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Ramariopsis robusta (Basidiomycota, Clavariaceae), a new European species similar to R. kunzei

  • Charles University, Faculty of Science (Prague, Czech Republic)

Abstract and Figures

The new species Ramariopsis robusta Matouš & Holec is described based on collections from the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The species is highly supported in a phylogenetic tree based on the 28S rDNA gene. Morphologically, it is distinguished by its robust and densely branched white to cream basidiomata often growing in fascicles, with wide, often flattened branches, and distinctly ornamented spores with up to 1.5 μm high spines. The most similar species R. kunzei differs by subtler, more sparsely branched basidiomata, lower spore ornamentation, smaller Q value and shorter basidia. The species is described in detail and figures showing its macro- and microcharacters are provided including SEM photographs of spores. Differences with the similar taxa R. kunzei (including its varieties), R. atlantica, R. bispora, R. tenuiramosa, R. biformis, R. rufipes and Clavaria lentofragilis are outlined. Ramariopsis atlantica is newly documented from Panama.
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Ramariopsis robusta (Basidiomycota, Clavariaceae),
a new European species similar to R.kunzei
1Charles University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany, Benátská 2, CZ-128 01 Praha 2,
Czech Republic
2Mycological Department, National Museum, Cirkusová 1740, CZ-193 00 Praha 9, Czech Republic
*corresponding author;
Matouš J., Holec J., Koukol O. (2017): Ramariopsis robusta (Basidiomycota,
Clavariaceae), a new European species similar to R. kunzei. – Czech Mycol. 69(1):
The new species Ramariopsis robusta Matouš & Holec is described based on collections from
the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The species is highly supported in a phylogenetic tree based on the
28S rDNA gene. Morphologically, it is distinguished by its robust and densely branched white to
cream basidiomata often growing in fascicles, with wide, often flattened branches, and distinctly or-
namented spores with up to 1.5 μm high spines. The most similar species R. kunzei differs by subtler,
more sparsely branched basidiomata, lower spore ornamentation, smaller Q value and shorter
basidia. The species is described in detail and figures showing its macro- and microcharacters are
provided including SEM photographs of spores. Differences with the similar taxa R. kunzei (includ-
ing its varieties), R. atlantica, R. bispora, R. tenuiramosa, R. biformis, R. rufipes and Clavaria
lentofragilis are outlined. Ramariopsis atlantica is newly documented from Panama.
Key words: ramarioid fungi, clavarioid fungi, taxonomy, phylogeny, 28S rDNA, Central Europe.
Article history: received 7 April 2017, revised 24 April 2017, accepted 25 April 2017, published
online 12 May 2017.
Matouš J., Holec J., Koukol O. (2017): Ramariopsis robusta (Basidiomycota,
Clavariaceae), nový druh z Evropy, podobný R. kunzei. – Czech Mycol. 69(1):
Nový druh Ramariopsis robusta Matouš & Holec je popsán na základě sběrů z České republiky
a Slovenska. Tento druh je silně podpořen ve fylogenetickém stromu na základě genu 28S rDNA. Mor-
fologicky je význačný robustními a hustě větvenými, bílými až krémovými plodnicemi, často rostou-
cími ve shlucích, se širokými, často zploštělými větvemi a výrazně ornamentovanými sporami s vý-
skytem ostnů dlouhých až 1,5 μm. Nejpodobnější druh R. kunzei se odlišuje subtilnějšími, řidčeji vět-
venými plodnicemi, méně výraznou ornamentikou spor, menší hodnotou Q a kratšími bazidiemi.
Druh je podrobně popsán a jeho makro- a mikroznaky jsou ukázány na fotografiích a kresbách, včet-
ně SEM fotografií spor. Jsou uvedeny rozdíly od podobných druhů R. kunzei (včetně jeho variet),
R. atlantica, R. bispora, R. tenuiramosa, R. biformis, R. rufipes aClavaria lentofragilis.DruhRa-
mariopsis atlantica je nově doložen z Panamy.
CZECH MYCOLOGY 69(1): 51–64, MAY 12, 2017 (ONLINE VERSION, ISSN 1805-1421)
Ramariopsis (Donk) Corner is a genus of saprotrophic fungi and potentially
biotrophic plant associates (Birkebak et al. 2013) with more or less branched,
rarely simple basidiomata (Corner 1950). Ramariopsis species mostly inhabit
grassland or shrub communities, rarely forests. Seventy-two legitimate
Ramariopsis names are registered (
However, some of the species treated as Ramariopsis probably belong to the
related genus Clavulinopsis Overeem 1923 (Petersen 1978, Birkebak et al. 2013).
The number of really existing species is unknown, as some of the described taxa
seem to be synonyms and others are poorly known. Some species are considered
cosmopolitan (e.g. Corner 1950, 1970, Petersen 1988) but it is highly probable
that detailed studies reveal the existence of vicariant populations or cryptic spe-
cies within them (Kautmanová et al. 2012, Birkebak et al. 2013).
Molecular studies dealing with Ramariopsis species have primarily been de-
voted to relations between ramarioid and clavarioid genera (Dentinger &
McLaughlin 2006). However, the phylogenetic relations within these groups are
still insufficiently known. At the species level, the most valuable works are those
by Kautmanová et al. (2012) and Birkebak et al. (2013).
