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Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 39
The ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Augusto B. Mendes1, Felipe V. Guimarães2, Clara B. P. Eirado-Silva1 & Edson P. Silva1
1Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.
2Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, São Gonçalo, RJ, Brazil.
Pokémon, or Pocket Monsters, was
originally created for videogames, becoming a
worldwide fever among kids and teenagers in
the end of the 1990’s and early 2000’s.
Currently, it is still a success, with numerous
games, a TV series, comic books, movies, a
Trading Card Game, toys and collectibles.
Through its core products and vibrant
merchandising, Pokémon took over the world,
influencing pop culture wherever it landed.
Despite losing some steam in the early 2010’s,
Pokémon is now back to its previous uproar
with the release of Pokémon GO, an augmented
reality (AR) game for smartphones. This game
launched in 2016, with almost 21 million users
downloading it in the very first week in the
United States alone (Dorward et al., 2017).
Thus, Pokémon is indubitably an icon in pop
culture (Schlesinger, 1999a; Tobin, 2004).
The origin of Pokémon goes back to two
role-playing video games (created by Satoshi
Tajiri and released by Nintendo for the Game
Boy; Kent, 2001): Pokémon Green and Pokémon
Red, released in Japan in 1996. In the West, the
Green version never saw the light of day, but
the Red and Blue versions were released in
1998, selling together more than 10 million
copies. Also in 1998, the Yellow version of the
game was released, which has as its most
distinct feature the possibility of having Pikachu
(the most famous Pokémon) walking side by
side with the player in the game. Pokémon
Green, Red, Blue and Yellow are the so-called
“first generation” of games in the franchise.
Today, the Pokémon series is in its seventh
generation, with 29 main games released,
besides several spin-offs. The TV series, on the
other hand, is in its sixth season, with more
than 900 episodes.
The games and TV series take place in
regions inhabited by many Pokémon and
humans. The mission of the protagonist is to
win competitions (“Pokémon battles”) against
gym leaders who are spread across different
cities and regions. For each victory, the
protagonist receives a gym badge; with eight
badges, he/she is allowed to enter the
Pokémon League to try and become the
For each generation, new Pokémon (and an
entire new region) are introduced. In this way,
the creatures have a homeland, although most
Mendes, A.B. et al.
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 40
can appear in other regions as well
(Schlesinger, 1999b; Whitehill et al., 2016). The
seven main regions are: Kanto, Johto, Hoenn,
Sinnoh, Unova, Kalos and Alola.
In every region, there are numbered routes
that connect cities and landmarks and in which
the protagonist travels, finding the monsters in
their natural habitats and interacting with other
characters. These routes comprise a great
range of environments, such as forests, caves,
deserts, mountains, fields, seas, beaches,
underwater places, mangroves, rivers and
marshes, which usually display a huge diversity
of Pokémon.
In addition to winning the Pokémon League,
the protagonist must complete the Pokédex, a
digital encyclopedia of Pokémon. In other
words, the trainer must catch all the Pokémon
that live in that region, registering each capture
in the Pokédex. Each Pokémon has a registry
number and an entry text in the Pokédex.
Pokémon are usually found in nature, and may
be captured with a device called “Pokéball”.
Pokéballs are small enough to fit in a pocket,
hence the name “Pocket Monsters” (Whitehill
et al., 2016).
In the world depicted in the games, there
are 801 Pokémon, belonging to one or two of
the following 18 types: Normal, Fire, Fighting,
Water, Flying, Grass, Poison, Electric, Ground,
Psychic, Rock, Ice, Bug, Dragon, Ghost, Dark,
Steel and Fairy (Bulbapedia, 2017). Almost all
Pokémon are based on animal species, some of
them are based on plants or mythological
creatures, and a few are based on objects.
Curiously, all Pokémon are oviparous, which
means they all lay eggs (their development
happens inside of an egg and outside of their
mother’s body); of course, in the real natural
world, this is a reproductive strategy of animals
such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and
many kinds of invertebrates (Blackburn, 1999).
Moreover, Pokémon might “evolve”, usually
meaning they undergo some cosmetic changes,
become larger and gain new powers.
In the present work, the Pokémon world
was approached by analogies with the real
natural world, establishing parallels with actual
A remarkable group of animals represented
in Pokémon is the fishes. Fishes are the largest
group of vertebrates, with more than 32,000
species inhabiting marine and freshwater
environments, a number that roughly
corresponds to half of all described vertebrates
(Nelson et al., 2016). Showing ample
morphological and behavioral variety and living
in most of the aquatic ecosystems of the
planet, fishes are well represented in the
Pokémon world, therefore offering a great
opportunity for establishing parallels between
the two worlds. The creators of the games not
only used the morphology of real animals as a
source of inspiration for the monsters, but also
their ecology and behavior.
Based on these obvious connections
between real fishes and Pokémon, the aim of
this work is to describe the ichthyological
diversity found in Pokémon based on
taxonomic criteria of the classification of real
fishes. Ultimately, our goal is to offer useful
material for both teaching and the
popularization of science.
Ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 41
Table 1. Taxonomic classification of the fish Pokémon. Abbreviations: Ch = Chondrichthyes; Gn = Gnathostomata; Pe =
Petromyzontomorphi; Pt = Petromyzontida; Os = Osteichthyes. All images obtained from The Official Pokémon Website
Pokédex No. Name Image
Type Region
116 Horsea
Water Kanto Seahorse Hippocampus sp. Syngnathidae Syngnathiformes Os Gn
117 Seadra
Water Kanto Seahorse Hippocampus sp. Syngnathidae Syngnathiformes Os Gn
118 Goldeen
Water Kanto Goldfish
Carassius auratus Linnaeus,
Cyprinidae Cypriniformes Os Gn
119 Seaking
Water Kanto Goldfish
Carassius auratus Linnaeus,
Cyprinidae Cypriniformes Os Gn
129 Magikarp
Water Kanto Common carp
Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus,
Cyprinidae Cypriniformes Os Gn
170 Chinchou
Water /
Footballfish Himantolophus sp. Himantolophidae Lophiiformes Os Gn
171 Lanturn
Water /
Footballfish Himantolophus sp. Himantolophidae Lophiiformes Os Gn
211 Qwilfish
Water /
Porcupinefish Diodon sp. Diodontidae Tetraodontiformes Os Gn
223 Remoraid
Water Johto
Remora sp. Echeneidae Carangiformes Os Gn
226 Mantine
Water /
Manta ray
Manta birostris Walbaum,
Myliobatidae Myliobatiformes Ch Gn
230 Kingdra
Water /
Phyllopteryx taeniolatus
Lacepède 1804
Syngnathidae Syngnathiformes Os Gn
318 Carvanha
Water /
Red piranha Pygocentrus sp. Serrasalmidae Characiformes Os Gn
319 Sharpedo
Water /
Shark Carcharhiniformes Ch Gn
339 Barboach
Water /
Pond loach Misgurnus sp. Cobitidae Cypriniformes Os Gn
340 Whiscash
Water /
Catfish Silurus sp. Siluridae Siluriformes Os Gn
349 Feebas
Water Hoenn
Micropterus salmoides
Lacepède, 1802
Centrarchidae Perciformes Os Gn
350 Milotic
Water Hoenn Oarfish Regalecus sp. Regalecidae Lampriformes Os Gn
367 Huntail
Water Hoenn Onejaw Monognathus sp. Monognathidae Anguilliformes Os Gn
368 Gorebyss
Water Hoenn Snipe eel Nemichthyidae Anguilliformes Os Gn
369 Relicanth
Water /
Coelacanth Latimeria sp. Latimeriidae Coelacanthiformes Os Gn
370 Luvdisc
Water Hoenn Kissing gourami
Helostoma temminckii
Cuvier, 1829
Helostomatidae Anabantiformes Os Gn
456 Finneon
Water Sinnoh
Pantodon buchholzi Peters,
Pantodontidae Osteoglossiformes Os Gn
457 Lumineon
Water Sinnoh
Pantodon buchholzi Peters,
Pantodontidae Osteoglossiformes Os Gn
458 Mantyke
Water /
Manta ray
Manta birostris Walbaum,
Myliobatidae Myliobatiformes Ch Gn
Mendes, A.B. et al.
