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Abstract

Purpose Over the past few decades, higher education institutions (HEIs) have become key players in regional economic development and knowledge transfer, which has led to a third mission for HEIs and the entrepreneurial university. The purpose of this paper is to assess the challenges of HEIs in fulfilling the third mission for economic development and the changing role of being an entrepreneurial university, and the changes that need to be implemented to fulfill this new mission. Design/methodology/approach The authors have drawn on current literature to examine academic entrepreneurism and the entrepreneurial university, and how universities are fulfilling their third mission. Findings The findings from our review of the literature demonstrated the varied economic and social benefit of universities conducting external third mission/entrepreneurial activities in the community, as well as how the changing role and expectations of universities to become more entrepreneurial, has not only changed the expectations and role of university administrators, faculty and staff but also the business community which they serve. The review also showed the varied challenges for universities in fulfilling the third mission of economic development. Research limitations/implications Although ample literature and cases about universities’ third mission of economic development and the new entrepreneurial university (especially with research universities) were available, literature or research was limited on the specific challenges and obstacles faced by administrators, faculty and departments in fulfilling this mission, and few studies recommended changes that needed to be implemented in HEIs to support this new mission. Practical/implications The paper supports the potential role that HEIs play in implementing economic development in their communities or region. The paper also highlights some of the necessary resources and policy changes that policymakers and university administrators need to implement to reward and recognize faculty in conducting outreach activities as part of the university’s third mission. Originality/value The findings from this study highlight the challenges and barriers for faculty, staff and HEIs in fulfilling the third mission and becoming an entrepreneurial university.

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... Las actividades de emprendimiento social como parte del desarrollo de la tercera misión son fundamentales pues contribuyen a que las comunidades avancen con su agenda social y, al mismo tiempo, permiten a las universidades nutrirse de ellas en el desarrollo de sus Yamila Fernanda Silva Peralta, María Emilia Rompato, Lucas Pujol-Cols restantes misiones (Rubens et al, 2017). Por su parte, para El Ebrashi (2013), el foco de la tercera misión debe ser la creación de redes de contención comunitaria sobre las que después la universidad pueda colaborar en el armado de proyectos sociales. ...
... Entre las actividades duras (del inglés, hard activities), los autores plantean el desarrollo de patentes, licencias y spin offs. Para el caso de las universidades pequeñas a medianas, Rubens et al. (2017) proponen el desarrollo de proyectos de investigación centrados en las necesidades de la comunidad, programas de entrenamiento, centros para emprendimiento e incubadoras de negocios que no sólo adopten una perspectiva social, sino que impulsen el desarrollo de vínculos con emprendedores por fuera de la universidad que puedan requerir dichos servicios. ...
... Específicamente, la investigación reportada en este artículo tiene por propósito explorar los factores individuales que facilitan el surgimiento de acciones de emprendimiento social en estudiantes universitarios avanzados en el contexto de emergencia socio-sanitaria por COVID-19. Para ello, adopta una metodología cualitativa con un enfoque de teoría fundada (Glaser y Strauss, 2009) y propone el desarrollo de una teoría sustantiva de alcance medio (Rubens et al, 2017). Cabe señalar que el enfoque de teoría fundada resulta adecuado cuando se desea explicar un fenómeno poco explorado en función de las interpretaciones y significados de los participantes (Rivero, Dabos, Marino y Rodríguez, 2017). ...
Article
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La mayoría de las investigaciones sobre la emergencia socio-sanitaria causada por la pandemia del COVID-19 se han focalizado en sus efectos negativos. Este artículo tiene por objetivo explorar los factores personales que facilitan el emprendimiento social en este contexto en Argentina. A través de un enfoque de teoría fundada, este estudio analiza los discursos de una muestra de estudiantes avanzados de una universidad pública argentina. Los hallazgos revelan que los estudiantes con ciertas características personales, como creencias más positivas acerca de la transformación social, una orientación prosocial y competencias emprendedoras, asumen un rol importante frente a la emergencia socio-sanitaria a través del emprendimiento social.
... In the last decades, Higher Education Institutions (HEI) have undergone a process of profound social, economic, and political transformation mainly driven by the New Public Management (NPM), Bologna Process and the rise of new Knowledge Economy (Sánchez & Elena, 2006;Guthrie & Neumann, 2007;Martin-Sardesai et al., 2020). Accordingly, universities have been propelled to adopt a more entrepreneurial attitude (Clark, 1998;Rubens et al., 2017). They have been encouraged to interact with the wide ecosystem under a broader economic perspective, explore new financing sources, and align their traditional academic duties with economic and social development objectives Trencher et al., 2014). ...
... USA, UK, Finland, Australia, Germany), policymakers have embarked on a regulatory process to elicit universities' engagement in third mission activities (Rosli & Rossi, 2016). In such a way, they pay particular attention to the commercialization of research outcomes through patents, start-up and spin-off companies, collaborations, and partnerships (Rosli & Rossi, 2016;Rubens et al., 2017). In tune, performance measurement systems and public funds allocation schemes have been gradually shaped to include third mission activities evaluation (Kallio et al., 2016;Rosli & Rossi, 2016). ...
... In this evolving context, the rise of the knowledge economy further challenged universities to be at the forefront for national economic growth and social progress by means of crafting innovative solutions and technological paradigms (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 2000;Rubens et al., 2017). They have been called to enhance the regional and national economic performance and ameliorate the quality of life and society's services at large (Molas-Gallart et al., 2002;Trencher et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
The chapter presents fresh knowledge of how Italian public universities incorporate third mission strategies within the Integrated Plan. The results show that the Integrated Plan can be considered a valid tool to communicate to internal and external stakeholders’ information about the strategies, the actors, and the structures involved in the third mission activities.
... Promotion, recognition, reward and endorsement are central factorsoften informal in an organizational environmentfor encouraging entrepreneurial behavior (Mavi, 2014). In the absence of rewards or recognition, the growth of an entrepreneurial university is highly unlikely, for such growth is largely dependent on the desire of entrepreneurial professors to act without institutional support (Rubens et al., 2017). Thus, smaller universities or those lacking a research tradition have more difficulty in creating an entrepreneurial environment. ...
... Thus, smaller universities or those lacking a research tradition have more difficulty in creating an entrepreneurial environment. These universities are often restricted to the actions of a few professors and are not commensurate with an innovative environment (Rubens et al., 2017). Fern andez-Nogueira (2018) also reinforces the importance of rewards for generating good business and production ideas at entrepreneurial universities, ideas that further stimulate the growth of innovations, spin-offs and startups. ...
... This result may relate to the fact that the universities studied are institutions focused on and considered to be a reference in, research, teaching and extension in the national context. In smaller institutions, where there is no such research tradition, professors often need to demonstrate initiative without counting on institutional support, which increases the need for rewards (Rubens et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose The study aims to analyze the influence of managerial support, autonomy and reward perception on the innovative behavior of university professors. Design/methodology/approach Quantitative methodology based on partial least squares structural equation modeling. The sample obtained totaled 208 responses from professors at three public universities in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Findings The results indicate that managerial support is a fundamental factor for developing an organizational environment that is more conducive to innovative behavior and corporate entrepreneurship. However, in educational institutions with a more focused entrepreneurial ecosystem, it was discovered that reward perception is not a fundamental factor for the innovative behavior of university professors. Practical implications From a practical perspective, academic institutions interested in stimulating corporate entrepreneurship should create opportunities for collaboration among professors to solve problems, encourage professors to expose their work beyond the university environment and improve the main indicators of management support and autonomy presented in this research. Social implications The study presents indicators and implications, which are of particular interest for university managers and public policy writers. Originality/value The study is demonstrably original. Through its unique analysis of the innovative behavior of university professors and the connections between variables in the university environment and its use of a robust modeling method in an emerging-economy context, the study furthers existing research by helping to understand why some firms are better than others at corporate entrepreneurship.
... Zooming in on the individual level, research into UIC in developed countries suggests that the difference in individuals' motivations to engage in UIC activities depends on whether such individuals belong to academia or industry (Perkmann et al., 2021). Motivations common to both include the need to respond to institutional policies, financial gain, human capital development, the search for efficiency, the stability provided by R&D contracts, the improvement of institutional image, intentions to buy or sell a research result, personal contacts, and previous experience (Cunningham and Menter, 2020;Perkmann et al., 2021;Rubens et al., 2017). On the other hand, within the divergent motivations for both parties, the need for legitimacy that universities have in society, social pressure, the battle of academics to achieve recognition and good reputation, and the contribution to the regional or national economy stand out (Breznitz et al., 2008). ...
... The relevant literature on UIC also reports that universities are finding other mechanisms to fulfill their mission towards society (Fischer et al., 2020;Song et al., 2020). To do so, universities connect with other actors in their ecosystem to complement their knowledge and resources in order to achieve a common goal that need not involve the transfer of technology or the creation of economic value (Klofsten et al., 2019;Rinaldi et al., 2018;Rubens et al., 2017). Through co-creation mechanisms and without intellectual property in the form of patents, universities can connect with industry to generate sustainable development and social impact (De Silva et al., 2021a;De Silva and Wright, 2019;Rinaldi et al., 2018). ...
... It is common in emerging countries to find that market failures drive government priorities towards solving social problems (Crespi and Dutrénit, 2014). In LATAM countries, governments prioritize solving persistent social issues in their political agendas, thereby generating a national dynamic that incentivizes the search for solutions (Rubens et al., 2017). This call influences the direction of the academic and industrial agenda. ...
Article
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University-Industry collaboration (UIC) literature is largely documented with Western European or North-American evidence, where universities are rich in resources and have well-developed R&D infrastructure. Likewise, our knowledge remains limited about UIC in emerging countries, where research resources and R&D are scarce. In this article, we address the research question “What are the individual micro-processes involved in UICs with social impact in emerging economies” and argue that uncovering the individual micro-processes involved in university-industry joint undertakings contribute to understanding how entrepreneurial universities promote social impact in emerging economies. The ideas presented in this paper are based on exploratory qualitative research consisting of 33 semi-structured interviews, eight focus groups, and six participatory observations in Bolivia and Colombia. Our findings suggest that UICs in emerging economies are driven by the need to solve major social challenges and are often a consequence of the individual micro-processes of low subjective norm, pro-social behavior, deontic justice, social identity, entrepreneurial culture, and championing of social welfare.
... In the third generation university, the focus and mission of the university system is entrepreneurship (Mascarenhas et al., 2017). The results of multiple studies show that in third Generation University, entrepreneurship education and development of skills related to the goal of increasing creativity, improving motivation, desire for independence, taking advantage of environmental opportunities, initiative, risk-taking, commitment and enjoyment of uncertainty and complexity, is a necessity and a serious requirement (Rubens et al., 2017). Also organisational entrepreneurship is composed of two sections, which are entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial management (Tajpour and Salamzadeh, 2019). ...