In Europe, about 15 species of Ramariopsis are known based on more or less
reliable taxonomic literature (Corner 1950, 1970, Jülich 1984, Olariaga 2009,
Knudsen et al. 2012). The best known species is R. kunzei (Fr.) Corner, the type
species of Ramariopsis (Donk 1933). It is distinguished by its white, rather large,
multi-branched basidiomata and echinulate spores (Corner 1950, Olariaga 2009,
Knudsen et al. 2012). Its basidiomata are rather variable in size, way of branching
and colour tinges, which is reflected in the existence of seven varieties
( One of them, R. kunzei var. bispora Schild (Schild
1971), has recently been transferred to the rank of species as R. bispora (Schild)
Olariaga (Olariaga & Salcedo 2012). Other morphologically similar species are
R. atlantica Araujo-Neta, G.A. Silva & Gibertoni, R. tenuiramosa Corner, R. bi-
formis (G.F. Atk.) R.H. Petersen, and R. rufipes (G.F. Atk.) R.H. Petersen.
During field work in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 2013–2014, the first
author repeatedly found unusual basidiomata of a species tentatively identified
as R. kunzei, although possessing a large and robust stature and more prominent
spines on the spore surface. DNA sequence data showed that these collections
form a highly supported clade which stands apart from other collections labelled
as R. kunzei. Based on these findings we decided to describe the robust collec-
tions as a new species.
CZECH MYCOLOGY 69(1): 51–64, MAY 12, 2017 (ONLINE VERSION, ISSN 1805-1421)
C o l l e c t i o n s. Fresh material of the studied Ramariopsis species was col-
lected in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 2013–2014 as part of the diploma
thesis of the first author (JM). We also used collections from the PRM (National
Museum, Prague, Czech Republic) and BRA (Slovak National Museum,
Bratislava, Slovakia) herbaria. Voucher specimens are deposited in PRM, BRA
and PRC (Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic). Duplicates of some col-
lections are kept in the private herbarium of JM.
Morphology. The description of macrocharacters is based on fresh
basidiomata collected by JM and dried basidiomata and photographs of other
collectors. For the microscopic study, samples were put into 5% KOH for 15 min.,
then transferred to aqueous Congo Red and finally mounted in Melzer’s solution.
In each collection, we measured 30 spores, 5–15 basidia (depending on the fertil-
ity of the material), 20 hyphae (from several parts of the basidiomata) and about
10 replications of the width of hymenium and subhymenium. Microcharacters
were observed under oil immersion at a magnification of 1000× using an Olympus
BX51 light microscope equipped with an Olympus C50-50 digital camera and
measured by means of the QuickPhoto micro 3.0 software (Olympus, Japan). The
length/width quotient (Q) was calculated for each spore and the mean value (Qav)
was calculated from all spores measured. Basidiospore size is given as the pre-
vailing values with extremes (5 and 95 percentiles) in brackets. Immature and ex-
traordinary large spores were not measured.
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Dry, small, up to 10 mm
long pieces of branches were used for SEM. Samples were attached to an alu-
minium plate using a self-adhesive carbon disc and inserted into a vacuum cham-
ber, where they were coated with ionts of gold. The plate with samples was after-
wards studied under a Hitachi S-3700N scanning electron microscope. Photo-
graphs were taken using a digital camera.
DNA extraction, PCR and analyses (for details on usedspecimens,
see Tab. 1). For DNA extraction, several pieces of dried basidioma branches (1–2 cm
in length) were taken. DNA extraction was performed using a commercial kit (ZR
Plant/Seed DNA MiniPrep, Zymo Research, Orange, USA) and according to the
manufacturer’s instructions. The last step involving the elution of extracted ma-
terial was adapted. The elution buffer was preheated to 65° C, and a rather small
volume (22 μl) was used. The 28S rDNA region was amplified with primer pairs
NL1/NL4 (O’Donnell 1993). PCR purification was carried out using the Gel/PCR
DNA Fragments Extraction Kit (Geneaid Biotech Ltd., Bade City, Taiwan). Both
PCR fragments were sequenced in the Sequencing Laboratory of the Faculty of
Science, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic using the same primers.
Consensus sequences were constructed in the Geneious 6.1.5 software (Bio-
matters, Auckland, New Zealand).
The final alignment dataset comprised 26 sequences of 619 characters, of
which 91 were parsimony informative and 173 were variable. Alignment was per-
formed using the MAFFT algorithm implemented in the Geneious 6.1.5 software
and manually edited in the same software. Phylogenetic analysis was performed
by means of Bayesian inference using MrBayes version 3.2 (Ronquist et al. 2012)
and by means of Maximum likelihood analysis using the RAxML Web Server ver-
sion 7.7.1 (Stamatakis et al. 2008). For the Bayesian analysis, the best-fit model
TrN+G was determined using jModeltest version 2.1.5 (Darriba et al. 2012). Two
independent runs of 5,000,000 generations were run with sampling every 1000th
generation, with the first 25% of samples discarded as burn-in. Posterior probabil-
ities (PP) were used as Bayesian branch support for the consensus trees. The av-
erage standard deviation of split frequencies estimating convergence reached the
level of 0.002 at the end of the analysis. Mucronella pendula (Massee) R.H. Peter-
sen (Acc. Nr. HQ829921) was used as the outgroup. Maximum likelihood analysis
employing GTRCAT approximation was conducted on CIPRES Science Gateway
(Miller et al. 2010). Support for branching was calculated using a bootstrap test
with 1,000 replicates.
Ramariopsis robusta Matouš & Holec, sp. nov. Figs. 1–3
(MycoBank MB 821227)
H ol o ty p e. Slovakia, Biele Karpaty Mts., municipality of Nová Bošáca, settlement named Grúň,
48°53'42.860" N, 17°47'53.157" E, alt. 460 m, sloping extensively pastured meadow with scattered fruit
trees, 23 Oct. 2014, leg. & det. J. Matouš (PRM 945410).