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 42
Table 1. (cont.)
The first step of our research was a search
in the Pokédex (The Official Pokémon Website,
2016) for Pokémon which were related to
fishes. The criterion used was the Pokémon’s
morphology (resemblance to real fishes).
Afterwards, the “fish Pokémon” were classified
to the lowest taxonomic level (preferably
species, but when not possible, genus, family or
even order).
This classification of the Pokémon allowed
the comparison of biological data (such as
ecological, ethological, morphological traits)
from Bulbapedia (2017) with the current
knowledge on real fishes (e.g., Nelson et al.,
2016). Bulbapedia is a digital community-driven
encyclopedia created in 2004 and is the most
complete source regarding the pocket
The final step was a search in online
scientific databases (Fishbase, Froese & Pauly,
2016; and Catalog of Fishes, Eschmeyer et al.,
2016) in order to obtain the current and precise
taxonomy and additional information on
habitats, ecology etc. of the fish species.
In the present work, the taxonomic
classification used was that proposed by Nelson
et al. (2016), who consider the superclasses
Petromyzontomorphi (which includes the class
Petromyzontida, that is, the lampreys) and
Gnathostomata (the jawed vertebrates).
Gnathostomata, in turn, includes the classes
Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) and
Osteichthyes (bony fishes). Along with this
classification, we used the classification
proposed by the database ITIS (Integrated
Taxonomic Information System, 2016) for
comparison at all taxonomic levels. Following
identification, the “fish Pokémon” were
described regarding their taxonomic and
ecological diversity.
Pokédex No. Name Image
Type Region
550 Basculin
Water Unova Piranha Serrasalmidae Characiformes Os Gn
594 Alomomola
Water Unova Sunfish Mola mola Linnaeus, 1758 Molidae Tetraodontiformes Os Gn
602 Tynamo
Electric Unova Sea lamprey
Petromyzon marinus
Linnaeus, 1758
Petromyzontidae Petromyzontiformes Pt Pe
603 Eelektrik
Electric Unova Sea lamprey
Petromyzon marinus
Linnaeus, 1758
Petromyzontidae Petromyzontiformes Pt Pe
604 Eelektross
Electric Unova Sea lamprey
Petromyzon marinus
Linnaeus, 1758
Petromyzontidae Petromyzontiformes Pt Pe
618 Stunfisk
Ground /
Flatfish Pleuronectiformes Os Gn
690 Skrelp
Poison /
Phyllopteryx taeniolatus
Lacepède 1804
Syngnathidae Syngnathiformes Os Gn
691 Dragalge
Poison /
Phycodurus eques Günther,
Syngnathidae Syngnathiformes Os Gn
746 Wishiwashi
Water Alola Pacific sardine
Sardinops sagax (Jenyns,
Clupeidae Clupeiformes Os Gn
779 Bruxish
Water /
Reef triggerfish
Rhinecanthus rectangulus
(Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
Balistidae Tetraodontiformes Os Gn
Ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 43
As a result of our search, 34 fish Pokémon
were identified (circa 4% of the total 801
Pokémon; Table 1) and allocated in two
superclasses, three classes, eighteen orders,
twenty families and twenty-two genera.
Eighteen of the 34 fish Pokémon (circa 53%)
could be identified to the species level (Table
2). The features of the real fishes which
probably inspired the creation of the Pokémon
and other relevant information are described
below for each species. To enrich the
comparisons, images of the Pokémon (obtained
from the Pokédex of The Official Pokémon
Website; and of the real
fishes (illustrations by one of us, C.B.P. Eirado-
Silva) follow the descriptions.
Table 2. Taxonomic diversity of the fish Pokémon.
Horsea and Seadra
Species: Hippocampus sp.; Common name:
The Pokémon Horsea and Seadra (Fig. 1),
which debuted in the first generation of the
franchise, were based on seahorses. The long
snout, ending in a toothless mouth (Foster &
Vincent, 2004), the prehensile, curved tail (Rosa
et al., 2006) and the salient abdomen are
features of the real fishes present in these
Pokémon. Seahorses belong to the genus
Hippocampus, presently composed of 54
species (Nelson et al., 2016). The males have a
pouch in their bellies where up to 1,000 eggs
are deposited by the females. In this pouch, the
eggs are fertilized and incubated for a period
ranging from 9 to 45 days (Foster & Vincent,
2004). Due to overfishing for medicinal and
ornamental purposes, as well habitat
destruction, about 33 species of seahorses are
considered threatened (Rosa et al., 2007,
Castro et al., 2008; Kasapoglu & Duzgunes,
Figure 1. Horsea, Seadra and Hippocampus sp.
Goldeen and Seaking
Species: Carassius auratus; Common name:
Mendes, A.B. et al.
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 44
Goldeen and Seaking (Fig. 2) were based on
the goldfish. This species is one of the most
common ornamental fishes worldwide (Soares
et al., 2000; Moreira et al., 2011) and it is
widely used in studies of physiology and
reproduction due to its docile behavior and
easy acclimatization to artificial conditions
(Bittencourt et al., 2012; Braga et al., 2016).
The resemblance between the goldfish and the
Pokémon include morphological features, such
as the orange/reddish color and the long
merged fins, and the name “Goldeen”. The
name Seaking, on the other hand, may be a
reference to another common name of the
species, “kinguio”, from the Japanese “kin-yu”
(Ortega-Salas & Reyes-Bustamante, 2006).
Figure 2. Goldeen, Seaking and Carassius auratus.
Species: Cyprinus carpio; Common name:
common carp.
Possibly the most famous fish Pokémon,
Magikarp (Fig. 3) was based on a common carp,
a species present in Europe, Africa and Asia,
widely used in pisciculture due to its extremely
easy acclimatization to many freshwater
environments and the high nutritional value of
its meat (Stoyanova et al., 2015; Mahboob et
al., 2016; Voigt et al., 2016). In some regions of
the planet, such as Brazil, the common carp is
considered an invasive species, as it was
inadvertently released in the wild and poses a
threat to the native aquatic fauna (Smith et al.,
2013; Contreras-MacBeath et al., 2014).
Figure 3. Magikarp and Cyprinus carpio.
Ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 45
The shared traits between the Pokémon
and the real fish are many: the rounded mouth,
the lips, the strong orange color and the
presence of barbels (“whiskers”) (Nelson et al.,
2016). In China, the common carp is praised as
an animal linked to honor and strength, due of
its ability to swim against the current; an
ancient legend tells about carps that swim
upstream, entering through a portal and
transforming into dragons (Roberts, 2004). In
Pokémon, Magikarp evolves into Gyarados,
which resembles a typical Chinese dragon.
Chinchou and Lanturn
Species: Himantolophus sp.; Common
name: footballfish.
Chinchou and Lanturn (Fig. 4) were based
on fishes of the genus Himantolophus, a group
of deep-sea fishes found in almost all oceans
living in depths up to 1,800 meters (Klepadlo et
al., 2003; Kharin, 2006). These fishes are known
as footballfishes, a reference to the shape of
their bodies. Fishes of this genus have a special
modification on their dorsal fin that displays
bioluminescence (the ability to produce light
through biological means; Pietsch, 2003), which
is used to lure and capture prey (Quigley,
2014). Bioluminescence was the main
inspiration for these Pokémon, which have
luminous appendages and the Water and
Electric types. The sexual dimorphism
(difference between males and females) is
extreme in these fishes: whilst females reach
up to 47 cm of standard-length (that is, body
length excluding the caudal fin), males do not
even reach 4 cm (Jónsson & Pálsson, 1999;
Arronte & Pietsch, 2007).