... The new interaction between universities and communities is a win-win situation. Universities can strengthen their academic missions, and communities can advance their social agenda (Rubens et al., 2017). It is an entrepreneurial university that creates community development through interaction in formal and informal ways. ...
... Different groups in communities and universities can cause conflicts and tensions. Thus, service activities can pose significant challenges for the institution and the community (Rubens et al., 2017). Both the government and the university must recognise the movement of the university towards the ideals of entrepreneurship, and it depends on the context and strengths of each university. ...
Article
Abstract: Universities must face new challenges to meet expectations for entrepreneurial growth. Third generation universities are generally entrepreneurial and based on entrepreneurship and solving society problems with a scientific approach. In this research, which has used analytical and descriptive methods, in order to understand the concepts of third generation university and entrepreneurial university, the background of the subject has been studied in the form of library and documentary studies. In order to describe the necessary structures for the entrepreneurial university, the existing records have been reviewed through the latest articles and related documents. The increasing growth of social relations shows different areas of social life, including the higher education system, with two similar but distinct phenomena; entrepreneurial university, due to its importance, is a factor of economic and social development. This shows that the activities of the entrepreneurial university are focused and require a large presence of students in this process. Keywords: corporate entrepreneurship; innovation; entrepreneurial university; technology transfer. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Tajpour, M., Kawamorita, H.,& Demiryurek, K(2020).Towards the third Generation of Universities with an Entrepreneurial Approach, International Journal of Technoentrepreneurship.4(2),122_134
... W ten sposób prowadzone rozważania przechodzą do zagadnień marketingu i nowych mediów. Według G. Mazurka, wirtualizacja marketingu jest procesem związanym ze zmianami, jakie zachodzą w przedsiębiorstwach w zakresie "koncepcji marketingu, instrumentów oddziaływania przedsiębiorstwa na rynek oraz sposobów realizacji zadań marketingu, wynikających z oddziaływania na to przedsiębiorstwo wirtualnego środowiska" 418 . Wirtualne środowisko zmieniło relacje pomiędzy uczestnikami rynku, a rozważania te mogą stanowić wstęp do szerszej analizy cyfrowej transformacji marketingu. ...
... Jeżeli takie rozważania przeniesiemy tylko na płaszczyznę marketingu, gdzie już obecnie wiele decyzji podejmowanych jest przez algorytmy, refleksja nad cyfryzacją tej dyscypliny zyska kolejny istotny wymiar. 418 Przyjmując za G. Leśniak-Łebkowską 423 określoną perspektywę historyczną, wyróżnić można następujące po sobie cztery rewolucje przemysłowe:  Pierwsza rewolucja przemysłowa to okres od 1765 do połowy lat 50. XIX wieku. ...
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Zagadnienia poruszane w niniejszej monografii dotyczą roli jaką obecnie odgrywa Internet oraz tzw. nowe media w działaniach marketingowych szkół wyższych w Polsce i na Ukrainie. Zmiany we współczesnym marketingu, jego postępująca transformacja cyfrowa stanowią tematykę niezwykle szeroką i dynamiczną. Równolegle na te procesy nakładają się również przemiany w szkolnictwie wyższym obserwowane zarówno z perspektywy globalnej, jak i narodowej. Tak zdefiniowany obszar badawczy wskazał autorowi lukę badawczą, której fragmentaryczne wypełnienie jest głównym celem tej książki. Praca składa się z sześciu rozdziałów. Rozdział pierwszy ma charakter teoretyczno-empiryczny. Punktem początkowym rozważań jest problematyka przemian idei uniwersytetu w perspektywie wyzwań współczesności. W dalszej kolejności poruszono kwestie zarządzania szkołą wyższą w ujęciu teoretycznym, których istotnym elementem są działania marketingowe. Tej tematyce poświęcono kolejny podrozdział, omawiając zagadnienia związane z marketingiem i zarządzaniem marketingowym szkół wyższych. Poszerzeniem spektrum prowadzonych w pierwszym rozdziale rozważań były zagadnienia zarządzania wiedzą w organizacjach oraz rozwój technologii informacyjnych i komunikacyjnych (ICT) w świetle wielowymiarowości współczesnego zarządzania. Zakończenie rozdziału pierwszego stało się przyczynkiem do analizy tematyki cyfrowej transformacji marketingu. Rozdział drugi ma charakter teoretyczny i został oparty w całości o studia literatury przedmiotu. Przedstawiono w nim podstawowe informacje na temat marketingu internetowego. Omówiono jego genezę i oddziaływanie na współczesny marketing, następnie przedstawiono modele komunikacji marketingowej online, co było wstępem do rozważań na temat komunikacji marketingowej w Internecie. Rozdział ten zakończono omówieniem ewolucji koncepcji marketingowych w odniesieniu do rozwoju nowoczesnych technologii komunikacji masowej. Rozdziały trzeci i czwarty mają charakter teoretyczno-empiryczny. Autor dążył do nadania im aplikacyjnego charakteru, dlatego najwięcej miejsca poświęcono na przedstawienie przykładów działań marketingowych uczelni (polskich w rozdziale trzecim i ukraińskich w rozdziale czwartym), ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem Internetu. Omówiono m.in. reklamę, public relations, content marketing, promocję uzupełniającą, targi edukacyjne, targi pracy, drzwi otwarte, sponsoring, marketing w wyszukiwarkach oraz w mediach społecznościowych. W każdym z rozdziałów zamieszczono również ogólne charakterystyki szkolnictwa wyższego w badanych krajach. Rozdział piąty ma charakter empiryczny i został poświęcony analizie porównawczej praktycznego wykorzystania Internetu w działaniach marketingowych szkół wyższych w Polsce i na Ukrainie. Tę część badań przeprowadzono dzięki współpracy autora z naukowcami z Katedry Zarządzania Organizacjami Uniwersytetu Narodowego „Politechnika Lwowska”. W rozdziale tym dokonano charakterystyki przedmiotu badań oraz zakresu danych empirycznych, następnie przedstawiono hipotezy oraz metodologię badań. W jego zasadniczej części dokonano analizy statystycznej otrzymanych wyników oraz przeprowadzono ich porównanie z rezultatami uzyskanymi w Polsce. Przeprowadzona analiza reprezentuje tematykę do tej pory niepodejmowaną przez polskich i ukraińskich naukowców, wyniki analizy struktur odpowiedzi respondentów pozwoliły na weryfikację hipotezy głównej tej części badania: nie stwierdzono istotnych różnic w strukturze odpowiedzi między ocenami wykorzystania Internetu w działaniach marketingowych polskich i ukraińskich szkół wyższych. Zaprezentowana w pracy wielość instrumentów, narzędzi i kanałów marketingu online wskazuje zarówno na niezwykły potencjał komunikacji cyfrowej, jak i potrzebę integracji różnorodnych form w wielu możliwych kanałach. Z tego względu w rozdziale szóstym przedstawiono konceptualny model cyfrowej komunikacji marketingowej szkoły wyższej, który jest próbą ukazania kierunków owej integracji w podejściu wielo- a następnie omnikanałowym (multichannel, omnichannel) z zastosowaniem bazy danych typu CDP (Customer Data Platform). Intencją autora było, aby niniejsza praca stała się źródłem inspiracji dla osób, które na różnych płaszczyznach kreują lub nadzorują działania marketingowe szkół wyższych. Z tego względu zakończenie monografii zostało podzielone na dwie części. Pierwszą, zawierającą podsumowanie prowadzonych badań, oraz drugą, w której zamieszczone zostały rekomendacje o charakterze aplikacyjnym. Transformacja cyfrowa marketingu jest procesem dynamicznym i ciągłym, stanowi wyzwanie dla każdej organizacji. W przypadku szkół wyższych problematyka ta nabiera dodatkowych znaczeń ze względu na przemiany systemu, a także samej idei współczesnego uniwersytetu. Ukazane w monografii spojrzenie na zachodzące zmiany z perspektywy Polski i Ukrainy powinno być, zdaniem autora, wartościowe zarówno dla innych badaczy, jak i praktyków zajmujących się marketingiem szkół wyższych.
... The Organizational Change model is well suited for examining organizational changes because many of the model factors are relevant to intercollegiate Extension programs. For example, Rubens et al. (2017) provided recommendations for improving Extension outreach at institutions of higher education including: (a) restructuring faculty assessment procedures (e.g., promotion and tenure) and incentivizing faculty for their efforts, (b) developing partnerships within and external to the university, and (c) investing in support structures which encourage entrepreneurial activities (e.g., sufficient human resources, administrative support, etc.) which were similar factors as those included in the Organizational Change model. LGUs are complex organizations and change can be challenging; however, organizational restructuring, revisions to promotion and tenure processes, and employee skill development can be used to increase interdisciplinary Extension efforts aimed at solving realworld challenges faced by communities (Kellogg Commission, 1998). ...
... Intercollegiate Extension programs should take into consideration faculty requirements for promotion and tenure and provide opportunities for teaching, research, and publications to encourage participation in these programs (Rubens et al., 2017). Clear guidelines developed by departments beyond agricultural colleges may be useful in the tenure and promotion evaluation process for faculty engaged in Extension efforts. ...
Article
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University engagement within communities is becoming more important, and public land-grant universities (LGUs) are uniquely situated to create knowledge that benefits society. Intercollegiate Extension programs could be a novel approach to improving university engagement by using the Extension mission as a catalyst for socially relevant programs. However, a gap remains in the literature regarding specific guidelines to overcome barriers toward intercollegiate Extension programs. The purpose of this study was to explore how transactional factors influenced the implementation of intercollegiate Extension programs at LGUs. A qualitative descriptive phenomenological research design was used. The Organizational Change model guided the interview protocol creation. All eight participants were employed by LGUs. Template analysis was applied to the data combined with the constant comparative method. Four themes and six sub-themes emerged from the interviews. The transactional themes were: (a) promotion and tenure, (b) utilizing LGUs’ organizational structures to support intercollegiate Extension programs, (c) task and individual skills required for successful intercollegiate programs, and (d) professional recognition. Utilizing LGUs’ organizational structures to support intercollegiate Extension programs was most relevant to the success of intercollegiate programs. Intercollegiate Extension programs should use existing assets like the county-based infrastructure to assist in disseminating university knowledge relevant for addressing public needs.
