in monitor devices) [37] eliminated completely the termites from
the infesting sites. When 32 extracts, each at 2000 ppm (0.2%) in
hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone or methanol of leaves of eight plant
species were compared for the control of Formosan subterranean
termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) (Rhinotermitidae),
highest mortality of 90% was achieved 24 h after treatment with
hexane extracts of Aristolchia bracteolate Lam., ethyl acetate
extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees,
Datura metel L. and Eclipta prostrata (L.) or methanol extract of
Andrographis lineata Nees and D. metel [38]. Among leaf extracts
and extract derivatives of a Taiwanese plant, Calocedrus
macrolepis var. formosana (Florin) Florin, only T-muurolol caused
100% mortality at 5 mg/g wood after 14 d with LC50 value of 27.6
mg/g [39].
Blaske and Horst [40] studied repellent action by orientation and
avoidance behavior, and toxic effects by contact and fumigation
actions of plant extracts. In no-choice test, pest mortality did not
occur but termites were effectively prevented from penetrating
treated soil. The eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.)
leaf oil exhibited both contact and fumigant actions with LC50 value
of 12.68-17.50 mg/g. Oil extracted from citrus peel (containing
92% d-liminene) applied at 0.4% caused 96% mortality within 5
days [41]. Similarly, catnip oil (containing E-Z-nepetalactone and
Z, E-nepetalactone) at 40 mg/cm2 caused 100% mortality one day
after application. At a lower dose of 20 mg/cm2 of E-Z-
nepetalactone, only repellent activity was observed [42]. These
examples showed that higher doses of oil are needed for effective
pest control.
Essential oils (cedrol, L-cardinol) isolated from heartwood of a
Taiwanese plant (Taiwana cryptomerioides Hayata) exhibited a
maximum antitermitic activity with 100% mortality at a dose of 10
mg/g wood [43]. Between 100 essential oils, each applied at 10
mg/g wood, those extracted from three coniferous plants [e.g. C. m.
formosana, Cryptomeria japonica (Thunberg) Don, and
Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana (Hayata], acted as repellent
and gave the cent per cent mortality after 5 d of application. The
best treatment was EOs of C. m. formosana with LC50 value of 2.6
mg/g [44]. From eight essential oils, clove oil at 50 ug/cm2 were
most toxic whereas the oil extracted from vetiver, Chrysopogan
zizanioides (L.) Roberty acted as repellent only at 5ug/g sand, and
prevented tunneling at a higher dose of 25ug/g sand [45]. Thus,
essential oils repelled insects just after application and were toxic
in a few days later.
Two phytochemicals (B-cymene and terpinene) derived from
eucalyptus leaf oil, showed both contact and fumigant actions
whereas 1, 8-cineole acted only as fumigant [46] whereas
cinnamaldehyde extracted from Cinnamomum osmophloeum
Kaneh. showed comparatively strongest toxicity at 1 mg/g wood;
eugenol and L-terpineol being least effective at the same dose [26].
Boue and Raina [47] studied the effects of oral feeding and topical
application on the fecundity, mortality and food consumption in
relation to flavonoids of five plants. In these tests, apigenin and
biochanin-A fed at 50 ug per reproductive pair proved most toxic.
Further, both compounds at 100 ug reduced fecundity and
biochanin-A did not elicit phagostimulant activity for adult termites
[47]. Mao and Henderson [48] reported antifeedant activity and
acute and residual toxicity of alkaloids (matrine and oxymatrine)
extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait. With filter paper
consumption bioassay, Fokialakis et al. [49] reported that eight
thiophenes isolated from five species of genus Echinops gave 100%
mortality within 9 d when applied at 2% conc. These findings
showed superiority of essential oils over extracts and crude oil.
2.2.2. Eastern subterranean termite
Chloroform extracts of dry leaves of Lantana camara L. Applied at
0.016 mg/cm2 of filter paper or 0.125 mg/g of sand, exhibited
excellent repellent, moderate toxic and antifeedant activities against
the Eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)
(Rhinotermitidae). Higher dose at 0.212 mg/cm2 on filter paper
resulted in >90% mortality and up to 78% reduction in feeding
whereas topical application (4 ug/termite) resulted in a maximum
of 60% mortality. Thus, filter paper treatment showed superiority
over other methods [50]. More trials may be necessary for practical
application in houses. The eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana
L.) oil extracted from heart wood, and ethanol extracts of needles
proved lethal and prevented termites from damaging wood [51].
Heartwood was more resistant than sapwood due to presence of
essential oils and other allelochemicals. Therefore, there was less
pest infestation ((2.1-6.1% versus 44.6%) and termite survival
(<24% versus >84%) in cedar wood than in susceptible pine wood
2.2.3. Building termite
Leaf extracts (5%) of L. camara in chloroform gave up to 68%
mortality 48 h after application of the building termite,
Microcerotermes beesoni Snyder (Termitidae), and extract of
Ageratum conyzoides L. leaves in petroleum ether or hexane
showed 67% repellency [53]. Further, Kaur and Rawat [54]
evaluated extracts in water or chemicals of leaves of six plants,
seeds of two plants and root of one plant and finally. They
recommended the leaf extracts (0.1%) in petroleum ether of L.
camera; ethanol extracts (0.1%) of Murraya keonigii (L.) Spreng.