I s o t y p e. PRC 3986.
P a r a t y p e s. See Collections studied.
E t y m o l o g y. The species name robusta”(fromrobustus) refers to the large and thick stature
of the basidiomata.
Diagnosis. Ramariopsis robusta is characterised by robust, dense and repeatedly branched
whitetocreambasidiomataupto95mmhighand50 mm wide, often growing in fascicles, with
branches reaching a diameter of up to 10 mm and axils up to 15 mm, often flattened, with usually el-
lipsoid to subglobose, verruculose to echinulate spores typical by irregularly distributed, up to 1.5 μm
high spines. The most similar species R. kunzei differs by more subtle, smaller, usually sparsely
branched basidiomata, narrower branches, spore ornamentation up to 1.0 μm high but usually less,
more globose spores and shorter usually up to 30 μm high basidia.
D es c ri pt ion. Basidiomata growing in small groups or gregariously in fasci-
cles of up to 150 mm wide, single basidiomata up to 95 mm high and 50 mm wide,
CZECH MYCOLOGY 69(1): 51–64, MAY 12, 2017 (ONLINE VERSION, ISSN 1805-1421)
Fig. 1. Ramariopsis robusta, fresh basidiomata. a–c – Grúň, Nová Bošáca, Slovakia (PRM 945410,
holotype); d– Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic (PRM 945424); e– Bříšejov, Czech Republic (PRM
945411); f– Panská Habrová, Czech Republic (PRM 933826). For details, see Collections studied.
Photo J. Matouš (a–c, e), M. Hamaďák (d), S. Flekrová (f).
CZECH MYCOLOGY 69(1): 51–64, MAY 12, 2017 (ONLINE VERSION, ISSN 1805-1421)
Fig. 2. Ramariopsis robusta, photographs of microcharacters. a– basidiospores (spores originate
from all collections studied); b– basidia; c– hymenium with basidia; d– thick-walled basidium; e, f
basidiospores in SEM. Scale bar for basidiospores = 10 μm. Scale bar for other structures = 20 μm.
Photo J. Matouš.
richly branched, usually white to pale creamy white or creamy, locally with yel-
lowish to ochraceous spots occurring mainly on injuries, axils of branches or in
older parts; dry basidiomata pale creamy, creamy or pale ochre, sometimes
darker to ochre towards base or apices of branches. Branches up to 10 mm wide,
3–6× dichotomously, trichotomously or polytomously branched, in axils up to
15 mm wide, cylindrical, often slightly to strongly flattened, axils U-shaped or
V-shaped, apices of branches rounded to subacute, often bifurcate. Sterile part
up to 15 mm wide, constituting 1/5–1/3 of the total basidioma height, and con-
colorous, or vaguely delimited and slightly darker than branches, creamy to
creamy-ochraceous. Flesh usually fragile, white, sometimes creamy. Taste mild,
smell indistinct or slightly fungoid. Macrochemical reactions not tested.
Spores (3.6)4.0–5.2(5.8) × (2.7)3.1–4.3(4.9) μm (av. 4.63 × 3.68 μm), Q = 1.02–1.55,
Qav = 1.26, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, rarely subglobose or drop-shaped, some-
times with distinct suprahilar depression, often containing one big drop, slightly
thick-walled, hyaline, non-amyloid, non-dextrinoid, strongly to very strongly orna-
mented with small and large ornaments present on one spore at the same time,
verruculose to echinulate with verrucae to obtuse spines 0.4–0.7 μm high and up to
0.7 μm wide, typically with even higher, irregularly distributed spines 1.0-1.5 μm
long and up to 1.6 μm wide (very rarely up to 2.0 μm wide) which lack in some
spores; hilar appendix very distinct, 0.5–1.2 μm long (av. 0.87). Basidia 22.5–39.5 ×
4.5–6.5 μm (av. 34 × 5.7 μm), hyaline, thin-walled, rarely thick-walled and up to
Fig. 3. Ramariopsis robusta, line drawings of microcharacters. a– basidia; b– basidiospores (sur-
face); c– basidiospores (outline). Scale bar for basidia = 20 μm. Scale bar for basidiospores = 10 μm.
Del. J. Matouš.
46 μm long, narrowly clavate to clavate, rarely almost cylindrical, tetrasporic, ex-
ceptionally bisporic, clamped, sterigmata 1.5–5.6 μm (av. 3.62 μm), up to 6 μm long
in bisporic basidia. Hymenium 27–40 μm thick. Subhymenium 12–22 μm thick,
formed by interwoven hyphae 1.9–3.9 μm (av. 3.03 μm) in diameter, clamped.
Hyphae of the branches parallel, with cells 1.8–8.4 μm wide (av. 4.69 μm), rarely in-
flated up to 8.0–17.5 μm, clamped. Hyphae of the stem interwoven, with cells 2–8 μm
wide (av. 4.17 μm), often with inflated cells 8–18 μm wide, clamped.
Tab. 1. Sequences used for constructing the phylogenetic tree.
Abbreviations: H – holotype, P – paratype, T – type (epitype or neotype).
Species Country Voucher 28S rDNA
Accession Nr.
Mucronella pendula Tasmania PBM 3437 HQ829921 Birkebak et al. (2013)
Ramariopsis atlantica Brazil URM 6985 KX227748 Araujo-Neta et al.
(in Hyde et al. 2016)
Ramariopsis atlantica HBrazil URM 84210 KX227747 Araujo-Neta et al.
(in Hyde et al. 2016)
Ramariopsis atlantica Brazil URM 84213 KX227746 Araujo-Neta et al.
