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Structural analysis of building frames represents an important field of application of digital computers to use stiffness approach in order to evaluate their complete stress and deflection behavior. Generally a frame is analyzed without the presence of brick wall in the frame. In the present study, if the brick walls present in the frame whatever the variation of reaction, bending moment, shear force, displacement or deflection of the frame which is then compared to the frame without the brick wall. In the present investigation a five storied building frame has been analyzed under various load combinations. From the frame analysis, it has been investigated that if no nodes of brick wall are coincide with the nodes of beam and column then whatever its effect on moment, reaction, shear force, displacement or deflection. This type of building frames are highly undesirable in lateral loads and also in seismically active areas because in this case there are no connection between the brick wall and the beams and columns, and due to this reason the building frames which have consistently performed very poor behavior and cracks may occur under the beams and also at the side of partition wall. In another case, if a brick wall node is coincided with beam and column nodes then its effects on the results are measured. The whole work has been performed by using computer software STAAD-PRO from which different parameters are computed. If there are well connections between beams and brick nodes, it increases the stiffness of the structure. This reveals significance of frame analysis which provides an accurate and economical solution. A good agreement between the values of various force functions given by approaches is exhibited. It is found that regular system of bays and same length and thickness of connecting beam is favorable for reducing deflection in partition wall. If there are proper connections among the brick walls and the beams and also with the columns than the deflection will be decreased and Stiffness will be increased.
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American
Journal
of
Civil
Engineering
2017; 5(3): 164-168
http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ajce
doi: 10.11648/j.ajce.20170503.16
ISSN: 2330-8729 (Print); ISSN: 2330-8737 (Online)
Research/Technical Note
Analytical Investigation of the Effect of Brick Partition Wall
on Building Frame
Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Shamim Al Razib, Supriya Mondal
Department of Civil Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
Email address:
mh.rasel75@gmail.com (Md. M. Hasan), shamimrazib.ruet@gmail.com (Md. S. Al Razib), supriyace06@gmail.com (S. Mondal)
To cite this article:
Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Shamim Al Razib, Supriya Mondal. Analytical Investigation of the Effect of Brick Partition Wall on Building
Frame. American Journal of Civil Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2017, pp. 164-168. doi: 10.11648/j.ajce.20170503.16
Received: March 23, 2017; Accepted: March 31, 2017; Published: April 13, 2017
Abstract: Structural analysis of building frames represents an important field of application of digital computers to use
stiffness approach in order to evaluate their complete stress and deflection behavior. Generally a frame is analyzed without the
presence of brick wall in the frame. In the present study, if the brick walls present in the frame whatever the variation of reaction,
bending moment, shear force, displacement or deflection of the frame which is then compared to the frame without the brick wall.
In the present investigation a five storied building frame has been analyzed under various load combinations. From the frame
analysis, it has been investigated that if no nodes of brick wall are coincide with the nodes of beam and column then whatever its
effect on moment, reaction, shear force, displacement or deflection. This type of building frames are highly undesirable in lateral
loads and also in seismically active areas because in this case there are no connection between the brick wall and the beams and
columns, and due to this reason the building frames which have consistently performed very poor behavior and cracks may occur
under the beams and also at the side of partition wall. In another case, if a brick wall node is coincided with beam and column
nodes then its effects on the results are measured. The whole work has been performed by using computer software STAAD-PRO
from which different parameters are computed. If there are well connections between beams and brick nodes, it increases the
stiffness of the structure. This reveals significance of frame analysis which provides an accurate and economical solution. A good
agreement between the values of various force functions given by approaches is exhibited. It is found that regular system of bays
and same length and thickness of connecting beam is favorable for reducing deflection in partition wall. If there are proper
connections among the brick walls and the beams and also with the columns than the deflection will be decreased and Stiffness
will be increased.
Keywords: Modeling, Building Frame, Stiffness, Staad. pro, Deflection
1. Introduction
A partition wall is a wall that separates rooms, or divides a
room. Partition walls are constructed of many materials,
including steel panels, bricks, blocks of clay etc. It is the load
bearing or non-load bearing wall [1]. A Load bearing partition
wall is called an internal wall. For a load bearing internal wall,
strength is an important factor of design. For taller and more
slender buildings the structural factors become more
important and so it is more necessary to choose an appropriate
structural form [2]. In addition to satisfy nonstructural
requirements, the principal objectives in choosing a building’s
structural form is to arrange to support the gravity, dead and
live load and to resist at all levels the external horizontal load
and shear, moment and torque with adequate strength and
stiffness. These requirements should be achieved as most
economically as possible [3]. The reliability and accuracy of
various methods of structural analysis used to analyze
multistoried buildings are dependent on the basic assumptions
used. Structural analysis comprises the set of physical laws
and mathematics required to study and predicts the behavior
of structures. Structural analysis can be viewed more
abstractly as a method to drive the engineering design process
or prove the soundness of a design without a dependence on
165 Md. Mahmudul Hasan et al.: Analytical Investigation of the Effect of Brick Partition Wall on Building Frame
directly testing it [4]. In this study, a first-order analysis, in
which equilibrium and kinematic relationships are taken with
respect to the undeformed geometry of the structure, is simple
to perform but is not a thorough analysis since it neglects
additional loading caused by the deflection of the structure.