... There has been an enlargement of missions of universities-a trend termed "academic revolutions"-since the early 19th century because of the advent of the knowledge economy, globalisation, and changes in the financial landscape in which universities operate (Pinheiro et al., 2015;Rubens et al., 2017). A plethora of stakeholders in higher education subscribe to the notion that the contemporary university can be compared to a three-legged stool (Rubens et al., 2017), with each leg representing one of three missions-teaching, research, and a third mission. ...
... There has been an enlargement of missions of universities-a trend termed "academic revolutions"-since the early 19th century because of the advent of the knowledge economy, globalisation, and changes in the financial landscape in which universities operate (Pinheiro et al., 2015;Rubens et al., 2017). A plethora of stakeholders in higher education subscribe to the notion that the contemporary university can be compared to a three-legged stool (Rubens et al., 2017), with each leg representing one of three missions-teaching, research, and a third mission. This third mission-"the engagement of university with societal needs" (Molas-Gallart, 2004, p. 74) or the contribution of the university to socio-economic development-has multiple names, such as third stream activities, the third leg, the third role, community engagement, public service, and civic engagement, that underscore the idea that universities should combine the classical missions of teaching and research (Knudesen et al., 2019;Sin et al., 2019) with a contribution to society (Compagnucci & Spirarelli, 2020). ...
Article
Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore the conceptualization of the third mission in African higher education and the activities that universities are required to engage in and/or are engaging in to fulfil the third role. Method: The interpretive lens underpinned the study. Data were collected from the documents of the African Union Commission (AUC), in which the third mission is both implicit and explicit. We used content analysis as a data analysis technique. Results: The AUC conceptualizes the third mission as a role of universities, as a social role, as forging partnerships, and as being mutually beneficial to society and the university. Universities in Africa are implementing and/or required to implement 11 third mission activities aimed at bridging the gap between them and society. Almost all third mission activities are anchored to the classical missions of teaching and research associated with higher education institutions. Conclusions: We concluded that: (a) the third mission is built on the classical missions of universities; (b) the distinction between the classical missions and the third mission is that the first mission (teaching) involves the dissemination of knowledge through academic education while the second mission (research) hinges on the generation of academic knowledge, but the third mission involves both in a non-academic context; and (c) the third mission is a multidimensional concept. Implication for Theory and Practice: The study adds to the limited literature on the third mission of universities from a supranational perspective. Second, it extends the conceptual framework of Molas-Gallart and colleagues for understanding the third mission that is based on the experience of advanced higher education systems by supplementing it with four themes from Africa. Finally, it provides information the AUC may use to revise the instrument for evaluating the performance of universities on the third mission.
... Higher Education (HE) has gone through two major shifts, namely first and second academic revolutions, affecting its functions (Rubens et al., 2017). The first academic revolution which took place in 1810, brought "research" as the second mission of the university in addition to the first or "primary mission" which is "teaching" (Trencher et al., 2014;Rubens et al., 2017). ...
... Higher Education (HE) has gone through two major shifts, namely first and second academic revolutions, affecting its functions (Rubens et al., 2017). The first academic revolution which took place in 1810, brought "research" as the second mission of the university in addition to the first or "primary mission" which is "teaching" (Trencher et al., 2014;Rubens et al., 2017). These two missions neither mandated the engagement of the university with its surrounding community nor allowed the interference of the community in the university. ...
Article
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This paper proposes a hybrid approach to the management of stakeholder conflicting expectations in higher education (HE) by combining Stakeholder Theory (ST) and a participatory approach. In this paper, we use an ex post facto approach to retrospectively report Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) experience in managing stakeholder conflicting expectations in developing the BA in English Language and Literature Program as a case study. We show that for an effective management of stakeholder conflicting expectations in HE, the three perspectives of ST (i.e., descriptive, instrumental and normative) have to be taken together as a unified approach with the normative perspective occupying the core. In addition, we argue that this unified approach should be complemented by a participatory approach to add an interactive dimension to stakeholder conflict management and allow stakeholders to become active conflict-solvers. The paper concludes that this hybrid approach is essential to manage stakeholder conflicting expectations in academic program development and to project academic program development in HE as a shared social responsibility.
... There has been an enlargement of missions of universities-a trend termed "academic revolutions"-since the early 19th century because of the advent of the knowledge economy, globalisation, and changes in the financial landscape in which universities operate (Pinheiro et al., 2015;Rubens et al., 2017). A plethora of stakeholders in higher education subscribe to the notion that the contemporary university can be compared to a three-legged stool (Rubens et al., 2017), with each leg representing one of three missions-teaching, research, and a third mission. ...
... There has been an enlargement of missions of universities-a trend termed "academic revolutions"-since the early 19th century because of the advent of the knowledge economy, globalisation, and changes in the financial landscape in which universities operate (Pinheiro et al., 2015;Rubens et al., 2017). A plethora of stakeholders in higher education subscribe to the notion that the contemporary university can be compared to a three-legged stool (Rubens et al., 2017), with each leg representing one of three missions-teaching, research, and a third mission. This third mission-"the engagement of university with societal needs" (Molas-Gallart, 2004, p. 74) or the contribution of the university to socio-economic development-has multiple names, such as third stream activities, the third leg, the third role, community engagement, public service, and civic engagement, that underscore the idea that universities should combine the classical missions of teaching and research (Knudesen et al., 2019;Sin et al., 2019) with a contribution to society (Compagnucci & Spirarelli, 2020). ...
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Objective: The purpose of the study was to explore the conceptualization of the third mission in African higher education and the activities that universities are required to engage in and/or are engaging in to fulfil the third role. Method: The interpretive lens underpinned the study. Data were collected from the documents of the African Union Commission (AUC), in which the third mission is both implicit and explicit. We used content analysis as a data analysis technique. Results: The AUC conceptualizes the third mission as a role of universities, as a social role, as forging partnerships, and as being mutually beneficial to society and the university. Universities in Africa are implementing and/or required to implement 11 third mission activities aimed at bridging the gap between them and society. Almost all third mission activities are anchored to the classical missions of teaching and research associated with higher education institutions. Conclusions: We concluded that: (a) the third mission is built on the classical missions of universities; (b) the distinction between the classical missions and the third mission is that the first mission (teaching) involves the dissemination of knowledge through academic education while the second mission (research) hinges on the generation of academic knowledge, but the third mission involves both in a non-academic context; and (c) the third mission is a multidimensional concept. Implication for Theory and Practice: The study adds to the limited literature on the third mission of universities from a supranational perspective. Second, it extends the conceptual framework of Molas-Gallart and colleagues for understanding the third mission that is based on the experience of advanced higher education systems by supplementing it with four themes from Africa. Finally, it provides information the AUC may use to revise the instrument for evaluating the performance of universities on the third mission.
... However, the contribution of Kurdish universities to the region development is still at the lower levels. In fact, the adoption of the entrepreneurial university model will be one of the solutions because of its positive impact on the economy and society, (Etzkowitz and Zhou, 2008;Gibb, 2009;Etzkowitz, 2013;Guerrero et al., 2014b;Guerrero et al., 2015;Brown, 2016;Reyes, 2016;Etzkowitz, 2017;Rubens et al., 2017;S anchez-Barrioluengo and Benneworth, 2019;Romero et al., 2021) for both developed and developing countries (Farsi et al., 2012) through, for example, generating knowledge and creating new ventures. The latter is important because Kurdistan Regional Government shows high interest in developing the private sector of the JEEE region (Anthony et al., 2012;Shatz et al., 2014;Ministry of Planning -Kurdistan Regional Government, 2020). ...
... Entrepreneurial universities are capable of changing, recognizing and creating opportunities (de Araujo Ruiz et al., 2020). They search for new sources of funding, conduct various entrepreneurial activities (Uslu et al., 2019;Fuster et al., 2019) and produce entrepreneurs (Cie slik, 2017;Sancho et al., 2021); therefore, they can build their independency (Gibb, 2009) and also have a positive impact on the economy and society (Zhou and Peng, 2008;Etzkowitz, 2013;Sam and van der Sijde, 2014;Rubens et al., 2017;O'Reilly et al., 2019). In addition, these universities can effectively interact with the external environment, as well as establish entrepreneurial organizational culture (Romero et al., 2021). ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to indicate the most significant entrepreneurial environmental challenges that motivate universities of Kurdistan to become more entrepreneurial. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study of 24 in-depth semi-structured interviews with deans and heads of department in the universities of Kurdistan Region deals with what is meant by being an entrepreneurial university and what challenges motivate universities toward adopting the entrepreneurial university model. Interviews were organized, coded and grouped using template analysis approach. Findings The results showed that most significant entrepreneurial environmental challenges that push universities in Kurdistan Region to becoming more entrepreneurial are university funding, having collaborations, contributing to the regional development, developing entrepreneurial competencies, globalization challenges, the need for innovation and the emergence of the opposition forces. Research limitations/implications This study examines only the entrepreneurial environmental challenges that have been identified by Gibb et al. (2013). Also, it does not consider the role of leadership in dealing with these challenges. Originality/value This study extends the framework of Gibb et al. (2013) of the entrepreneurial environmental challenges that push universities to become more entrepreneurial by considering the challenges that universities in developing countries face. Then, this study adds greater clarity to the challenges that motivate universities to become more entrepreneurial in developing countries.
... Based on the above, this study came to shed light on a very important topic for higher education organizations in Jordan, which is the subject of investment in knowledge capital, knowledge management and strategic planning in human resource management, because they are one of the most important resources needed to develop performance, creativity in organizations and gaining a sustainable competitive advantage, where recently, knowledge resources have been deemed to outweigh the importance of financial resources. This study is expected to contribute to the Jordanian universities move towards the so-called third mission of universities, according to Rubens et al. [20] and Pinheiro et al. [21], which requires universities to lead by finding new sources of income through various activities to secure their place in the knowledge-based economy. Accordingly, the university's functions will be expanded from its original function of teaching to the production of new knowledge and, more recently, to the exploitation of knowledge for innovation. ...
... Therefore, universities are now the main generators of social and technological innovation. This, in turn, affects the way in which universities manage their human and technical resources strategically in search of competitive advantages, as shown in the studies of Rubens et al. [20], Cricelli et al. [122] and Pedro et al. [104]. ...
