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Centralized Database: A Prerequisite for Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria

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Abstract

The volume of data organizations and government agencies usually collect and store are increasing rapidly. Centralized database according to Elmasri and Navathe [1] stores data or information in a particular location within a network. It allows data from existing database to be collected and stored in a single database for sharing, analysis or updating in an organisation. In Nigeria, organizations and government agencies usually operates distributed databases and do not have a centralised database in a central location for sharing and other policy making. Therefore, this paper highlights the need for centralised database that can be adopted by government to control data redundancy and inconsistency for security and sustainable development. The paper is a survey paper that explored the use of research schedules for data collection. Enumeratorwas picked from each of the four agencies that constitutes the population and samples of the study. The data collected were categorised and presented based on the research schedules retrieved. The results show the common fields used on personal information of individuals as ID, names, Date of Birth, Gender, address, phone no, finger print, and photograph. The results also show that data sharing among agencies are rarely done using the distributed databases, but plans are on the way to actualize that especially with the yet-to-be implemented model of National Identity Management Commission known as National Identity Management System (NIMS). Finally, the paper recommends that government should explore the possibility of adopting centralised database that can harmonise records of organisations and agencieswhich will help in ensuring security and sustainable development in the country; a model of centralised database should be designed to ascertain the feasibility of implementing a centralised database in Nigeria; thorough research should also be made to ensure the compatibility between organisations and agencies with the centralised database for data sharing and other accessibility issues. Keywords: Centralised Database, Distributed Database, Security, Sustainable Development
International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer Science & Technology (IJIRCST)
ISSN: 2347-5552, Volume-5, Issue-1, January 2017
Copyright © 2017. Innovative Research Publications. All Rights Reserve 209
Centralized Database: A Prerequisite for
Security and Sustainable Development in
Nigeria
Abubakar Mohammed, Bashir Maina Saleh
Abstract- The volume of data organizations and government
agencies usually collect and store are increasing rapidly.
Centralized database according to Elmasri and Navathe [1]
stores data or information in a particular location within a
network. It allows data from existing database to be
collected and stored in a single database for sharing,
analysis or updating in an organisation. In Nigeria,
organizations and government agencies usually operates
distributed databases and do not have a centralised database
in a central location for sharing and other policy making.
Therefore, this paper highlights the need for centralised
database that can be adopted by government to control data
redundancy and inconsistency for security and sustainable
development. The paper is a survey paper that explored the
use of research schedules for data collection.
Enumeratorwas picked from each of the four agencies that
constitutes the population and samples of the study. The
data collected were categorised and presented based on the
research schedules retrieved. The results show the common
fields used on personal information of individuals as ID,
names, Date of Birth, Gender, address, phone no, finger
print, and photograph. The results also show that data
sharing among agencies are rarely done using the
distributed databases, but plans are on the way to actualize
that especially with the yet-to-be implemented model of
National Identity Management Commission known as
National Identity Management System (NIMS). Finally, the
paper recommends that government should explore the
possibility of adopting centralised database that can
harmonise records of organisations and agencieswhich will
help in ensuring security and sustainable development in the
country; a model of centralised database should be designed
to ascertain the feasibility of implementing a centralised
database in Nigeria; thorough research should also be made
to ensure the compatibility between organisations and
agencies with the centralised database for data sharing and
other accessibility issues.
Keywords: Centralised Database, Distributed Database,
Security, Sustainable Development
I. INTRODUCTION
Centralized database usually stores data or
information in a particular location within a network. It
allows data from existing database to be collected and
stored in a single database for sharing, analysis, or
updating in an organization [1].
Manuscript received January 22,2017
Abubakar Mohammed, Department of Information Technology,
Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola-Nigeria.r@gmail.cm)
Bashir Maina Saleh, Department of Computer Science, NIMS
University Jaipur, Rajasthan, India (
E-mail:The volume of data organizations and government
agencies usually collect and store has been rapidly
increasing, and this brings need for more efficient and
effective means to manage these data. The current
practice by organizations and government agencies in
Nigeria lead to distributed data with redundancy and
inconsistencies at various levels. Agencies like Nigerian
Communication Commission (NCC), National Identity
Management Commission (NIMC), Federal Road Safety
Corps (FRSC), and Banks collect almost same data from
people.