For most structures, a second-order analysis, which imposes
equilibrium and kinematic relationships on the deformed
geometry of the structure, is required for stability analysis [5].
To perform an accurate analysis a structural engineer must
determine such information as structural loads, geometry,
support conditions, and materials properties. The analytical
results are further compared with the corresponding results
obtained by Staad. pro. Advanced structural analysis may
examine dynamic response, stability and non-linear behavior.
The frame analysis has been found that if no nodes of brick
wall are coincide with the nodes of beam and column then its
effects on the results are measured which is performed using
Staad. pro [6]. If there are well connections between beams
and brick nodes, it increases the stiffness of the structure and
also decreases the deflection of the nodes and joints. This
reveals significance of frame analysis which provides an
accurate and economical solution. The aim of analysis is the
achievement of an acceptable probability that structures being
designed will perform satisfactorily during their intended life
[7].
The objectives of this study are to study the behavior of
partition wall on building frame and also determine the
variation of shear force and bending moment of different
beams and columns. And then study the effect and variation of
deflection and other behaviors of the structure. At last make a
comparative study of various investigations stated above to
have a clear idea about the effect of partition wall.
2. Modeling in Staad. pro
2.1. Properties Assign
A material's property is an intensive, often quantitative,
property of some material. Quantitative properties may be
used as a metric by which the benefits of one material versus
another can be assessed, thereby aiding in materials selection.
A property may be a constant or may be a function of one or
more independent variables, such as temperature [8]. Material
properties often vary to some degree according to the direction
in the material from which they are measured and finally a
condition referred to as an isotropy. Materials properties that
relate to different physical phenomena often behave linearly
(or approximately so) in a given operating range [9]. Modeling
them as linear can significantly simplify the differential
constitutive equations that the property describes. There are
two types of material property used while modeling in staad.
pro which are concrete and brick properties.
The material properties of brick masonry and concrete
which have the most significant effect upon structural
performance of the masonry are compressive strength and
those properties affect bond between the unit and mortar, such
as rate of water absorption and surface texture [10].
2.2. Structural Modeling
For the analysis work, structural modeling was done. A
symmetric model was prepared which is the combination of
beam, column and brick wall as partition wall. At first a frame
was prepared then its fill with brick wall when proper
connection have present between the beam and column. Then
lateral load as well as vertical load is applied and bending
moment, shear force, deflection was observed. After that,
another model was prepared which have no connection
between the beam and the brick wall node. Then same load is
applied like as previously applied load and variation on result
was observed. Finally the result of both cases was compared in
tabular form and the effect of partition wall (Brick wall) was
observed and compared. To perform the analysis using staad.
pro there are four stages- Prepare the input file, analyze the
input file, Watch the results and verify them, Send the analysis
result to compare the SF, BM and Deflection.
Figure 1. Partition wall on building frame but there is no connection at left
side with column.
2.3. Building and Load Description
Considering a symmetric (2D) frame, which have three
bays. The length of each bay is 10ft and it is a five storied
building. The height of each floor is 10ft. Length of each
column below the Grade Beam (GB) = 60 inch. Length of
each column above the Grade Beam (GB) = 120 inch. Length
of each beam (girder) = 120 inch. Cross section of each
beam=15inch*15inch. Cross section of each column =
American Journal of Civil Engineering 2017; 5(3): 164-168 166
15inch*15inch. Thickness of partition wall = 5inch. Size of
brick to be used = 10inch*5inch*3inch. Considering load to
analysis this building frame are Self-weight of the structure,
Uniformly Distributed Load (UDL) = 1 kip/ft. Lateral load on
the joints of beam and column at left side in Global
X-Direction as a concentrated load = 6.5 kip (using BNBC art.
2.4.6.4).
3. Results and Discussion
Case: When no connection between brick wall and column
at left side then it is compared to the well-connected brick
partition wall and column.
Table 1. Comparison of bending moment (3rd floor).
Beam no
(Floor no.)
When beam and brick nodes have
well connection
When beam and brick nodes have no
connection at left side (%) of change of
moment at left end
(%) of change of
moment at right end
Left end
moment k-in
Right end moment
k-in
Left end moment
k-in
Right end
moment k-in
22 (3rd) 143 188 100 146 30.069 22.34
23 (3rd) 301 333 229 262 23.920 21.32
24 (3rd) 315 348 244 278 22.539 20.11
25 (3rd) 180 227 137 185 23.888 18.50
26 (3rd) 265 266 179 190 32.452 28.57
27 (3rd) 261 303 192 233 26.436 23.10
28 (3rd) 257 342 183 258 28.793 24.56
In the table 1, which shows the Comparison of bending moment at 3rd floor When beam and brick nodes have well connection
and When beam and brick nodes have no connection at left side and finally showing the percentage change of bending moment at
both left and right end.
