ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

This paper presents the development of tourism market through the alternative forms of tourism. Origins and main definitions are presented followed by an analysis of the complexity of classifying the alternative forms of tourism. It is about developing new forms of sustainable tourism that integrate local populations and both natural and human environments of host countries. Ecotourism, cultural tourism and creative tourism support a different philosophy of tourism. Ecotourism in recent years encloses many tourism forms focused on natural environment. In the concept of alternative tourism, the dynamic growth of cultural tourism can be explained by the fast growth of demand for trips to various cultural attractions and amenities. Τhe increase of educated population around the world, the globalization and technology supported this growth. Cultural tourist, from consumer is transforming to producer of the cultural products and experiences. Since this type of tourist becomes more interactive and creative, cultural tourism needs to be repositioned and become more “creative” too. In this way, the present article provides a simplified approach of the new “alternative” tourism development and distinguishes the current trends in tourism market.
Content may be subject to copyright.
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
35
Alternative Tourism Development: A Theoretical
Background
Eirini Triarchi (Corresponding author)
Lecturer, Department of Accounting and Finance
Technological Educational Institute of Epirus
48100 Psathaki Preveza, Greece
Tel: 302-682-050-622 E-mail: etriarhi@teiep.gr
Kostas Karamanis
Assοciate Professor, Department of Accounting and Finance
Technological Educational Institute of Epirus
48100 Psathaki Preveza, Greece
Tel: 302-682-050-555 E-mail: kkaraman@teiep.gr
Received: October 5, 2016 Accepted: May 4, 2017 Published: May 10, 2017
doi:10.5296/wjbm.v3i1.11198 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5296/wjbm.v3i1.11198
Abstract
This paper presents the development of tourism market through the alternative forms of
tourism. Origins and main definitions are presented followed by an analysis of the complexity
of classifying the alternative forms of tourism. It is about developing new forms of
sustainable tourism that integrate local populations and both natural and human environments
of host countries. Ecotourism, cultural tourism and creative tourism support a different
philosophy of tourism. Ecotourism in recent years encloses many tourism forms focused on
natural environment. In the concept of alternative tourism, the dynamic growth of cultural
tourism can be explained by the fast growth of demand for trips to various cultural attractions
and amenities. Τhe increase of educated population around the world, the globalization and
technology supported this growth. Cultural tourist, from consumer is transforming to
producer of the cultural products and experiences. Since this type of tourist becomes more
interactive and creative, cultural tourism needs to be repositioned and become more
creative too. In this way, the present article provides a simplified approach of the new
“alternative” tourism development and distinguishes the current trends in tourism market.
Keywords: Alternative forms of tourism, Ecotourism, Culture tourism, Creative tourism
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
36
1. Definitions and Concepts
Although tourism has been acknowledged for its tremendous economic and social benefits,
being an economic saviour providing jobs and increasing GDP, it has also been accused as a
source of a wide range of serious problems, especially in developing economies. Especially,
the fact that it creates huge economic leakage, in the sense that the major investments in
tourism come from western multinational enterprises (MNEs) in which the income from
tourism sector would flow back (Smith, 1989). Macleod (2004) supports that tourism changes
the composition of the working population from traditional industries of agriculture to service
based tourism and hospitality industries, disturbing the community and its cultural identity.
Four main influential phenomena led to the need of a different approach in tourism. These are:
1) economic issues like the fact that economic growth did not solve the poverty problem, 2)
environmental issues referring to mass tourism influence on the environment, 3) political
issues reflecting the political economy of the international tourism industry which turned to
be a natural continuation of historical inequalities between the First World and the Third
World, and 4) social issues including the new traveller market of post-modern culture.
Thus, the new form of tourism aroused and many people accepted it instinctively even
though they could not precisely defined it. Still, today is surprising that no universally agreed
or widely adopted definition of alternative tourism is to be found, nor that few explicit lines
between its different forms have been made. This different approach would have fewer and
less severe negative effects on destination areas and their populations, and would still enjoy
the positive economic effects, appearing as the optimal solution. This new formof tourism
emerged as an alternative solution to the most undesired type of tourism the mass tourism
or the conventional/commercial tourismor the traditional tourism.
It is alternative to large numbers of visitors, to clumsy and unregulated development, to
environmental destruction, to social alienation and homogenization. Mass touristsenjoy the
convenience of not having to make their own travel arrangements, not having to spend a large
amount of money or time, not to be obliged to learn a foreign language in order to buy goods
and enjoy services in their tourist destination. This type of tourists are ready to abandon the
genuine authentic local cultural contact, and the Third World or Old World seemed to provide
these benefits to them (Butler, 1992).
Eventually, the newforms of tourism made their appearance in developing countries
between the 1970s and early 1980s, in order to tackle the hard mass tourism. These forms of
tourism served a more sensitive approach giving priority to natural and cultural resources at
the front line of planning and development. Although, they appeared in different names and
various models they shared the same values, to improve situation and to preserve the original
rural appeal of the touristic destination. They involved projects that were small-scale,
involving low-level of investments, low-key in nature, independent and self-sustaining and
demanding the high participation of the local inhabitants (main characteristics are presented
on Table 1). The involvement of local population would improve contacts between locals and
their foreign guests would offer a more authentic, meaningful and satisfying experience for
both visitors and hosts. Dernoi in 1981 related the term alternative tourism to the
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
37
accommodation style as in alternative tourism the client receives accommodation directly in
or at home of the host with, eventually, other services and facilities offered there (Dernoi,
1981, pp. 253-264). Few years later, he added other features to alternative tourism that
distinguished from mass tourism, resulting to the fact that in alternative tourism individuals,
families, or local communities offer privately to the visitors a set of hospitality services. Thus,
alternative tourism aims at establishing direct personal and cultural intercommunication and
understanding between the host and the visitor (Dernoi, 1988). This definition supports the
facilitation and improvement of contacts between visitors and locals, in order a cultural
exchange and intercommunication of both parties, to be obtained. Donald Macleod (1998)
suggests a number of principles for giving a better definition of alternative tourism and
Herms (2006), evolved these principles to the followings:
a) It should be based on dialogue with the locals which must be informed of its effects,
b) It should be environmental friendly and attributing respect to local culture and to
religious tradition,
c) The scale of tourism should be adjusted to the capacity of the local area to cope,
measured in aesthetic and ecological terms.
According to Holden, alternative tourism is a process which promotes a just form of travel
between members of different communities. It seeks to achieve mutual understanding,
solidarity and equality amongst participants (Holden, 1984, p. 15: cited in Smith &
Eadington, 1992, p. 18). Holden is mainly interested in evolving the interrelation of guests
and hosts, through the setting of well-organized special interest tours, rather on actual
development of facilities. Thus, alternative tourism is described as forms of tourism that are
consistent with natural, social, and community values and which allow both hosts and guests
to enjoy positive and worthwhile interaction and shared experiences (Smith & Eadington,
1992, p. 3).