Or methanol extract (0.1%) of cassia, Senna (Cassia) occidentalis
(L.) Link. These treatments caused 100% pest mortality within 24
h of application. Similarly, essential oil extracted from M. fragrans
gave 100% mortality 14 d after treatment at a dose of 5 mg/g wood
with LC50 of 28.6 mg/g [55]. Extract in water is comparatively
cheaper than chemicals and easy to prepare with readily available
local materials. For example, L. camara is a weed abundantly found
in village surroundings, fallow lands, field bunds and roadside, its
extract may therefore be suggested.
In India, Lakshmanan [56] found potential in controlling building
termite by spraying water extract (>10%) of Euphorbia
clavarioides Boiss. var. truncata (N.E.Br.) White, Dyer & Sloane,
Aloe lateritia var. germinicola (Reynolds), Melia azedarach L.,
Lippia javanica (Burm. f.) Spreng or Ocimum sanctum L., and
neem oil (NO) mixed in kerosene. Moreover, 20% crude oil of
jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) reduced greater weight loss in treated
wood (18.8-48.8% compared to oil fractions with 10.5-35.2% loss)
or untreated wood (50.8% loss) [57].
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
2.2.4. Asian subterranean termite
Defatted NO at 7.5% was better than AZ (91% purity) as
antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, IGR or contact poison against the
Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann
(Rhinotermitidae) [58]. Bark powder extracts in ethyl acetate of
Rhizophora apiculata Blume showed toxic activity due to presence
of aromatic carboxylic acids and phenols [59].
2.2.5. Egyptian subterranean termite
In the Middle East, the Egyptian subterranean termite,
Anacanthotermes ochraceus (Burm.) (Hodotermitidae) was
managed by spraying wooden structures with an aqueous extract of
four Saharan toxic plants but only (Willd.) Ait. extract in water
resulted in a significantly higher pest mortality (maximum of 50%)
than with other plants (Hyoscyamus muticus L., Pergularia
tomentosa .and Datura stramonium L.) [60]. Comparatively,
imported wood was resistant to pest attack. Therefore, isolation and
characterization of allelochemicals and their use as repellent or
antifeedant may lead to improvement in current pest control [61].
2.2.6. Implications for termite management
Subterranean termites are a problem in developing, and less-
developed countries where houses are constructed with local
material (bamboo, plant stalks, crop residue). Considering easy
availability of commercial products in the market, crude oil of
neem, jatropha, eucalyptus and jatropha can be a suitable remedy.
For example, water extracts (especially of neem and lantana), crude
oil and essential oils were found effective against majority of
termite species in India [62]. Most of these products showed various
modes of action such as, antifeedant, repellent, IGR and toxic. New
plant-derived products include coconut shell oil. Its coating reduced
termite infestation from 100% in untreated wood to 34.2% in
treated wood, and protected wood up to 18 mon [63]. Furthermore,
pine (Pinus sp.) resin derivatives (diterpene acids) helped to reduce
termite damage [64]. Thus, coconut shell oil and resin can be
effectively used as protectant (preventive coating) against termites.
After evaluating marketed formulations and crude preparations,
preference should be given to products based on the indigenous
plant species which are readily available in plenty.
2.3. Ants (Hymenoptera)
Not much research has been undertaken on ant control since they
are easily managed by boric acid, silica aerogel, aerosol sprays, and
diatomaceous dusts or NO sprays. In the digging bioassay, Chen
[65] observed that a commercial product containing essential oil
when applied to send at 100 mg/kg, it was repellent to adults of the
red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae).
Among compounds tested by Chen [65], eugenol, menthol and
methyl salicylate were significantly more effective than camphor
and eucalyptol (all applied at 10 mg/kg of sand). These essential
oils may be further studied for sand application to prevent ant entry
into house premises and can be considered as preventive measure.
2.4. Silverfish (Thysanura)
In the laboratory, essential oils of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don
leaves (containing elenol, 16-kaurene, 3-carene and other
compounds) exhibited 80% repellency to common silverfish or fish
moth, Lepisma saccharina Linn. (Lepismidae), at a dose of 0.01
mg/cm2and 100% mortality at 0.16 mg/cm2 within 10 h of
application [66]. In residences, essential oils (myrtenol, myrtenal,
alpha-pinene) extracted from the Formosan cypress plant,
Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum sprayed in the air at 0.16
mg/cm3 space completely killed the pest within 8 h of application
[67]. Sprays of EO on surface or in air would be appropriate for
effective pest control.
2.5. Psocids (Psocoptera)
Essential oil of Cupressus funebris Endl. or Eucalyptus citriodora
at low dose of 10 ppm showed repellent effect to common psocid
or book lice, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnet (Liposcelidae)
and was toxic when used at high dose of 20 ppm for fumigation.
Action was enhanced significantly when EO were combined with
12% CO2 + 9% O2 or balanced N2[68]. Between 28 compounds of
essential oil extracted from Kaempferia galanga., only trans-
cinnamaldehyde exerted contact, fumigant and repellent actions
[69]. Extraction of essential oils is costly, crude oils may therefore
be tested at least for repellency.
Wheat germ and wheat germ oil attract psocids which could be
killed with chemical pesticides [70]. This is a practical solution to
pest infestation problem in residences and can be recommended
while taking proper precautions for pesticide application.