Article
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The higher education sector faces considerable competition around the world. Accordingly, universities need to make more efforts to increase their competitive advantages. This study aimed to empirically investigate the effect of organizational innovation (OI), knowledge management (KM), and strategic human resource management (SHRM), with a dependent variable of sustainable competitive advantages (SCAs), at Jordanian Universities. For this aim, a specially designed questionnaire has been distributed to study a convenience sample of 400 academic and administrative staff at Jordanian private and public universities, to obtain the required quantitative data. The study’s hypotheses were verified by Baron and Kenny’s mediation regression approach using the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The results of the study demonstrate that there is a significant positive relationship between the following pairs of variables: KM and SCA; SHRM and SCA; SHRM and OI; KM and OI; and OI and SCA, whereas OI was found to have a partial and indirect significant mediation impact on the direct relationship between KM and SHRM and universities (organizations) gaining SCAs. Finally, it was concluded that more attention needs to be paid to the OI aspect in organizations and to integrate it with KM and SHRM in a way that promotes SCAs. In addition, we propose that similar studies should be conducted in industries other than education or the education sector in different countries in a way that obtains generalized and representative results.
... Practitioners interface to illuminate potential problems, exchange ideas, construct tools, and create connections with peers. The process becomes a win-win situation where institutions can strengthen their academic mission, and communities can advance their social agenda (Rubens et al., 2016). From the CoP perspective, HEIs can take care of the specific needs of their stakeholders. ...
... These results suggest that MMU should respond hindrances to stakeholders' participation in CE initiatives. Moreover, Rubens et al. (2016) suggested that such CHAs can be addressed through establishing support structures and diversifying sources of funding for CE. ...
... Practitioners interface to illuminate potential problems, exchange ideas, construct tools, and create connections with peers. The process becomes a win-win situation where institutions can strengthen their academic mission, and communities can advance their social agenda (Rubens et al., 2016). From the CoP perspective, HEIs can take care of the specific needs of their stakeholders. ...
... These results suggest that MMU should respond hindrances to stakeholders' participation in CE initiatives. Moreover, Rubens et al. (2016) suggested that such CHAs can be addressed through establishing support structures and diversifying sources of funding for CE. ...
Article
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Community Engagement (CE) is an accredited path for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to address development challenges facing communities. However, establishing practical CE approaches is difficult due to a lack of information on stakeholders' perceptions and needs for CE. This paper intends to fill this gap by examining engaged stakeholders' perceptions and needs for CE. We conducted a survey among 450 stakeholders, categorised as dairy farmers, students, and faculty members of a case study HEI in Africa. One-way ANOVA findings showed that the three categories perceived CE differently and had multiple needs. To harness reciprocal engagement, HEIs should create more CE opportunities and address stakeholders' needs such as establishing structures, allocating time for engagement elements, financial support, and communication.
... As a result, the vision and mission of entrepreneurial universities has become a broadly researched topic (e.g. Urbano and Guerrero, 2013;Rubens et al., 2017). In recent years, the stakeholder approach to entrepreneurial universities has raised more interest among entrepreneurship scholars; as a result, students have begun to be recognized as an important internal stakeholder group within an entrepreneurial university (Clauss et al., 2018;Redford and Fayolle, 2014). ...
... Occasionally, the definition of an entrepreneurial university arises from the university's third mission (Wissema, 2009;Etzkowitz, 2016), where the university's core missions of teaching and research are crucial, and the third mission, societal interaction, is tackled as an all-embracing concept and solution for a majority of societal challenges, competitiveness problems and unemployment (Lahikainen et al., 2018;Rubens et al., 2017). Moreover, the concept of academic entrepreneurship is used as a partial synonym for entrepreneurial universities, where commercialization, spin-offs, patenting and licensing are all embraced (Bronstein and Reihlen, 2014;Grimaldi et al., 2011). ...
... Some studies have addressed this issue either directly or indirectly by describing the universities' role in regional competitiveness and regional development (Linzalone et al. 2020;Rubens et al. 2017). Although such studies are scarce and typically target specific countries/regions/universities, it is possible to highlight some relevant conclusions. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to test the multidimensional construct of the Entrepreneurial University (EU), and therefore to confirm whether EU factors make a positive contribution to regional competitiveness. Data were collected from ten Portuguese Public Universities (PPUs) through a self-administered questionnaire. First-and second-order confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed through factor and multiple linear regression analyses. The main findings show that EU related factors-perceived and combined with actual regional metrics-especially entrepreneurial supporting measures, positively contributed to regional competitiveness. This study shows policy makers that universities are not merely cost centres but provide knowledge spillovers that can have a positive influence on regional competitiveness.
... Entrepreneurial university: What is it? Peterka and Salihovic (2012) and Rubens et al. (2017) stated that the concept of entrepreneurial universities was initiated in response to societal, economic and environmental needs and also to address the financial needs of institutions. This concept became popular amongst academic scholars and policymakers in the 20th century as they were trying to find a suitable definition and description to this phenomenon (Guerrero & Urbano 2012 cited in O'Reilly, Robbins & Scanlan 2019). ...
Article
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Background: Universities and governments globally are now opting for and enforcing student entrepreneurship policies as a means to curb economic imbalances and address unemployment issues. The University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) is no exception to this trend as it has now introduced entrepreneurship programmes through course offerings as well as a fully operational programme, known as the UKZN inqubate-enspire that caters for students’ entrepreneurship needs. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of UKZN students of the role and effectiveness of the UKZN inqubate-enspire programme in developing student entrepreneurs as well as the role of the programme in assisting the university to become an entrepreneurial university. Setting: This study was conducted at UKZN campuses in Durban, which included Howard College and Westville. Methods: A qualitative case study design was embraced. Using a convenience sampling approach, a total of nine students who had participated in the UKZN inqubate-enspire programme were selected. Data were collected using face-to-face semi-structured interviews and analysed with the use of thematic analysis. Results: Participants revealed that the programme has sparked an entrepreneurial mindset in them and that they have obtained many skills, which will assist them in their future endeavours. However, participants also encountered a number of challenges such as the inability to balance academic work and running their business and inconsistencies in the mentorship programme. Lastly, the participants perceived that this programme made a contribution towards UKZN becoming an entrepreneurial university; however, they averred that this programme still needs much improvement to achieve this. Conclusion: It was discovered that although this programme is effective, there are shortcomings that need improvement to make this programme more effective and assist the university towards becoming an entrepreneurial university. The findings will make a significant contribution to entrepreneurship education theory and practice. This study will add to the entrepreneurship education literature and open doors for future studies on this programme or similar entrepreneurship education programmes.
... Contemporary universities are looking for new ways to enhance their collaboration with the world of practice in the areas of teaching and research. They are also undertaking a variety of activities in collaboration with their environment, referred to as the third mission or the social mission, which are progressively becoming an integral principle of the organisation and the practice of universities (S anchez- Barrioluengo et al., 2019;Rubens et al., 2017;Trencher et al., 2014), functioning alongside traditional areas of activity, i.e. education (first mission) and conducting research and development (second mission). As a consequence, universities are increasingly and willingly undertaking activities that combine academic research with direct solutions to authentic social problems, including those of other organisations (Brostr€ om et al., 2019;Mohrman and Lawler, 2021). ...
Article
Purpose The aim of the study was to illustrate how three different institutional logics, present in the implementation of action research, interact in a formalised project, in a traditional university setting. Design/methodology/approach The article is empirical in nature and the research method used is an instrumental case study. The case was the implementation of action research within the framework of an educational project co-financed by EU funds, conducted in a Polish public university. The research process was conducted from September 2017 to November 2019. The following techniques were used: document analysis, in-depth interviews, participatory observation during the project. Constant comparative analysis was used as an analytical approach. Findings The study indicates that action research, project management and university management follow different “logics”. The dominant logic of action research is problem-solving, of project management is efficiency and of university management is compliance. These different logics and the relationship between them is explained in the paper. Originality/value The research enriches the ongoing discussion on logic multiplicity and project management in a new context – that of the university environment and combines the issue of the implementation of action research with broader conversations on institutional logics.
... The third mission of academia, science outreach (the other two missions being education and research), is increasingly emphasized meaning that expectations of universities are changing (Rubens et al., 2017). University-industry co-production around education for competence development and lifelong learning is one such aspect. ...
Conference Paper
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New and elevated competences and knowledge needs arise as industry evolves and manufacturing is increasingly focusing digitalization and sustainability. Facing those aspects of transformation one of the challenges is the continuous and growing need for competence development of professionals. In a work practice of constant implementation of new manufacturing processes, competence development becomes crucial for professionals within engineering fields such as production systems, product development and logistics. This paper reports a study of the design of courses within manufacturing logistics aimed at competence development for industrial professionals. We investigate how such courses can be designed to enable improved logistics practices in manufacturing industry. The course mode and its development are outlined, explaining the university and industry co-production of the incentive. The courses and their specified content are developed jointly with collaborating companies, and the courses are given free of charge as regular university courses advertised as free-standing courses. Data is collected between the period of spring semester 2019-to spring semester 2021 from five completed courses of 2.5 ECTS on master level within manufacturing logistics. The data comprise quantitative data, such as throughput rate for course participants and qualitative data from focus groups. The focus groups emphasis the perspectives of the course participants and take place at the end of a completed course. Those focus groups serve as course evaluation coupled with highlighting themes of co-production and knowledge exchange between university and industry. The course concept of 2.5 ECTS credits on master level given during a period of five weeks has proven successful as regards meeting competence development need for professionals that are required to study in parallel with full time work. The results highlight participant's perspectives, revealing that they value the potential of knowledge exchange enabled through the pedagogy of the course concept. Further, we emphasize that co-production between university and industry is beneficial to successfully design education aiming to meet real competence needs and challenges faced by manufacturing companies. To conclude, the results accentuate how the presented course concept can create and encourage conditions that lay the foundation for increased application of, at the companies, previously untried manufacturing logistic methods and new practices within logistics.
... However, following what has already been established in the conventional literature (Rubens et al., 2017), it was expected to find socially oriented AE initiatives coming from individuals with profiles related to the social sciences: P11, Bolivia: I was educated in the area of disability in this institution, and the main motivation I had to become an entrepreneur was that I was the director of workshops in the afternoon and the psychologist in the morning [. . .]. ...
Article
Purpose: Despite growing scholarly interest in academic entrepreneurship (AE) few studies have examined its non-commercial aspects and how it contributes to meeting grand societal challenges. One explanation for this may be the continuing focus of AE on intellectual property commercialization. This paper aims to address this knowledge gap by uncovering how universities can contribute to promoting non-commercial forms of AE. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses the human capital theoretical lens to make its argument and applies it to data obtained from exploratory qualitative research (55 semi-structured interviews and nine focus groups) in the developing countries of Bolivia, Colombia and Ecuador. Findings: Universities can promote different forms of non-commercial AE even in the absence of sophisticated resources for innovation, through the stimulation of the specific human capital of the university community resulting from activities where they help others. Originality/value: This paper proposes a general framework for advancing theory development in AE and its non-commercial forms, based on data obtained in uncharted territories for AE.
