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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after a bout of cycling exercise using high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in comparison to a bout of traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (CE). After supine rest 14 obese (31±1 kg·m(-2)) middle-age (57±2 y) metabolic syndrome patients (50% hypertensive) underwent a bout of HIIT or a bout of CE in a random order and then returned to supine recovery for another 45 min. Exercise trials were isocaloric and compared to a no-exercise trial (CONT) of supine rest for a total of 160 min. Before and after exercise we assessed blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Q), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), intestinal temperature (TINT), forearm skin blood flow (SKBF) and percent dehydration. HIIT produced a larger post-exercise reduction in systolic blood pressure than CE in the hypertensive group (-20±6 vs. -5±3 mmHg) and in the normotensive group (-8±3 vs. -3±2 mmHg) while HIIT reduced SVR below CE (P<0.05). Percent dehydration was larger after HIIT, and post-exercise TINT and SKBF increased only after HIIT (all P<0.05). Our findings suggest that HIIT is a superior exercise method to CE to acutely reduce blood pressure in MSyn subjects.

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... Authors of 13 studies were contacted twice by e-mail over a 1-month period asking to provide missing data in cases of incomplete reporting. After 1 month, five authors provided more detailed information (Mourot et al., 2004;de Carvalho et al., 2014;Morales-palomo et al., 2017;Pimenta et al., 2019), two authors reported no access to the data (Scott et al., 2008;Lacombe et al., 2011), one author reported the lack of these data (Klein et al., 2019), and five authors did not reply. ...
... After screening of the full-text, 14 papers could be included in the final meta-analysis. Three studies (Angadi et al., 2015;Morales-palomo et al., 2017;Ramirez-Jimenez et al., 2017) included multiple HIIE interventions or more than one patient group (i.e., a normotensive and hypertensive group). As a result, 18 comparisons were included in the final analysis. ...
... None of the studies explicitly stated that researchers were blinded, and all studies were thus classified as unclear for the risk "blinding of outcome assessment." Seven studies reported that office BP measurements were performed by an automated device (Rossow et al., 2009;Tordi et al., 2010;Angadi et al., 2015;Costa et al., 2016;Graham et al., 2016;Morales-palomo et al., 2017;Silva et al., 2018), and all four studies measuring ambulatory BP used an automated device (Ciolac et al., 2009;de Carvalho et al., 2014;Sosner et al., 2016;Ramirez-Jimenez et al., 2017). The remaining two studies used a manual device to measure office BP (Seeger et al., 2014;Pimenta et al., 2019) and one did not specify the device (de Carvalho et al., 2014). ...
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Background: Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is an important tool in the daily management of patients with hypertension. Varying the exercise parameters is likely to change the blood pressure (BP) response following a bout of exercise. In recent years, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) has gained significant popularity in exercise-based prevention and rehabilitation of clinical populations. Yet, to date, it is not known whether a single session of HIIE maximizes PEH more than a bout of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE). Objective: To compare the effect of HIIE vs. MICE on PEH by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and SPORTDiscus was conducted from the earliest date available until February 24, 2020. Randomized clinical trials comparing the transient effect of a single bout of HIIE to MICE on office and/or ambulatory BP in humans (≥18 years) were included. Data were pooled using random effects models with summary data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence interval (CIs). Results: Data from 14 trials were included, involving 18 comparisons between HIIE and MICE and 276 (193 males) participants. The immediate effects, measured as office BP at 30- and 60-min post-exercise, was similar for a bout of HIIE and MICE ( p > 0.05 for systolic and diastolic BP). However, HIIE elicited a more pronounced BP reduction than MICE [(−5.3 mmHg (−7.3 to −3.3)/ −1.63 mmHg (−3.00 to −0.26)] during the subsequent hours of ambulatory daytime monitoring. No differences were observed for ambulatory nighttime BP ( p > 0.05). Conclusion: HIIE promoted a larger PEH than MICE on ambulatory daytime BP. However, the number of studies was low, patients were mostly young to middle-aged individuals, and only a few studies included patients with hypertension. Therefore, there is a need for studies that involve older individuals with hypertension and use ambulatory BP monitoring to confirm HIIE's superiority as a safe BP lowering intervention in today's clinical practice. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020171640).