2.6. House dust mites (Acarina)
Acaricidal activity of oil extracted from the clove buds [71], neem
or lemon grass [72] has been reported. According to Kim et al. [71],
the most effective constituent for contact toxicity is methyl eugenol
at a dose of 0.94 ug/cm2 and 0.67 ug/cm2 against the European
house dust mite Dermatophagoides farina Huges (Pyroglyphidae)
and the American house dust mite, Dermatophagoides
pteronyssinus (Trouessart) (Pyroglyphidae), respectively.
Application of eugenol, acetyl eugenol, isoeugenol or methyl
eugenol was effective as fumigant against both mite species and
resulted in higher pest mortality than chemical DEET at 17.85
ug/cm2 [71]. Traditionally, eucalyptus oil is used to prevent pest
infestation. More research is needed to verify bioefficacy of
3. Looking ahead
!1) Salehzadelia and Mahjub [73] reported antagonistic effect of AZ
mixed with pyrethroids (0.5% cyfluthrin 10WP or 0.1% permethrin
25WP) against German cockroach. This is possible since these
products belong to different groups of pesticides with different
modes of action. Further, antagonistic effect might be due to
competition for same site or some conformational changes in target
sites or receptors. Extensive studies are therefore needed to confirm
these findings to include in pest management strategy. Research on
structure activity relationship would reveal why some essential oils
are toxic and other are not toxic. Similarly, laboratory findings are
to be put in practice for effective pest control by undertaking
extension activity.
(2) Regulation to harmonize the overall arrangement for
authorization of plant products differs in each country and the
legislation for execution of rules is under different ministries.
Generally, the list of active substances is regularly published by the
competent authority. Also, bulletins and gazettes are available with
international organizations [74]. In fewer developed and
developing countries, standardizations for the content of active
ingredients in crude extracts or commercial products are not often
followed probably because laboratory facilities are inadequate or
non-existing, and procedure is expensive [75]. This aspect is
important as the content varies considerably as per ago-climatic
zones, collection and processing of raw material and methods of
extraction [76]. For marketing, similar official procedure is
imposed for registration and for granting license for synthetic
pesticides and plant products. Plant products are labelled with green
sign or category IV of the pesticides. Therefore, information
provided in this paper is essentially scientific or technical in nature
and cannot be used without complying current regulations and
respecting procedure for any treatment in houses.
(3) Operators sometimes mix locally available products as
synergists or adjuvants (particularly kerosene, medicinal herbs) in
spray tank and apply against pests and unregistered plant products
are used illegally and their use results in partial pest control [75].
Not wearing of protective clothing is another reason for chronic
exposure to plant products. Information on category of toxicity,
expiry date, antidotes in case of accidental poisoning etc. is clearly
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
given on the container label and product leaflet [77]. Whenever
sprays containing essential oils are used, inhalation can be
problematic for human health. Precautions should therefore be
advocated during such applications in houses or surroundings.
Otherwise, accidental poisoning occurs particularly when operators
are not well trained or not fully aware of operations to be carried
out. For example, ingestion of unrefined NO [78], purified
terpenoid constituents of essential oil [3] or AZ [79] can cause
moderate poisoning or mammalian toxicity. Human and animal
studies showed that unprocessed material (seed oil, aqueous
extracts) are less toxic than non-aqueous extracts and can be applied
inside residences with proper care [80]. Essential oils gave
promising results but ready-to-use formulations are needed to make
them easily available to applicators.
(4) Since NO is commonly used in medical and cosmetic products,
it is stored inside houses where hand to mouth exposure can pose
health problems. In fact, NO is likely to be carcinogenic and causes
toxic encephalopathy [81]. On the contrary, cold-pressed neem oil
(CPNO) is comparatively safe to humans, predators and parasitoids
of insects, honey bees and other pollinators except it is slightly toxic
to aquatic organisms in laboratory, and honey bees have been
reported to avoid food that contains >100 ppm of CPNO [82], and
its “indoor use” have been approved by EPA in the USA [82]; it can
therefore be recommended in other countries against household and
structural pests.
I am greatly thankful to my colleagues for reviewing the manuscript
and suggesting certain modifications on toxicity data.
[1] W.H. Robinson, Urban insects and arachnids: A handbook of urban
entomology. Cambridge University Press London, UK, 2005.
[2] C. Wang, G.W. Bennett, Comparative study of integrated pest
management and baiting for German cockroach management in
public housing. Journal of Economic Entomology 99 (2006) 879-
[3] M.B. Isman, Plant essential oils for pest and disease management.
Crop Protection 19 (2000) 603-608.
[4] O. Koul, S. Walia, G.S. Dhaliwal, Essential oils as green pesticides:
Potential and constraints. Biopesticides Internatonal 4 (2008) 63-84.
[5] C. Regnault-Roger, C. Vincent, J.T. Arnason, Essential oils in insect
control: low-risk products in a high-stakes world. Annual Review of
Entomology 57 (2012) 405-424.
[6] A.G. Appel, M.J. Gehret, M.J. Tanley, Repellency and toxicity of
mint oil to American and German cockroaches (Dictyoptera:
Blattidae and Blattellidae). Journal of Agriculture and Urban
Entomology 18 (2001) 149-156.
[7] C. Yoon, S.H. Kang, J.O. Yang, D.J. Noh, I. Pandiyan, G.H. Kim,
Repellent activity of citrus oils against cockroaches, Blattella
germanica, Periplaneta americana and P. fuliginosa. Journal of
Pesticide Science 34(2) (2009) 77-80.