For instance, NCC directed all mobile operators to
collect data about their subscribers including biometric
data. Similarly, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) directed
all banks to comply with Bank Verification Number
(BVN) exercise so that customers’ bank details including
their biometric will be linked together so that CBN can
have control over bank accounts of customers using
unique number identification (i.e. BVN). FRSC also
provide drivers with license, they captured details and
biometric of drivers during the exercise and stored them
in their database. Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS)
also captured data and biometric of citizens applying for
international passport. NIMC is recently registering and
providing citizens with National Identity Card. The
citizens’ data including biometric are captured and stored
within their database.
Despite all these efforts by government and agencies
to create database at various organisations for data
collection and storage, the entire processes are not
integrated together and that lead to data redundancy and
inconsistency. Same data are repeatedly stored in multiple
locations. In some cases, users give different data at
various organisations or agencies. For example, a
particular person will register with the mobile operator
using three (3) names while at the bank or NIMC same
person is registered with two (2) names. In some cases,
inconsistencies exist in date of birth, addresses,
occupations, etc.
Therefore, this paper aimed at highlighting the need
for centralised database that can be adopted by
government to control data redundancy and inconsistency
for security and sustainable development. This can be
achieved with the following objectives:
i. To conduct system analysis on the existing database
management system used in banking system and
government agencies in Nigeria.
Centralized Database: A Prerequisite for Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria
Copyright © 2017. Innovative Research Publications. All Rights Reserve 210
ii. To portray the necessity of Centralized database in
ensuring security and sustainable development
The scope of the paper is limited to Central Bank of
Nigeria (CBN), National Identity Management
Commission (NIMC), Nigerian Communication
Commissions (NCC), and Federal Road Safety Corps
(FRSC).
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
A. ICT and Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is development that
meets the desires of the present generation without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet
their own needs. The goals of economic and social
development must be defined in terms of sustainability in
all countries whether developed or developing, market
oriented or centrally planned. Interpretations on
sustainable development will vary, but it must share
certain general features and must flow on the basic
concept of sustainable development and on a broad
strategic framework for achieving it. The capacity for
technological innovation needs to be greatly enhanced in
developing countries so that they can respond more
effectively to the challenges of sustainable development.
The orientation of technological development must also
be changed to pay greater attention to environmental
factors [2].
Information and Communication Technology
(ICT) helps in improving sectors like public
administration (role of e-government), health, education,
environment, agriculture and business. ICTs have
considerable potential to cut administrative costs through
the reorganization of internal administration and through
alternative provision of services. It gives room for
electronic delivery and points of access from homes,
schools, and libraries. ICT applications can improve
clinical effectiveness, continuity, and quality of care by
the full range of healthcare professionals. The
employment of ICT into the health sector brings the idea
of what we called telemedicine. This is idea of providing
medical or clinical health care on demand and
independent of person-to-person contact through the use
of telecommunications and information technology at a
distance. Telemedicine can provide medical care to
people in their homes, in isolated places or in times of
emergency [3].
ICT applications can help in collating
environment data in a form suitable to particular groups
of users and mobile services, and can allow access to up-
to-date information and provide real time decision
support to speed up and increase efficiency in
environmental monitoring [4]. Specific implementation of
ICT in the environmental sector includes Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning
Systems (GPS).
It can thus be clearly deduced as ICT help in
improving public administration, health, education,
environment, agriculture and business, the objective of
United Nation Millennium Development Goals can be
achieved through the use of ICT.
B. Concept of Database and Database Management
System
Database is the collection of related data built for
a particular purpose or objective. It serves as a repository
that collects related records together. Database
Management System is a program used in creating and
managing Database. It serves as a software package that
aids definition, creation, manipulation and sharing of data
in a database [1].