Figure 4. Chinchou, Lanturn and Himantolophus sp.
Species: Diodon sp.; Common name:
Qwilfish (Fig. 5) was based on
porcupinefishes, more likely those of the genus
Diodon, which present coloring and spines most
similar to this Pokémon. Besides the distinctive
hard, sharp spines (Fujita et al., 1997),
porcupinefishes have the ability to inflate as a
strategy to drive off predators (Raymundo &
Chiappa, 2000). As another form of defense,
these fishes possess a powerful bacterial toxin
in their skin and organs (Lucano-Ramírez et al.,
2011; Ravi et al., 2016). Accordingly, Qwilfish
has both Water and Poison types.
Mendes, A.B. et al.
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 46
Figure 5. Qwilfish and Diodon sp.
Species: Remora sp.; Common names:
remora, suckerfish.
Remoraid was based on a remora (Fig. 6), a
fish with a suction disc on its head that allows
its adhesion to other animals such as turtles,
whales, dolphins, sharks and manta rays (Fertl
& Landry, 1999; Silva & Sazima, 2003; Friedman
et al., 2013; Nelson et al., 2016). This feature
allows the establishment of a commensalisc or
mutualisc relationship of transportation,
feeding and protection between the adherent
species and its “ride” (Williams et al., 2003;
Sazima & Grossman, 2006). The similarities also
include the name of the Pokémon and the
ecological relationship they have with other fish
Pokémon: in the same way remoras keep
ecological relationships with rays, Remoraid
does so with Mantyke and Mantine (Pokémon
based on manta rays; see below).
Figure 6. Remoraid and Remora sp.
Mantyke and Mantine
Species: Manta birostris; Common name:
manta ray.
The Pokémon Mantyke and its evolved form
Mantine (Fig. 7) were probably based on manta
rays of the species Manta birostris, which
inhabits tropical oceans (Duffy & Abbot, 2003;
Dewar et al., 2008) and can reach more than 6
meters of wingspan, being the largest species
of ray in existence (Homma et al., 1999; Ari &
Correia, 2008; Marshall et al., 2008; Luiz et al.,
2009; Nelson et al., 2016). The similarities
between the Pokémon and the real fish are: the
body shape, the color pattern, the large and
distinctive wingspan and even the names.
Ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 47
Figure 7. Mantine, Mantyke and Manta birostris.
Kingdra and Skrelp
Species: Phyllopteryx taeniolatus; Common
name: common seadragon.
Kingdra and Skrelp (Fig. 8) were based on
the common seadragon. The resemblances
between these Pokémon and the real fish
species include the leaf-shaped fins that help
the animals to camouflage themselves in the
kelp “forests” they inhabit (Sanchez-Camara et
al., 2006; Rossteuscher et al., 2008; Sanchez-
Camara et al., 2011), and the long snout. Also,
the secondary type of Kingdra is Dragon.
Although both are based on the common
seadragon, Kingdra and Skrelp are not in the
same “evolutionary line” in the game.
Common seadragons, as the seahorses
mentioned above, are of a particular interest to
conservationists, because many species are
vulnerable due to overfishing, accidental
capture and habitat destruction (Foster &
Vincent, 2004; Martin-Smith & Vincent, 2006).
Figure 8. Kingdra, Skrelp and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus.
Species: Pygocentrus sp.; Common name:
red piranha.
Piranhas of the genus Pygocentrus possibly
were the inspiration for the creation of
Carvanha (Fig. 9), a Pokémon of voracious and
dangerous habits. The main feature shared by
the real fish and the Pokémon is the color
pattern: bluish in the dorsal and lateral areas,
and reddish in the ventral area (Piorski et al.,
2005; Luz et al., 2015).
It is worthwhile pointing out that, despite
what is shown in movies and other media,
piranhas do not immediately devour their prey;
Mendes, A.B. et al.
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 48
instead, they tear off small pieces, bit by bit,
such as scales and fins (Trindade & Jucá-Chagas,
2008; Vital et al., 2011; Ferreira et al., 2014).
Figure 9. Carvanha and Pygocentrus sp.
Order: Carcharhiniformes; Common name:
Sharpedo (Fig. 10), according to its
morphological traits (elongated fins), was
possibly based on sharks of the order
Carcharhiniformes, the largest group of sharks,
with 216 species in 8 families and 48 genera.
Fishes in this order are common in all oceans, in
both coastal and oceanic regions, and from the
surface to great depths (Gomes et al., 2010).
Several species of Carcharhiniformes are in the
IUCN’s (International Union for Conservation of
Nature) endangered species list (a.k.a. “Red
List”) due to overfishing, as their fins possess
high commercial value (Cunningham-Day,
Figure 10. Sharpedo and a carcharhiniform shark.
Species: Misgurnus sp.; Common name:
pond loach.
Barboach (Fig. 11) is likely based on fishes
of the genus Misgurnus, natively found in East
Asia (Nobile et al., 2017) but introduced in
several countries (Gomes et al., 2011). These
animals, like M. anguillicaudatus Cantor, 1842,
are used as ornamental fishes and in folk
medicine (Woo Jun et al., 2010; Urquhart &
Koetsier, 2014). The shared similarities
between the Pokémon and the pond loach
include morphological features, such as the
elongated body, oval fins and the presence of
Ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 49
barbels (Nelson et al., 2016). The resemblance
also extends itself to behavior, such as the
habit of burying in the mud (Zhou et al., 2009;
Kitagawa et al., 2011) and using the barbels to
feel the surroundings (Gao et al., 2014). The
secondary type of Barboach, Ground, alongside
the ability to feel vibrations in the substrate,
seem to be a reference to the behavior of the
real fishes.
Figure 11. Barboach and Misgurnus sp.
Species: Silurus sp.; Common name: catfish.
Whiscash (Fig. 12) was based on the
Japanese mythological creature Namazu, a
gigantic catfish that inhabits the underground
realm and is capable of creating earthquakes
(Ashkenazi, 2003). Namazu also names the
Pokémon in the Japanese language
(“Namazun”). In Japan, fishes of the genus
Silurus are usually associated with this
mythological creature and even the common
name of these fishes in that country is
namazu (Yuma et al., 1998; Malek et al.,
2004). In addition, the physical traits of the
Silurus catfishes also present in Whiscash are
the long barbels (or “whiskers”, hence the
name Whiscash) and the robust body
(Kobayakawa, 1989; Kiyohara & Kitoh, 1994). In
addition to the Water type, Whiscash is also
Ground type, which is related to Namazu’s
fantastic ability of creating earthquakes.
Figure 12. Whiscash and Silurus sp.
Species: Micropterus salmoides; Common
name: largemouth bass.
Mendes, A.B. et al.
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 50
The Pokémon Feebas (Fig. 13), a relatively
weak fish (as its name implies), was possibly
based on a largemouth bass, a freshwater fish
native to North America (Hossain et al., 2013).
The species was introduced in many countries
and is often considered a threat to the native
fauna (Welcomme, 1992; Hickley et al., 1994;
Godinho et al., 1997; García-Berthou, 2002).
Similarities between Feebas and the
largemouth bass include the large, wide mouth
and the brownish coloration, with darker areas
(Brown et al., 2009).
Figure 13. Feebas and Micropterus salmoides.
Species: Regalecus sp.; Common name:
Often praised as the most beautiful
Pokémon of all (Bulbapedia, 2017), Milotic (Fig.