[8] K.S. Sittichok, M. Soowera, Repellent activity and oothecal toxicity
of eight herbal essential oils against American cockroach,
Periplaneta americana L., Blattidae: Blattodea). Proceedings of the
51stKasetsart University Annual Conference, 5-7 Feb. 2013,
Bangkok, Thailand, 2013.
[9] K.S. Sittichok, W. Phaysa, M. Soowera, Repellency activity of
essential oil of Thai local plants against American cockroach
(Periplaneta americana L., Blattidae: Blattodea). Journal of
Agricultural Technology 9 (2013) 1613-1626.
[10] S.M. Omara, K.M. Al-Ghamdi, M.A.M. Mahmood, S.E. Sharawi,
Repellency and fumigant toxicity of clove and sesame oils against
American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.). African Journal of
Biotechnology 12 (2013) 963-970.
[11] S.E. Sharawi, S.M. Abd-Alla, S.M. Omara, K.M. Al-Ghamdi,
Surface contact toxicity of clove and rosemary oils against American
cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.). African Entomology
21(2013) 324-332.
[12] A.L.Ling, Sulaiman, H. Othman, Evaluation of Piper aduncum Linn.
essential oil (Family: Piperaceae) against Periplaneta americana (L.)
Iranian Journal of Arthropod- borne Diseases 3(2) (2009) 1-6.
[13] F. Manzoor, N. Munir, A. Amdreen, S. Naz, Efficacy of some
essential oils against American cockroach, Periplaneta
americana(L.). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6 (2012) 1065-
[14] W. Hertel, P.J. Muller, Physiological effects of the natural products
quassin, cinnamaldehyde and azadirachtin on Periplaneta americana
(L.). Journal of Applied Entomology 130 (2006) 323-328.
[15] C.I. Peterson, L.T. Nemetz, L.M. Jones, J.R. Coats, Behavioral
activity of catnip (Lamiaceae) essential oil components to the
German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic
Entomology 95 (2010) 377-380.
[16] G. Schultz, C. Peterson, J. Coats, Natural insect repellents: activity
against mosquitoes and cockroaches. Natural products for pest
management ACS symposium series no. 927, American Chemical
Society, Washington, DC, USA, 2006, 168-180.
[17] A.A. Ferrero, C.S. Chopa, J.O.W. Gonzalez, R.A. Alzogaray,
Repellence and toxicity of Schimus molle extracts on
Blattellagermanica.Fitoterapia7 (2007) 311-314.
[18] J. Li, S.H. Ho, Pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) as a
natural cockroach repellent. Proceedings of 9th Natural
undergraduate research opportunities program, National University
of Singapore, Singapore, 2003.
[19] K.S. Sittichok, M. Soowera, R. Dandong, Toxicity activity of herbal
essential oils against German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.,
Blattellidae). Journal of Agricultural Technology 9 (2013) 1607-
[20] W.C. Jung, Y.S. Jang, T.T. Hieu, C.K. Lee, Y.J. Ahn, Toxicity of
Myristica fragrans seed compounds against Blattella germanica
(Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 44
(2007) 524-529.
[21] A.K. Phillips, A.H. Appel, Fumigant activity of essential oils to the
German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic
Entomology 103 (2010) 781-790.
[22] H.J. Yeom, J. Kang, S.W. Kim, I.K. Park, Fumigant and contact
toxicity of Myrtaceae plant essential oils and blends for their
constituents against adults of German cockroach (Blattella
germanica) and their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 107 (2013) 200-206.
[23] Z.L. Liu, M. Yu, X.M. Li, T. Wan T, S.S. Chu, Repellent activity of
eight essential oils of Chinese medicinal herbs to Blattella germanica
L. Records of Natural Products5 (2011) 176-183.
[24] C.I. Peterson, J. Zhu, J.R. Coats, Identification of components of
osage orange fruit (Maclura pomifera) and their repellency to
German cockroaches. Journal of Essentials Oil Research 14 (2002)
[25] H. Tunaz, M.K. Er, A.A. Isikber, Fumigant toxicity of plant essential
oils and selected monoterpenoid components against the adult
German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera:
Blattellidae). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 33 (2009)
[26] S.T. Chang, S.S. Cheng, Antitermitic activity of leaf essential oils
and their constituents from Cinnamomum osmophloem. Journal of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (2002) 1389-1392.
[27] A.K. Phillips, A.H. Appel, S.R. Sims, Topical toxicity of essential
oils to the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of
Economic Entomology 103 (2010) 448-459.
[28] R.A. AlzogarayA. Lucia, E.N. Zerba,.H.M. Masuh, Insecticidal
activity of essential oils from eleven Eucalyptus spp. and two
hybrids: Lethal and sublethal effects of their major components on
Blattella germanica .Journal of Economic Entomology 104 (2011)
595- 600.
[29] K.S. Chang, E.H. Shin, C. Park, Y.J. Ahn, Contact and fumigant
toxicity of Cyperus rotundus steam distillate constituents and related
compounds to insecticide-susceptible and resistant Blattella
germanica. Journal of Medical Entomology 4 (2012) 631-639.
[30] R. Stauffer, Cockroaches, The environmentally friendly pest control,
series no. 1, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension, Las
Vegas, Nevada, USA, 2009.
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
[31] R.F. Ogunleye, Toxicity bioassays of products from different
botanicals against the household pest, Periplaneta americana
(Linnaeus). Journal of Science and Technology 30(2) (2010) 29-35.