... As well as the different skills and abilities expected from future workers, entrepreneurship seems to be ever more critical. Therefore, it is an attractive topic to both study and develop, something that can be considered as being part of the idea of the 'third mission' of universities (for more, see Laredo, 2007;Marzocchi, Kitagawa, Sánchez-Barrioluengo, 2019;Mihaela, Amalia, 2014;Rubens et al., 2017). As Sam and Van Der Sijde (2014: 904) note, "[…] Entrepreneurial university is not merely a university executing the third mission in promoting entrepreneurship, but it also incorporates it into teaching and research to maintain its academic identity." ...
Article
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Entrepreneurship has become a critical competency in the 21st century. Higher education (HE) institutions, aware of the need to answer market needs, have started several initiatives to develop entrepreneurial education. However, the concept of social entrepreneurship does not seem to be widely known among graduates. The aim of the article is an attempt to assess entrepreneurial competencies and knowledge in the field of social entrepreneurship. The authors have focused on the teaching of social entrepreneurship, an undervalued element of entrepreneurial education in HE institutions. For that purpose, a case study of a course introduced at the academic level was used, which allowed answering the following questions: Is social entrepreneurship known among students as a possibility for entrepreneurial development? How do they assess a course in social entrepreneurship regarding its usefulness and ability to develop competencies? The study shows that social entrepreneurship seems to be a form that is not well recognised, which means that students do not even have the chance to know the whole entrepreneurship picture. Researwch has shown students’ positive approach to a course devoted to social entrepreneurship and its potential to develop the knowledge and skills to run one’s venture in the future. The results are a part of a broader trend related to the need for social entrepreneurship in HE institutions.
... It is an indicator that has become more important as the 3rd mission of the university has consolidated itself in scientific circles. The link to society and the economic role of universities is nowadays recognized as a relevant element that can complement university funding (Berghaeuser & Hoelscher, 2020;Compagnucci & Spigarelli, 2020;Rubens et al., 2017). Several indicators are used in this dimension and exploit the results obtained by these spinoffs such as turnover, market share, and number of created jobs. ...
Article
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This study aims to explore and synthesize the academic entrepreneurship indicators that can be used by university institutions to understand their degree of development and maturities in supporting entrepreneurship processes. To this end, a systematic review is used to characterize the studies published in the last decade, the researchers who have led this research field, the adopted methodologies, and the structure and dimensions of indicators. The results allowed us to identify a set of 29 indicators distributed by 8 dimensions such as patents, university spinoffs, infrastructures, industry engagement, process creativity, process efficiency, process outcomes, and training. This study is innovative in focusing its analysis on academic entrepreneurship indicators. The knowledge of these indicators is relevant from a conceptual and practical perspective and will help universities to improve their technology transfer processes which will serve as a fundamental element in the implementation of the university's third mission.
... The outlook of universities becoming key actors in regional economic development and knowledge transfer, i.e. the third mission of academia (the other two missions being education and research), is increasingly addressed meaning that expectations of universities are changing (Rubens et al. 2017). University-industry collaboration on education for lifelong learning is one such aspect. ...
Conference Paper
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In the era of industry 4.0 businesses are pursuing applications of technological developments towards increased digitization. This in turn necessitates continuous and increasing demand for competence development of professionals. This paper reports a study of the design of university courses targeted towards professionals and investigate how such an educational incentive can act as a catalyst for application of technologies for industry 4.0, including simulation. Quantitative data is collected from fifteen courses addressing the competence need in manufacturing industry, and the qualitative data includes ten focus groups with course participants from companies. The results highlight that the course design enables knowledge exchange between university and industry and between participants. Moreover the pedagogy of working on real cases can facilitate opportunities for introducing new technologies to management. The study shows that the educational incentive explored can act as a catalyst for application of simulation and technologies within industry 4.0 in manufacturing industry.
... European universities followed a similar path, extending the Humboldtian paradigm of a research university and acknowledging the societal importance of academic endeavours (Trencher et al., 2014). The concept of the third mission goes beyond the mere commercialization of research and could be understood as a process of public engagement intended to solve problems relevant to a society or a community and thereby, contribute to the increased innovativeness and social changes (Sánchez-Barrioluengo & Benneworth, 2019; for other definitions of the third mission, see e.g., Papadimitriou, 2020;Rubens et al., 2017). Of particular importance is the cooperation between universities and their stakeholders (Aversano et al., 2020), aimed at "the social, cultural and economic development of communities" (Compagnucci & Spigarelli, 2020, p. 6), capable of addressing specific societal challenges (Kattel & Mazzucato, 2018). ...
Book
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This open access book offers unique and novel views on the social innovation landscape, tools, practices, pedagogies, and research in the context of higher education. International, multi-disciplinary academics and industry leaders present new developments, research evidence, and practice expertise on social innovation in higher education institutions (HEIs), across academic and professional disciplines. The book includes a selected set of peer-reviewed chapters presenting different perspectives against which relevant actors can identify and analyse social innovation in HEIs. The volume demonstrates how HEIs can respond to societal challenges, support positive social change, and contribute to the development of international public policy discourse. It answers the question ‘how does the present higher education system, in different countries, promote social innovation and create social change and impact’. In answering this question, the book identifies factors driving success as well as obstacles. Furthermore, it examines how higher education innovation assists societal challenges and investigates the benefits of effective social innovation engagement by HEIs. The interdisciplinary approach of the volume makes it a must-read for scholars, students, policy-makers, and practitioners of economics, education, business and management, political science, and sociology interested in a better understanding of social innovation.
... An institutional and political application of this new model for the economic and social development driven by innovation is the smart specialization strategy (S3), where a multi-level (i.e. local-global) and multi-stakeholder approach is required (Rinaldi et al., 2017;Hoglund and Gabriel, 2018;McAdams and Debackere, 2018). ...
Chapter
The chapter aims to investigate the impact of the presence of the university on the perceived quality of life of the host community. To this aim, the authors focused on a specific area, that is the historical town center of Naples (as defined by the UNESCO in the World Heritage List since 1995), where five universities are located. Adopting a qualitative and explorative approach, 25 in-depth interviews have been conducted with local universities' stakeholders and content-analyzed through the software Nvivo 10. Thus, the authors identified precisely the multiplicity of activities through which the presence of the university contributes to the socio-economic and cultural well-being of the community of which it is part, thinking about the dynamics that may occur in the case of an urban-located university. Based on the findings, a conceptual model is proposed that may be further validated with new investigations.
... In the view of Montesinos et al. (2008), the university's third mission is a kind of activity that provides services, notfor-profit but for addressing the welfare of all members of society. Rubens et al. (2017) highlighted the university social role, called the fourth mission. This new focus started within universities through several programs and activities and has spread outside the HEI through a variety of services and sustainability (Laninga et al., 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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The Entrepreneurial University (EU) has, in its core, inherent connections among members of the academy-industry government-society. The aim of this article was to analyze the scientific literature that addressed the themes, Third Mission (TM) and EU, through a Systematic Literature Search (SLS), based upon 95 articles, from 1998 to 2019. We applied SSF Method, based on a rigorous process for selecting, collecting data, analyzing, and describing significant research contributions. We also updated the essay through an exploratory literature search. Our study findings indicated that there are a growing number of publications on the EU and TM. The literature is still fragmented and under-theorized, reinforcing the relevance to conduct systematic and integrative literature searches and reviews. EU and TM form the nucleus of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), protagonists of the innovation process, working with industry and government in the socio-economic development of the region. Despite the understanding that the university's role has evolved beyond teaching and research, the TM still generates many discussions, whether of a conceptual nature or on the kind of activities and relationships contained within this concept. It is crucial to understand the idea of university extension, as well as its scope, including the social facet of the TM. We contributed to the overview of the EU and TM, recommending the conduction of research on ways to consolidate the academic missions between the TM and extension, by seeking to clarify, according to the Brazilian and Latin American realities, the inseparability of teaching-research-extension tripod and, recently, innovation and entrepreneurship.
... Post World War II education at universities in North America, Europe, and Asia was premised on a model in line with the idea articulated by Langmuir, where research efforts feed new data and concepts into the "knowledge pool" that serves as a sustainable resource stream for fundamental research and technology development efforts in the industrial complex. 2,3 Nanoscale science innovation has benefited from such a model. For example, the production of nanoscale particles and their assembly into composite materials has an omnipresent economic impact penetrating all areas of life and technology with fundamental discoveries that have already stimulated materials development for energy, telecommunication, healthcare, and environmental technologies. ...
... State regulation of the interaction of the educational services market and the labour market of the economy contributes to both the economic effect (employment of specialists for hi gherpaying jobs or in increasing wages in the same position) and social (increasing the intellec tual level of the individual, his social status, and as a result-the intellectual potential of the entire society) (Rubens, 2017). At the same time, the main role of the state in regulating the interaction of these entities should be aimed primarily at the successful use of the tools of the legislative framework, fiscal and monetary, social policy, etc. ...
Article
Introduction. Transition of the education system to the new state standards defined social order to the teacher: ensure that each student achieves learning results of such quality level which corresponds with the requirements of society. This goal achievement will require significant changes in the field of professional teaching activity, development of new relevant approaches. Teachers’ experience of classes organization in different educational institutions in the framework of their upskilling and retraining in the Institute of Teacher Career Development (Moscow, Russia) shows that their professional activities and the didactic materials used do not adequately implement the psychological patterns of the educational process. They do not adequately implement the processes of mastering and formation of students’ mental actions and concepts, thinking activity; and the teaching and learning activity of the students do not correspond to its psychological structure and content. Teachers reduce the meaning and content of their activity to explaining the material, transferring the «finished» knowledge to the student and demonstrating methods of solving practical problems in a specific domain in the form of samples or algorithms. At that, the emphasis is largely laid on hereditary and individual capabilities of educational process subjects, rather than on universal psychological mechanisms of social experience adoption process. Despite all attempts to optimize the educational process, educational institutions graduates’ proficiency level varies. The adoption of the Russian federal target program of education development for 2016-2020 meets the requirements of modern innovative socially oriented development of the Russian Federation. It highlighted the problem of educational process theory and its organization practice failure to solve the problem of quality education inavailability for each learner. The researches of foreign authors in the field of education conducted over the past 20 years give the priority to the problem of providing quality educational results by the teacher, the solution of which is directly related to the development of his or her professional activity, new educational technologies and courseware for the educational process. The purpose of this work is to assess the impact of the quality of education on the economic development of the country in social and labour relations. Results. The conducted research allows us to confirm that changes in the state of development of social and labour relations in the national economy in the direction of improvement or degradation are due to a number of factors of macroeconomic, demographic and migration nature and indicators of the education sector effectiveness. At the same time, educational factors both in aggregate in the form of an integral indicator (for the 3rd block of factors), and separately (for indicators: trained (graduated) qualified workers and university graduates, the share of employed graduates of technical education institutions and universities financing education by the public sector) have a direct significant relationship. Conclusions. The study confirms that the changes in the development of social and industrial relations in the national economy towards improvement or degradation are caused by a number of macroeconomic, demographic and migration background factors and indicators of the effectiveness of the education sector. Factors such as educational-related in the form of an integral indicator, as well as separately have direct significant relationship.