14) certainly lives up to its title. Their long
reddish eyebrows were based on the first
elongated rays of the dorsal fin of Regalecus
species (Nelson et al., 2016), which also share
the reddish color of the dorsal fin (Carrasco-
Águila et al., 2014). Other similarities between
the oarfish and the Pokémon are the elongated
body (some oarfishes can grow larger than 3.5
m) and the spots scattered on the body (Chavez
et al., 1985; Balart et al., 1999; Dulčić et al.,
2009; Ruiz & Gosztonyi, 2010).
Figure 14. Milotic and Regalecus sp.
Species: Monognathus sp.; Common name:
Probably based on fishes of the genus
Monognathus, which have a large mandible
and a long dorsal fin (Nelson et al., 2016),
Ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 51
Huntail (Fig. 15) is one of the possible
evolutionary results of the mollusk Pokémon
Clamperl (the other possibility is Gorebyss; see
below). According to Raju (1974), fishes of the
genus Monognathus live in great depths and
have a continuous dorsal fin that ends in an
urostyle (uro comes from the Greek language
and means “tail”, an element also present in
the Pokémon’s name).
Figure 15. Huntail and Monognathus sp.
Family: Nemichthyidae; Common name:
snipe eel.
The serpentine body and the thin beak-
shaped jaw of Gorebyss (Fig. 16) are features of
fishes belonging to the family Nemichthyidae
(Nielsen & Smith, 1978). These fishes inhabit
tropical and temperate oceans and can be
found in depths up to 4,000 meters, in the so-
called “abyssal zone” (Cruz-Mena & Anglo,
2016). The Pokémon’s name may be a
reference to such habitat.
Figure 16. Gorebyss and a nemichthyid fish.
Species: Latimeria sp.; Common name:
Relicanth (Fig. 17) was based on the
coelacanth. The brown coloration, the lighter
patches on the body (Benno et al., 2006) and
the presence of paired lobed fins (Zardoya &
Meyer, 1997) are traits of both the real fish and
the Pokémon. It was believed that coelacanths
went extinct in the Late Cretaceous, but they
were rediscovered in 1938 in the depths off the
coast of South Africa (Nikaido et al., 2011).
Therefore, the only two living species L.
Mendes, A.B. et al.
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 52
chalumnae Smith, 1939 and L. menadoensis
Pouyaud et al., 1999 are known as "living
fossils" (Zardoya & Meyer, 1997). Probably for
this reason, Relicanth belongs to the Water and
Rock types (the “fossil Pokémon" are all Rock-
Figure 17. Relicanth and Latimeria sp.
Species: Helostoma temminckii; Common
name: kissing gourami.
The silver-pinkish coloration, the peculiar
mouth formed by strong lips and the habit of
"kissing" other individuals of their species
(which is actually a form of aggression!) are
features of the kissing gourami (Sterba 1983;
Sousa & Severi 2000; Sulaiman & Daud, 2002;
Ferry et al., 2012) that are also seen in Luvdisc
(Fig. 18). Helostoma temminckii is native to
Thailand, Indonesia, Java, Borneo, Sumatra and
the Malay Peninsula (Axelrod et al., 1971), but
due to its use an ornamental fish and the
irresponsible handling by fishkeepers, it has
been introduced in other parts of the world
(Magalhães, 2007).
Figure 18. Luvdisc and Helostoma temminckii.
Finneon and Lumineon
Species: Pantodon buchholzi; Common
name: freshwater butterflyfish.
Finneon and Lumineon (Fig. 19) were
probably based on the freshwater butterflyfish.
Finneon has a caudal fin in the shape of a
butterfly and Lumineon, like Pantodon
buchholzi, has large pectoral fins (Nelson et al.,
2016) resembling the wings of a butterfly
(hence the popular name of the species).
Butterflyfishes are found in West African lakes
Ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 53
(Greenwood & Thompson, 1960); their backs
are olive-colored while their ventral side is
silver, with black spots scattered throughout
the body; their fins are pink with some purplish
spots (Lévêque & Paugy, 1984). Both Pokémon
have color patterns that resemble the
freshwater butterflyfish.
Figure 19. Finneon, Lumineon and Pantodon buchholzi.
Family: Serrasalmidae; Common name:
The two forms of the Pokémon Basculin
(Fig. 20) seem to have been inspired on fishes
from the Serrasalmidae family, such as
piranhas. Basculin, like these fishes, has a tall
body and conical teeth (Baumgartner et al.,
2012). Piranhas are predators with strong jaws
that inhabit some South American rivers.
Curiously, they are commonly caught by local
subsistence fishing (Freeman et al., 2007).
Figure 20. Basculin’s two forms and a serrasalmid fish.
Species: Mola mola; Common name:
The very name of this Pokémon is evidence
that it was inspired on Mola mola, the sunfish
(Fig. 21). Moreover, Alomomola, just like the
sunfish, has a circular body with no caudal fin
(Pope et al., 2010). The sunfish is the largest
and heaviest bony fish in the world, weighting
more than 1,500 kg (Freesman & Noakes, 2002;
Sims et al., 2009). They inhabit the Atlantic and
Pacific Oceans, feeding mainly on zooplankton
(Cartamil & Lowe, 2004; Potter & Howell,
Mendes, A.B. et al.
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 54
Figure 21. Alomomola and Mola mola.
Tynamo, Eelektrik and Eelektross
Species: Petromyzon marinus; Common
name: sea lamprey.
The evolutionary line Tynamo, Eelektrik and
Eelektross (Fig. 22) was probably inspired by
the life cycle of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon
marinus: Tynamo represents a larval stage,
Eelektrik a juvenile, and Eelektross an adult. As
a larva, the sea lamprey inhabits freshwater
environments and, after going through
metamorphosis, the juvenile migrates to the
ocean, where they start to develop
hematophagous (“blood-sucking”) feeding
habits (Youson, 1980; Silva et al., 2013).
Eelektrik and Eelektross, like the sea lamprey,
have a serpentine body and a circular suction
cup-mouth with conical teeth. In addition, the
yellow circles on the side of these Pokémon
resemble the gill slits of lampreys (which are of
circular shape) or the marbled spots of P.
marinus (Igoe et al., 2004).
It is worth mentioning that Eelektrik and
Elektross also seem to possess name and
characteristics (Electric type and serpentine
body with yellow spots) inspired by the electric
eel (Electrophorus electricus Linnaeus, 1766), a
fish capable of generating an electrical
potential up to 600 volts, making it the greatest
producer of bioelectricity in the animal
kingdom (Catania, 2014). However, a
remarkable characteristic of Eelektrik and
Eelektross is the jawless mouth structure of the
superclass Petromyzontomorphi species. The
electric eel has a jaw and thus belongs to the
superclass Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates)
(Gotter et al., 1998).
Figure 22. Tynamo, Eelektrik, Eelektross and P. marinus.
Ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 55
Order: Pleuronectiformes; Common name:
Flattened and predominantly brown in
color, Stunfisk (Fig. 23) appears to have been
based on fishes of the order Pleuronectiformes.
Popularly known as flatfishes, these animals
have both eyes on the same side of the head
and stay most of their lives buried and
camouflaged on sandy and muddy substrates of
almost every ocean, feeding on fishes and
benthic invertebrates (Sakamoto, 1984;
Kramer, 1991; Gibb, 1997). It is likely that the
primary type of Stunfisk, Ground, is based on
the close relationship between pleuronectiform
fishes and the substrate they live in. Species of
this group are very valuable for the fishing
industry (Cooper & Chapleau, 1998).
Figure 23. Stunfisk and a pleuronectiform fish.
Species: Phycodurus eques; Common name:
leafy seadragon.