In Europe, especially in Germany, Austria and Switzerland, in the early 1980s, the term that
was used to explain the new form of tourism was soft tourismas its main feature was the
attention to environmental issues and the promotion of ecologically friendly development
policies. Chur Declaration of the Commission Internationale Pour La Protection des Regions
Alpines(CIPRA) defines soft tourism as the mutual understanding between the local
population and the guests, which does not endanger the cultural identity of the host region
and which endeavours to take care of the environment as best as possible. Soft tourists give
priority to using infrastructures destined to the local population and do not accept substantial
tourist facilities harmful to the environment (Broggi 1985, p. 286 cited in Pearce, 1992, p.
18).
The term New Tourismwas proposed in 1979 by Rosenow and Pulsipher, for the American
tourism industry as a new way to growth, claiming that not only the visitors, but also the
communities would be benefited by the establishment of a “differentiated” tourism industry
based on unique assets of both. New Tourismis built on eight principles: 1) unique heritage
and environment, 2) evolving special quality of attractions, 3) effort to developing additional
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
38
local attractions, 4) economic opportunity and cultural enrichment, 5) local services, 6)
marketing communication, 7) adjustment of assets to local carrying capacity and 8)
prevention of energy-losses.
The use of the term alternative tourism might be seen as problematic, since nowadays is
usually related to the principle of sustainable development. Thus, making the term
sustainable tourismmore accurate in describing the newforms of tourism. According to
Holden (2003), the sustainable tourism is more compatible with the natural environment than
the conventional mass tourism. Vegetation, animal habitats, and prime agricultural land made
the way for new infrastructure through deforestation which harmed the ecosystem and
landscape (Holden, 2003; cited in Wearing & Grabowski, 2011). According to UNWTO
sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices are applicable to all
forms of tourism in all types of destinations, including mass tourism and the various niche
tourism segments. Sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic, and
socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established
between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability(UNEP & UNWTO,
2005). Sustainable tourism is becoming so popular that some argue that what presently it is
called alternativewill be mainstreamin a decade.
Table 1. Alternative forms of tourism-main characteristics
Management
Regulation
Contribution in economy
The development process is low
and controlled development,
planned-pace is not so important,
concept-centre,
Impacts awareness turn to reduce
negative effects
The developer is local
The energy consumption is often
inefficient in saving fuel
Local community controls, Local
decision- making
Amount: Extensive; minimizing local
negative impacts
Ideology with respect to public
intervention in the development
process, excluding external
influences.
Emphasis on community stability and
well-being; integrated, holistic
Its time frame is long-term
Role of tourism is
complementary to the existing
activity
Linkages and leakage are
respectively mainly internal
and minimal
Medium multiplier effect and
High income distribution
Note. Authors elaboration from Weaver, 1998 (p. 10), Hunter & Green, 1995 (p. 81), Butler,
1992 (p. 38).
2. Alternative Forms of Tourism: Classifications Issues
Since the newtourism arrived, many forms of it have been emerged gradually which
sources are found in many different aspects of contemporary economic and social life. The
special groups of newtourists are seemed to be motivated to travel for different reasons,
formulating both similar and controversial types of alternative tourism. This is to one point a
consequence of the fact that even though alternative tourism has been receiving ever-growing
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
39
academic attention, the differences in its interpretation by various academic caused the
definition and terminology for the alternative tourism to be contentious. Academics seem to
agree only to their opposition towards package or mass tourism. Others suggest that the
alternative tourism paradigm must be examined as an overarching umbrella term, under
which the diversity of other forms of tourism or niche markets lay(Benson, 2005).
Sometimes, ecotourism or sustainable tourism or justice tourism are described as
synonymous to alternative tourism and other times as its different forms, making
classification complicated. In this part, some of the main different approaches that lead to
specific classifications will be presented.
There are several facets of alternative tourism that nurture societal and ecological
restructuring, naturally of interest would be ecotourism, sustainable tourism, pro-poor
tourism (PPT), fair trade, community-based tourism, peace through tourism, volunteer
tourism and justice tourism (Isaak, 2010) . Eco-tourism is acknowledged as one of the best
ways to conjoin economic development with environmental sustainability. Butlers concept of
sustainable tourism is that of tourism in the context of sustainable development.
PPT appeared lastly and is more an approach to tourism development and management. It is
aiming in strengthening relations between tourism businesses and poor people, in the sense
for the tourism sector to support the elimination of poverty and for poor people to have the
opportunity to participate to the development of the touristic product. It is expected that PPT
will improve the quality of local inhabitants life.
Peace through tourism focuses on the kinds of tourism that favour more peaceful relations.
The formal way to explain the connection between tourism and peace is, to assure that the
cross-cultural international tourism nurtures harmonious relations. Peace tourism can
contribute to reconciliation of two nations and generally of juxtaposed groups of people in
conflict situations, securing their co-existence (Isaak, 2010).
Volunteer tourism emerges as a response to growing social and environmental issues in
developing countries and as a response to physical disasters and terrorisms attacks. It
includes short-term projects with the intention of serving communities in need. According to
Wearing, volunteer tourists have been defined as those who volunteer in an organized way
to undertake holidays that might involve aiding or alleviating the material poverty of some
groups in society, the restoration of certain environments or research into aspects of
environment(Wearing, 2001, p. 1; cited in Wearing & Grabowski, 2011, p. 149).
Justice tourism has only recently been given a name and recognized as an emerging trend.
Some authors equate justice tourism to alternative tourism, based on Holdens definition
(1984) of alternative tourism as a process which promotes a just form of travel between
members of different communities. It seeks to achieve mutual understanding, solidarity and
equality amongst participants. Justice tourism tries to humanize the tourism industry, in the
sense that, oppressed people are engaging with the tourism sector to offer heritage tours, and
these tours can endorse visitorsunderstanding of human rights and justice issues while at the
same time giving voice to the local communities to speak for themselves and tell their own
stories of current oppression and occupation(Isaak & Hodge, 2011, p. 103).
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
40
Angela Benson (2005) suggests research tourism to be contextualised within the
alternative tourism paradigm and more specifically to the educational, scientific and
volunteer sectors. Modern educationaltourism refers to opportunities that colleges and
universities offer to travel and study abroad. It includes school trips and language schools,
university and college students in terms of study abroad, fieldtrips and exchanges, and the
adult and seniors market, including cookery, art, gardening courses in exotic locations, and
specialist organisers and nature-based and cultural educational tourism programmes(Carr &
Cooper, 2003, Carr, 2003, Ritchie, 2003; cited in Benson, 2005). Mieczkowski (1995) views
scientific tourism as a form of eco-tourism since it protects environment, motivates
individuals or groups to visit various eco-systems under the leadership of highly qualified
scientists.