... Particularmente entre aquellos que se encuentran localizados en una economía en vía de desarrollo(Guerrero, Urbano, & Herrera, 2017;Roncancio, Dentchev, Diaz Gonzalez, & Crispeels, 2020;Roncancio Marin & Dentchev, 2020). De igual manera, otros autores mencionan la importancia de estudiar los precursores de las consecuencias de las colaboraciones entre los actores de un ecosistema de innovación para promover la sostenibilidad(Rubens, Spigarelli, Cavicchi, & Rinaldi, 2017).El problema de investigación planteado anteriormente es relevante, dado que la documentación científica en economías en vía de desarrollo en el tema de la presente tesis es aún escaza. Asimismo, desde el punto de vista regional, sólo la literatura también se encuentra en sus etapas tempranas cuando trata de explicar las colaboraciones y la dinámica de emprendimiento e innovación en el ecosistema caldense(Calderón- Hernández, Jiménez-Zapata, & Serna-Gomez, 2020;Naranjo-Valencia & Calderón- Hernández, 2015). ...
Thesis
In this study, the quadruple-helix theory of innovation by Carayannis et al. Is used as a theoretical lens. (2016) to capture which are the factors that determine the success of collaborations between the university, industry, the state and society, in favor of sustainability. To do this, 11 individuals belonging to the innovation ecosystem of the department of Caldas were interviewed, and grounded theory was used as a strategy for exploratory qualitative analysis. Among the findings, it is worth mentioning that the factors that would determine the success of collaborations between the actors of the tetra helix of innovation are: Improving the scientific infrastructure, having a good system of incentives for collaboration, establishing a paradigm shift in the private and industrial sector, that there is to be an open information model for all interest groups, and that the goals of the actors are aligned.
... Demands on universities are changing, and universities need to change in order to meet these demands. Increasingly universities are interrogated about their effectiveness, impact, and accountability (Hazelkorn, 2018;Mader, Scott & Razak, 2013;Rubens et al., 2017). For example, the public wants to know how the taxpayer's money is used to drive positive changes in society and students want to be able to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the qualifications they pursue (Woodall, Hiller & Resnick, 2014). ...
Article
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While the movement for open research has gained momentum in recent years, there remain concerns about the broader commitment to openness in knowledge production and dissemination. Increasingly, universities are under pressure to transform themselves to engage with the wider community and to be more inclusive. Open knowledge institutions (OKIs) provide a framework that encourages universities to act with the principles of openness at their centre; not only should universities embrace digital open access (OA), but also lead actions in cultivating diversity, equity, transparency and positive changes in society. This leads to questions of whether we can evaluate the progress of OKIs and what are potential indicators for OKIs. As an exploratory study, this article reports on the collection and analysis of a list of potential OKI indicators. Data for these indicators are gathered for 43 Australian universities. The indicators provide high-dimensional and complex signals about university performances. They show evidence of large disparities in characteristics such as Indigenous employment and gender equity, and a preference for repository-mediated OA across Australian universities. We demonstrate use of the OKI evaluation framework to categorise these indicators into three platforms of diversity, communication and coordination. The analysis provides new insights into the Australian open knowledge landscape and ways of mapping different paths of OKIs.
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The growing attention paid to the performance of state Higher Education Institutions (HEI), caused by the growing demands and changes in these institutions’ ways of acting, has contributed to valorization of leadership as an instrument guiding their line of action, able to stimulate their success and with positive impacts on HEIs’ performance. This study has the twin objective of analyzing the relation between the different leadership styles and performance in Brazilian and Iberian HEIs, and the possible moderating effects of culture and autonomy on that relation. A questionnaire was completed by rectors, vice-rectors, pro-rectors and leaders of HEIs. The data collected were analyzed through descriptive statistics and application of the PLS-SEM method. Adaptive integrative, cybernetic, knowledge-oriented, strategic and transformational leadership styles were found to have a positive and significant influence on the performance of Brazilian HEIs, but this was not the case in Iberian HEIs. In addition, staff autonomy was seen to have a positive and significant moderating effect on the relation between leadership styles and performance in Brazilian HEIs. The study also contributes by identifying the types of culture and autonomy that have a positive and significant influence on HEI performance.
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Theoretical concepts of the modern university pay a lot of attention to the evaluation of financial performance of research activities. The attraction of government-provided R&D funding is associated with the creation and enhancement of the scientific potential, and the accretion of scientific knowledge, rather than its practical application, is prioritised. Research projects commissioned by the private sector represents the university's contribution to the needs of the real economy or the "market" value of the accumulated potential. In Russian management practice, both of these criteria have become part of the regular evaluation of HEIs performance along with many other parameters characterizing the success of HEIs in achieving the benchmarks of scientific development. The objective of the study is to identify the factors that increase the financial success of Russian universities in the field of R&D. The fundamental hypothesis is that there is a direct correlation between universities' revenues from R&D and the priority directions of the state S&T policy with regard to universities, including the increase in publication activity, enhancement of human resources potential and formation of innovation infrastructure. The information base of the study was formed by the results of monitoring the activities of educational institutions of higher education in Russia in 2016-2022 for 590 institutions. The financial performance of HEIs' research activities is assessed using three indicators: the share of R&D revenues in the total revenues of an educational organization; the amount of extra-budgetary revenues from R&D per one research project and faculty member; the share of extra-budgetary funds in R&D revenues. To assess the statistical significance of the relationships, the tools of regression analysis of panel data were applied. The main conclusion of the study is to prove the mutual correlation between the vectors of scientific development of the university sector, which have been set at the state level in the last 10 years. The focus on strengthening university science coupled with intensification of cooperation with the real sector of the economy has been synchronized with the tasks of growth of publication activity, material provision of scientists, renovation of the instrumentation base, construction of research and innovation infrastructure.
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The entrepreneurial university has taken a prodigious influence globally, and studies show the expedient value of entrepreneurship in universities performing innumerable activities alongside their main objectives of teaching and research. Universities worldwide are adopting entrepreneurship teaching through creating models and methods. Collaboration of research, industry, and government entities is crucial to fulfill innovative systems in the academic environment. This study evaluates academic faculty and their impact on entrepreneurial education by focusing on their work experience, position, involvement in technical projects, international work experience, and private sector experience. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA), Least Significant Difference (LSD) assessments are conducted to support the results of our hypotheses and the variables of the entrepreneurial education impact by understanding the interpersonal aspects of faculty within academic organizations.
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Sustainable development has become an essential part of responsible education, regardless of its level or the professional field. As part of the ‘third mission’ of higher education institutions (HEIs), sustainable development education should be accompanied by the relevant research, dissemination, and outreach toward the communities, civil society organizations, and governments. This study focuses on sustainable development education research in South East Europe (SEE). We analyze the extant SEE academic literature on sustainable development education using a popular bibliometric tool (Elsevier SciVal). We identify the implications of the obtained results for the educational practice and higher education policies in sustainable development and discuss the potential contribution of research to the sustainable development education and dissemination/outreach practices of HEIs in SEE.KeywordsSustainable development educationBibliometric benchmarkingSouth East Europe
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With institutions of higher education recognizing the importance of implementing sustainability education, universities have begun exploring the driving factors of sustainable teaching innovation among higher education faculty. However, the crucial role of higher education faculty in the educational innovation process has been neglected. This study adopted a two-wave tracking survey method, collected 354 valid questionnaires from the university innovation and entrepreneurship education alliance of the eastern coastal provinces of China, and tested the research model using hierarchical regression. The findings indicate that (1) university playfulness climate can predict teachers' sustainable teaching innovation; (2) job engagement positively mediates the relationship between university playfulness climate and sustainable teaching innovation; and (3) the sensitivity of teachers’ teaching and learning positively moderates the effects of university playfulness climate and job engagement on teachers' sustainable teaching innovation. These findings suggest that the role of the university playfulness climate is being considered and may be closely related to university social innovation through teachers' sustainable teaching innovation.
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Besides assuming the role of teaching, research, and extension, the university, has expanded the boundaries of scientific knowledge to promote a business ecosystem. The business-related activities can be driven by the leadership of students with an entrepreneurial capacity, based on the technology transfer produced by the academic research and generated by companies that somehow have been idealized or had the active participation of the faculty members and the technology under their control. This model of companies, named in the literature as academic spin-off, has increased the attention of researchers at two main points: i. understanding the phenomenon itself and ii. contribute to identifying the lack of the process, whether related to the support structure or capacitation of faculty members to develop the entrepreneurial activities, as well as in understanding the commercialization of knowledge as technology transfer. In this context, the present work provided a metadata analysis of systematic literature reviews on the academic spin-off, mapping the knowledge on the subject and searching for reviews that cover the technology transfer models to study the viability of protecting the academic intellectual property as a product. Methodology: the data used in this study were retrieved from the database Web of Science and revised according to the protocol Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). The bibliometric analysis of metadata was conducted in RStudio software with the package Bibliometrix and its web interface Biblioshiny. Results: 40 review articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 2006 to 2021 were selected from the initial collection. Then, as result of the bibliometric analysis, it was obtained the data of production indices (main authors, sources, and most cited articles), the evolution of chronological discussion on the subject, and other complementary. Conclusion: it was found indications of studies that discuss technology transfer models and others that examined empiric models in the academic scenario. However, in the selected collection, was not identified any review papers on academic entrepreneurship that were related to the viability of intellectual property as products to be commercialized. Also, it was identified that the word academic entrepreneurship stands out as the main keyword word to represent the research.
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The chapter discusses the concept of socially responsible innovations and links it to the third mission of universities, understood in terms of social engagement of the higher education institutions. It presents the case study of the EIT Food RIS Consumer Engagement Labs project (funded by the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, EIT, in the framework of Regional Innovation Scheme, RIS). The project has been rolled out to 14 European countries. It serves as a successful example of universities orchestrating the process of co-creation of new products, which involves consumers and producers. The process aimed to address societal challenges and serve the needs of a vulnerable group of senior citizens by developing new food products, proposed by the elderly consumers and matching their specific needs and requirements. It looks at the project experiences through the lenses of inclusion and responsiveness, which allow the universities to combine social responsibility with commercially attractive innovations. Universities involved in the project were playing the role of “interpreters”, linking companies and consumers, facilitating the creative activities and ensuring the methodological and ethical soundness of the co-creation processes.