Dragalge (Fig. 24), a Pokémon belonging to
the Poison and Dragon types, was based on a
leafy seadragon. This species is found in
Australia and it is named after its appearance:
this fish has appendages throughout its body
that resemble leaves (Larson et al., 2014). This
feature, also present in the Pokémon, allows
the leafy seadragon to camouflage itself among
algae (Wilson & Rouse, 2010). Dragalge is the
evolved form of Skrelp, a Pokémon based on a
common seadragon (see above).
Figure 24. Dragalge and Phycodurus eques.
Species: Sardinops sagax; Common name:
Pacific sardine.
Mendes, A.B. et al.
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 56
Wishiwashi (Fig. 25) was probably based on
the Pacific sardine, a pelagic fish with high
commercial value and quite abundant along the
California and Humboldt Currents (Coleman,
1984; Gutierrez-Estrada et al., 2009; Demer et
al., 2012; Zwolinski et al., 2012). The lateral
circles of the Pokémon are a reference to the
dark spots present on the lateral areas of the
real fish (Paul et al., 2001). Furthermore,
Wishiwashi has the ability to form a large
school, just as sardines do (Emmett et al., 2005;
Zwolinski et al., 2007).
Figure 25. Wishiwashi and Sardinops sagax.
Another parallel is the geographic location:
the Pokémon belongs to Alola, a fictional region
based on Hawaii, and S. sagax is one of the
most common sardines in the Eastern Pacific
Ocean. From the mid-1920s to the mid-1940’s,
for example, S. sagax supported one of the
largest fisheries in the world. The stock
collapsed in the late 1940’s, but in the 1990’s it
started to recover (McFarlane et al., 2005).
Species: Rhinecanthus rectangulus;
Common name: reef triggerfish.
Bruxish (Fig. 26) was probably inspired by
the species Rhinecanthus rectangulus, the reef
triggerfish of the Hawaiian reefs and other
tropical regions (Kuiter & Debelius, 2006;
Dornburg et al., 2008). Bruxish has powerful
jaws, just like the reef triggerfishes that prey
upon a wide variety of invertebrates, such as
hard-shelled gastropods, bivalves, echinoderms
and crustaceans (Wainwright & Friel, 2000;
Froese & Pauly, 2016).
Figure 26. Bruxish and Rhinecanthus rectangulus.
Ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 57
Besides the strong jaw, the overall body
shape and the flashy coloring, another parallel
can be seen: this Pokémon is an inhabitant of
the Alola region (the Pokémon version of
Hawaii) and R. rectangulus is actually the state
symbol fish of the Hawaiian archipelago (Kelly
& Kelly, 1997).
The majority of the identified Pokémon
(85.29%) is, expectedly, Water-type. A large
portion of them (29.41%) was introduced for
the first time in the third generation of the
franchise, in the Hoenn region.
Figure 27. Representativeness of fish classes in Pokémon.
Only three fish Pokémon were classified in
the superclass Petromyzontomorphi (8.82%):
the lamprey-like Tynamo, Eelektrik and
Eelektross, all of them belonging to the same
evolutionary line. In the superclass
Gnathostomata, the class Osteichthyes is
represented by the highest number of
Pokémon: 28 in total (82.35%, Fig. 27). Inside
this class, the most representative groups were
the order Syngnathiformes (14.71%, Fig. 28),
family Syngnathidae (15.63%, Fig. 29) and the
genus Petromyzon (10.00%, Fig. 30).
Figure 28. Representativeness of fish orders in Pokémon.
Most of the real fishes on which the
Pokémon were based (55.88%, Fig. 31) live in
marine environments, followed by freshwater
(continental water environments, 32.35%) and
finally, brackish water (estuarine environments,
The fish species found in the Pokémon
world consists of a considerable portion of the
ichthyological diversity in our world. According
to Nelson et al. (2016), the Osteichthyes class
corresponds to 96.1% of all vertebrate fish
species (30,508 species), followed by the
Condrichthyes with 3.76% (1,197 species) and
the Petromyzontida with just 0.14% (46
species). In Pokémon, the proportions of taxa
Mendes, A.B. et al.
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 58
(taxonomic group) that inspired the creatures
follow a roughly similar distribution: within the
26 taxa in which the evolutionary families of
the Pokémon were based, 23 are Osteichthyes
class (88.46%), two are Condrichthyes (7.7%)
and one is Petromyzontida (3.84%). If the
games follow a pattern of introducing more fish
Pokémon over time, it is expected that these
proportions will gradually become more
equivalent as each new generation of the
franchise is released.
Figure 29. Representativeness of fish families in
Our analysis shows that fish Pokémon are
very diverse creatures, both taxonomic and
ecologically, despite being a small group within
the Pokémon universe (with 801 “species”).
The fish Pokémon are represented by
several orders, families and genera of real
fishes and, as previously stated, this is actually
a relevant sampling of the ichthyological
diversity of our planet. The marine Pokémon
described here are inhabit from abyssal zones
to coastal regions, including reefs. The creative
process of the fish monsters in the game must
have included a fair share of research on real
Figure 30. Representativeness of fish genera in Pokémon.
The Hoenn region, which has the largest
playable surface and includes areas with “too
much water”, is also the region with the highest
number of fish Pokémon. Furthermore, the
majority of these Pokémon live in the marine
environment and belongs to the Osteichthyes
class, as is observed for real fishes (Nelson et
al., 2016; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). However, it is
also important to underline that marine fishes
are those with the more attractive colors and
shapes and, therefore, higher popular appeal,
which is vital for a game based in charismatic
Ichthyological diversity of Pokémon
Journal of Geek Studies 4(1): 3967. 2017. 59
monsters (Darwall et al., 2011; McClenachan,
2012; Dulvy et al., 2014).
Figure 31. Environments inhabited by the fish Pokémon.
In the present work, the analogy between
fish Pokémon and real species allowed a
descriptive study of the “Pokéfauna” in a
similar manner in which actual faunal surveys
are presented. These surveys are an important
tool for understanding the structure of
communities and to evaluate the conservation
status of natural environments (Buckup et al.,
2014). It is noteworthy that the association of
the monsters with real fishes was only possible
because Pokémon have several morphological,
ecological and ethological traits that were
based on real species.
Pokémon is a successful franchise and many
of its staple monsters are already part of the
popular imaginary. The creation of the pocket
monsters was not done in a random manner;
they were mostly inspired by real organisms,
particularly animals, and often have specific
biological traits taken from their source of
inspiration. Thus, analogies between Pokémon
and our natural world, such as the ones
performed here, open a range of possibilities
for science outreach.
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Augusto Mendes began his journey as a
Pokémon trainer in his childhood, when his parents
gave him a green Game Boy Color with Pokémon
Red for Christmas. Currently, he is a master’s
degree student in the Program of Marine Biology
and Coastal Environments of UFF, where he works
with zooarchaeology of fishes and education.
Felipe Guimarães is in love with Pokémon
(since he first watched the TV series) and the
natural world. He graduated in Biology from the
UERJ, where he worked with taxonomy and ecology
of fishes. He also works with popularization of
science and environmental education.
Clara Eirado-Silva, when she was eight years
old, told her parents she would study sharks. She
has always been passionate about art too and draw
since her childhood. Currently, she holds a “Junior
Science” scholarship, working on fishing ecology
with emphasis on reproductive biology. In her free
time, she draws her much loved fishes.
Although Pokémon is not exactly Dr. Edson
Silva’s cup of tea, he watched all movies with his
daughter, who’s crazy about the little monsters. As
fate would have it, his work on population genetics
of marine organisms attracted a master’s student
(A.B.M.) who’s an equally crazy pokéfan. May
Arceus not spare him from the monsters!