... It is well stablished that in isolation, a bout of exercise lowers blood pressure in MetS hypertensive individuals for some hours after exercise [8,9]. The mechanism is still unclear but seems to be related to the postexercise sustained vasodilation in exercised skeletal muscle likely by reductions in sympathetic nerve activity to muscles and increased local vasodilator stimulus (e.g. ...
... Sample size calculation was made based on our primary outcome measure (SBP) assuming a power of 90% and an α-error probability of 0.05. It was calculated that 11 patients were required to detect a significant effect of exercise on lowering SBP on the basis of a previous study in our laboratory with similar subjects and techniques [8]. ...
... In contrast, after exercise, we found similar blood pressure reductions (7.5 and 4.5 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively; Fig. 2) when our participants were medicated and when they were not medicated. Furthermore, our postexercise blood pressure reductions are of similar magnitude to the ones reported in other studies using intense cycling exercise [8,9,20,21]. Reductions of this magnitude are of clinical relevance as they may lower the incidence of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [22] among other cardiovascular risks. ...
Article
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Objective: There is a growing tendency for physicians to prescribe exercise in accordance with the 'exercise is medicine' global health initiative. However, the exercise-pharmacologic interactions for controlling blood pressure are not well described. Our purpose was to study whether angiotensin II receptor type 1 blocker (ARB) antihypertensive medicine enhances the blood pressure-lowering effects of intense exercise. Participants and methods: Fifteen hypertensive individuals with metabolic syndrome chronically medicated with ARB underwent two exercise trials in a blind randomized order. One trial was conducted after taking their habitual dose of ARB (ARB MED trial) and another after 48 h of placebo medicine (i.e. dextrose; PLAC trial). Results: After placebo medication, brachial systolic blood pressure increased by 5.5 mmHg [P=0.009; effect size (ES)=0.476] and diastolic by 2.5 mmHg (P=0.030; ES=0.373). Exercise reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures to the same extent in ARB MED and PLAC trials (7 and 8 mmHg, respectively, for systolic and 5 and 4 mmHg, respectively, for diastolic, all P<0.05). Pulsatile measures of arterial stiffness did not reveal an interaction effect between exercise and medication. However, postocclusion reactive hyperemia increased after exercise only in the ARB MED trial (361±169 to 449±240% from baseline; P=0.033; ES=0.429). Conclusion: ARBs and a bout of intense exercise each have an independent effect on lowering blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, and these effects are additive.
... kg/m 2 ). 26,27,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38] Of these, three studies involved 46 normotensive individuals (n = 23 women), 26 Regarding the BP measurement, of the 12 included studies, four used the auscultatory method (~ 33%), while the others used the oscillometric method in an automatic equipment. All studies used inferential statistics, adopting a value of p ≤ 0.05. ...
... Of the 12 studies included, seven (~ 58%) used a cycle ergometer, 26,27,[31][32][33][34][35] and five used a treadmill 29,30,[36][37][38] in the exercise sessions. When the IE session was performed on the treadmill, reductions in systolic and diastolic BP of ~ 9.8 and 4.4 mmHg were observed, respectively. ...
... According to the TESTEX scale (0-15 points), all studies had scores > 10 points. The weakest points in the studies were: lack of allocation concealment (92%), [26][27][28][29][31][32][33][34][35][36][37] blinding of the evaluator to evaluate the outcome (100%) 26,27,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] and absence of the reporting of adverse events (75%). 26,[29][30][31][33][34][35][36][37] Effect of IE versus CE on clinical BP A sensitivity analysis showed that the effect in favor of IE on PEH persisted after the removal of each of the included studies. ...