[32] U. Thavara, A. Tawatsin, P. Bhakdeenuan, P., Repellent activity of
essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae,
Blattellidae and Blaberidae) in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of
Tropical Medicine and Public Health 38 (2007) 663-673.
[33] E.M. Salama, A novel use for potassium alum as controlling agent
against Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Journal of
Economic Entomology108 (2015) 2620- 2629.
[34] E.T. Snoddy, A.G. Appel, Field and laboratory efficacy of three
insecticides for population management of the Asian cockroach
(Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology l 107
(2014) 326-332.
[35] E.T. Snoddy, A.G. Appel, Mulch preferences of the Asian cockroach
(Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology l106
(2013) 322-326.
[36] M.T. Messenger, N.Y. Su, C. Jusseneder, J.K. Grace, Elimination
and reinvasion studies with Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae) in Louisiana. Journal of Economic Entomology 98
(2005) 916-929.
[37] J. Zhao, Y. Dong, B. Yu, Z. Zhang, J. Mo, Ivermectin dust for the
control of Coptotermes formosanus in residential areas.
Sociobiology 59 (2012) 1365-1373.
[38] G. Elango, A. Abdul Rahman, C. Kamaraj, A. Bhagavan, A.
AbduzZahir, T. Santhoshkumar, S. Marimuthu, K. Velayutham, C.
Jayaseelan, H.V. Kirthi, G. Rajakumar, Efficacy of medicinal plant
extracts against Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes
formosanus. Industrial Crops and Products 36 (2012) 524-530.
[39] S.S. Cheng, C.L. Wu, H.T. Chang, Y.T. Kao, S.T. Chang, Anti-
termitic and antifungal activities of essential oil of Calocendrus
formosana leaf and its composition. Journal of Chemical Ecology 30
(2004) 1957-1967.
[40] V.U. Blaske, H. Horst, Repellent and toxic effects of plant extracts
on subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of
Economic Entomology 94 (2001) 1200- 1208.
[41] A. Raina, J. Bland, M. Doolittle, A. Lax, R. Boopathy, M. Folkins,
Effect of orange oil extract on the Formosan subterranean termite
(Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology100
(2007) 880-885.
[42] K.R. Chauhan, A.K. Raina, Effect of catnip oil and its major
compounds on the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes
formosanus). Biopesticides International 2 (2006) 137-143.
[43] S.T. Chang, S.S. Cheng, S.Y. Wang, Antitermitic activity of essential
oils and components from Taiwan (Taiwania
cryptomerioides).Journal of Chemical Ecology 27 (2001)717-724.
[44] S.S. Cheng, H.T. Chang, C.L. Wu, S.T. Chang, Anti-termitic
activities of essential oils from coniferous trees against Coptotermes
formosanus. Bioresource Technology 98 (2007) 456-459.
[45] B.C.R. Zhu, G. Henderson, F. Chen, H.X. Fei, R. Laine, Evaluation
of vetiver oil and seven insect-active essential oils against the
Formosan subterranean termite. Journal of Chemical Ecology 27
(2001) 1617-1625.
[46] P. Siramon, Y. Ohtani, H. Ichiura, Biological performance of
Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf oils from Thailand against the
subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Journal of
Wood Science 55 (2009) 41-46.
[47] S.M. Boue, A.K. Raina, Effects of plant flavonoids on fecundity,
survival and feeding of the Formosan subterranean termite. Journal
of Chemical Ecology 29 (2003) 2575-2584.
[48] L. Mao, G. Henderson, Antifeedant activity and acute and residual
toxicity of alkaloids from Sophora flavescens (Leguminosae) against
Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitiade). Journal
of Economic Entomology100 (2007) 866-870.
[49] N. Fokialakis, W.I.A. Osbrink, I.K. Mamonov, N.G. et al., Cantrell,
Antifeedant and toxicity effects of thiopenes from four Echinops
species against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes
formosanus. Pest Management Science 62 (2006) 832-838.
[50] Z. Yuan, X.P. Hu, Repellent, antifeedant and toxic activities of
Lantana camara leaf extract against Reticulitermes flavipes
(Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).Journal of Economic Entomology 105
(2012) 2115-2121.
[51] F.J. Eller, C.A. Clausen, F. Green, S.L. Taylor, Critical fruit
extraction of Juniperus virginiana L. and bioactivity of extracts
against subterranean termites and wood-rot fungi. Industrial Crops
and Products 32 (2010) 481-485.
[52] B. Kard, S. Hiziroglu, M.E. Payton, Resistance of eastern red cedar
panels to damage by subterranean termites (Isoptera:
Rhinotermitidae). Forest Products Journal 57(11) (2007) 74-79.
[53] S.K. Verma, R.K. Verma, K.D. Saxena, Bioefficacy of herbal
extracts against building termite, Microcerotermes beesoni.
Pestology 28(6) (2004) 19-22.
[54] M. Kaur, B.S. Rawat, Antitermitic properties of selected plant
extractives against building infesting termite, Microcerotermes
beesoni Snyder. Pestology37(8) (2013) 11- 14.
[55] M. Pal, R. Kumar, S.K. Tewari, Antitermite activity of essential oil
and its components from Myristica fragrans against
Microcerotermes beesoni. Journal of Applied Sciences and
Environmental Management15 (2002a) 597-599.
[56] K.K. Lakshmanan, Indigenous methods of integrated termite
management. Indian Farmers’ Digest 35(1) (2002) 25-27.