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Entrepreneurial universities are the center of progressive organizations that have reconsidered themselves in order to adapt to complex environmental conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the towards the creative-oriented university. In this research, which has used descriptive methods, in order to understand the concepts of towards the creative-oriented university, the background of the subject has been studied in the form of library and documentary studies. Thus,conclusion show that the effect of entrepreneurial universities on a regional scale extends far beyond commercial outputs while a simple cost-benefit analysis can provide indirect and tangible results in terms of human capital attraction, entrepreneurial capital formation, informal networks, new ideas, and so on.
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The article deals with the problem of weak integration of Russian universities into the real economy. This is one of the most pressing problems of the Russian university system. The purpose of the article is to develop a specialized pilot checklist "Towards business: a model for integrating higher education and the real sector of the economy" and to demonstrate the prospects for its use in regional universities. The general hypothesis of the research is to test the feasibility of creating and using such checklists to help Russian universities in restructuring their organizational models in the direction of strengthening practice orientation. It is shown that at present the market for a new information and analytical product – checklists – is in its infancy and is evolving in several directions. Firstly, it becomes more complicated: the number of constituent documents increases, the number of questions increases, etc. Secondly, the forms of their implementation are being improved: chargeable, bonus, free, by subscription, with an additional package, etc. Thirdly, different algorithms for their application appear: straightforward replication of a standard document, provision of a checklist with subsequent in-depth research and recommendations in relation to a specific customer, the possibility of choosing an additional service for expert assessment, creation and implementation of mobile applications for prompt updating of checklists, and etc. All of this allows the new methodological tool to find application in the higher education system. The article examines some typical examples of the new trend emerging in Spain, Croatia, Great Britain, the USA and Russia, as well as pan-European and Latin American initiatives. The methodology of the author's checklist "Towards business" is based on taking into account the world experience of integrating universities and enterprises in a compact form: an instruction document and a cover note. There have not yet been effective prototypes of the developed checklist in Russia. Cases of using the pilot checklist for reorganizing the model of work of universities in the Kamchatka Territory, the Republic of Dagestan and the Lipetsk Region confirm the general hypothesis of the article.
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À travers l’analyse de l’évolution de l’éducation à l’entrepreneuriat et en s’appuyant sur les théories de l’intention entrepreneuriale, notamment celle du comportement planifié de Ajzen, (1991); cet article examine l’influence de l’éducation à l’entrepreneuriat sur l’intention d’entreprendre des étudiants au Maroc. Ainsi, ce papier se donne les moyens de proposer un modèle conceptuel qui explique la relation entre ces deux dits éléments tout en utilisant les variables médiatrices de l’attitude entrepreneuriale, des normes subjectives et du contrôle comportemental perçu pour prédire l’intention d’entreprendre ainsi qu’en explorant les principales théories sur l’éducation à l’entrepreneuriat. En l’occurrence, le modèle que nous suggérons a pour caractéristique d’inclure des variables adaptées au contexte marocain, et ce parce que celui-ci intègre des variables modératrices issues d’une étude qualitative exploratoire menée auprès de 15 entrepreneurs marocains opérant dans différents secteurs.
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Entrepreneurial universities are the center of progressive organizations that have reconsidered themselves in order to adapt to complex environmental conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the towards the creative-oriented university. In this research, which has used descriptive methods, in order to understand the concepts of towards the creative-oriented university, the background of the subject has been studied in the form of library and documentary studies. Thus,conclusion show that the effect of entrepreneurial universities on a regional scale extends far beyond commercial outputs while a simple cost-benefit analysis can provide indirect and tangible results in terms of human capital attraction, entrepreneurial capital formation, informal networks, new ideas, and so on.
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Purpose This study investigated the conditions required to foster healthcare innovation. Due to the limited research and development (R&D) capability of the Thai private sector, universities are increasingly expected to be emerging sources of healthcare products. However, the lack of experience in research commercialization requires that whether and how Thai university researchers can serve this mission be explored. Design/methodology/approach A promising dental implant product development project was investigated using the single-case research methodology. In-depth interviews were conducted with three key members involved in this innovative project. Questions concerning how a team of university researchers could embark on and overcome the obstacles encountered during their entrepreneurial project were asked. Based on the conceptual foundation of academic entrepreneurship, primary and additional secondary data were analyzed to acquire knowledge of academic entrepreneurship in healthcare in an emerging economy. Findings Healthcare inequality has generated entrepreneurial initiatives by healthcare researchers to develop low-cost dental implants. However, their efforts have been insufficient to progress to the commercialization stage. An informal relationship among socially oriented partners, including interdisciplinary experts, not-for-profit-oriented manufacturers and early adopters contributed to this project's success. Originality/value To foster healthcare innovation, the authors’ micro-level evidence of a socially oriented partnership on an informal basis indicates the need for inter-professional governance that maintains a cross-organizational environment between healthcare researchers and external parties. The future contributions to innovation management by healthcare professionals should be enhanced. A socially entrepreneurial model of healthcare innovation is suggested for further consideration as an enabling policy option for inter-professional partnership in emerging economies.
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The primary aim of this chapter is to review the literature on entrepreneurial ecosystems, focusing on the activities of two key institutions: higher education institutions and business incubation centres (BICs). Although there is a significant volume of research on the design and impact of business incubators, there is limited coverage of their role on campus and within an entrepreneurial university's ecosystem. This chapter presents an assessment of how best to manage the connection between business incubation centres and higher education institutions. We examine the activities of business incubation centres (BICs) as they relate to entrepreneurial universities. We also provide an overview of the key challenges associated with developing entrepreneurial universities. The findings are presented in the form of a conceptual framework. The framework facilitates an improved understanding of the benefits of connecting the capabilities, activities and outcomes associated with higher education and business incubation. This chapter offers a lens by which to consider the design of BICs as they relate to entrepreneurial universities and offers pathways to consider future research.
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Purpose In recent decades, higher education institutes (HEIs) have come under pressure to cooperate with society as a whole. This shift towards an increased focus on third mission and social innovation activities implies a substantial organizational change process for many HEIs, as they need to initiate both structural and cultural changes. This paper provides guidance for such change processes by examining the views and attitudes of academic and administrative staff, as well as students within the HEIs over a period in which the HEIs increase their focus on social innovation. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a longitudinal quantitative approach consisting of a survey of administrative and academic staff, as well as students at two German HEIs. The authors studied members’ attitudes towards third mission and social innovation activities ( N = 3470). Findings Results suggest that the university members’ attitudes towards third mission and social innovation are positive but change to some extent over time. Different aspects shape the attitudes within the three groups (administrative staff, academic staff and students). Furthermore, attitudes vary among academic employees who are involved in the process and those who are not. Practical implications The findings provide useful information for university managers and anyone aiming to promote social innovation at HEIs. Originality/value The study examines how attitudes of university members change whenever social innovation takes place at HEIs. This study includes data on the participation and empowerment of all HEI members in view of the important role that HEIs can play as supporters of social innovation.
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In the last quarter century, since the university is the main source of the human resources required by the knowledge society, structural and functional restructuring efforts of the university institution have been increasing to strengthen the positive impact on economic growth and social development through education and research activities. Today, the Anglo-Saxon and the Far East countries have the most successful university examples in this context; European universities come second in performance, although there are tremendous differences among member countries. Being a candidate for the European Union membership and as a member of the Council of Europe as the first signatory states of the Cultural Convention; implementation of reforms in the European Higher Education Area is obligatory for Turkey. In this study, an organizational and operating model has been developed in line with the European university reform agenda. CoHE's university approach which focuses on thematic and regional development has also been taken into consideration. Five innovations can be mentioned in terms of organizational and functional configuration of the model: (i) Profile of graduate and mission of the new generation university in the fields of education, research and community services, (ii) Policy development and implementation offices, (iii) University ecosystem consultation and steering committee and other committees and boards, (iv) Concept courses and branded courses, (v) Recognition of prior learning, (vi) Coop-education and solution partnerships.
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This paper presents an organizing framework of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) evolving strategies to fulfill third mission in an Entrepreneurial University. Actually, universities are struggling to face the challenges in achieving third mission objectives enhancing entrepreneurial culture to prosper in an entrepreneurial society. In this context, there is currently no clear categorization in the literature of the different EE academic strategies able to contribute differently to third mission goals and impact. Gathering from the literature on EE, the paper typifies academic EE strategies and their evolution toward an ecosystemic approach that is here seen as an ideal scenario to align EE within the mission and values expected to achieve third mission outcomes and impact. The contribution is a starting point for future research in the field, paving the way for empirical validations able to highlight the link between University EE strategy and University ability to implement its third mission. It can also serve as a guide for entrepreneurship educators, university executives and policy makers to develop extensive and effective strategies in the EE field.
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Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to critically review the research literature on training interventions to increase the workplace application of improvisation. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was undertaken, work was considered in light of research methodology (qualitative, quantitative and discussion) and themes were identified and coded in Nvivo. Findings – Although there is a substantial body of research on improvisation as a workplace phenomenon, there is only limited empirical research on the workplace application of improvisation training. Research limitations/implications – Further research is needed in the field, specific recommendations are made. Practical implications – This paper provides an in-depth briefing on the current state of the literature for trainers and HR professionals who are considering the merits of using improvisation training in their workplace. Originality/value – Mintzberg (1973) suggested that up to 90 per cent of managerial behaviour is improvised. This paper provides a new depth of understanding on the workplace application of improvisation training and the paucity of knowledge in the field. Keywords Training, Improvisation, Innovation Paper type Literature review
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This study is part of a broader research project, conducted by the Triple Helix Research Group – Brazil, focusing on university–industry– government linkages in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The case study reported here is that of the Regional University of Volta Redonda: the aim was to develop an understanding of how a regional university can be transformed into an entrepreneurial university, oriented towards assisting regional economic development. A theoretical framework was constructed using existing literature on regional development and the Triple Helix approach. The research objective was to determine the relevance and effects of university–industry collaboration from the perspective of local players. Two surveys were conducted, one with faculty members at the university and the other with representatives of companies located in the region. No cultural barriers to collaboration were revealed on either side of the relationship; and opportunities to improve a relationship that, in the past, has had little influence on economic development in the region were also identified.