Article
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Fundamento O exercício aeróbio contínuo (EC) é uma das principais recomendações não farmacológicas para prevenção e tratamento da hipertensão arterial sistêmica. O EC é seguro e eficaz para reduzir a pressão arterial cronicamente, assim como nas primeiras horas após sua realização, fenômeno conhecido por hipotensão pós-exercício (HPE). O exercício intervalado (EI) também gera HPE. Objetivo Essa revisão sistemática e metanálise buscou comparar a magnitude da HPE entre o EC e EI em adultos. Métodos Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática de estudos publicados em revistas indexadas nas bases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus e CENTRAL até março de 2020 que compararam a magnitude da HPE entre o EC versus EI. Foi definida HPE entre 45 e 60 minutos pós-exercício. As diferenças entre grupos sobre a pressão arterial foram analisadas por meio do modelo de efeito aleatório. Os dados foram reportados como diferença média ponderada (WMD) e 95% de intervalo de confiança (IC). Valor p menor que 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. A escala TESTEX (0 a 15) foi usada para verificação da qualidade metodológica dos estudos. Resultados O EI apresentou HPE de maior magnitude sobre a pressão arterial sistólica (WMD: -2,93 mmHg [IC95%: -4,96, -0,90], p = 0,005, I² = 50%) e pressão arterial diastólica (WMD: -1,73 mmHg [IC95%: -2,94, -0,51], p = 0,005, I² = 0%) quando comparado ao EC (12 estudos; 196 participantes). A pontuação dos estudos na escala TEXTEX variou entre 10 e 11 pontos. Conclusões O EI gerou HPE de maior magnitude quando comparado ao EC entre 45 e 60 minutos pós-exercício. A ausência de dados sobre eventos adversos durante o EI e EC nos estudos impede comparações sobre a segurança dessas estratégias. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)
... Lacombe et al. (28) found similar PEH up to 60 minutes after exercise between HIIE (5 3 2 minutes at 85% VȮ 2 max and 2 minutes active recovery) and MICE (21 minutes at 60% VȮ 2 max) in prehypertensive men aged 50-65 years. By contrast, Morales-Palomo et al. (30) found greater systolic PEH 45 minutes after HIIE (5 3 4 minutes at 90% HRmax and 3 minutes active recovery) compared with MICE (70 minutes at 60% HRmax) in middle-aged patients with metabolic syndrome (50% hypertensive). In normotensive samples, previous studies (1,45,46) have demonstrated similar PEH within 60 minutes after exercise between HIIE and MICE. ...
... Regarding the mechanisms associated with PEH, Lacombe et al. (28) showed that HIIE elicited greater changes in baroreflex sensitivity and HR variability than MICE. Morales-Palombo et al. (30) observed that HIIE elicited a reduction in stroke volume and a more pronounced increase in HR than MICE. In addition, greater reductions of systematic vascular resistance and cutaneous vascular resistance were observed after HIIE. ...
... In addition, greater reductions of systematic vascular resistance and cutaneous vascular resistance were observed after HIIE. Taken together, all the abovementioned studies have observed reductions in BP values between 45 and 180 minutes after exercise at a "passive" posture in a seated or supine position compared with baseline (1,28,30,42,45,46). ...
Article
Costa, EC, Kent, DE, Boreskie, KF, Hay, JL, Kehler, DS, Edye-Mazowita, A, Nugent, K, Papadopoulos, J, Stammers, AN, Oldfield, C, Arora, RC, Browne, RAV, and Duhamel, TA. Acute effect of high-intensity interval versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise on blood pressure and arterial compliance in middle-aged and older hypertensive women with increased arterial stiffness. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Hypertension and arterial stiffness are common in middle-aged and older women. This study compared the acute effect of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on blood pressure (BP) and arterial compliance in middle-aged and older hypertensive women with increased arterial stiffness. Nineteen women (67.6 6 4.7 years) participated in this randomized controlled crossover trial. Subjects completed a control, MICE (30 minutes at 50-55% of heart rate reserve [HRR]), and HIIE (10 3 1 minute at 80-85% of HRR, 2 minutes at 40-45% of HRR) session in random order. Blood pressure and large and small arterial compliance (radial artery pulse wave analysis) were measured at baseline and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after sessions. A p , 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Systolic BP was reduced in ;10 mm Hg after MICE at 30 minutes and after HIIE at all time points (30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes) after exercise compared with the control session (p , 0.05). Only HIIE showed lower systolic BP levels at 60, 90, and 120 minutes after exercise compared with the control session (;10 mm Hg; p , 0.05). No changes were observed in diastolic BP, or in large and small arterial compliance (p. 0.05). High-intensity interval exercise elicited a longer systolic postexercise hypotension than MICE compared with the control condition, despite the absence of acute modifications in large and small arterial compliance.