(in Hyde et al. 2016)
Ramariopsis atlantica Panama PRC 3980 LT837965 This paper
Ramariopsis atlantica Panama PRM 945425 LT837964 This paper
Ramariopsis biformis USA JMB 10061006 HQ877712 Birkebak et al. (2013)
Ramariopsis cremicolor HNew Zealand RHP 55785 HQ877714 Birkebak et al. (2013)
Ramariopsis crocea Slovakia SAV F1255 GU299492 Kautmanová et al. (2012)
Ramariopsis crocea USA JMB 10071001 HQ877715 Birkebak et al. (2013)
Ramariopsis crocea
f. conspicua H
USA RHP 3595 HQ877716 Birkebak et al. (2013)
Ramariopsis kunzei Czech Republic BRA CR17281 LT837934 This paper
Ramariopsis kunzei Czech Republic PRM 935145 LT837931 This paper
Ramariopsis kunzei Czech Republic PRM 945415 LT837933 This paper
Ramariopsis kunzei Slovakia BRA CR15077 LT837935 This paper
Ramariopsis kunzei Slovakia BRA CR15092 LT837930 This paper
Ramariopsis kunzei
Slovakia BRA CR25735 LT837932 This paper
Ramariopsis pulchella TSlovakia BRA CR12765 GU299497 Kautmanová et al. (2012)
Ramariopsis pulchella Slovakia BRA CR12766 GU299496 Kautmanová et al. (2012)
Ramariopsis robusta PCzech Republic PRM 933826 LT837961 This paper
Ramariopsis robusta PCzech Republic PRM 945411 LT837958 This paper
Ramariopsis robusta PCzech Republic PRM 945424 LT837960 This paper
Ramariopsis robusta PSlovakia BRA CR3395 LT837963 This paper
Ramariopsis robusta PSlovakia BRA CR25525 LT837962 This paper
Ramariopsis robusta HSlovakia PRM 945410 LT837959 This paper
Ramariopsis tenuiramosa Wales GG 061104 EF535269 Unpublished
CZECH MYCOLOGY 69(1): 51–64, MAY 12, 2017 (ONLINE VERSION, ISSN 1805-1421)
E c o l o g y. Probably saprotrophic terricolous species of semi-natural, oligo-
trophic, extensively mowed or pastured, non-manured meadows and grasslands,
growing among grasses, herbs or mosses, at altitudes of 350–770 m.
D i s t r i b u t i o n. To date, the species has been well documented from seven
localities in Central Europe, 4 of them located in the Czech Republic and 3 in
Slovakia. There is also one molecularly documented record (see next chapter)
from the United Kingdom (Wales).
S ys te ma t ic p o s i t i on. The phylogenetic tree (Fig. 4) based on a large ribo-
somal subunit (28S rDNA) shows several well-supported lineages. Ramariopsis
atlantica and the newly described R. robusta form distinct, well-supported
clades basal to the whole genus.
Fig. 4. Phylogenetic tree from Bayesian analysis of the rDNA region of Ramariopsis species. Codes
following names represent vouchers, types are indicated. Thick branches indicate posterior proba-
bilities > 0.95. Values above branches represent ML bootstrap values (only values > 85 are shown).
Sequences obtained in this study are in bold.
The sequence EF535269 derived from a collection labelled as R. tenuiramosa
in GenBank is positioned in our R. robusta clade. It obviously represents a mis-
identification and provides evidence for the occurrence of R. robusta also in the
United Kingdom (Wales).
Within the R. robusta clade, two subclades can be distinguished. This fact
demonstrates certain genetic variability, which is however not expressed mor-
phologically. Nevertheless, there is a correlation with the geographic distribution
of the collections, as those from the Czech Republic and Wales are in one clade,
while those from Slovakia in the other one.
N o te s. The most important characters of Ramariopsis robusta are the ro-
bust, white to creamy, densely branched basidiomata with unusually broad
branches and spores with conspicuous ornamentation. The longest spines reach
1.5 μm. Such spines are not present on all spores and their distribution on one
particular spore is irregular. However, spores bearing them are regularly present
in all collections studied. The longest spines mostly occur in the upper spore part
(opposite to the hilar appendix; Figs. 2, 3).
As follows from our revision of herbarium material, the collections of R. robusta
have been identified as Ramariopsis kunzei (Fr.) Corner in the past. The mor-
phologically most similar species R. kunzei usually possesses white, smaller,
subtler, less densely branched basidiomata with narrower branches, and spores
with lower ornamentation usually reaching a height of up to 0.7 μm and smaller
Q values (1.02–1.35, Qav = 1.15). This means that spores of R. kunzei are more
globose than those of R. robusta. Rarely, some collections of R. kunzei exhibit an
ornamentation reaching up to 1 μm, which is however visible only on a minor
part of the spores. Basidia of R. kunzei are shorter, usually 19–30 μm long.
The currently recognised varieties of R. kunzei are not supported by molecu-
lar data, i.e. only their morphological differences can be discussed. The Euro-
pean Ramariopsis kunzei var. deformis Corner resembles R. robusta by its
growth in dense fascicles. However, it possesses smaller basidiomata (30–60 mm
high and broad) which are less densely branched and the branches are “de-
formed” (Corner 1950). Its spores do not differ from R. kunzei var. kunzei sensu
Corner (1950). The same facts relate to Ramariopsis kunzei var. favreae Corner
described from France, whose branches are distinctly “flattened, spathulate-
flabelliform or laminate (as a rudimentary Sparassis), often curved, the ultimate
branches horn-like with dentate or subcristate tips” (Corner 1950). Ramariopsis
kunzei var. megaspora Corner reported from Tibet, Borneo and the Solomon Is-
lands (Corner 1967, 1970) resembles R. robusta in having large, up to 120 mm
high basidiomata of a similar colour. However, the basidiomata become darker
(“alutaceous to dull fawn ochraceous”) when old and its spores, allegedly amy-
loid, are distinctly larger (5–6.5 × 4.3–5.7 μm), subglobose, smooth, asperulate to
CZECH MYCOLOGY 69(1): 51–64, MAY 12, 2017 (ONLINE VERSION, ISSN 1805-1421)
echinulate with shorter spines (0.3–0.7 μm). Its basidia are distinctly larger
(48–75 × 7–9.5 μm) with longer sterigmata (4.5–7 μm). Ramariopsis kunzei var.