Table 2. Comparison of shear forces (3rd floor).
Beam no
(Floor no.)
When beam and brick nodes have well
connection
When beam and brick nodes have no
connection at left side (%) of change of shear
force at left end
(%) of change of
shear force
at right end
Shear force at
left end. k
Shear force at right
end. k
Shear force at left
end. k
Shear force at
right end. k
22 (3rd) 9.26 2.76 2.05 2.05 77.861 25.72
23 (3rd) 5.28 5.28 4.09 4.09 22.537 22.53
24 (3rd) 5.53 5.53 4.35 4.35 21.338 21.33
25 (3rd) 3.39 3.39 2.68 2.68 20.943 20.94
26 (3rd) 3.25 5.59 1.9 4.24 41.538 24.15
27 (3rd) 3.53 5.87 2.38 4.72 32.577 19.59
28 (3rd) 3.82 6.16 2.5 4.84 34.554 21.42
Table 3. Comparison of deflection (5th floor).
Node no.
(Floor no.)
When Beam and Brick nodes have well
connection
When Beam and Brick nodes have no connection at
left side % of change of horizontal
displacement
Horizontal, in Vertical, in Horizontal, in Vertical, in
25 (5th) 0.628 -0.003 0.505 -0.002 19.585
26 (5th) 0.627 -0.022 0.503 -0.022 19.776
27 (5th) 0.626 -0.023 0.503 -0.023 19.648
28 (5th) 0.626 -0.028 0.502 -0.028 19.808
Similarly in above, the table 2 and table 3 shows the
Comparison of shear forces at 3r d floor and Comparison
deflection at 5th floor When beam and brick nodes have well
connection and When beam and brick nodes have no
connection at left side and finally showing the percentage
change of shear forces and deflection at both left and right
end.
The above figure 2 shows bending moment of three beams.
It presents that, in case of well connection beam 5 has more
than 400 kip-in BM and no connection brick-column node has
less 400 kip-in BM. And Beam 6 and 7 also shows same
character. So when well connection among brick and beam
nodes is present in this case the bending moment is more than
that of the no connection of brick wall with column at left side.
167 Md. Mahmudul Hasan et al.: Analytical Investigation of the Effect of Brick Partition Wall on Building Frame
Figure 2. Showing the variation of bending moment when well connection among brick and beam nodes and also no connection with column at left side.
Figure 3. Showing the variation of shear force when well connection among brick and beam nodes and also no connection with column at left side.
The figure 3 indicates shear force of three beam nodes. It presents that, in case of well connection beam 5, 6 and 7 has around
8 kip shear force and no connection brick-column node has around 7 kip shear force. So when well connection among brick and
beam nodes is present than the shear force is more with respect to the no connection of brick wall with column at left side.
Figure 4. Showing the variation of displacement when well connection among brick and beam nodes and also no connection with column at left side.
American Journal of Civil Engineering 2017; 5(3): 164-168 168
In case of displacement, it shows opposite character with
respect to the bending moment and shear force and the figure 4
reveals that, when well connection among brick and beam nodes
is present the node displacement is less than the no connection of
brick wall with column at left side.
4. Conclusion
The behavior of partition wall has been investigated by
“STADD PRO” software. Form the analysis the following
conclusions can be drawn
i) It is found that there are proper connections among the
brick nodes and beam nodes have present, no cracks
will be developed under the beams of the structures in
the partition wall. Due to considering the stiffness of
partition wall bending moment decreases (10% to
35%).
ii) It is found that proper connection among the brick
nodes and column nodes have also present, no cracks
will be visible at the side of the partition wall of the
structures.
iii) It is found that regular system of bays and same length
and thickness of connecting beam is favorable for
reducing deflection in partition wall.
iv) Deflection depends on the geometrical parameters.
Deflection increases with the increase of openings.
v) It is found that proper connection among the brick
wall and the beams and also with the columns have
present deflection will be decreased significantly (4%
to 20%).
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Building as Plane and Space Structure,” National Institute of
Technology, Kurukshetra, 136119 INDIA.
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The century dictionary and cyclopedia New York: Century CoAnalysis of Comparative Study of High Rise Building as Plane and Space Structure
  • Wall
  • William Whitney
  • Benjamin E Dwight
  • H K Smith
  • V P Sharma
  • Bharat Singh
  • Singh
Wall. Whitney, William Dwight, Benjamin E. Smith, "The century dictionary and cyclopedia," New York: Century Co., 1901, Vol. 8, No. 6, pp. 809 and H. K. Sharma, V. P. Singh, Bharat Singh, "Analysis of Comparative Study of High Rise Building as Plane and Space Structure," National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, 136119 INDIA.
The use of a Digital Computer with Particular Reference to the Analysis of Structure
  • R K Livesley
  • T M Charlton
Livesley R. K. and Charlton T. M., "The use of a Digital Computer with Particular Reference to the Analysis of Structure," 1964.
Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures
  • Pankaj Agarwal
Pankaj Agarwal, "Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures," IS 875 (Part III for wind load design).