... Most monsters in Pokémon are based on real animals (see, for instance, Tomotani, 2014;Mendes et al., 2017;Kittel, 2018), so the goal of this article is to present those based on mollusks. Some of them were just broadly based on a larger group of mollusks, such as 'octopuses', while others seem to have been inspired by particular species. ...
... As a last note, Octillery is the evolution of Remoraid, which is a remora, a type of fish ( Mendes et al., 2017). Again, we know that "evolution" in Pokémon bears no resemblance to biological reality, but this might be taking the craziness a tad bit too far. ...
... Roes are egg masses of fish and certain marine animals, such as urchins, shrimp, and even scallops. Even though some mollusks produce eggs, both of Clamperl's evolved forms, Huntail and Gorebyss, are actually fish-like Pokémon ( Mendes et al., 2017), which clarifies its true nature . This pink egg rests on what seems to be a soft, bluish pillow with stubby projections. ...
... A ideia é que este texto demonstre um pouco sobre esse reino que, mesmo pouco representativo em termos numéricos, está presente no mundo de Pokémon. Trabalhos como os de Prado e Almeida (2017), Mendes et al. (2017), Kittel (2018), Mendes et al. (2018) e Rezende (2018), trazem como temática principal ou transversal as inspirações de alguns dos monstrinhos. ...
... Prado e Almeida (2017) fazem correlações entre os Pokémon e artrópodes do mundo real, Mendes et al. (2017) usam comparações entre os peixes e Pokémon baseados nesse grupo animal, Kittel (2018) traz os insetos como tema para discussão do universo de Pokémon, Mendes et al. (2018), em artigo publicado em língua portuguesa, falam sobre as variações do Pokémon peixe Magikarp e sua correlação com as carpas koi, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cypriniformes:Cyprinidae), e, por último, Rezende (2018) faz comparações entre Pokémon fósseis e os animais aos quais eles foram inspirados. Todos esses trabalhos demonstram que Pokémon é uma franquia que se baseia muito no mundo real para a criação de seus monstrinhos. ...
... A metodologia deste trabalho foi elaborada com base na utilizada por Mendes et al. (2017). Iniciei a pesquisa com as informações obtidas no website Bulbapedia (2019) Nos websites foram buscados Pokémon, que por sua morfologia assemelhaam-se a fungos. ...
Full-text available
O presente artigo tem como objetivo demonstrar como os fungos podem ser fontes de inspiração para a criação dos jogos eletrônicos da franquia Pokémon. Para tanto, coletei informações referentes aos personagens dos jogos e as influências fúngicas presentes em seus designs e características morfológicas, fisiológicas e ecológicas. Ao, total foram encontrados dez Pokémon baseados em fungos, alocados nas ordens: Agaricales, Hypocreales e Pezizales, grande parte deles possuindo o tipo Grass. Concluo que os jogos eletrônicos, enquanto produções culturais de grande popularização, podem ser uma ferramenta para auxiliar na proteção da biodiversidade, pois é conhecendo que se criam afetos para proteger o ambiente.
... No jogo, o personagem principal, controlado pelo jogador, é um criador de Magikarp da cidade de Hoppy Town, onde pessoas treinam seus Magikarp para competições de salto. Magikarp é inspirado na carpa-comum, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), espécie largamente comercializada na aquicultura para fins ornamentais, sendo conhecida nesse caso como carpas coloridas, nishikigoi ou koi (BALON, 1995;MENDES et al., 2017). ...
... Em síntese, a criação dos Pokémon não foi realizada fortuitamente, mas inspirada em seres vivos reais, principalmente em animais e, muitas vezes, tomando também características biológicas reais desses animais. Assim, a franquia possui características que possibilitam o seu uso como ferramenta didática e de divulgação científica, principalmente para o ensino e popularização de temas relacionados à Ecologia, Zoologia, biodiversidade, conservação e Educação Ambiental (BALMFORD et al., 2002;GIBSON, 2002;BAINBRIDGE, 2013;BAINBRIDGE, 2014;ALEXANDRE & DA-SILVA, 2016;LAMEGO et al., 2016;DORWARD et al., 2017;LOPES & LOPES, 2017;MENDES et al., 2017;PRADO & ALMEIDA, 2017). Foi nesse sentido que este trabalho pretendeu contribuir. ...
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Pokémon é uma franquia japonesa lançada em 1996 que apresenta diversas criaturas baseadas, em sua maioria, em animais reais. Recentemente a franquia voltou a ser um grande fenômeno mundial com a estreia de "Pokémon Go", um jogo para smartphones. Seguindo a tendência de jogos para celulares foi lançado, em 2017, "Pokémon: Magikarp Jump", que gira em torno da criatura Magikarp, inspirada na carpa-comum, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, espécie de peixe amplamente comercializada para fins ornamentais, sendo conhecida nesse caso como carpa colorida, nishikigoi ou koi. Assim como no mundo real onde há diversas variedades de koi, o jogo apresenta, até a presente versão, 33 padrões de coloração de Magikarp. Assim, neste trabalho foram comparados os padrões encontrados no Pokémon com as carpas nishikigoi. Os resultados indicaram a relação de 23 padrões de coloração de Magikarp com 13 variedades de carpas coloridas e, além disso, aspectos etológicos e ecológicos da aquicultura de carpas reais foram identificados no jogo. Analogias como a realizada neste trabalho (mundo Pokémon x mundo biológico natural) abrem uma gama de possibilidades na abordagem de temas em Ciências e Biologia, bem como se constituem em importantes ferramentas de divulgação/popularização científica. Abstract Nishikigoi Jump: color patterns of Pokémon Magikarp and its relationship with the varieties of koi Pokémon is a Japanese franchise released in 1996 that features several creatures based mostly on real animals. Recently, the franchise has once again become a major hit with the debut of "Pokémon Go", a game for smartphones. Following the trend of games for mobile phones it was released, in 2017, "Pokémon: Magikarp Jump", which presents the creature Magikarp, inspired on the common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, a fish species widely used for ornamental purposes and known as colored carp, nishikigoi or koi. Just as in the real world where there are several varieties of koi, the game presents, until the present version, 33 color patterns of Magikarp. In this work the color patterns found in the Pokémon and in nishikigoi carp were compared. The results indicated that 23 patterns of Magikarp were related with 13 varieties of colored carp. In addition, ethological and ecological aspects of aquaculture of real carps were identified in the game. Analogies such as those done in this work (Pokémon world x natural biological world) can be used in different approaches to Science popularization.
... A comparação entre os organismos reais e os imaginários é a forma mais utilizada de transmitir ciência por meio desta ferramenta. Isso tem sido aplicado para diversos grupos biológicos, tanto nas redes sociais (e.g., visite o perfil @insetoepop para saber um pouco mais sobre os Pokémon do tipo inseto), quanto em artigos destinados à geek-cientistas - Hörmanseder et al. (2019) para grupos fósseis, Goulart (2019) para fungos, Mendes et al. (2017) para peixes, Prado e Almeida (2017) para insetos, Goulart (2020) para plantas carnívoras e cactos, entre outros. A diversidade de personagens que a franquia possui é a peça chave para o uso desse agente. ...
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O conhecimento gerado pela ciência ganha a chance de ser difundido fora dos muros da academia por meio da divulgação científica. Não só o público leigo passa a ter conhecimento de novos achados como também surgem discussões sobre o assunto, aumentando a sua popularização e o entendimento de que a ciência "está entre nós". O sucesso da divulgação científica está na forma como as informações são passadas, sendo, normalmente, utilizadas ferramentas que despertem curiosidade. Dessa forma, para aproximar o cientista do público não-acadêmico, são utilizados diversos meios de comunicação e a informação passa a circular por diferentes "universos".