... Bond et al. 12 showed promising effects of Highintensity interval training (HIIT) introduced in physical education lessons. HIIT is time-efficient and effective for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) [13][14][15] . HIIT intervention positively affects cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition improvements in the adolescent population 16 . ...
... However, in the HIIT effect on blood pressure, many studies concern adults 17,18 , whereas less is known about adolescents 18,19 . Morales-Palomo et al. 15 established the positive effects of HIIT among men with metabolic syndrome. After HIIT intervention, Grace et al. 17 showed a significant improvement in blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic) in older men leading a sedentary lifestyle. ...
Article
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Increased resting blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for many health complications. The prevalence of elevated BP is growing among adolescents. There is a need to investigate effective ways of decreasing excessive blood pressure in this age group. The study aim was to determine the effect of 10-weeks High-Intensive Interval Training (HIIT)—Tabata protocol—introduced in physical education (PE) lessons on resting blood pressure in adolescents. The sample included 52 boys aged 16.23 ± 0.33 years body height176.74 ± 6.07 (m), body weight 65.42 ± 12.51 (kg), BMI 20.89 ± 3.53 (kg/m²) and 89 girls aged 16.12 ± 0.42 years, body height 164.38 ± 6.54 (m), body weight 56.71 ± 10.23 (kg), BMI 20.93 ± 3.08 (kg/m²) from secondary school. Based on resting BP, the fractions of boys and girls with normal BP and high BP were identified and divided into experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups. EG completed a 10-weeks HIIT program (three cycles of Tabata protocol) implemented in one PE lesson during a week. The duration of the effort was 14 min. The intensity was at 75–80% of maximal heart rate. Changes in systolic and diastolic BP after the experiment were examined. The results indicated the improvement in SBP in EG with high BP compared to the rest of the groups (average reduction of 12.77 mmHg; p < 0.0001). The EG normotensive had a statistically significant higher reduction of SBP comparing CG normotensive (average decrease of 1.81 mmHG; p = 0.0089). HIIT effectively decreases BP in adolescents. Implementing HIIT in PE lessons in secondary school is recommended to improve BP parameters.
... However, since lack of time is one of the main reasons for not exercising, low volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as an option to fight hypertension [5]. Evidence is also accumulating to suggest that intense exercise could result in PEH greater in magnitude and/or duration than when using moderately-intense continuous exercise [6,10,11]. Inspired by the large differences in PEH when increasing exercise intensity from continuous to HIIT, we speculat-ed that shorter bouts of higher exercise intensity (supramaximal exercise) could be even more efficacious on acutely lowering blood pressure (i. e., in the 24-hr post-exercise period). ...
... For this reason, several studies have been carried out in recent decades to clarify the most effective type, duration and intensity of exercise to achieve a subsequent long-lasting reduction of blood pressure [26]. Recent data from our and other laboratories [6,10,11] suggests that a bout of intense interval exercise could result in PEH greater in magnitude and duration than moderately-intense continuous exercise. However, to our knowledge, the effects of aerobic exercise at supramaximal intensities (SIE, i. e., > 100 % peak power output) on blood pressure response in a hypertensive population has not been explored. ...