Database consists of interacting components
such as the Users (database designers/ programmers and
end-users), application program (database system),
Software to access stored data or process
queries/programs (DBMS), and Database Storage (Meta-
data Definition and Stored database). This is shown in
Figure 1 below:
Figure 1: Database interacting components
DBMS are designed and managed using Data
Definition Language (DDL) and Data Manipulation
Language (DML) components. DDL deals with defining
database structures, data types, constraints and
relationships (i.e. database schema). DML deals with data
retrieval, update or modification, insertion or deletion of
records from the database. DML is divided into
procedural and declarative DMLs. Procedural DMLs
require users to specify what data type are needed and
how to get those data while declarative DMLs require
users to specify what data are needed without specifying
how to get those data [5].
However, database structure relies on database
model. A database model is a collection of conceptual
tools for describing data, data relationships, data
semantics, consistency and constraints. It provides a way
to describe the design of a database at the physical,
logical, and view level. The model is divided into
network model, hierarchical model, relational model, and
object oriented model [5].
III. METHODOLOGY
The paper is a survey research and it makes use of
schedules for data collection. Four agencies, namely:
Centralized Database: A Prerequisite for Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria
Copyright © 2017. Innovative Research Publications. All Rights Reserve 211
Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), National Identity
Management Commission (NIMC), Nigerian
Communication Commission (NCC), and Federal Road
Safety Corps (FRSC) form the population of the study.
An enumerator was picked from each of the agencies to
interact and recordthe responsesprovided by the ICT and
technical staffof the agencies in the space provided on the
schedules. The data collected were categorised and
presented in tables based on personal information, data
sharing and accessibility, and current system in existence.
IV. RESULTS AND FINDINGS
This section provides the major findings of the
research and discusses the results as well. The section is
presented based on the data collected from the research
schedules distributed to the agencies under studies. These
are presented as follows:
A. Common Fields
The results of the research prepared the common
fields of data collected by these agencies. This is
presented in Table 1 below.
Table 1: Common Fields used by agencies on personal
information of individuals
S/NO FIELD NAME DESCRIPTION
1 ID Unique Identifier
2 Names Full names of individuals
3 DOB Date of birth of Individuals
4 Address Permanent address of
individuals
5 PhoneNo Contact numbers of
individual
6 FingerPrint Biometric details of
individuals
7 Photograph Biometric details of
individuals
8 Gender Sex status of individuals
The above table gives various fields about
individuals which can be used to store their records
within the database. The ID field as used by all the
agencies provides a unique identification to individuals.
Bank uses account numbers as customer’s ID in addition
to other fields, NIMC uses national identification number
(NIN) as ID to individuals, and FRSC uses license
number as ID to drivers.
All the agencies collect individual names which
consists of first name, surname and other names (if any).
They equally collect date of birth of individuals,
permanent addresses of individuals are also recorded as
well as contact numbers. Biometric details of individuals
are equally collected which consists of finger prints and
facial photographs of individuals.
B. Data Sharing
The finding of this research revealed that the
four agencies keep the records within their individual
distributed databases and they do not share data among
them. But plans are on the way to enable the data sharing
among the agencies possible. This is contained in the
interaction between the Executive Vice Chairman,
Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), Prof
Umar Garba Danbatta and Director-General of NIMC
Aliyu Abdulaziz during the courtesy visit by the DG
NIMCto the NCC. The NCC has agreed to release the
commission’s data from the ongoing Subscriber Identity
Module (SIM) cards registration exercise to the National
Identity Management Commission (NIMC). Danbatta
said the decision to release the data is in line with Federal
Government’sinstruction to transfer validated data to the
agency.
The NIMC is also working towards providing a
National Identity Management System (NIMS) which
will allow them to create, operate and manage the
National Identity Database (NID) that can serve as a
central source of identity verification and authentication.
According to NIMC, the verification infrastructure will
be available to the stakeholders. The NID is based on the
use of fingerprint biometrics to uniquely and
unambiguously identify each individual and thereafter
issue a unique identification number to each verified
individual which will be common across the other
databases.
However, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) does
not collect or share details of customers from commercial
banks. It only regulates the activities of the commercial
banks. The Bank Verification Number (BVN) exercise
conducted by the commercial banks under the directive of
the CBN is still not managed by the CBN. The Nigeria
Inter-Bank Settlement System (NIBSS) is responsible for
managing and linking the BVN to customers’ respective
accounts with commercial banks. NIBSS is owned jointly
by the CBN and all licensed Deposit Money Banks
(DMBs) in Nigeria.NIBSS is also saddled with
responsibility of interoperability between various players
in the financial system. This involves the ability of
various banks, mobile payment operators, non-banking
financial institutions, payment terminal providers,
government institutions, etc and their respective
customers or clients to send, receive, and process funds,
documents or other instruments electronically through a
common channel (i.e. NIBSS).
V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Centralized database permits records or
information to be collected and stored in a central
location for easy sharing, update or analysis. With
centralized database, government can access citizens’
data or records and use it for decision making whenever
the need arise.
Despite efforts by government and other
agencies to establish and adopt a database management
system for record keeping by agencies and organizations,
the databases used remain distributed database for these
Centralized Database: A Prerequisite for Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria
Copyright © 2017. Innovative Research Publications. All Rights Reserve 212
organizations and agencies. No centralized database
created that will collect and harmonize the various data
collected from various agencies and organizations. As a
result, a lot of inconsistencies and redundancies occurs
within these agencies and organizations.
Therefore, a centralized database should be
designed and implemented by the government in order to
collect data from various organizations and agencies. This
can eliminate the issue of inconsistencies as well as
reduce the data redundancies in the records of citizens.
The database should be deployed in NIMC so that data
can be shared directly to any agency or organization that
may need such data. NIMC is the agency or commission
that is responsible for registration of citizens and provide
them with unique national identity number (NIN). If that
is achieved, it will bring improvement to nation security
since records can be tracked using the unique identifier
that is attached with biometric details of each individual.
Centralized database can bring sustainable
development to a country. It can aid government to know
statistical reports about the citizens of the country which
in-turn can reflect in developmental decision making such
as budget, educational policies, health and other related
policies or issuesthat helps in sustainable development in
a country.
Finally, the paper makes the following recommendations:
i. Government should look at the possibility of
adopting a centralized database that can
harmonize records of various organizations and
agencies which helps in ensuring security and
sustainable development.
ii. A model of centralized database should be
designed in order to explore the feasibility of
implementing a centralized database in Nigeria.
iii. Thorough research should be conducted to ensure
compatibility between organizations and agencies
with the centralized database for data sharing and
other accessibility issues.
iv. The centralized database if designed, should be
deployed to NIMC being the commission saddled
with responsibility of registering citizens.
APPENDICES
Research Schedule Questions
Appendix I: This is the research schedule questions
prepared for Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN)
Do you collect personal information of customers from
banks? YES NO
1. If yes, what are the fields required?
2. How do you manage details of customers with
multiple bank accounts?
3. What other information do you collect about
customers in addition to personal information?
4. How do you access users’ records from
individual banks?
5. Do you share users’ data with any Government
agency or organization?
YES NO
6. If yes, name the agencies or organizations
7. What category of data do you share with the
mentioned agency(ies)?
8. Do you have unique field(s) that are used for
data accessibility and sharing? YES NO
9. If yes, name the field(s)
10. Do you have a centralized database for storing
information received from different banks?
YES NO
11. Do you experience any security challenge with
the current system? YES NO
12. If yes, what are the challenges experienced?
Appendix II: This is the research schedule questions
prepared for National Identity
Management Commission (NIMC)
1. What are the personal information do you collect
from individuals during registration?
2. What other information do you collect about
individuals in addition to personal information?
3. Do you share individuals’ data with any
Government agency or organization? YES
NO
4. If yes, name the agencies or organizations
5. What category of data do you share with the
mentioned agency(ies)?
6. Do you have unique field(s) that are used for
data accessibility and sharing?
YES NO
7. If yes, name the field(s)
8. Do you have a centralized database for storing
individuals’ information received from different
state offices?
YES NO
9. Do you experience any security challenge with
the current system?
YES NO
10. If yes, what are the challenges experienced?
Appendix III: This is the research schedule questions
prepared for Nigerian Communication
Commission (NCC)
1. Do you collect personal information of mobile
users from mobile service providers?
YES NO
2. If yes, what are the fields required?
3. How do you manage details of users with
multiple phone numbers?