... Fakémon é um termo de propriedade da THE POKÉMON COMPANY (2020) criado para designar um Pokémon não oficial (BULBAPEDIA, 2020), os quais são, em sua maioria, criados por fãs. O objetivo central deste trabalho é propor uma experiência contrária ao que vem sendo feito, que é relacionar os Pokémon existentes a espécies reais (para peixes, ver MENDES et al., 2017;para aves marinhas, ver RANGEL et al., 2020; para plantas da ordem Caryophyllales, ver GOULART, 2020). Aqui nós propomos a criação de Fakémon como uma forma de exercitar os conceitos morfológicos, ecológicos e filogenéticos que envolvem Tovomita e seus gêneros relacionados. ...
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A utilização de personagens de desenhos infantis para a Divulgação Científica e/ou no processo de ensino-aprendizagem, comparando-os com grupos biológicos, não é novidade. Aqui nós propusemos uma experiência contrária ao que vem sendo feito: a criação de Fakémon como uma forma de exercitar os conceitos morfológicos, ecológicos e filogenéticos que envolvem um grupo de espécies de plantas, Tovomita e seus gêneros relacionados da família Clusiaceae. A criação de personagens a partir de um conteúdo mais denso e pouco acessível para a população não acadêmica torna-se uma ferramenta eficaz na busca pelo entendimento e esclarecimento sobre as estruturas morfológicas, relevância ecológica e relacionamentos filogenéticos. Essa metodologia pode ser aplicada a qualquer grupo biológico.
... Além do artigo já citado sobre fungos, outros merecem menções, como o de MENDES et al. (2017), que aborda os Pokémon peixes, e o de KITTEL (2018), que discute a presença de insetos na franquia, entre outros trabalhos que estudam a presença de organismos vivos em Pokémon (PRADO & ALMEIDA, 2017;MENDES et al., 2018;REZENDE, 2018). Este trabalho está dentro do que se convencionou chamar de Botânica Cultural, disciplina que busca estudar variadas formas de apresentação das plantas em diferentes manifestações da cultura, incluindo a utilização nas esferas religiosa, midiática, artística, econômica, etc. Porém, a nível de distinção, não se trata de uma etnociência, pois não há a necessidade de se ter um contato direto com a cultura estudada, diferentemente do que ocorre com a Etnobotânica (GOULART, 2019a). ...
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The present work aims to bring a look to carnivorous plants and cactus in electronic games franchise Pokémon from Cultural botany. To this collected information related to games characters and their plants characteristics in their designs and morphological, physiological and ecological characteristics. It has been found seven Pokémon that was based in order Caryophyllales. The conclusion is that the media will be important tools to popularize the knowledge about the biodiversity in our planet.
... A recent paper compared Pokémon spawning rates in the mobile game Pokémon GO to cancer initiation in the body for no apparent reason other than to attract readers and/or as a fan homage (Ma and Moraes 2016). Other authors wrote a thoroughly referenced paper titled "Th e Ichthyological Diversity of Pokémon" for Th e Journal of Geek Studies, using Pokémon to share fi sh facts with general science enthusiasts (Mendes et al. 2017). I wrote a satirical paper on Pokémon phylogenetics for the science humor journal Annals of Improbable Research more than fi ve years ago (Shelomi et al. 2012), and I still get letters requesting copies of its phylogeny for use in teaching evolution or as gifts for scientist fans. ...
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This article is a cultural entomological review of insects in video games, first presented at the “Insects and the Global Human Experience” symposium at the 2016 Inter- national Congress of Entomology. The title incorporates the term “ludology” (from the Latin ludere, “to play”), meaning the study of games in general, such as rules of play or the functioning of software (Frasca 1999). My goal for this study was to review the myriad forms in which terrestrial arthropods appear in video games (Cassel 2016). How do societal views about different insects, positive or negative, shape whether and how they appear in games? This analysis, spanning video games from their origin to the present, highlights general trends and some iconic or significant representations of gaming’s entomology-re- lated content.
... Resultados de algunas investigaciones dentro de Geek Studes dan cuenta que la catarsis que ocurre dentro de las narraciones del videojuego se vuelve un elemento fundamental para comprender la manera en que menores de edad y adolescentes se apropian de una determinada idea del mundo (Mendes, Guimaraes, Clara, Eirado-Silva, Silva, 2017;Krcmar, 2011). Los menores, varones en su mayoría, interactúan a través de las figuras y personalidades de los personajes más violentos que se pueden elegir dentro de distintos títulos de juego de video para experimentar emociones y sensaciones de las que no gozan en la vida real (Bonello, 2015;Tocci, 2010). ...
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El presente trabajo desarrolla un estado del arte internacional sobre el estudio académico del videojuego desde el punto de vista las Ciencias Sociales, centrando su atención en el campo de la comunicación. El objetivo de este estudio documental consiste en dar cuenta del trabajo científico sobre el juego digital realizado por grupos y centros de investigación conformados de forma interdisciplinaria al interior de diversas universidades; además estriba en mostrar algunas de las más importantes tendencias y asimetrías que prevalecen en su estudio. Si bien este trabajo da cuenta del creciente interés por comprender de manera crítica y desde distintas posturas epistemológicas al videojuego, también se estima una ruta para comprender la incorporación del mismo hacia horizontes cada vez más amplios dentro de las Ciencias Sociales.
... examples including arthropods, Coelho (2000Coelho ( , 2004 studied insect references in lyrics and cover art of rock music albums, Castanheira et al. (2015) analyzed the representation of arthropods in cinematographic productions, Salvador (2016) studied the biology of giant centipedes in the Gears of War game franchise, and Da-Silva & Campos (2017) analyzed the representation of ants in the Ant-Man movie. There are even some science outreach works about the Pokémon franchise as the analysis of the ichthyological diversity in the Pokémon world (Mendes et al., 2017) and the study of the group of birds popularly called "robins" represented in the game (Tomotani, 2014). ...
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The similarity of some morphological characteristics between living beings, mainly animals, and the Pokémon, was one of the formulas for the great success, since 1995, of the famous Pocket Monsters. They were created with the purpose of being collected, thus conferring a range of structures and flashy colorings such as horns, claws, stripes throughout the body, exotic appearance and other characteristics commonly found in animals that, although they belong to a fictitious environment, partially obey the natural and biological laws of the real world. Fossils, uncommon for much of the public, also bring a wide variety of forms that, when compared to the species found today, instills curiosity about palaeodiversity. In the world of Pokémon, the fossils are represented by two groups, the invertebrates with eight taxa, and the vertebrates with 13. About the invertebrates analyzed, a greater variety of taxonomic groups representing different geological periods were identified. This way, the morphological and systematic comparisons help and popularize the interest in paleontology through fossils highlighted in Pokémon, which can be used as a tool for scientific dissemination, promoting greater accessibility of content inside and outside academic environments.
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We studied the time of initial sexual maturity and the fecundity of the goldfish Carassius auratus under semi-controlled conditions. During the study the water temperature fluctuated from 21 to 30°C, the pH between 7 and 8, and the dissolved oxygen between 5.5 and 7 ppm. Sixty days old juvenile fish received prophylactic treatments of brackish water (15 ‰) and methylene blue baths (1 %), and they were fed with live Daphnia magna. The initial sexual maturity occurred between 225 and 233 days of captivity. Mean absolute fecundity was 2 347 (± 302.2 SD) ova per gonad, and mean relative fecundity was 63.44 eggs/g fish weight. Gonadosomatic index was between 7.5 and 9.0. Our data will allow ornamental fish producers to calculate the time of initial maturity and fecundity for this species.