In a more simple and different way, alternative tourism as a generic term encompasses a
range of tourism forms such as eco, agro, farm, culture, community, rural tourism,
(Scheyvens, 2002; Weaver, 1991, cited in Aslam, Awang, & Norain, 2014). For example
ecotourism, involves environmental and ecological awareness that ensure the conservation
and preservation. Community tourism, takes place within the local community, who are
socio-economically empowered through tourism and rural tourism, is found in the
countryside with merger of rustic rural life and basic facilities (Page et al., 2001, cited in
Aslam, Awang, & Norain, 2014). Any form of tourism that showcases the rural life, art,
culture and heritage at rural locations, thereby it benefits the local community economically
and socially as well as enables interaction between the tourists and the locals for a more
enriching tourism experience, can be termed as rural tourism. It is multi-faceted and may
entail farm/agricultural tourism, cultural tourism, nature tourism, adventure tourism, and
eco-tourism.
Furthermore, the forms of alternative tourism can be clearly classified in the following main
categories: i) Cultural and Historical tourism, based on the unique identity of visited site, ii)
Health Tourism, depending on the resource and type of facility, iii) Conference-Congress
Tourism, depending on the type of activity , and the aim of the meeting, iv) Sports Tourism,
based on both excitement and the ability to perform the activity, v) Contact with Nature:
Ecotourism activities, based on preserved environment having natural riches and vi)
Entertainment Tourism, based on availability of wide range activities depending on
amusement (Spanish Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, 2001; Gartner, 1996;
Aslanyurek 1984; Lier & Taylor, 1993; Lawton & Weaver 2001; cited in Christou 2012).
While, Elli Fragkaki (2003) points out five categories: i) Conference and Exhibition tourism,
i.e. organising conferences and international exhibitions in areas that also offer other facilities,
ii) Sports tourism, meaning that tourism can be combined with sport events, training or
individual sports, iii) tourism for Religious reasons, including tours to churches, monasteries,
religious festivals etc., iv) Cultural tourism which is associated with visits to monuments or
cultural events, v) Ecotourism i.e. tourism that combines local economic development,
protection of the quality of the environment and promotion of the natural advantages and the
history of an area.
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
41
In the following parts for simplicity reasons which serve the aims of this study, the categories
of alternative forms of tourism that will be analysed are: Ecotourism, Cultural and Creative
tourism. These forms are the basis for the evolution of many types of alternative tourism. The
cultural and creative tourism are of our main interest, as recently the gradually transformation
of cultural tourism to mass tourism created the need for a shift from the cultural to creative
tourism, in order the negative effects which will be induced to the regions by the resurgence
of mass tourism, to be restrained.
2.1 Ecotourism
Ecotourism has become the fastest growing sector of the tourism industry. Ecotourism
developed in 1970s and 1980s within the boom of the environmental movement which was
taking actions against the negative impact of mass tourism to environment. The
environmental movement recognized that nature is essential to human well-being. Recently,
this belief has been enhanced by science confirming that biodiversity is necessary both for
human well-being and survival. Gradually, demand for nature-based experiences of an
alternative nature, that mass tourism didnt provide, increased. Less developed countries
found the optimal solution to their problems in the face of nature-based tourism as they
realized that it offers a means of earning foreign exchange without destroying their natural
resources. Many of these countries identified ecotourism to be a useful tool that serves
conservation and development goals (Blamey, 2001).
Hector Ceballos-Lascurain is well known as the first who introduced the term ecotourismto
designate forms of ecological tourism. He points out ecotourism as a form of travel in which
the natural environment is in priority and this is the starting point in considering ecotourism
as a specific form of alternative tourism. This travel is to unspoilt natural environments and is
predominantly for experiencing the natural environment (Wearing & Neil, 2009). Ross and
Wall (1999), in their article on ecotourism, refer to the role of ecotourism as a strategy in
order to preserve natural areas while simultaneously promote their sustainable development.
They found associations between ecotourism and sustainability and between conservation and
development as are presented in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Ecotourism & sustainability
Source: Ross, Wall, 1999; cited in Cheia, 2013 (p. 57).
Ecotourism can be broadly defined as the nature based tourism that does not conclude in the
negative environmental, economic and social impacts that are associated to mass tourism.
SUSTAINABILITY
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
42
The definition of ecotourism as have been recently revised by The International Ecotourism
Society (TIES, 2015) is the responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the
environment, sustains the well-being of the local people, and involves interpretation and
education. Literature highlights three principles that this form of tourism followed in its
initial period. The first is that ecotourism is non-consumptive and non-extractive in the use of
resources for and by tourists, eliminating negative externalities. The second that motivates
people ecological conscience and the last is, its eco-centric values and ethics in relation to
nature.
TIES, (2015) argues that Ecotourism is about uniting conservation, communities, and
sustainable travel. This means that those who implement, participate in and market
ecotourism activities should adopt now the following ecotourism principles:
1) Minimize physical, social, behavioral, and psychological impacts.
2) Build environmental and cultural awareness and respect.
3) Provide positive experiences for both tourists and hosts.
4) Offer direct financial benefits for conservation.
5) Produce financial benefits for both local people and private industry.
6) Deliver memorable interpretative experiences to tourists that help raise sensitivity to host
countriespolitical, environmental, and social climates.
7) Design, construct and operate low-impact facilities.
8) Recognize the rights and spiritual beliefs of the locals and work together to create
empowerment.
Ecotourism in recent years, encloses many tourist forms focused on natural environment. The
multi-dimensionality of ecotourism requires their distinction. Wearing and Neil (2009)
support that there are number of levels which distinguish the relationship between specific
tourism activities and nature. Those activities (experiences):
a) that are dependent on nature, b) that are enhanced by nature, c) for which the natural
setting is incidental.
Thus, ecotourism embraces nature tourism, wilderness tourism, low impact tourismand
sustainable tourism.
2.2 Cultural and Creative Tourism
As an alternative form of tourism, cultural tourism debouched as a response to mass tourism.
It implies the travel for discovering and learning more about monuments and places of
historical and artistic interest. WTO (2004) reveals that cultural tourism is one of the largest
and fastest growing global tourism markets. It has developed to become a significant
phenomenon in the travel and tourism industry and an essential element of the tourism system
(Ritzer, 1999; Urry, 2001 cited in Liu, 2014).
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
43
In the past, culture was not strongly related to tourism, which was considered as a leisure
activity. In Europe, the majority of wealthy people was viewing holidays as time for rest and
relaxation and only small numbers of them, mostly academics, used to engage in cultural
tours with specific educational goals. This situation changed during the 20th century, as
tourists became more educated and started seeking new experiences on their vacation time. In
addition, more regions began to recognize the value of culture as a potential means of
generating tourism (Richards & Wilson, 2007). Today, tourism and culture are inseparable.
According to OECD Culture and tourism have a mutually beneficial relationship which can
strengthen the attractiveness and competitiveness of regions and countries. Culture is
increasingly an important element of the tourism product, which also creates distinctiveness
in a crowded global marketplace. At the same time, tourism provides an important means of
enhancing culture and creating income which can support and strengthen cultural heritage,
cultural production and creativity(OECD, 2009).
