Article

Antiobesity effect of Benincasa hispida fruit extract in high fat diet fed wistar albino rats

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Abstract

Aim: The study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Benincasa hispida (EEBH) and its active fraction (AFBH) on high fat diet fed rats. Methods: Male wistar rats (200±10g) were divided into five groups of 6 rats. Group I (Normal control), Group II (High fat diet(HFD), Group III (HFD+300mg/kg ethanolic fruit extract), Group IV (HFD+100mg/kg active fraction from ethanolic fruit extract) and Group V (HFD+25mg/kg Orlistat (drug control). After induction of High fat diet, Physical parameters such as body weight, organ weight, fat pad weight, anthropometric parameters were measured. Biochemical parameters such as serum lipid profile, Glucose, insulin, Homeostatic insulin resistance (HOMOIR), Free fatty acids, Phospholipids, homocysteine, apolipoprotein-B(Apo-B), leptin and adiponectin levels were analysed. Enzyme parameters such as Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Creatinine kinase (CK) and lipase were analysed. Histopathological changes in the adipose tissue were identified using haemotoxylin eosin stain and similarly histopathological changes in the liver were identified using haemotoxylin eosin stain and oil red O staining. Results: Active fraction of Benincasa hispida showed better result in reducing lipid levels such as cholesterol and Triglycerides (TG), Low density lipoprotein (LDL), free fatty acids, Phospholipids, Insulin, HOMO-IR, leptin and enzyme levels. Homocysteine and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) was an important cardioprotective marker. These parameters also were reduced in AFBH and EEBH treated groups, EEBH and AFBH increases HDL and adiponectin levels, when compared with HFD fed groups. Antilipidemic activity was observed with AFBH. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. All rights reserved.