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The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of heavy metals on an important tissue of two fish species Cyprinus carpio and Wallago attu, sampled from the Indus river, Mianwali District, Pakistan. The concentration of selected heavy metals Fe, Cr, Cu, and in gills, muscles, kidney and liver was compared with an International standard of food fish. The overall metal concentrations among different weight categories in C. carpio were in the order of Fe > Cu > Cr >. In W. attu the overall accumulation of these metals were, in order of Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb The order of accumulation of metals in gills and muscle of C. carpio was Fe > Cr > Pb > Cu; kidney and muscles of W. attu was Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb; liver Fe > Cu > Cr > Pb. An increasing trend of concentration of iron, copper, chromium and lead occurred with an increase in weight of C. carpio and W. attu. There was a significant difference in the accumulation of heavy metals in different organs of both species (p<0.01). All studied heavy metals except Cr were within permissible limits described by various international agencies like WHO, FAO and FEPA in edible tissues of C. carpio and W. attu.
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Although goldfish (Carassius auratus) is an important species for the ornamental fish industry, few data are available regarding the nutrient requirement of this species, with emphasis to mineral nutrition. Thus, we designed a 45-day feeding trial to evaluate the effect of dietary total phosphorus (P) levels on growth performance and carcass mineral composition of goldfish fingerlings. 210 goldfish with 1.18 ± 0.04 g were randomly stocked into 30 3L-aquaria in a completely randomized design. Test diets were formulated to contain the following dietary total P levels: 3.5, 6.5, 9.5, 12.5 and 15.5 g kg-1. Dietary P affected all growth parameters and carcass macrominerals deposition, however, the micromineral carcass composition was not affected. No P deficiency signs were observed throughout the experiment. The linear broken-line model best fitted to daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, P retention, and whole-body P concentration at 8.2, 11.4, 8.2, 11.4, 15.5 and 7.1 g kg-1 dietary P, respectively. An exponential model best fitted to phosphorus utilization data with an estimated requirement of 8.6 g kg-1. In sum, the use of total P levels between 7.13 and 11.4 g kg-1 in goldfish diets seems to meet the requirement for maximum growth, feed utilization and proper whole-body mineralization.
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Please visit the authors' website for this book: Fishes of the World, Fifth Edition is the only modern, phylogenetically based classification of the world’s fishes. The updated text offers new phylogenetic diagrams that clarify the relationships among fish groups, as well as cutting-edge global knowledge that brings this classic reference up to date. With this resource, you can classify orders, families, and genera of fishes, understand the connections among fish groups, organize fishes in their evolutionary context, and imagine new areas of research. To further assist your work, this text provides representative drawings, many of them new, for most families of fishes, allowing you to make visual connections to the information as you read. It also contains many references to the classical as well as the most up-to-date literature on fish relationships, based on both morphology and molecular biology. The study of fishes is one that certainly requires dedication—and access to reliable, accurate information. With more than 30,000 known species of sharks, rays, and bony fishes, both lobe-finned and ray-finned, you will need to master your area of study with the assistance of the best reference materials available. This text will help you bring your knowledge of fishes to the next level. - Explore the anatomical characteristics, distribution, common and scientific names, and phylogenetic relationships of fishes - Access biological and anatomical information on more than 515 families of living fishes - Better appreciate the complexities and controversies behind the modern view of fish relationships - Refer to an extensive bibliography, which points you in the direction of additional, valuable, and up-to-date information, much of it published within the last few years. 711 pages, Index, Bibliography
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Although goldfish (Carassius auratus) is an important species for the ornamental fish industry, few data are available regarding the nutrient requirement of this species, with emphasis to mineral nutrition. Thus, we designed a 45-day feeding trial to evaluate the effect of dietary total phosphorus (P) levels on growth performance and carcass mineral composition of goldfish fingerlings. 210 goldfish with 1.18 +/- 0.04 g were randomly stocked into 30 3L-aquaria in a completely randomized design. Test diets were formulated to contain the following dietary total P levels: 3.5, 6.5, 9.5, 12.5 and 15.5 g kg(-1). Dietary P affected all growth parameters and carcass macrominerals deposition, however, the micromineral carcass composition was not affected. No P deficiency signs were observed throughout the experiment. The linear broken-line model best fitted to daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, P retention, and whole-body P concentration at 8.2, 11.4, 8.2, 11.4, 15.5 and 7.1 g kg(-1) dietary P, respectively. An exponential model best fitted to phosphorus utilization data with an estimated requirement of 8.6 g kg(-1). In sum, the use of total P levels between 7.13 and 11.4 g kg(-1) in goldfish diets seems to meet the requirement for maximum growth, feed utilization and proper whole-body mineralization.
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New records of occurrence of two snipe eels (Avocettina bowersii and Nemichthys scolopaceus), poorly known for the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Panama are herein reported. Specimens, 45 in total (28 and 17, respectively), were collected between 1972 and 1973 at depths between 295 and 1000 m. Descriptions based on specimens as well as comparative morphometric and distributional information by species are herein presented and discussed. A key to the identification of the eastern Pacific species of the family also is presented. These findings increase the knowledge on the Central American marine ichthyofauna and provide evidence of a broader distributional pattern for these species in the eastern Pacific region.
The facial lobe (FL) of the catfish Silurus asotus is composed of paired structures which are anteriorly tapered and posteriorly swollen longitudinal columns. Two longitudinal columns (lobules) extend caudorostrally in the anterior one-third of the lobe. We studied the central projections of seven major taste peripheral rami into the FL with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) transganglionic labeling methods. The facial afferent fibers of the maxillary barbel ramus terminate over a large area of the FL from anterior to posterior. Their terminal areas are distributed in the medial lobule of the anterior FL, ventral half of the intermediate FL, and lateral portion of the posterior FL. The maxillary and mandibular fibers project, respectively, to the most lateral portion and to the overall region of the caudal half of the FL. The recurrent facial fibers project to the dorsolateral lobule of the anterior FL. The facial fibers of the hyomandibular and ophthalmic rami project to the most lateral portions in the intermediate region of the rostrocaudal extent of the FL. The intermediate nucleus of the FL which develops as a longitudinal column throughout the caudal two-thirds of the ventromedial portion of the FL receives projections from the maxillary barbel, maxillary and mandibular rami. The present results show that each peripheral taste ramus projects in a precise topographic fashion to the ipsilateral Fl, and that the two lobules, one for maxillary barbel and the other for the trunk are present in the anterior one-third of the FL. The trigeminal fibers of the maxillary barbel, maxillary and mandibular rami project to certain areas of the FL where the facial fibers of each ramus also project.
It is unclear whether the high variance of electromyographic parameters measured in feeding teleost fishes reflects functionally significant motor variation that is under control of the fish, or functionally insignificant variation characteristic of EMG data. We addressed this issue by examining the effect of three prey, differing in physical characteristics, on the feeding motor pattern in three fishes of the Order Tetraodontiformes: the filefish, Monacanthus hispidus; the triggerfish, Balistes capriscus; and the puffer, Sphoeroides nephelus. EMG recordings were made from subdivisions of the mouth closing adductor mandibulae muscle and the mouth opening levator operculi muscle in four fish from each species feeding on live fiddler crabs, live shrimp, and pieces of cut squid mantle. Analysis of variance was used to test for effects of prey type on the standard deviation of muscle burst duration, burst onset time, and average burst amplitude in the adductor muscles. The filefish exhibited a doubling of standard deviation of burst duration in all muscles when feeding on fiddler crabs; triggerfish showed increased standard deviations in onset times and duration of two muscles when feeding on squid mantle; and the puffer showed no effects of prey on motor variability. The observation that prey type can elicit more than a doubling in the standard deviation of some EMG traits indicates that a large portion of the within-prey type variance is under direct control of the individual fish, suggesting an even greater level of fine motor control in teleost feeding mechanisms than previously recognized. J. Exp. Zool. 286:563-571, 2000. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.