subasperata Corner described from France (Corner 1950) clearly differs from
R. robusta by its very small (10–20 mm high), subtle, sparsely branched
basidiomata, finely ornamented spores (“very laxly and vaguely asperulate”) and
distinctly shorter basidia (18–24 × 4–4.5 μm). Ramariopsis kunzei var. sublaevi-
spora S.S. Rattan & Khurana, described from a mixed forest in the Sikkim Hima-
layas, India (Rattan & Khurana 1978), has rather large (up to 70 mm high and
50 mm broad), white basidiomata with rather robust stems, usually occurring sin-
gly and rarely in caespitose clusters. However, its branches are narrower (up to
3 mm) than in R. robusta and its spores are shorter [3.2–4.3(5) μm], subglobose
to globose with “somewhat angular outline” and finely ornamented (“point-like
markings on the surface”).
Finally, the European Ramariopsis bispora (Schild) Olariaga is a species for-
merly considered a variety of R. kunzei, from which it differs by bisporic basidia
and clampless hyphae (Olariaga 2009). Ramariopsis bispora differs from R. robusta
by these two characters and most of other characters typical for R. kunzei.
Interestingly, another species placed into close relationship of R. robusta,
Ramariopsis atlantica Araujo-Neta, G.A. Silva & Gibertoni, is a Neotropic spe-
cies with white basidiomata (Araujo-Neta et al. in Hyde et al. 2016). It is distinctly
smaller (up to 50 mm high and 32 mm wide) than R. robusta, without flattened
branches, straw-yellow after drying, with distinctly echinulate but smaller spores
(4 × 3 μm). This species was described from Atlantic rain forests in Brazil and
most recently documented from Panama. Two Ramariopsis specimens collected
by O. Koukol and P. Zehnálek in Chiriquí Province, Panama (see Collections stud-
ied) clearly represent this species, based on molecular and phenotypic data.
Ramariopsis robusta may be also misidentified as Clavaria lentofragilis
G.F. Atk., a name synonymised with R. kunzei by Corner (1950). The original de-
scription of C. lentofragilis (Atkinson 1908) nevertheless shows a fungus super-
ficially resembling R. robusta by its large basidiomata (up to 150 mm high, tufts
up to 120 mm broad), white branches with fragile tips and “oboval to subglobose”
spores measuring 4–6 μm. However, C. lentofragilis clearly differs from R. ro-
busta by less distinct spore ornamentation (asperulate only) and growth on rot-
ten wood. It has to be mentioned that Petersen (1969) used the combination
Ramariopsis lentofragilis, although it has never been validly published.
In view of the overall morphological plasticity of Ramariopsis species and
great variability of their basidiomata (even in the holotype specimens),
R. robusta is compared also with some unrelated species.Some collections of
Ramariopsis tenuiramosa Corner can superficially resemble R. robusta by the
white to cream colour of some basidiomata (Corner 1950, 1970). However,
R. tenuiramosa clearly differs from R. robusta by distinctly smaller (up to 35 mm
high), sparsely branched, slightly tough and pliant basidiomata which may be
darker (pale ochraceous, pale straw to yellowish drab) and possess narrow
branches (0.5–1 mm) and slightly smaller spores (3.5–4.5 × 3–3.5 μm) with finer
ornamentation (minutely verruculose or subechinulate, Corner 1950; distinctly
echinulate, Corner 1970). This species is reported from several continents (Cor-
ner 1950, 1970, Petersen 1964, Jülich 1984, Knudsen et al. 2012).
Ramariopsis biformis (G.F. Atk.) R.H. Petersen (Petersen 1964) is very simi-
lar to R. tenuiramosa (Corner 1970: 81, 82). It differs from R. robusta by dis-
tinctly smaller basidiomata (up to 20 mm high) which are simple to sparingly
branched and somewhat darker in colour (with grey tinges), and by its slightly
smaller spores (3.3–5.0 × 2.6–3.8 μm) with fine ornamentation (“very delicately
verruculose to echinulate”) and shorter basidia (15–25 μm) (Petersen 1964, based
on type study).
Ramariopsis rufipes (G.F. Atk.) R.H. Petersen is a white to cream species
having delicately verruculose to echinulate spores. It differs from R. robusta by
its smaller (up to 60 mm high and 30 mm wide), sparsely branched basidiomata,
sometimes with reddish spots when old and usually with a darker stipe coloured
brownish ochre (Olariaga 2009) or reddish (Petersen 1964). Moreover, its spores
are slightly longer [up to 6.2(7) μm], and therefore have a higher Q value (Qav =
1.37–1.52, Olariaga 2009; in R. robusta,Q
av is 1.26). Ramariopsis rufipes was
originally reported from North America (Corner 1950, 1970, Petersen 1964) but
has recently been found in southern Europe, too (Olariaga 2009).