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... Total protein and free amino acids have concentrations of 216.400 and 92.549 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively. 23 It exhibits a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, 24 neuromodulatory, 25 anti-aging, 26 immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, 27 anti-obesity, 28 antiulcer, 29 anti-oxidant, 30 angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory, 31 diuretic, nephroprotective, 32 5α-reductase inhibitory/anti-androgenic, anti-angiogenesis 33 and antimicrobial. 34 It also inhibits the mRNA expression level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and ed NF-κB activation by blocking the phosphorylation and degradation of its inhibitory protein, IκB-α in human. ...
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Introduction: Protein-derived biogenic syntheses of inorganic nanoparticles have gained immense attention because of their broad spectrum of applications. Proteins offer a reducing environment to enable the synthesis of nanoparticles and encapsulate synthesized nanopar-ticles and provide them temporal stability in addition to biocompatibility. Methods: In the present study, Benincasa hispida fruit proteins were used to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 37 °C over five days of incubation. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, zeta potential, and DLS analyses. Further, these NPs depicted antibacterial and antibiofilm effects. Additionally, the anticancer activities of nanoparticles were also tested against the lung cancer cell line (A549) with respect to the normal cell line (NRK) using MTT assay. Further, the estimation of ROS generation through DCFH-DA staining along with a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential by Mito Tracker Red CMX staining was carried out. Moreover, nuclear degradation in the AgNPs treated cells was cross-checked by DAPI staining. Results: The average size of AgNPs was detected to be 27 ±1 nm by TEM analysis, whereas surface encapsulation by protein was determined by FTIR spectroscopy. These NPs were effective against bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteric, and Staphylococcus epidermis with MICs of 148.12 µg/mL, 165.63 µg/mL, 162.77 µg/mL, and 124.88 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, these nanoparticles inhibit the formation of biofilms of E. coli, S. aureus, S. enteric, and S. epidermis by 71.14%, 73.89%, 66.66%, and 64.81%, respectively. Similarly, these nanoparticles were also found to inhibit (IC50 = 57.11 µM) the lung cancer cell line (A549). At the same time, they were non-toxic against NRK cells up to a concentration of 200 µM. Discussion: We successfully synthesized potentially potent antibacterial, antibiofilm and anticancer biogenic AgNPs.
... Traditionally, its fruits have also been used to treat a range of disorders including dyspepsia, blood disease, jaundice, fever, urinary calculi, insanity, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and menstrual disorders [11]. A wide range of biological activities reveals its anti-addictive [12], anti-angiogenesis [13], anti-compulsive [10], anticonvulsant [14], antidiabetic [15], anti-infl ammatory [16], antimicrobial [17], antinociceptive [18], anti-obesity [19], antioxidant [20], antipyretic [21], anti-ulcer [22], Journal of Planar Chromatography 32 (2019) 6 antiurolithic [23], diuretic [24], hepatoprotective [25], immunomodulatory [26], and nephroprotective activities [27]. Phytochemical fi nding reported that its fruits are a good source of natural sugars, amino acids, organic acids, mineral elements, and vitamins [28]. ...
Article
Background: Ayurvedic medicines show great promise due to their holistic approach in the treatment of diseases. However, proper standardization is necessary for their integration into mainstream medicine. One such well-known Ayurvedic trailing herb is Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. Its fruit contains numerous secondary metabolites, including quercetin, and is used to treat urinary calculi, blood disease, insanity, epilepsy, jaundice, dyspepsia, fever, and menstrual disorders. Objective: The current investigation was undertaken to develop and validate a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible method for quantifying quercetin in the hydroalcoholic extract of B. hispida fruit pulp (HABH). Materials and methods: The pre-coated thin-layer chromatography (TLC) aluminum plates with silica gel 60 F254 were used with solvent system comprising toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (5:4:0.2, V/V). Determination and quantification were performed by densitometric scanning using a deuterium lamp in the absorbance mode at 262 nm. The validation of precision, accuracy, and reproducibility of the developed high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method were done as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Results: The mobile phase used for the development of HPTLC/TLC plate yields a distinct band for quercetin (RF = 0.392). The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the method were found to be 20 and 60 ng per band, respectively. The quantified quercetin content was found to be 193.77 ± 2.86 µg in 10 mg of HABH, i.e., 1.94% w/w of HABH. Conclusion: This HPTLC method can be successfully employed for the standardization and quantitative analysis of quercetin in formulation containing B. hispida fruit pulp and it will be helpful in the quality control/assurance of such formulations.
... The stomatal indexes are 80.86 ± 2.59 and 32.39 ± 5.11 on the lower and upper epidermises respectively (Table 1). Gill et al., 2010), anti-obesity (Zhang, 1996;Kumar and Vimalavathini, 2004;Nadhiya et al., 2016) and anti-diarrheal agent (Ammon et al., 1974;Gaginella et al., 1975;Mathad et al., 2005). The fruits contain volatile oils, flavonoids, glycosides, sacchrides, proteins, carotenes, vitamins, minerals, ß-sitosterin and uronic acid (Nurul et al., 2011). ...
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The morphological and anatomical studies of Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn. from Nigeria was carried out with the view to reporting morphological and anatomical characteristics for the first time. Physical and microscopic (microtomy) observations were used. B. hispida is a monoecious climbing or trailing herb, stem hairy, 5-angled, with suborbicular stipuliform bract at the petiole-base; leaves simple, very hairy on both surface, alternate, blade palmately or ovate in young plant, base cordate. Flowering occurs between April and May. Female flowers solitary, male flowers solitary or in a slender-pedunculate racemes, petals-5, cream, yellow or pale yellow, ovary ellipsoid, ovules many, stigma 3-lobed and stamen 3. Fruits are large, weighs 8.5 - 9.0 kg, succulent, densely hairy when young, with a thick waxy deposit when mature, cylindrical to oblong with hairy stalk. Seeds are ovate-obovate, cream. Leaves and petals of male flower are amphistomatic with anomocytic, tetracytic and anisocytic stomata while petals of the female flower are hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata only on the abaxial surface. It has glandular and non-glandular trichomes with uniseriate stalk, clavate and multicellular gland heads. The midrib, petiole, stem, tendril, male and female flower stalks and tendril have hollow pith with 3, 9, 6-7, 16, 14 and 10 bicollateral vascular bundles respectively. The percentage crude protein, ash, carbohydrate, lipid, crude fibre, alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin and phytate could account for the numerous medicinal properties.
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the safety of standardized 70% ethanolic extract of Benincasa hispida fruit pulp (HABH) in rodents. Chemical characterization of HABH has been done by GC-MS and dimethylsulfoxonium formyl methylide, l-(+)-ascorbic acid and 2,6-dihexadecanoate were identified as major compounds in the extract. Acute oral toxicity study of HABH was done according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline, by ‘up and down’ method, using the limit test at 2000 mg/kg, body weight in mice and were observed up to 14 days. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, HABH was administered to Wistar rats at doses of 1000, 200 and 40 mg/kg b. w. per day for 90 days. In acute toxicity study, there was no mortality and no behavioural signs of toxicity at the limit test dose level (2000 mg/kg b. w.). In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, there was no significant difference observed in the consumption of food and water, body weight and relative organ weights. Haematological, serum biochemical and urine analysis revealed the non-adverse effects of prolonged oral consumption of HABH. The histopathologic examination did not show any differences in vital organs. Based on our findings, HABH, at dosage levels up to 1000 mg/kg b. w., is non-toxic and safe for long term oral consumption.
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