Article
We studied the effects of supramaximal interval exercise (SIE) with or without antihypertensive medication (AHM) on 21-hr blood pressure (BP) response. Twelve hypertensive patients chronically medicated with AHM, underwent three trials in a randomized order: a) control trial without exercise and substituting their AHM with a placebo (PLAC); b) placebo medicine and a morning bout of SIE (PLAC+SIE), and c) combining AHM and exercise (AHM+SIE). Acute and ambulatory blood pressure responses were measured for 21-hr after treatment. 20 min after treatment, systolic blood pressure (SBP) readings were reduced, similar to readings after PLAC+SIE (−9.7±6.0 mmHg, P<0.001) and AHM+SIE (−10.4±7.9 mmHg, P=0.001). 21 h after treatment, SBP remained reduced after PLAC+SIE (125±12 mmHg, P=0.022) and AHM+SIE (122±12 mmHg, P=0.013) compared to PLAC (132±16 mmHg). The BP reduction in PLAC+SIE faded out at 4 a.m., while in AHM+SIE it continued overnight. At night, BP reduction was larger in AHM+SIE than PLAC+SIE (–5.6±4.0 mmHg, P=0.006). Our data shows that a bout of supramaximal aerobic interval exercise in combination with ARB medication in the morning elicits a sustained blood pressure reduction lasting at least 21-h. Thus, the combination of exercise and angiotensin receptor blocker medication seems superior to exercise alone for acutely decreasing blood pressure.
... paring the acute effect of HIIE versus MICE on resting BP in young normotensive (Costa et al. 2016) and in metabolic syndrome (Morales-Palomo et al. 2017) individuals, which have shown similar hypotensive effect between interventions (Costa et al. 2016) or a superior effect of HIIE (Morales-Palomo et al. 2017). In contrast, no reductions in resting BP were found after any intervention in the present study. ...
... paring the acute effect of HIIE versus MICE on resting BP in young normotensive (Costa et al. 2016) and in metabolic syndrome (Morales-Palomo et al. 2017) individuals, which have shown similar hypotensive effect between interventions (Costa et al. 2016) or a superior effect of HIIE (Morales-Palomo et al. 2017). In contrast, no reductions in resting BP were found after any intervention in the present study. ...
... 13---16 Research has sought to identify the effects of HIIE in the interactions between cardiac, vascular, neuroendocrine, and/or renal mechanisms in different clinical populations. 13---18 Analysis of the mechanisms potentially associated with PEH in normotensive adults found that there was a larger reduction in peripheral vascular resistance, stroke volume and cutaneous vascular resistance, and greater blood flow to the skin, after an HIIE session than after CE. 13,15 Lacombe et al. 17 demonstrated that a larger reduction in baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability was observed in prehypertensive men after an HIIE session than following CE. ...
... Moreover, Morales-Palomo et al. 13 reported larger reductions in stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance and cutaneous vascular resistance, and greater blood flow to the skin, in hypertensive patients after an HIIE session compared to CE. More recently, Costa et al. 14 observed that hypertensive older women showed a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance 60 minutes after an HIIE session compared to the control session. ...
... 6 however, a previous study showed that individuals with pd have impaired norepinephrine and hemodynamic response to cardiopulmonary exercise testing, independently of the use of pd medication (levodopa or a dopamine agonist), 21 suggesting that these alterations are manifested by the disease, probably due to a central sympathetic impairment. 30 The reduction of Bp following a single bout of exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension) occurs in different populations, 15,26,[31][32][33] and the magnitude of Bp reduction appears to be greater after hiie than Mice. 26,32,33 however, there was no postexercise after both hiie and Mice intervention in the present study. ...
... 30 The reduction of Bp following a single bout of exercise (i.e., postexercise hypotension) occurs in different populations, 15,26,[31][32][33] and the magnitude of Bp reduction appears to be greater after hiie than Mice. 26,32,33 however, there was no postexercise after both hiie and Mice intervention in the present study. as the central and peripheral mechanisms involved in postexercise hypotension are mediated, at least in part, by the intensity of exercise, 32,34 it is reasonable to speculate that the lack of postexercise hypotension in the present study was due to the low hr during both hiie and Mice. in addition, the lower parasympathetic activity found in individuals with pd during resting 28, 29 may also be involved in the present lack of postexercise hypotension. ...