4. What other information do you collect about
mobile subscribers in addition to personal
information?
Centralized Database: A Prerequisite for Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria
Copyright © 2017. Innovative Research Publications. All Rights Reserve 213
5. How do you access mobile users’ records from
mobile service providers?
6. Do you share users’ data with any Government
agency or organization?
YES NO
7. If yes, name the agencies or organizations
8. What category of data do you share with the
mentioned agency(ies)?
9. Do you have unique field(s) that are used for
data accessibility and sharing?
YES NO
10. If yes, name the field(s)
11. Do you have a centralized database for storing
information received from different mobile
service providers?
YES NO
12. Do you experience any security challenge with
the current system?
YES NO
13. If yes, what are the challenges experienced?
Appendix IV: This is the research schedule questions
prepared for Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC)
1. What are the personal information do you collect
from individuals during registration?
2. What other information do you collect about
individuals in addition to personal information?
3. Do you share individuals’ data with any
Government agency or organization? YES
NO
4. If yes, name the agencies or organizations
5. What category of data do you share with the
mentioned agency(ies)?
6. Do you have unique field(s) that are used for
data accessibility and sharing?
YES NO
7. If yes, name the field(s)
8. Do you have a centralized database for storing
individuals’ information received from different
state offices?
YES NO
9. Do you experience any security challenge with
the current system?
YES NO
10. If yes, what are the challenges experienced?
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Abubakar Mohammed: I appreciate my parents Alh.
Muhammad Jungudo and Malama Aishatu Umar
Modibbo for supporting me with prayers and. My
appreciation also goes to my dear wife Zubaida Aliyu
Babando for her patient, support, prayers and caring.
Finally, I appreciate Prof. S.K. Das, Prof. A.M. Saddiq,
Prof. Arthur Ume, Prof. Abraham Okolo, Dr. A.S. Bashir
and Dr. H.G. Muazu for their support and words of
encouragements towards research work, thank you all.
Bashir Maina Saleh:I sincerely acknowledge and
appreciate the habitual support, prayers, motivations and
encouragements I get from my uncle Prof. Bashir Maina
and my entire family members. I also wish to extend my
appreciation to Mr Ruchir Saxena and my course mates
for their assistance in this paper and research in general.
To you all, I say thank you and I remain indebted.
REFERENCES
[1] R. Emasri and S.B. Navathe. “Fundamentals of Database
Systems”. Sixth Edition, Pearson Publishers,2011.
[2] UN Documents (2016). “Our Common Future, Chapter 2:
Towards Sustainable Development”. Available:
www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf
[3] M.Abubakar, S. Suleiman and B. R.Mohammed. “ICT for
Sustainable Development”. International Journal of Advanced
Studies in Ecology, Development and Sustainability, 3(1),
2015.
[4] S.Murugesanand P.A. Laplante, “IT for a Greener Planet”. IT
Professional, 13(1), 2011.
[5] A. Silberschatz, H.F. Korth and S. Sudarshan. “Database
System Concepts”. Sixth Edition, McGraw Hill, 2011.
AUTHORS PROFILE
Abubakar Mohammed
is an academic
staff with Modibbo Adama University of
Technology Yola Nigeria. He is currently
pursuing his PhD programme in
Information Technology at NIMS
University Jaipur, Rajasthan India. He has
Masters of Technology (M.Tech) in
Information Management Technology and
B.Tech Information and Communications
Technology. Abubakar has published ten
(10) papers in areas of IT and Computing.
He is a member of Academic Staff Union
of Universities (ASUU) in Nigeria. He is
happily married.
Bashir Maina Saleh
is a young researcher
with keen interest in research publications
and meeting researchers across the world
in conferences and other academic fora.
He has published research papers in many
Journals. He served as an Instructor in
Sahabi Computer Institute Zaria-Nigeria
for a period of 4 years. He holds B.Sc.
Computer Science degree from the famous
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria –Nigeria
and is presently an M.Sc. Computer
Science student at NIMS University,
Jaipur-India.