Except for R. robusta records included here and studied in detail, there are
two potential records published online which could represent this species. The
collections by J. Gaisler (2010, 2012) from the vicinity of Liberec (northern Bohe-
mia, Czech Republic) look like a typical R. robusta. However, they should be
studied microscopically to verify this hypothesis. Similarly, all robust collections
of R. kunzei kept in herbaria should be revised, as some of them could represent
R. robusta.
Collections studied
Ramariopsis robusta
Czech Republic. West Bohemia, town of Mariánské Lázně, in park near Ferdinand Spring
Colonnade, 49°57'47.295" N, 12°42'24.370" E, alt. 580 m, mowed grassland with scattered deciduous
trees, 26 Oct. 2016, leg. M. Hamaďák, det. J. Matouš (PRM 945424). – Central Bohemia, village of
Bříšejov, ca 270 m NNW of bus stop, upper part of sloping, dry, occasionally mowed meadow,
49°42'21.865" N, 14°29'07.772" E, alt. ca 400 m, on the ground in grass, 23 Sept. 2014, leg. & det.
J. Matouš (PRM 945411). – North Bohemia, Liberec-Machnín, Hamrštejn Nature Reserve, 9 Aug. 2011,
leg. V. Kautman, det. J. Matouš (BRA CR17115 as R. kunzei). – East Bohemia, village of Panská
Habrová, urban area, garden, 50°10'58" N, 16°17'55" E, alt. 350 m, on grassy and mossy ground, under
Malus domestica, 15 Nov. 2014, leg. T. Tejklová, det. J. Matouš (PRM 933826 as R. kunzei).
S l o v a ki a. Biele Karpaty Mts., village of Nová Bošáca, settlement of Grúň, 48°53'42.860" N,
17°47'53.157" E, alt. 460 m, sloping, extensively pastured meadow with scattered fruit trees, 23 Oct.
CZECH MYCOLOGY 69(1): 51–64, MAY 12, 2017 (ONLINE VERSION, ISSN 1805-1421)
2014, leg. & det. J. Matouš (PRM 945410, holotype). – Nízke Tatry Mts., village of Malužiná, Michalovo
valley, alt. 770 m, mountain meadow, 24 Aug. 2002, leg. I. Kautmanová, det. J. Matouš (BRA CR3395
as R. kunzei,rev.asR. cf. lentofragilis). – Laborecká vrchovina Highlands, village of Vyšná Jablonka,
in pasture, 5 Oct. 2014, leg. V. Kautman, det. J. Matouš (BRA CR25525).
Ramariopsis atlantica
P a n a m a. Chiriquí Province, Boquete, Sendero Culebra, on the ground along pathway, 9 Jul.
2015, leg. O. Koukol & P. Zehnálek, det. J. Matouš (PRM 945425). – Ibid., 15 Jul. 2015, leg. O. Koukol &
P. Zehnálek, det. J. Matouš (PRC 3980).
Ramariopsis kunzei (sensu Olariaga 2009)
Czech Republic. CentralBohemia,BohemianKarst,village of Liteň, at Obora Pond, under
maples and ashes, on ground, 21 Aug. 2011, leg. & det. M. Kříž (PRM 935145). – North Bohemia, town
of Kosmonosy, Baba hill, deciduous forest, 8 Aug. 2011, leg. J. Gaisler, det. I. Kautmanová (BRA
CR17281). – East Moravia, Bílé Karpaty Mts., village of Vyškovec, Vlčí Nature Reserve, non-mowed
grassland with scattered fruit trees, 48°55'42.137" N, 17°51'22.034" E, alt. 673 m, on ground amongst
grass and moss, 24 Oct. 2014, leg. & det. J. Matouš (PRM 945415).
S l o v a k i a. Malé Karpaty Mts., village of Chtelnica, Plešivá hora hill, 48°34'22" N, 17°35'44" E, alt.
350 m, 12 Sept. 2010, leg. I. Kautmanová & V. Kautman, det. I. Kautmanová (BRA CR15077). – Považský
Inovec Mts., village of Banka near the town of Piešťany, Vápeništia, in pasture and shrubs, 48°34'29" N,
17°51'46" E, alt. 220 m, 29 Sept. 2010, leg. V. Kautman & V. Kučera, det. I. Kautmanová (BRA CR15092).
Ramariopsis kunzei var. bispora
S l ov aki a. Stolické vrchy Mts., village of Muránska Huta, Predná Hora recreation area, old ski
slope, 3 Oct. 2014, leg. V. Kautman, det. J. Matouš (BRA CR25735 as R. kunzei).
We thank the following people for providing data on localities and records of
R. robusta (in alphabetic order): Světlana Flekrová (Borohrádek, Czech Republic),
Martin Hamaďák (Velká Hleďsebe, Czech Republic), Ivona Kautmanová and Václav
Kautman (Bratislava, Slovakia), Martin Kříž (Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic),
Tereza Tejklová (Pardubice, Czech Republic), Petr Zehnálek (Litomyšl, Czech Re-
public). The study was financially supported by the Institutional Support for Science
and Research of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic
and the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic (DKRVO 2017/08, National Mu-
seum, 00023272). The Panamanian Ministry of Environment (MiAmbiente) is
thanked for the collection and export permits (Permit Nr. SE/APH-3-15).
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... cajanderi, 16.07. , 20.08.1984 Distribution in Russia: AD, BA, BEL, BRY, CHE, CU, KB, KC, KDA, KGD, KLU, KM, KR, KRS, LIP, ME, MO, MOS, NGR, NIZ, ORE, ORL, PNZ, PSK, ROS, RYA, SAM, SAR, SE, SMO, SPE, STA, SVE, TA, TAM, TUL, UD, Note: It is recently described species (Matouš et al., 2017), visually similar to the widespread species Ramariopsis kunzei (Fr.) Corner, often found in the forest zone of the Holarctic, including the Urals (Shiryaev, 2007). ...