[57] N. Singh, A. Sushilkumar, Anti-termite activity of Jatropha curcas
Linn, biochemicals. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental
Management 12(3) (2008) 67-69..
[58] S.K. Himmi, D. Tarmadi, M. Ismayati, S. Yusuf, Bioefficacy
performance of neem- based formulation on wood protection and soil
barrier against subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann
(Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Proceedings of Environmental Science
17 (2013) 135-141.
[59] H.P.S.A. Khalil, N.H. Kong, M.N. Ahmad, A.H. Bhat, M. Jawaid, S.
Jumat, Selective solvent extraction of the bark of Rhizophora
apiculata as an anti-termite agent against Coptotermes gestroi.
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology 29 (2009) 286-304.
[60] Y. Bourmita, A. Cheriti, M.D. Ould El-hadi, K. Mahmoudi, N.
Belboukhari, Anti- termitic activity of aqueous extracts from
Saharan toxic plants against Anacanthotermes ochraceus. Journal of
Entomology 10 (2013) 207-213.
[61] W. Kaakeh, Survival and feeding responses of Anacanthatermes
ochraceus (Hodotermitidae: Isoptera) to local and imported wood.
Journal of Economic Entomology 98 (2005) 2137-2142.
[62] M. Verma, S. Sharma, R. Prasad, Biological alternatives for termite
control: A review. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation
63 (2009) 959-972.
[63] K.S. Shiny, O.K. Remadevi, Evaluation of termicidal activity of
coconut shell oil and its comparison to commercial wood
preservatives. European Journal of Wood and Wood- Products72
(2014) 139-141.
[64] I. Nunes, T. Nobre, B. Gigante, A.M. Silva, Toxicity of pine resin
derivatives in subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).
Management of Environmental Quality 15 (2004) 521-528.
[65] J. Chen, Repellency of an over-the-counter essential oil product in
China against workers of red imported fire ants. Journal of
Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2009) 618-622.
[66] S.Y. Wang, W.C. Li, F.H. Chu, C.T. Lin, S.Y. Shen, S.T. Chang,
Essential oil from the leaves of Cryptomeria japonica acts as a
silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) repellent and insecticide. Journal of
Wood Science 52 (2006) 522-526.
[67] P.M. Kuo F.H. Chu, S.T. Chang, W.F. Hsiao, S.Y. Wang,
Insecticidal activity of essential oil from Chamaecyparis formosensis
Matsum. Holzforsch 61 (2007) 595-599.
[68] J.J. Wang, H. Tasi, W. Ding, Z.M. Zhao, L.S. Li, Toxic effects of six
plant oils alone and in combination with controlled atmosphere on
Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcellididae). Journal of
Economic Entomology l 94 (2001) 1296-1301.
[69] L. Liu, Y. Liang, W.P. Shi, Q.Z. Liu, I. Zhou, Z.I. Liu, Repellent and
insecticidal effects of the essential oil of Kaempferia galanga
rhizomes to Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae).
Journal of Economic Entomology107 (2014) 1706-1712.
[70] J. Diaz-Montano, J.F. Campbell, T.W. Philips, Throne JE Evaluation
of potential attractants for Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera:
International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
Liposcelididae). Journal of Economic Entomology 107 (2014) 867-
[71] E.H. Kim, H.K. Kim, Y.J. Ahn, Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil
against Dermatophagoides farina and Dermatophagoides
pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae). Journal of Agricultural and
Food Chemistry 51 (2003) 885-889.
[72] A.L. Hanifah, S.H. Awang, H.T. Ming, S.Z. Abidin, M.H. Omar,
Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogan citratus and Azadirachta indica
against house dust mites. Asian Pacific Journal of Biomedicine 1
(2011) 365-369.
[73] A. Salehzadeha, H. Mahjub, Antagonistic effect of azadirachtin on
cyfluthrin and permethrin. Journal of Entomology 8 (2011) 95-100.
[74] FAO, Azadirachtin: FAO specifications and evaluations for
agricultural pesticides. Plant Production and Protection Division,
FAO, Rome, Italy, 2003.
[75] R.T. Gahukar, Potential and utilization of plant products in pest
control. Integrated pest management: current concepts and
ecological perspective. Elsevier Inc., New York, NY, USA, 2014,
[76] R.T. Gahukar, Factors affecting content and bioefficacy of neem
(Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) phytochemicals used in agricultural
pest control: a review. Crop Protection 62 (2014) 93- 99.
[77] J.T. Trumble, Caveat emptor: safety considerations for natural
products used in arthropod control. American Entomologist 48
(2002) 7-13.
[78] R.K. Dhongade, S.G. Kawade, R.S. Damle, Neem oil poisoning.
Indian Pediatrics 45 (2008) 56-58.
[79] R. Iyyadurai, V. Surekha, S. Sathendra, B.P. Wilson, K.G. Gopinath,
Azadirachtin poisoning: a case report. Clinical Toxicology 48 (2010)
[80] S.J. Boeke, M.G. Boersma, G.M. Alink, J.J.A. et al., Safety
evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides. Journal
of Ethnopharmacology 94 (2004) 25-41.
[81] A. Mishra, N. Dave, Neem oil poisoning: case report of an adult with
toxic encephalopathy. Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine 17(5)
(2013) 321-322.
[82] EPA, Biopesticides registration section document, Biopesticides and
Pollution Prevention Division, Environmental Prevention Agency,
USA, 21 pp., 2012.