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... In traditional system all the records are stored on a centralized database [14], while in block chain system, each member has a copy of all the records and the changes made and each member can view the origin of the data [15]. If a malicious user tries to change some information in the traditional system it will be very hard and time consuming to detect and rectify. ...
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The most challenging problem before the world is providing enough food for the gigantic leap in population. There are numerous reasons for the shortage of food and technological innovations in agriculture are required to overcome the shortages in food supply. Sustainable Development goals (SDGs) provides the futuristic vision and ICT along with other latest technologies will help achieve these development goals at a brisk speed. Recent technological developments as use of mobile-broadband access devices, Internet of Things (IoT), Specialized Robots, Drones, big data analytics and Artificial Intelligence has given farmers tools and technologies to scale agricultural production and marketing of their agricultural products. In this paper, we will discuss how Smart Agriculture is changing the face of agriculture in Budaun, a small city in Uttar Pradesh. Smart agriculture coupled with block chain technology is being used to achieve sustainability in agriculture growth. The production/yield has risen by over 20% and the profits have increased by over 30% with the new technology.
... If a failure occurs on the server, all data will be lost. Second, the centralized database is prone to data modification by irresponsible people because of its advantages to ease sharing, updating, or analyzing [6]. Finally, the centralized database is unable to handle a high capacity of data, let alone to process it [7]. ...
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... In traditional system all the records are stored on a centralized database [14], while in block chain system, each member has a copy of all the records and the changes made and each member can view the origin of the data [15]. If a malicious user tries to change some information in the traditional system it will be very hard and time consuming to detect and rectify. ...
Conference Paper
The most challenging problem before the world is providing enough food for the gigantic leap in population. There are numerous reasons for the shortage of food and technological innovations in agriculture are required to overcome the shortages in food supply. Sustainable Development goals (SDGs) provides the futuristic vision and ICT along with other latest technologies will help achieve these development goals at a brisk speed. Recent developments such as use of mobile-broadband access devices, Internet of Things (IoT), Specialized Robots, Drones, big data analytics and Artificial Intelligence have provided farmers tools and technologies to improve production and marketing of their products. In this paper, we will discuss how Smart Agriculture is changing the face of agriculture in Budaun, a small city in Uttar Pradesh. Smart agriculture coupled with block chain technology is being used to achieve sustainability in agriculture growth. The production/yield has risen by over 20% and the profits have increased by over 30% with the new technology.
... Security and trust management of the stored data remains an unsolved issue since involvement of attackers crack the security of the system. Unauthorized user access and insecure data storage degrades the security level of overall system [11]. ...
Conference Paper
Supply chain management (SCM) system is a main requirement for manufacturers and companies to cooperate. There are many management techniques to manage supply chains, such as using Excel sheets. However, that technique is ineffective, insecure, and sensitive to human errors. In this paper, we propose CLOUDITY, a cloud-based SCM system using SELAT (Selective Market) and Blockchain system. We modify JUGO architecture to develop SELAT as a connector between users and cloud service providers. Also, we apply the Blockchain concept to make more secure system. CLOUDITY system can solve several cases: resource provisioning, service selection, authentication, and access control. Also, it improves the data security by checking every data changes of the supply chain management system using Blockchain system.
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Muestra cómo resolver muchos de los problemas encontrados en el diseño y uso del sistema de base de datos. Se introduce a la relación entidad y a modelos relacionados, seguidos por el modelo de redes y jerárquico. Algunos capítulos están orientados a la organización física de las bases de datos, técnicas de índices y procesamiento de interrogación. El último capítulo se refiere a sistemas de base de datos distribuidos, seguridad de base de datos.
Our Common Future, Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development
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UN Documents (2016). " Our Common Future, Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development ". Available: www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf
ICT for Sustainable Development
  • M Abubakar
  • S Suleiman
  • B R Mohammed
M.Abubakar, S. Suleiman and B. R.Mohammed. "ICT for Sustainable Development". International Journal of Advanced Studies in Ecology, Development and Sustainability, 3(1), 2015.
IT for a Greener Planet
  • S Murugesanand
  • P A Laplante
S.Murugesanand P.A. Laplante, "IT for a Greener Planet". IT Professional, 13(1), 2011.