Full-text available
A total of 62 species of fungi have been recorded for the first time from 15 administrative regions of Russia: Altai Krai, Altai Republic, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Chelyabinsk Oblast, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Kirov Oblast, Leningrad Oblast, Magadan Oblast, Novgorod Oblast, Novosibirsk Oblast, Omsk Oblast, Republic of Bashkortostan, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Volgograd Oblast, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. An annotated species list containing the data on location, substrate, habitat type and voucher numbers is provided. Cantharellus amethysteus and Ramariopsis robusta are reported as the first records in Russia. Three species ‒ Hygrophoropsis rufa, Typhula schoeni, Xerocomellus ripariellus ‒ are recorded in Russia for the second time.
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This study aimed to assess the biodiversity of fungi colonizing the fine roots (diameter up to 2 mm) of 3-year-old silver fir saplings from areas of Międzylesie Forest District in Poland. It was hypothesized that quantitatively and qualitatively, mycorrhizal fungi would be the dominant fungi in root communities of silver fir. DNA extraction was performed using Plant Genomic DNA purification. The internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1) rDNA region was amplified using specific primers, and the amplicons were purified and sequenced using sequencing by synthesis (SBS) Illumina technology. The obtained sequences were compared with reference sequences in the UNITE database ( using the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) algorithm to facilitate species identification. A total of 307,511 OTUs was obtained from each sample. There were 246,477 OTUs (80.15%) of fungi known from cultures. The genera Tuber spp. (7.51%) and Acephala spp. (3.23%) accounted for the largest share of the fungal communities on the fine roots of fir trees. Hence our results indicate the dominance of mycorrhizal fungi in these communities and reflect the excellent quality of the saplings that were assessed. Pathogenic fungi constituted a much smaller share of the fungal communities.
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The revision of several families of clavarioid fungi in the Iberian Peninsula necessitated new combinations and names to be used for the Iberian fungal flora. Eight new combinations are proposed in Clavulina, Ramariopsis, and Typhula, and nomenclatural and taxonomic comments are provided in each case. Lectotypes are designated for Clavaria contorta, Clavaria fistulosa ( type species of Macrotyphula), and Clavaria phacorrhiza ( type species of Typhula). The genus Macrotyphula is reduced to synonymy under Typhula.
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Clavaria species with dark basidiomata occurring in Europe were analysed using morphological and molecular methods. Morphological analyses revealed four groups containing seven Clavaria species with dark basidiomata. Phylogenetic analysis of the LSU nrDNA region confirmed the separate positions of all seven Clavaria species within the genus. All sequences were grouped in four well-supported clades, mostly corresponding to defined morphological species. The results of the molecular study are inconsistent with the infrageneric classification of Clavaria based on the presence or absence of clamps on the bases of basidia and two widely accepted subgenera. Clavaria and Holocoryne appear to be polyphyletic. A new approach in species delimitation is presented: 1) C. asperulispora and C. atrofusca are two distinct species recognized by the shape of their spores, and the name C. neo-nigrita is a possible synonym of C. asperulispora; 2) species with clustered fragile basidiomata, C. fumosa and Clavaria cf. fuscoferruginea, which are almost identical in shape and size of spores differing only in the darker basidiomata of the latter, are phylogenetically unrelated; 3) Clavaria atrobadia is a dubious species, the name being most likely a synonym of C. fuscoferruginea; 4) two species with close morphological and phylogenetic affinity, C. atroumbrina and C. pullei, are distinguished based on the more oblong and narrower spores of the former. Comparison of European and North American material suggests the transatlantic nature of the distribution of C. asperulispora, C. atroumbrina and C. fumosa.
A major realignment of the taxa of Clavaria, Clavulinopsis and Ramariopsis is proposed, in which Clavulinopsis is split and included under Clavaria and Ramariopsis. A resumé of the included taxa is provided.
Fungi that produce clavarioid fruit bodies have evolved independently many times in the Basidiomycota. The evolutionary significance of this morphology is difficult to interpret because the phylogenetic positions of many clavarioid fungi are still unknown. In this study we examined the phylogenetic diversity of the Clavariaceae sensu lato among Homobasidiomycetidae by adding partial nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences from clavarioid and corticioid fungi to a large euagaric dataset and analyzing them both together and separately. Our results indicate that the clavarioid morphology has evolved at least five times in the euagarics while the inclusion of type species enabled us to evaluate the taxonomic consequences of this polyphyletic distribution. Although the sampling available at present is incomplete, a qualitative assessment of our phylogenetic hypotheses indicates that the clavarioid habit might not be as evolutionary labile as previously reported. We propose the new genus Alloclavaria to accommodate Clavaria purpurea, which is not related to Clavaria but is derived within the hymenochaetoid clade. The Physalacriaceae and Clavariaceae are redefined to reflect monophyletic groups, and the limits of Clavaria, Clavulinopsis and Ramariopsis should be reconsidered when additional data are available.