... Many researchers suggested using plant extracts and plant essential oils (EOs) as good alternatives [14][15][16][17] to synthetic insecticides. ...
Full-text available
Natural ovicidal and repellent agents against Periplaneta americana are in urgent need, and plant essential oils (EOs) can assume this role quite readily. In this study, ovicidal and repellent activities against Periplaneta americana of EOs from Cymbopogon citratus , Cinnamomum verum , Eucalyptus globulus , Illicium verum , and Zanthoxylum limonella in soybean oil and in ethyl alcohol were determined by topical and dual-choice assays, as well as 10% cypermethrin and a combined formulation of 5% C . verum EO + 5% I . verum EO. Cypermethrin at 10% provided the highest toxicity (100% inhibition rate) against the eggs, but only slightly higher than that (99.3%) provided by the combined EO formulation, while the highest repellent activity against the adults was provided by the combined formulation (89.5% repelled cockroaches at 48 h after treatment). In addition, all EO formulations in soybean oil provided higher ovicidal and repellent activities than in ethyl alcohol. To conclude, the combined EO formulation in soybean oil can replace cypermethrin because their efficacy was nearly equivalent, but the combination should be much safer to use.
Full-text available
Natural ovicidal and repellent agents against Periplaneta americana L. are urgently needed, and plant essential oils (EOs) can assume this role quite readily. In this study, ovicidal and repellent activities against Periplaneta americana of EOs from Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf.), Cinnamomum verum (J. Presl.), Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.), Illicium verum (Hook.f.), and Zanthoxylum limonella (Alston) in soybean oil and in ethyl alcohol were determined by topical and dual-choice assays, as well as 10% cypermethrin and a combined formulation of 5% C. verum EO + 5% I. verum EO. Cypermethrin at 10% provided the highest toxicity (100% inhibition rate) against the eggs, but only slightly higher than that (99.3%) provided by the combined EO formulation, while the highest repellent activity against the adults was provided by the combined formulation (89.5% repelled cockroaches at 48 h after treatment). In addition, all EO formulations in soybean oil provided higher ovicidal and repellent activities than those in ethyl alcohol. To conclude, the combined EO formulation in soybean oil can replace cypermethrin because their efficacy was nearly equivalent, but the combination should be much safer to use.
Full-text available
Repellency and fumigant toxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and sesame (Sesamum indicum) oils were investigated against American cockroach (Periplaneta americana (L.) in the laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah Province, Saudi Arabia at 25 ± 3°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. Both clove and sesame oils showed variable percentages of repellency according to concentrations, exposure periods and stages. Clove oil exhibited strong repellent activity than sesame oil. First nymph was more sensitive than the fourth one followed by adults. After 48 h of exposure, complete repellency (100%) was recorded against first nymph at concentration of 2% for clove oil and 6% for sesame oil. Same result was obtained against fourth nymph at concentration of 10% of sesame oil after 48 h. While clove oil completely repelled all fourth nymphs after 24 h at concentration of 8%. For adult stage, the greatest repellency percentages were recorded by clove oil (90.00 ± 5.77%) and sesame oil (83.33 ± 3.33%) after 48 h at a concentration of 10%. Regarding the fumigant toxicity, clove oil provided highly significant effects against nymphs and adults of P. americana after 24 and 48 h, respectively. Complete mortality (100%) was recorded at a concentration of 7.5 µl/L of air for first nymph, 10 µl for fourth one and 17.5 µl for adults after 48 h of fumigation. First nymph was the most sensitive to clove oil by LC 50 value 1.06 µl followed by 3.12 µl for fourth nymph and 8.20 µl for adults. The fumigant tests showed that sesame oil did not exhibit toxicity against P. americana at concentrations range of 5 to 20 µl/L of air. In conclusion, both clove and sesame oils can be used as repellent botanical insecticides, but only clove oil can be used as fumigant agent against P. americana because sesame oil gave no effect at tested concentrations.
Full-text available
Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki is an important termite severely damage wood components of housing construction and old living trees in residential areas in south of China. The 70% mirex dust was one of important chemical products to control this termite damage. As the completely elimination of mirex in May 2009 in China, one of key works for Chinese researchers on termite control is to find the alternatives of mirex product. In present study, we evaluated the effect of 3% ivermectin dust to eliminate the colonies of C. formosanus in residential areas of Hangzhou city, Zhejiang province, China from April 2010 to May 2012. The results indicated that when 20-30 grams of 3% ivermectin dust were applied onto the body of termites feeding in four monitor devices at 18-80 meter far from the C. formosanus nests, the termite colonies would be eliminated completely within three and half to eight months. This means 3% ivermectin dust was a good alternative of 70% mirex dust and could be used for subterranean termite control through the method of dusting in the monitor devices.
Full-text available
In this work, we present our results on the use of potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide. This compound has the potential to rid our homes, schools, hotels, restaurants, and ships of cockroach infestations. This compound is environmentally friendly and has no hazardous effects on plant, animal, or human ecosystems. Alum was approved for medical use a long time ago. In our laboratory, we developed a novel method using potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide to kill the most common cockroach in the subtropical region, Periplaneta americana (L.). Adult and nymph-staged cockroaches were left to feed on potassium alum per individual insect after a period of food deprivation. The mortality was recorded as LT50. The younger nymphs the third and early fourth instars died within 4 d of feeding after consuming an average of 0.3 mg per individual insect. Gravid females were highly susceptible to alum toxicity and experienced a higher mortality rate, with an average of 3 mg per individual female. The oothecae of the normal untreated females were 8.1 mm long and 4.13 mm wide and weighed 94 mg. The eggs laid by the treated gravid females were underweight and exhibited a dwarfism shape, and these eggs did not hatched if the females consumed the potassium alum before laying eggs. The results revealed that the adult male and female cockroaches have to consume 1 mg and 2.7 mg, respectively, of potassium alum to kill 100% of them after 1 month of ingestion. The potassium alum had to be ingested by the cockroaches to affect mortality. The effect of potassium alum was attributed to chronic toxicity and not acute toxicity. The potential applications of this novel technique will be discussed.