The attempts of defining cultural tourism are rather problematic, as it consists of two
elements that their definitions also are not clear: culture and tourism. In addition, the
growth of cultural tourism, coming from the prevalence of both wider and strong, social and
economic trends dominated in “postmodernity” period, generated a variety of terms used both
in literature and in policy statements. Cultural tourism, heritage tourism, arts tourism, ethnic
tourism and a host of other terms seem to be almost interchangeable in their usage, but it is
rarely clear whether people are talking about the same thing(Richards, 2003). Bonink in
1992 concluded in two major approaches (Richards, 1996). The first which is the sites and
monumentsapproach, referring to the type of attractions that cultural tourists visit, is a
product-based definition of culture. The cultural attractions of a country or region are
basically seen as physical cultural sites of high tourism value. This approach is mainly used
to a quantitative research on cultural tourism, but its drawback is that restricts the analysis to
specific sites, that relate cultural tourism to the concept of high tourism and to the
consumptions of cultural products. Whereas it is important its involvement in cultural process
to be examined. These sites or attractions that consider to be attraction poles of cultural
tourists (according to ECTAR, 1989, cited in Richards, 1996) are:
archaeological sites and museums
architecture (ruins, famous buildings, whole towns)
art, sculpture, crafts, galleries, festivals, events
music and dance (classical, folk, contemporary)
drama (theatre, films, dramatists)
language and literature study, tours, events
religious festivals, pilgrimages
complete (folk or primitive) cultures and sub-cultures.
Munsters in 1996, presents a similar approach in his attempt to classify a wide range of
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
44
cultural tourism attraction in the Netherland and Belgium (Richards, 2003):
I. ATTRACTIONS
a) Monuments
b) Museums
c) Routes
d) Theme parks
II. EVENTS
a) Cultural-historic events
b) Art events
c) Events and Attractions
The second approach is the conceptual approach, and is more clearly process-based as it tries
to describe the motive and meanings fasten to cultural tourism activity. In this concept,
cultural tourists learn about the products and process of other cultures. Tourists increasingly
visit destinations for experiencing lifestyles, everyday culture and customs of the inhabitants.
Thus, ATLASCultural Tourism Research Project in 1991 made an effort to combine the two
aforementioned approaches resulting to the fact that a product-based definition is necessary
for the measurement of cultural tourism, whereas a process-based conceptual definition is
also required for the description of cultural tourism as an activity. ATLAS suggested two
forms of definition: 1) The conceptualdefinition which is the movement of persons to
cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather
new information and experiences to satisfy their cultural needs, and 2) The technical
definition: All movements of persons to specific cultural attractions, such as heritage sites,
artistic and cultural manifestations, arts and drama outside their normal place of residence.
Their difference is that the conceptual definition considers the motivation of tourists as
central (Richards, 1996) and is the most widespread one. People visit cultural attractions,
other than the ones of their habitual place of residence in order to obtain sufficient
information and knowledge, fulfilling by the same time their own cultural demands, are the
cultural tourists. Some authors support that not all cultural tourists consume culture,
satisfying their own cultural needs in the same way ; some tourists have a more superficial,
and even accidental, contact; others a more profound one (Silberberg, 1995 cited in Jovicic,
2014). As the level of interest in cultural attractions and events differs among individuals, it is
possible to distinguish various categories of cultural tourists. McKercher and Du Cros in
2002 proposed a broad typology that has been rather accepted by the academics, (Jovicic,
2014). Following this typology, the five types of cultural tourists are:
1) The highly motivated cultural tourist.
2) The sightseeing tourist (visiting only the main tourist attractions).
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
45
3) The casual cultural tourist (conventional interest in culture).
4) The incidental cultural tourist (culture contact/experience is rather superficial and not of
main interest).
5) The accidental cultural tourist (although culture is not an interest, the contact/ experience
with culture gains the tourists impression).
These five types can be classified in two key groups: The first one includes those tourists
whose main motivation is culture. The second group refers to the tourist for whom culture is
only complementary, secondary or even accidental (Jovicic, 2014).
In recent years, the dynamic growth of cultural tourism can be characterized by the fast
growth of demand for trips to various cultural attractions and amenities. A rise in interest of
tourists both to distant cultures and to the local heritage occurred through the increase of
educated people around the world and globalization. Moreover, technology supported this
growth, and especially internet as a main source of information on cultural attractions for
giving the possibility to tourists to create their own cultural tourism products by for example
combining travel, accommodation, and attractive contents into tailor-made packages,
ignoring specialist tour operators. Technology has influenced deeply tourist consumption as
cultural sites are now experienced individually through the earpiece of an audio guide or the
viewfinder of a camcorder (Jovicic, 2014). The cultural tourist, from consumer is
transforming to producer of the cultural products and experiences. The cultural tourists now
have acquired more knowledge about the experiences that they are consuming than the
people who supply them, thus taking the lead in experience production. The experiences in
which they engage, they are related to a shift from tangible to intangible tourism resources
(see Figure 2) implying a transition from static attractions towards more interactive and
intangible experiences. These experiences are associated to local culture and not to global one
(Richards & Wilson, 2007).
Figure 2. Shift from tangible to intangible tourism resources
Source: Richards, 2007 (p. 18).
As culture tourists become more interactive and creative, cultural tourism needs to be
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
46
repositioned and become more creative. Although, this new form of tourism is difficult for
the traditional tourism sector to deal with, it reveals great opportunities in providing
alternative sources of revenue for regions. Traditional cultural tourism, in recent days, turned
to be more similar to mass tourism than to alternative one, as famous sites attracted large
numbers of tourists, degrading the quality of experience and pushing serious cultural
tourists away. Moreover, many places in order to develop a unique image followed similar to
mass tourism strategies resulting in making them looking the same in the eyes of cultural
tourists. Many tourists are seeking now alternative forms of tourism associated to
knowledge and based to skills, in new spotsof the region, away from the traditional
cultural heritage. Today, tourists visit places both for their creative atmosphere and the
opportunity of doing creative activities themselves. The new challenge for the regions
globally is to detect ways of incorporating creativity and making tourists to believe that they
are in the unique placethey desire for their quality holidays. According to Richards (2012),
the ways that creativity can be used in tourism include: tourism products and experiences,
revitalization of existing products, valorizing cultural and creative assets, providing economic
spin-offs for creative development, using creative techniques to enhance the tourism
experience, creating buzz and atmosphere. Therefore, through these ways creativity could
support the effort of places to acquire their uniqueness and to evolve their cultural tourism to
a creativeone (see Figure 3).
Figure 3. Cultural tourisms transition to creative
Source: OECD, 2014 (p. 53).