This is a continuity of a series of taxonomic papers where materials are examined, described and novel combinations are proposed where necessary to improve our traditional species concepts and provide updates on their classification. In addition to extensive morphological descriptions and appropriate asexual and sexual connections, DNA sequence data are also analysed from concatenated datasets (rDNA, TEF-α, RBP2 and β-Tubulin) to infer phylogenetic relationships and substantiate systematic position of taxa within appropriate ranks. Wherever new species or combinations are being proposed, we apply an integrative approach (morphological and molecular data as well as ecological features wherever applicable). Notes on 125 fungal taxa are compiled in this paper, including eight new genera, 101 new species, two new combinations, one neotype, four reference specimens, new host or distribution records for eight species and one alternative morphs. The new genera introduced in this paper are Alloarthopyrenia, Arundellina, Camarosporioides, Neomassaria, Neomassarina, Neotruncatella, Paracapsulospora and Pseudophaeosphaeria. The new species are Alfaria spartii, Alloarthopyrenia italica, Anthostomella ravenna, An. thailandica, Arthrinium paraphaeospermum, Arundellina typhae, Aspergillus koreanus, Asterina cynometrae, Bertiella ellipsoidea, Blastophorum aquaticum, Cainia globosa, Camarosporioides phragmitis, Ceramothyrium menglunense, Chaetosphaeronema achilleae, Chlamydotubeufia helicospora, Ciliochorella phanericola, Clavulinopsis aurantiaca, Colletotrichum insertae, Comoclathris italica, Coronophora myricoides, Cortinarius fulvescentoideus, Co. nymphatus, Co. pseudobulliardioides, Co. tenuifulvescens, Cunninghamella gigacellularis, Cyathus pyristriatus, Cytospora cotini, Dematiopleospora alliariae, De. cirsii, Diaporthe aseana, Di. garethjonesii, Distoseptispora multiseptata, Dis. tectonae, Dis. tectonigena, Dothiora buxi, Emericellopsis persica, Gloniopsis calami, Helicoma guttulatum, Helvella floriforma, H. oblongispora, Hermatomyces subiculosa, Juncaceicola italica, Lactarius dirkii, Lentithecium unicellulare, Le. voraginesporum, Leptosphaeria cirsii, Leptosphaeria irregularis, Leptospora galii, Le. thailandica, Lindgomyces pseudomadisonensis, Lophiotrema bambusae, Lo. fallopiae, Meliola citri-maximae, Minimelanolocus submersus, Montagnula cirsii, Mortierella fluviae, Muriphaeosphaeria ambrosiae, Neodidymelliopsis ranunculi, Neomassaria fabacearum, Neomassarina thailandica, Neomicrosphaeropsis cytisi, Neo. cytisinus, Neo. minima, Neopestalotiopsis cocoës, Neopestalotiopsis musae, Neoroussoella lenispora, Neotorula submersa, Neotruncatella endophytica, Nodulosphaeria italica, Occultibambusa aquatica, Oc. chiangraiensis, Ophiocordyceps hemisphaerica, Op. lacrimoidis, Paracapsulospora metroxyli, Pestalotiopsis sequoiae, Peziza fruticosa, Pleurotrema thailandica, Poaceicola arundinis, Polyporus mangshanensis, Pseudocoleophoma typhicola, Pseudodictyosporium thailandica, Pseudophaeosphaeria rubi, Purpureocillium sodanum, Ramariopsis atlantica, Rhodocybe griseoaurantia, Rh. indica, Rh. luteobrunnea, Russula indoalba, Ru. pseudoamoenicolor, Sporidesmium aquaticivaginatum, Sp. olivaceoconidium, Sp. pyriformatum, Stagonospora forlicesenensis, Stagonosporopsis centaureae, Terriera thailandica, Tremateia arundicola, Tr. guiyangensis, Trichomerium bambusae, Tubeufia hyalospora, Tu. roseohelicospora and Wojnowicia italica. New combinations are given for Hermatomyces mirum and Pallidocercospora thailandica. A neotype is proposed for Cortinarius fulvescens. Reference specimens are given for Aquaphila albicans, Leptospora rubella, Platychora ulmi and Meliola pseudosasae, while new host or distribution records are provided for Diaporthe eres, Di. siamensis, Di. foeniculina, Dothiorella iranica, Do. sarmentorum, Do. vidmadera, Helvella tinta and Vaginatispora fuckelii, with full taxonomic details. An asexual state is also reported for the first time in Neoacanthostigma septoconstrictum. This paper contributes to a more comprehensive update and improved identification of many ascomycetes and basiodiomycetes.
The Clavariaceae is a diverse family of mushroom-forming fungi composed of species that produce simple clubs, coralloid, lamellate-stipitate, hydnoid and resupinate sporocarps. Here we present a systematic and ecological overview of the Clavariaceae based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal RNA (nLSU), including nine from type collections. Forty-seven sequences from sporocarps of diverse taxa across the Clavariaceae were merged with 243 environmental sequences from GenBank and analyzed phylogenetically to determine major clades within the family. Four major clades or lineages were recovered: (i) Mucronella, (ii) Ramariopsis-Clavulinopsis, (iii) Hyphodontiella and (iv) Clavaria-Camarophyllopsis-Clavicorona. Clavaria is paraphyletic, within which the lamellate and pileatestipitate genus Camarophyllopsis is derived and composed of two independent lineages. The monotypic genus Clavicorona also appears nested within Clavaria. The monophyly of Clavaria and Camarophyllopsis, however, cannot be statistically rejected. We composed differing classification schemes for the genera Ramariopsis and Clavulinopsis, most of which are inconsistent with the molecular phylogeny and are statistically rejected. Scytinopogon, a genus classified in the Clavariaceae by several authors, shares phylogenetic affinities with the Trechisporales. Overall 126 molecular operational taxonomic units can be recognized in the Clavariaceae, roughly half of which are known only from environmental sequences, an estimate that exceeds the known number of species in the family. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen were measured from specimens representing most major phylogenetic lineages to predict trophic strategies. These results suggest that most non-lignicolous species feature a biotrophic mode of nutrition. Ancestral state reconstruction analysis highlights the taxonomic significance of at least nine morphological traits at various depths in the family tree.