Full-text available
Recent research has focused on the repellent properties of extracts from the catnip plant (Nepeta cataria) and the Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) fruit. This chapter includes results on German cockroach (Blattella germanica), and house fly (Musca domestica) contact irritancy to catnip essential oil, and its major components, Z,E-nepetalactone and E,Z-nepetalactone, compared with the commercial standard, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). Both species showed high percentage repellency values when exposed to filter paper treated with catnip essential oil or the individual nepetalactone isomers. Of the two nepetalactone isomers evaluated, German cockroaches were most responsive to the E,Z isomer. House flies showed similar trends in contact irritancy, responding to surfaces treated with the predominant catnip isomer, Z,E-nepetalactone, more intensely than to the catnip essential oil. Catnip and Osage orange essential oils, and a sesquiterpene found in Osage orange, elemol, were evaluated for repellency to the northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens) and are presented here. Two mosquito bioassays were used to measure percentage and contact repellecy. Mosquitoes responded initially with high percentage repellency to surfaces treated with catnip essential oil. From the residual repellency study, this trend in repellency by the catnip oil significantly decreased over the 180-minute test period. Elemol, and DEET initially had lower percentage repellency values than catnip essential oil, but did not show the negative relationship between percentage repellency and time, retaining excellent repellency throughout the 3-hour bioassay. Solutions with elemol and DEET exhibited greater significance in contact repellency compared to catnip essential oil. These results show mat catnip essential oil is a potent mosquito repellent, but does not provide the same residual effects as the commercial standard, DEET. Elemol, a sesquiterpene extracted from the fruit of the Osage orange, shows excellent promise as a mosquito repellent with comparable activity to DEET in contact and residual repellency.
This account provides the first comprehensive coverage of the insect and other arthropod pests in the urban environment worldwide. Presented is a brief description, biology, and detailed information on the development, habits, and distribution of urban and public health pests. There are 570 illustrations to accompany some of the major pest species. The format is designed to serve as a ready-reference and to provide basic information on orders, families, and species. The species coverage is international and based on distribution in domestic and peridomestic habitats. The references are extensive and international, and cover key papers on species and groups. The introductory chapters overview the urban ecosystem and its key ecological components, and a review of the pests status and modern control strategies. The book will serve as a professional training manual, and handbook for the pest control professionals, regulatory officials, and urban entomologists. It is organized alphabetically throughout.
The petroleum ether, methanol, water, methanol: water, hexane, chloroform and n-butanol extracts of Lantana camara and Ageratum conyzoides leaves were studied for their efficacy against adult workers of building termite, Microcerotermes beesoni. Out of seven herbal extracts of Lantana camara leaves, chloroform extract exhibits 63.3±0.19 and 68.7±0.29% mortality after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Among the seven herbal extracts of Ageratum conyzoides leaves, petroleum ether extract exhibits 67.3±0.32% termite-repellency after 24 hours and hexane extract exhibits 65.6±0.46 and 70.6±0.23% termite mortality after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The other extracts of both plants did not show significant mortality and repellency against workers of termite.
Pest control in agricultural crops is generally achieved by chemical pesticides which are effective and have a 'knock-down' effect on life stages of insects and mites. Recently, plant products have been experimented on in indoor cultivation and in fields. Water extracts (5-10%) of leaf or seed/kernel, crude oil (0.5-3%), and soil application of seed cake (2 t/ha) are used as traditional measures while essential oils, extracts in organic solvents, and formulations based on pure allelochemicals are marketed products. Neem (. Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) derived products are applied extensively in agricultural crops, and other plants that are readily available locally are being exploited for their actions. The potential benefits are that they are economical, environmentally friendly, effective and of low toxicity to non-target organisms including humans. In the future, integration of plant products in pest management strategies would enhance sustainable organic agriculture and prevent crop loss in terms of both quality and production.
The repellency and toxicity of mint oil to American, Periplaneta americana (L.), and German, Blattella germanica (L.), cockroaches were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In topical application experiments, mint oil was toxic to both species with toxicities (LD50S) of 2.57 (1.98-4.20) in 10 μl and 3.83 (2.35-7.34)% in 2 μl for American and German cockroaches, respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50) values for American cockroaches ranged from 246.8 min with 3% mint oil to 64.2 min with 100% mint oil. LT50 values for German cockroaches ranged from 318 to 5.6 min for 3% and 30% mint oil, respectively. American and German cockroaches had knockdown (KT50) values of ≈7.4 and 9.2 h, respectively, when fumigated with 50 μl of 100% mint oil; 100% of both species were killed after 24 h. Mint oil deposits were ≈100% repellent in Ebeling choice boxes to both species during each day of the 14-d experiment. Mint oil-based formulations could provide another integrated pest management tool for cockroach management, especially in situations in which conventional insecticides would be inappropriate.