According to UNESCΟ (2006), Creative Tourism is considered to be a new generation of
tourism. The first generation was beach tourism, in which people come to a place for
relaxation and leisure; the second was cultural tourism, oriented toward museums and
cultural tours. Creative Tourism involves more interaction, in which the visitor has an
educational, emotional, social, and participative interaction with the place, its living culture,
and the people who live there. They feel like a citizen. This third generation requires that
managers also evolve, recognizing the creativity within their city as a resource, and providing
new opportunities to meet the evolving interests of tourists. Creative tourism has a greater
degree of commercial supply and participation whereas cultural tourism is basically managed
or funded by the public sector of each country.
Richards and Raymond (2000) defined the new concept of creative tourism as: tourism
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
47
which offers visitors the opportunity to develop their creative potential through active
participation in courses and learning experiences which are characteristic of the holiday
destination where they are undertaken, (Richards & Wilson, 2007). Richards, considers
creative tourism as a type of holiday devoted to learning a particular skill which belongs to a
culture of the host country giving the example of a growing number of courses in areas
such as languages, gastronomy, and art in recent years, driven not only by high demand for
creative skills, but also by a growing number of creative producers who have started to
service this market (Richards & Wilson, 2007).
In fact, creative tourism can be broadly defined as the co-creation of creative experiences
with tourists (Richards, 2011). There are many ways that this co-makership between guests
and hosts can occur, developing creative tourism experiences (see Table 2).
Table 2. Creative tourism experiences
Source: Richards, 2011 (p. 1239).
According to Richards (2009) these types of experiences can be delivered in a variety of
ways, including the creation of networks, itineraries, courses and events(see table 3). The
development of value in the creative tourism system leads to a shift towards wider value
networks rather than restrictive value chains, and the production of value follows a
downstream distribution and application of content rather than upstream content generation
(OECD, 2014).
Increasing involvement
Experiences and products
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
48
Table 3. Types of experiences in creative tourism - examples
Creative Tourism Network in the city of Nelson, New Zealand provides a wide
range of creative experiences with a range of hands-on workshops run by local
tutors, such as bone carving, Maori language classes, weaving, felting and
woodwork and New Zealand gastronomy.
Barcelonas Creative Tourism Network adopts a more artistic approach. Through a
platform, potential creative tourists select the types of creative activities they are
interested in, by getting in touch with local creative sector actors. They are
responsible for providing to tourists the facilities or resources to make it happen.
Referring to spaces that offer learning experiences to visitors in different parts of world.
In Italy, the Italian coffee producer illys Università del Caffè established in 1999
courses on all aspects of coffee and coffee making at 11 different locations.
In Southern France, LEcole du Grand Chocolatowned by the Valrhona chocolate
company, provides similar courses for gourmets and professionals.
In Barcelonas creative sector, different forms of accommodation provide new
experiences to visitors.
i) In the Chic and Basic hotel, young local designers have the chance to promote
their products through special organized fashion shows in hotels
individually designed bedrooms.
ii) A hostelArt programme, being running by The Equity Point hostels,
introduces young visitors to the creative sector in Barcelona through small
exhibitions of young artist work in hostel rooms.
iii) The Camping House Barcelona pioneers in providing to its visitors the
opportunity to acquire the experience of design and of stay in a camping in
the urban center.
Strategy to develop creative tourism through new types of events which establish the
active involvement of creative producers and others in the co-creationof events.
Organizing also an event may add an intangible element to the physical culture of the city
Sidmouth Festival in UK, provides a setting where groups of enthusiasts proceed
in co-creation of unique experiences
Edinburg Festival is recognized as creative destinationattracting an important
number of creative visitorswhose main interest is in culture.
Umea, a city located in Sweden, was voted as The European Capital of Culture in
2014. The citys authorities took the decision the cultural program to be planned
and programmed by locals and not by experts. Pursuant to above decision, the
local school children established a blog to be used as the basic script for an opera
performance to which they were later invited. The audience is activated in
producing experience and not being passive just consuming.
In the local Festival The Festes de Gràcia, the locals decorate and give a theme to
each street of this Barcelona district using recycled materials, such as water
bottles and milk cartons. Creativity is rather high, forming new space.
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
49
A means of linking together creative enterprises and events, and making visitors
engaging in different activities in a certain place.
In Northern Portugal is found The Craft Route of the Alto Minho, including a
large number of crafts producers working from home. The visitors, according to
brochure and website, can visit these producers although in reality this is
infeasible, especially for non-Portuguese speakers as the contact with them is
occurring only through a telephone line. Therefore, the tourist board decide to
sell craft products in its information centers. Sales are supported by
demonstrations from crafts producers during the high season. This strategy
increases the craft sales making the producers satisfied.
The Council of Europe develops a new approach to cultural itinerary concept,
named a Cultural Corridor scheme. Its definition is: Networks of interaction
and economic exchange based on culture and creativity, incorporating principles
of sustainability, fairness and inclusion, based on wide stakeholder partnerships
which are rooted in solid institutional frameworks that stimulate regional
socio-economic development. The key element is the creation of networks,
moving beyond physical routes linking cultural sites in order to include the full
range of creative assets in a region. Culture Corridor scheme focuses in South
East Europe.
Santa Fe in New Mexico is considered as a creativecity. The creative
atmosphere is dominant in the place, providing a comprehensive range of
creative experiences to the visitors.
Shanghai and Beijing, trying to be creativeare developing creative clusters which
are opened up and marketed to visitors.
Note. Adjusted from Richards (2009, 2011).
Concluding, regions must stop giving their full attention to their tangible assets in order to
attract tourists and must shift their policy to the development and valorizing of intangible
factors, such as planning, knowledge development and networking, which are necessary to
support the cultural or creative tourism system. They must focus on the different elements of
the creative system, such as the spaces and events that support the networks required to
embed creativity and make links to creative consumers and producers outside the destination
(Richards, 2012). Creative tourism requires careful design, according to the principles of
visibility, permeability and flexibility (see Table 4).
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
50
Table 4. Creativitys principles
Note. Adjusted from Richards (2012).
If places are careless on their design will fail in incorporating creativity, attracting creative
industries and laying the foundations for the sustainable development of creativetourism.
The OECD continuously emphasizes the significant contribution of creative industries (CIs)
to economic growth and the necessity of region‟s policy makers to link CIs to tourism. The
CIs can drive tourism growth by providing creative tourism experiences, supporting
innovative approaches to tourism development, marketing and recreating the image of
destinations (OECD, 2014).
3. Current Issues
According to OECD Tourism Trends and Policies (2014): Customer demand for sustainable
and eco-friendly tourism products expected to grow but eco-tourism as a significant
stand-alone niche sector has been slow to develop.