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The literature on universities’ contributions to regional development is broad and diverse. A precise understanding of how regions may draw advantages from various university activities and the role of public policy institutions in promoting such activities is still missing. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for analysing universities’ contributions to regional economic and societal development in differing national contexts and the policy institutions that underpin them. To do this, we review four conceptual models: the entrepreneurial university model, the regional innovation system (RIS) model, the mode 2 university model and the engaged university model. The paper demonstrates that these four models emphasize very different activities and outputs by which universities are seen to benefit regional economy and society. It is also shown that these models differ markedly with respect to the policy implications and practice. Analysing some of the public policy imperatives and incentives in the UK, Austria and Sweden, the paper highlights that in the UK, policies encourage all four university models. In contrast, in Sweden and Austria, policy institutions tend to privilege the RIS university model, whilst at the same time, there is some evidence for increasing support of the entrepreneurial university model.
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Purpose ‐ The purpose of this article is to develop and test a model to explain students' willingness to participate in sustainability programs. Specifically, the authors aimed to determine those factors, apart from students' environmental orientation (self-perception of "being green"), that influence students' willingness to participate in sustainability programs. Design/methodology/approach ‐ A survey was conducted at one of the largest Australian universities, with 168 student respondents. A linear regression model with a bootstrapping method was applied to estimate direct and indirect effects. The model tested the indirect effects of three mediators: concern for environmental issues, educational activities, and promotion of university sustainable initiatives. Findings ‐ The results from the empirical study show strong support for indirect effects. While students' environmental orientation is an antecedent of their willingness to participate in sustainability programs, the strongest mediator in this process is concern for environmental issues, followed by university educational activities and university promotion of sustainable initiatives. Originality/value ‐ This is the first study set in an Australian University that analyses those factors affecting the students' degree of willingness to participate in university-initiated sustainability activities. The findings from this study are of interest to the higher education sector which plays an important role in both raising environmental awareness among students, and nurturing them as environmentally responsible members of the global community. The results of this study can be used to encourage student participation in on-campus sustainable activities which can be carried over when they graduate.
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University–community partnerships (UCP’s) are exciting areas of academic and social interest. This interest seems to be a response to the multiple challenges academic institutions and communities face in the context of the social, economic and institutional changes that affect both universities and communities worldwide. Along with the acknowledged benefits of such initiatives, studies have also noticed that UCP’s tend to engender internal tensions and conflicts which harm the spirit of collaboration between partners. This article challenges the conception of UCP’s as inherently conflictive and suggests a more complex vision. It argues that UCP’s can be better understood through organizational paradox theory. This theory offers a way to grapple with the complexity of UCP’s and overcome the binary conception of conflict or collaboration. The article illustrates the interrelatedness of conflict and collaboration by presenting seven areas that characterize the paradoxical nature of UCP’s.
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The field of sustainability science aims to understand the complex and dynamic interactions between natural and human systems in order to transform and develop these in a sustainable manner. As sustainability problems cut across diverse academic disciplines, ranging from the natural sciences to the social sciences and humanities, interdisciplinarity has become a central idea to the realm of sustainability science. Yet, for addressing complicated, real-world sustainability problems, interdisciplinarity per se does not suffice. Active collaboration with various stakeholders throughout society—transdisciplinarity—must form another critical component of sustainability science. In addition to implementing interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity in practice, higher education institutions also need to deal with the challenges of institutionalization. In this article, drawing on the experiences of selected higher education academic programs on sustainability, we discuss academic, institutional, and societal challenges in sustainability science and explore the potential of uniting education, research and societal contributions to form a systematic and integrated response to the sustainability crisis.
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The attitudes of university faculty towards the expansion of universities’ missions to include assisting regional economic development and technology development by knowledge commercialization are analysed. Based upon surveys of faculty in the EU and in the United States, as well as secondary data on the institutional characteristics of universities and their regional economic conditions, we find that faculty are significantly more supportive of their universities assisting regional economic development compared to knowledge commercialization that attitudes between the US and EU faculty are remarkably similar, and that individual factors, including academic discipline, are more powerful explanators of the variation in attitudes compared to institutional characteristics or regional economic conditions.
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This paper explores a global trend where universities are collaborating with government, industry and civil society to advance the sustainable transformation of a specific geographical area or societal sub-system. With empirical evidence, we argue that this function of 'co-creation for sustainability' could be interpreted as the seeds of an emerging, new mission for the university. We demonstrate that this still evolving mission differs significantly from the economic focus of the third mission and conventional technology transfer practices, which we argue, should be critically examined. After defining five channels through which a university can fulfil the emerging mission, we analyse two frontrunner 'transformative institutions' engaged in co-creating social, technical and environmental transformations in pursuit of materialising sustainable development in a specific city. This study seeks to add to the debate on the third mission and triple-helix partnerships. It does so by incorporating sustainable development and place-based co-creation with government, industry and civil society.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to draw attention of the education for sustainable development (ESD) community to recent discussions on competence approaches and to examine the adequacy of a competence‐based model as the means of achieving educational and societal transformation towards sustainability. The paper analyses and highlights some important aspects of case studies of the contributing authors to the special issue. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on the review of relevant literature and reflections on the articles that constitute this special issue. It also reflects the authors' observations through their extensive interactions with theoreticians, practitioners and policy makers on ESD in the context of the United Nations decade of education for sustainable development (DESD) and higher education for sustainable development (HESD). Findings The paper recognises a highly complex nature of the conceptualizations of competences for SD and their articulation in educational programmes. It also highlights a growing interest in competence‐based approaches from institutions of higher education and their stakeholders in different parts of the world. Practical implications The paper provides a broad picture of influential international processes and diverse players driving competence‐based approaches in ESD and indicates a need for more coherent critical multi‐level analysis of such processes. Originality/value The paper contributes to a broader debate on strategies of implementation of ESD and education for sustainability (EfS) by mapping arguments on competences for SD and sustainability with a particular focus on higher education institutions.
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Entrepreneurship creates wealth and reduces unemployment. Entrepreneurs contribute to industrialisation as well as to economic growth; they improve living standards and tax revenues from their enterprises contribute to a nation’s treasury. Not surprisingly, then, governments have been spending considerable sums trying to create entrepreneurs. The question remains, however, Can entrepreneurship really be taught? To provide a response of any value, one must address the definition of entrepreneurship. As evident from the literature, there is no universally-accepted definition of entrepreneurs or of entrepreneurship. If entrepreneurship is equated with the causing of economic disequilibrium – as per the Schumpeterian literature – then one can argue that entrepreneurs tend to be born, rather than made. In contrast, if relying on the definition provided by the Austrian School of Economics, it is possible to train entrepreneurs to identify opportunities and act thereon. Thus, while it can be argued that it is difficult to teach Schumpeterian entrepreneurship, efforts to teach Kirznerian entrepreneurship appear to have achieved some levels of success. However, to be truly successful, training programmes must be relevant to the host environment. It would be a fallacy to assume that a programme that has been functional in one environment will necessarily have the same effect elsewhere. A great danger lies in attempting to trans-locate training programmes. This article provides a survey of education and training of entrepreneurs in different contexts across Asia.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe four phases for how universities have addressed a sustainability agenda and offer specific lessons for how and where experiences on one campus, the University of Colorado Boulder, have been met with success and other challenges. The authors offer general reflections for executing university‐wide sustainability initiatives with a central intent of illuminating central barriers against, and incentives for, a coordinated and integrated approach to campus sustainability. Design/methodology/approach – The approach for arriving at four phases and a description of the University of Colorado Boulder is based on experiences from learning, teaching, and administering within universities–collectively for almost a century among the authors–and lessons from “war room” discussions. Findings – Sustainability initiatives on campus may evolve through a series of phases labeled: grassroots; executive acceptance of the business case for sustainability; the visionary campus leader; and fully self‐actualized and integrated campus community. The University of Colorado Boulder, while a leader in many respects of sustainability (research, student activities, facilities management) has experienced serious challenges for coordination. Originality/value – The four phases are a relatively novel contribution for the specific literature on sustainability education. Second, the tangible examples from University of Colorado Boulder demonstrate how coordination is difficult in these situations; these examples allow readers to better relate to and understand such challenges. Finally, the authors reflect on central issues according to three categories: self‐reflection, recommendations, and advantages.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of a sustainability network at a large California public university, as an example of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach The paper combines participant observation and case study techniques over a three‐year period. From 2007 to 2010, the author helped found the university's Institute for Sustainability and sat on both the Institute's first Advisory Board and the university's first Core Green Team. The author also interviewed 19 key informants to the sustainability network, including upper administrators, physical plant management (PPM) staff, faculty, and students. Findings This campus sustainability initiative evolved over three decades in three phases. Phase I evolved from the 1980s in facilities management and student recycling because of changing environmental demands, the 1994 Northridge earthquake, and strong leadership who believed in developing human resources. In Phase II, faculty and Academic Affairs established the Institute for Sustainability. Phase III examines the current state at May 2010. Forces driving change include leaders' core values, incentives, communication, and community outreach. Forces inhibiting change relate to funding, information, policies, shared values, time, and training. Key informants defined success in campus sustainability as actions which: increase efficiency (and reduce waste); educate and prepare graduates for a fundamentally different world; achieve broad‐based support; and improve the university's sustainability image. Research limitations/implications This study points to at least four avenues of future research. One, scholars interested in more completely revealing their organization's sustainability network can map it using social network analysis techniques. Two, scholars could seek to answer the extent to which a campus institute becomes a center of gravity or an excuse for others to step away. Three, scholars can directly measure the four parameters of success respondents in this study identified (increase efficiency/reduce waste, educate/prepare graduates, achieve broad‐based support, improve image). And four, scholars can examine how an organization's commitment to recycling affects its image. Originality/value This paper provides a longitudinal look at the evolution of a campus sustainability network. It highlights how sustainability efforts evolve in different parts of the university at different rates, and in the present case how PPM and facilities planning influenced Academic Affairs to embrace sustainability.
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As colleges and universities become more entrepreneurial in a post-industrial economy, they focus on knowledge less as a public good than as a commodity to be capitalized on in profit-oriented activities. In "Academic Capitalism and the New Economy," higher education scholars Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades detail the aggressive engagement of U.S. higher education institutions in the knowledge-based economy and analyze the efforts of colleges and universities to develop, market, and sell research products, educational services, and consumer goods in the private marketplace. Slaughter and Rhoades track changes in policy and practice, revealing new social networks and circuits of knowledge creation and dissemination, as well as new organizational structures and expanded managerial capacity to link higher education institutions and markets. They depict an ascendant academic capitalist knowledge/learning regime expressed in faculty work, departmental activity, and administrative behavior. Clarifying the regime's internal contradictions, they note the public subsidies embedded in new revenue streams and the shift in emphasis from serving student customers to leveraging resources from them. Defining the terms of academic capitalism in the new economy, this groundbreaking study offers essential insights into the trajectory of American higher education. (Contains 5 line drawings.)
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