Visitors demand more individual and authentic experiences and depend more on technology
to plan their holidays. The World Wide Web will continue to influence the creative dimension
of tourism. The implications of Web 3.0 or mobile Internet are significant for tourism, as
tourists use their smartphones or tablets to make bookings, accounting for 54% of bookings,
whereas the travel agencies have fallen to 24%. More widespread access to internet globally
has displaced the providers of tourism services to consumers and facilitated the self-guided
and independent trips, even to the most remote tourist destinations. The creative innovations
in tourism forces the repositioning of the travel system, shifting from a traditional value chain
towards a value webthat includes travel suppliers, consumers, residents, other non-travel
actors in a process of travel experience co-creation. The dominance of internet and new
media influence the contact between visitors and locals which is now more direct, creating
the new phenomenon of relationaltourism. Tourists will enjoy the experience of live like a
local. This latter trend creates new tourist spaces in many cities and rural regions. The
creative industries support the evolution of all these trends (OECD, Tourism and the Creative
Economy, OECD studies on Tourism, 2014).
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
51
4. Conclusions and Recommendations
In this article we have described the development of tourism market through the alternative
forms of tourism. The high criticism of mass tourism and of its negative effects on destination
areas gave birth to a new concept of tourism, this of alternative. Alternative tourism
incorporated soft tourism, small-scale tourism, green tourism, nature tourism and integrated
tourism. Three of the many forms, seemed to be the core of alternative tourism, and as such
are distinguished and analyzed.
Ecotourism encloses many tourist forms focused on natural environment and developed in
decades of 70s and 80s within the boom of the environmental movement which was taking
actions against the negative impact of mass tourism to environment. Although these forms are
closely related to ecotourism are differentiated from it as they reflect different dimensions of
the tourism form that is associated with the nature. According to Wearing and Neil, (2009)
there are number of levels which distinguish the relationship between specific tourism
activities and nature such as those activities (experiences) that are dependent on nature, those
that are enhanced by nature and those for which the natural setting is incidental. Thus,
ecotourism embraces nature tourism, wilderness tourism, low impact tourism and
sustainable tourism.
Cultural tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing global tourism markets. Its dynamic
presence in the tourism market can be explained by the fast growth of demand for trips to
various cultural attractions and amenities. The increase of educated people globally, the
evolution of information and communication technologies (ICTs) revolutionizing the way
travel is planned, business is conducted and tourism services and experiences are created and
consumed (Neuhofer, Buhalis, & Ladkin, 2014), boost even further this form of tourism. Now,
as the culture tourist is qualified with high educational and technological skills can be more
interactive and creative and produce his own cultural tourism goods. Thus, the cultural
tourism needs to be repositioned and to become also more creative.
Creative Tourism involves even more interaction, in which the visitor has an educational,
emotional, social, and participative interaction with the place, its living culture, and the
people who live there (UNESCΟ, 2006). The new challenge for the regions globally is to
detect ways of incorporating creativity and making tourists to believe that they are in the
unique place they desire for their quality holidays. Today, tourists visit places both for their
creative atmosphere and the opportunity of doing creative activities themselves. Creative
tourism requires careful design, with respect to the principles of visibility, permeability and
flexibility.
References
Aslam, M., Awang, W. K., & Nor‟ain, B. H. (2014). Issues and Challenges in Nurturing
Sustainable Rural Tourism Development. Tourism, Leisure and Global Change, 1, 75-89.
Retrieved from http://geog.nau.edu/igust/Sabah2013/>
Benson, A. (2005). Research Tourism-Professional travel for useful discoveries. In M.
Novelli (Ed.), Niche Tourism (pp. 133-144). Oxford: Elsevier.
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
52
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7506-6133-1.50020-2
Blamey, P. K. (2001). Principles of Ecotourism. In D. B. Weaver (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of
Tourism. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.
Butler, R. (1992). Alternative Tourism: The thin Edge of the Wedge. In V. L. Smith, & W. R.
Eadington (Eds.), Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems of Tourism (pp. 31-46).
USA: International Academy for the Study of Tourism.
https://doi.org/10.9783/9781512807462-006
Cheia, G. (2013). Ecotourism: Defintion and Concepts. Journal of Tourism, (15), 56-60.
Christou, L. (2012). Is it possible to combine mass tourism with alternative forms of tourism:
The case of Spain, Greece, Slovenia and Croatia. Journal of Business Administration Online,
Spring 2012. Retrieved from
http://www.atu.edu/jbao/spring2012/Is_it_possible_to_combine.pdf
Dernoi, L. A. (1981). Alternative tourism: A new style in north-south relations. International
Journal of Tourism Management, 2, pp. 253-264.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0143-2516(81)90030-X
Dernoi, L. A. (1988). Alternative or community-based tourism. In L. D‟Amore, J. Jafari, &
(Eds), Tourism-A vital Force for Peace (pp. 89-94). Vancouver, Canada: D‟Amore and
Asociates.
Fragkaki, E. (2003). Alternatives Forms of Tourism. Trade with Greece.
Herms, F. (2006). Alternative forms on Gran Canaria.
Holden, A. (1984). Alternative Tourism: Report on the Workshop on Alternative Tourism
with Focus in Asia. Bangkok: ECTW.
HYPERLINK. (n. D.). Retrieved from
http://www.cabdirect.org/search.html?q=au%3A%22Mieczkowski%2C+Z.%22
Isaak, R. K. (2010). Alternative tourism: New forms of tourism in Bethlehem for the
Palestinian tourism industry. Current Isssues in Tourism, 13(1), 21-36.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500802495677
Isaak, R. K., & Hodge, D. (2011). An Explanatory Study: Justice Tourism in Controversial
Areas. The Case of Palestine. Tourism Planning & Development, 8(1), 101-108.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2011.554048
Jovicic, D. (2014). Cultural tourism in the context of relation between mass and alternative
tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2014.932759
Lanfant, M. F. (1980). Introduction: Tourism in the Process of Internationalization.
International Social Sciences Journal, 17(1), 14-43.
Lertcharoenchoke, N. (1999). Alternative Tourism. ABAC Journal. Retrieved from
http://www.journal.au.edu/abac_journal/may99/article4_f.html
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
53
Liu, Y. D. (2014). Cultural Events and Cultural Tourism Deveopment: Lessons form the
European Capitals of Culture. (Routledge, Ed.) European Planning Studie, 22(3), 498-514.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2012.752442
Macleod, D. V. L (1998) Alternative tourists: A comparative analysis of meaning and impact.
In W. Theobald (Ed.), Global Tourism: The Next Decade. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Macleod, D. V. L. (2004). Tourism, Globalisation and Cultural Change: An Island
Community Perspective. Cleveland: Channel View Publications.
Mieczkowski, Z. (1995). The Environmental issues of tourism and recreation. University
Press of America, London
Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., & Ladkin, A. (2014). A Typology of Technology-Enhanced
Tourism Experiences. International Journal of Tourism Research, 16, 340-350.
https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1958
OECD. (1994). Tourism Strategies and Rural Development. Paris: Organisation for
Economic Co-Operation and Development.
OECD. (2009). The Impact of Culture on Tourism. OECD Publishing.
https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264040731-en
OECD. (2014a). OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2014. OECD Publishing.
https://doi.org/10.1787/20767779
OECD. (2014b). Tourism and the Creative Economy, OECD studies on Tourism. OECD
Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/22239804
Pearce, D. G. (1992). Alternative Tourism: Concepts, Classifications, and Questions. In V. L.
Smith, & W. R. Eadington (Eds.), Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the
Development of Tourism (pp. 15-30). USA: International Academy for the Study of Tourism.
https://doi.org/10.9783/9781512807462-005
Richards, G. (1996). Cultural Tourism in Europe. Wallingford: CABI.
Richards, G. (2003). What is cultural tourism. In A. Van Maaren (Ed.), Erfogoed voor
Toerisme. Nationaal Contact Monumenten.
Richards, G. (2007). Tourism, Culture and Creativity. Centre for Leisure and Tourism
Research.
Richards, G. (2009). Tourism development trajectories-From culture to creativity? Acia -
Pacific Creativity Forum on Culture and Tourism. Jeju Insland, Republic of Korea: Tourism
Research and Marketing.
Richards, G. (2011). Creativity and Tourism. The State of the Art. Annals of Tourism Research,
38, 1225-1253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.07.008
Richards, G. (2012). Tourism, Creativity and Creative Industries. Creativity and Creative
Industries in Challenging Times.
World Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2377-4622
2017, Vol. 3, No. 1
54
Richards, G., & Wilson, J. (2007). Tourism development trajectories: From culture to
creativity? In G. Richards, & J. Wilson (Eds.), Tourism, Creativity and Development (pp.
1-34). Routledge.
Smith, V. L. (1989). Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism (2nd ed.). Philadelphia:
Univesity of Pennsylvania.
Smith, V., & Eadington, W. (1992). Tourism Alternatives: Potentials and Problems in the
Development of Tourism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
https://doi.org/10.9783/9781512807462
The International Ecotourism Society. (2015). What-is-ecotourism. Retrieved from
http://www.ecotourism.org
UNEP, & UNWTO. (2005). Making Tourism More Sustainable-A guide for policy makers.
UNESCO. (2006). Towards Sustainable Strategies for Creative Tourism. Santa Fe, New
Mexico, USA: UNESCO.
Wearing, S., & Grabowski, S. (2011). International Volunteer Tourism: One mechanism for
Development. PINTO, Henrique (org), 145-165.
Wearing, S., & Neil, J. (2009). Ecotourism. Impacts Potentials and Possibilities (2nd ed.).
Oxford: Elsevier.
Weaver, D. (1998). Ecotourism in the less developed World. UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL.
Copyright Disclaimer
Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to
the journal.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative
Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
... Sou ecologicamente consciente. (Triarchi & Karamanis, 2017) Quando viajo tomo decisões ecologicamente conscientes. (Triarchi & Karamanis, 2017) Tomada de decisão ...
... (Triarchi & Karamanis, 2017) Quando viajo tomo decisões ecologicamente conscientes. (Triarchi & Karamanis, 2017) Tomada de decisão ...
... Percebemos que a flight shame tem vindo a ter um grande impacto na vida da sociedade, quando observamos as mudanças que este sentimento causou. Sendo motivado, não só, pelo debate interno de cada um, como pelos próprios valores ou crenças detidas pelo agente social, cada vez mais eco consciente(Triarchi & Karamanis, 2017;Wu et al., 2021). A principal mudança a realçar é o facto de cada vez mais se optar pelos transportes alternativos ao avião (Eugenio-Martin & Inchausti-Sintes, 2016; Peetawan, 2019), como o comboio ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Resumo Introdução: O recente conceito de flight shame, tem vindo a ganhar destaque na literatura do turismo perante a emergência do aquecimento global, influenciando o comportamento dos visitantes e as estratégias da oferta turística no que respeita aos transportes turísticos. Os autores procuraram percecionar qual a opinião dos estudantes dos cursos de turismo do ISLA Santarém, acerca do conceito de flight shame. Método: Privilegiou-se o método quantitativo, com a aplicação de um inquérito por questionário a 48 alunos dos cursos de turismo. Ao estudo de caso, aplicou-se a amostra por conveniência, recorrendo-se ao software SPSS 25 para o tratamento dos dados. Resultados: Resultados demonstram que o conceito de flight shame é pouco conhecido. Apesar dos alunos demonstrarem uma consciência ecológica no contexto das viagens e do turismo, estes não tomam decisões de viagens eco sustentáveis. Discussão: O flight shame é ainda muito incipiente na opinião dos inquiridos, o que confrontado com os estudos nacionais presentes na literatura, reflete a novidade do tema indo ao encontro da revisão de literatura. Este estudo demonstra igualmente que apesar das preocupações dos alunos de turismo com o aquecimento global e o impacto ambiental causado pela aviação, estas não impactam de forma significativa a forma como tencionam viajar num futuro próximo. Conclusão: Este estudo é importante pois aborda um conceito muito recente no contexto da literatura do turismo, procurando percecionar a opinião dos alunos de turismo acerca dos impactos ambientais na época do Antropoceno. Será necessário continuar a estudar os impactes deste fenómeno de forma a antecipar as implicações para as empresas, comunidades locais e visitantes. Palavras-chave: Flight Shame, Transporte Aéreo, Sustentabilidade, Sistema Turístico
... It enables various cooperations and business models, e.g., food tourism, wine tourism, and challenges, e.g., multiple usages of land and resources (Hara & Naipaul, 2008;Janet Momsen, 2016). Ecotourism "… involves environmental and ecological awareness that ensure the conservation and preservation" (Triarchi & Karamanis, 2017) "responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment sustains the wellbeing of the local people and involves interpretation and education" (TIES, 2015) Green tourism "… spread during the 1980s, stands for small-scale tourism which involves visiting natural areas while minimizing environmental impacts. Businesses have generally adopted a broader meaning for green tourism: any tourism activity operating in an environmentally friendly manner." ...
... Alternative tourism incorporated soft tourism, small-scale tourism, green tourism, nature tourism, and integrated tourism." (Triarchi & Karamanis, 2017) "… involves tourism that respects the values of local people and nature, favoring encounters and exchanges and building experiences (Agustin & Fernadez-Betancort, 2016) Communitybased tourism "community-based approach aims to recognize the need to promote both people's quality of life and the protection of resources" (Saarinen, 2006) "… a platform for the local community to generate economic benefits through offering their products to tourists that range from the local communities, lifestyles, natural resources, and cultures." (Donny & Mohd, 2012) Peace through tourism ...
... (IIPT, n.d.) Pro-poor tourism "It is aiming in strengthening relations between tourism businesses and poor people, in a sense for the tourism sector to support the elimination of poverty and for poor people to have the opportunity to participate in the development of the touristic product." (Triarchi & Karamanis, 2017) "tourism that generates net benefits for the poor" (Roe & Urquhart, 2001) Volunteer tourism "volunteer in an organized way to undertake holidays that might involve aiding or alleviating the material poverty of some groups in society, the restoration of certain environments or research into aspects of society or environment" (Wearing & Grabowski, 2011) Geographically determined tourism ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Destinations in rural areas have to be competitive on the market on the one hand and, on the other hand, have to meet the increasing demands of residents, stakeholders, and businesses. Improving the quality of life of the population is becoming a key factor to be attractive as a place to live and work in the future. Threatening migration tendencies force responsible persons of regions and destinations to establish common habitat management. The implementation of sustainability goals to improve the population’s quality of life is increasingly perceived as a decisive competitive factor. This thesis examines the relationships between competitive rural destinations, the fulfillment of sustainable development claims, and the influence on residents’ perceived quality of life. Incorporating concepts of integrated management, it will be possible to start and enrich a broad scientific discourse. In order to achieve the research objectives, a multi-method approach was adopted. Based on expert interviews, hypotheses were developed. Using quantitative methods, questionnaire results were analyzed in the first stage, and data from a created database were analyzed in a second. The hypotheses were tested using linear regression models. Based on all the research results, an attempt was made to present a holistic model of a region. The results showed that the perception of the impact of tourism within the sample is significantly related to the subjectively perceived quality of life. Economic impacts of tourism are most important. It was also proven that the higher the income from tourism, the higher the satisfaction with tourism is. The study also shows that tourism indicators at the level of service regions have no significant influence on the quality of life of the Austrian population. The developed framework Quality of life-promoting model of integrated rural tourism shows how a destination can be managed competitively and at the same time strengthen the quality of life of the population. Considering a common vision, a destination that sees itself as a living space and is developed as such can positively contribute to increasing the quality of life of the people. However, this can only be achieved if existing political and structural hurdles are overcome, and the principles of integrated and thus sustainable development are implemented without exclusion.
... In contrast to mass-tourism islands, alternative-tourism islands are islands that promote a sustainable type of tourism that is based on a dialogue with the local population and is adjusted to the capacity of the local area to cope [18]. Although the term 'alternative tourism' or 'special-interest tourism' faces classification issues, it is often described as an umbrella term, encompassing various types of tourism, such as ecotourism, justice tourism, and community-based tourism [17][18][19][20]. ...
... In contrast to mass-tourism islands, alternative-tourism islands are islands that promote a sustainable type of tourism that is based on a dialogue with the local population and is adjusted to the capacity of the local area to cope [18]. Although the term 'alternative tourism' or 'special-interest tourism' faces classification issues, it is often described as an umbrella term, encompassing various types of tourism, such as ecotourism, justice tourism, and community-based tourism [17][18][19][20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Tourism is often seen as the ‘golden ticket’ for the development of many islands. The current COVID-19 pandemic, however, has ground global tourism to a halt. In particular, islands that depend heavily on tourist inflows—including mass-tourism islands, and small island developing states (SIDS)—have seen their revenues diminish significantly, and poverty rates increasing. Some alternative-tourism islands have fared better, as they have focused on providing personalized, nature-based experiences to mostly domestic tourists. This article focuses on the experiences of mass-tourism islands, SIDS, and alternative-tourism islands during the COVID-19 pandemic, and offers possible post-pandemic scenarios, as well as recommendations for sustainable island tourism development. Although the pandemic has largely had a negative impact on the tourism sector, this is a unique opportunity for many islands to review the paradigm of tourism development. In this newly emerging world, and under a still very uncertain future scenario, the quadriptych of sustainability is more important than ever. Responsible governance and management of islands’ natural resources and their tourism activities, addressing climate change impacts, the diversification of islands’ economies, and the promotion of innovative and personalized tourist experiences are all necessary steps towards increasing islands’ resilience in case of future economic downturn or health- and environment-related crises.
... The broad idea of alternative tourism development The Alternative Tourism Development was formulated as part of the expansion of the sustainable development concept and is focused on local entrepreneurship response, indigenous knowledge in tourism development, the advancement of local communities in the decision-making process, the fundamental function of women in tourism and sustainable tourism development (Wall, 1997;Sharpley, 2000;Telfer, 2002Telfer, , 2003Triarchi and Karamanis, 2017). In the Musina Municipality and study area, a potential tourism strategy could gain from the abundance of cultural heritage resources within the region. ...
Article
Purpose This study evaluates “potentials for using tourism in promoting indigenous resources for community development at Musina Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa.” Design/methodology/approach The study used a questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, and field observations to gather data. Microsoft Excel, Spreadsheet, cross-tabulation analysis, and manual sorting contributed to quantitative and qualitative data analyses. Findings The study uncovered vast significant indigenous species, resources, and tourism potentials with low impacts of indigenous species and resource benefits to the local communities. The details pointing to the actual and potential indigenous resources situations around tourism activities in Musina municipality emerged prominently. Thus, the study concluded such significant indigenous species, resources, and better tourism potentials need a well-combined strategy to channel the benefits to the local community's livelihoods. Originality/value The issue of indigenous resources, forests, trees, and tourism concerning rural community livelihoods has become of curiosity in the past few years. Nonetheless, few such studies have investigated the synergies between tourism and significant indigenous species and resources to improve their livelihoods.
Book
Full-text available
https://www.cizgikitabevi.com/kitap/1269-alternatif-turizm-kapsaminda-guncel-konular-ve-arastirmalar
Chapter
Full-text available
E-Book: https://www.cizgikitabevi.com/kitap/1269-alternatif-turizm-kapsaminda-guncel-konular-ve-arastirmalar
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper outlines the discussion surrounding the definition of cultural tourism and also asks the question whether the term 'cultural tourism' is still appropriate to cover the wide variety of activities that now tend to be included under this broad umbrella. It also considers why cultural tourism has grown in recent decades, because the way in which cultural tourism has developed has arguably coloured the question of definition.
Article
Full-text available
The concept and practice of volunteer tourism has offered a different outcome to conventional mass tourism in that it is an approach that recognises the inter-dependence of tourism on the host community culture and ecology. Additionally, volunteer tourism is enabling and explores ways of enhancing the sustainability of tourism, and goes some way to eliminating or ameliorating negative consequences.
Book
In what ways does tourism change the host community? This book offers original insights into the broad and deep influences of tourism, and places them within the historical context of globalisation. Intensive fieldwork spanning many years on a Canary Island has produced a rich portrayal of the community, examining the changes experienced in areas including their working lives, families, identities, local culture, values, attitudes, political structure and economic base. The tourists, predominantly independent, are also examined, and their unique impact analysed. The research emphasises the indigenous experience, and makes cross-cultural comparisons, especially with island communities. It employs the methods of sociocultural anthropology and includes the multidisciplinary findings of tourism studies: in doing so it is innovative and challenges standard understandings of the influence of specific types of tourism on small communities.