Article
Purpose: To assess hemodynamic and cardiac autonomic response to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) versus moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: 12 individuals (six men) with PD were randomly assigned to perform HIIE (4 min of warm-up followed by 21 min alternating 1 min at levels 15-17 with 2 min at levels 9-11 of rating of perceived exertion [RPE] in a cycle ergometer), MICE (4 min of warm-up followed by 26 min at levels 11-14 of RPE in a cycle ergometer) and control (CON; 30 min of sitting rest) interventions in separate days. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), endothelial reactivity and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed before, immediately after and 45 min after each intervention. HR and exercise workload were measured during each intervention. Results: Despite the within (high- vs. low-intensity intervals of HIIE) and between (HIIE vs. MICE) differences in workload during exercise sessions, HR was not different between high- (average HR = 98±18 bpm) and low-intensity (average HR 97±19 bpm) intervals of HIIE, as well as between HIIE (average HR = 97±18 bpm) and MICE (average HR = 93±19 bpm) throughout the exercise. There were significant, but small, increases (P < 0.01) in HR and systolic BP at post HIIE and MICE, which returned to levels similar to pre-intervention during recovery. There were no within- and betweenintervention differences in diastolic BP, endothelial reactivity and HRV. Conclusions: The present results suggest that hemodynamic response to exercise is impaired in individuals with PD.
... paring the acute effect of HIIE versus MICE on resting BP in young normotensive (Costa et al. 2016) and in metabolic syndrome (Morales-Palomo et al. 2017) individuals, which have shown similar hypotensive effect between interventions (Costa et al. 2016) or a superior effect of HIIE (Morales-Palomo et al. 2017). In contrast, no reductions in resting BP were found after any intervention in the present study. ...
... paring the acute effect of HIIE versus MICE on resting BP in young normotensive (Costa et al. 2016) and in metabolic syndrome (Morales-Palomo et al. 2017) individuals, which have shown similar hypotensive effect between interventions (Costa et al. 2016) or a superior effect of HIIE (Morales-Palomo et al. 2017). In contrast, no reductions in resting BP were found after any intervention in the present study. ...
Article
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We tested the hypothesis that rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a tool as efficient as heart rate (HR) response to cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) for prescribing and self-regulating high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), and that metabolic and hemodynamic response to HIIE is superior than to continuous moderate-intensity exercise (MICE) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Eleven participants (age=52.3±3yr) underwent HIIE prescribed and self-regulated by RPE (HIIERPE; 25 min), HIIE prescribed and regulated by individuals' HR response to CPX (HIIEHR; 25 min), MICE prescribed and self-regulated by RPE (30 min) and control (CON; 30 min of seated resting) intervention in random order. HR, blood pressure (BP), capillary glucose, endothelial reactivity and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were assessed before, immediately after and 45 min after each intervention. Exercise HR, speed and distance were measured during exercise sessions. 24-h ambulatory BP was measured after each intervention. Exercise HR, speed and distance were similar between HIIERPE and HIIEHR. BP response was not different among HIIERPE, HIIEHR, and MICE. Capillary glycaemia reduction was greater (P < 0.05) after HIIERPE (48.6±9.6 mg/dL) and HIIEHR (47.2±9.5 mg/dL) than MICE (29.5±11.5 mg/dL). Reduction (P < 0.05) in 24-h (6.7±2.2 mmHg) and tendency toward reduction (P = 0.06) in daytime systolic (7.0±2.5 mmHg) ambulatory BP were found only after HIIERPE. These results suggest that HIIE is superior to MICE for reducing glycaemia and ambulatory BP, and that the 6 to 20 RPE scale is an useful tool for prescribing and self-regulating HIIE in individuals with T2DM.
... Although high intensity exercise results in accumulation of heat and metabolites which could induce vasodilation 4 , some studies sustain that exercise intensity does not affect the magnitude of postexercise blood pressure lowering effect. [5][6][7] In contrast, others studies show that intense exercise results in larger post-exercise BP reductions than moderate intensity aerobic exercise [8][9][10] and that the lowering effects last longer. [10][11][12] Regarding the exercise mode, it seems that a combination of resistance and endurance exercise is also effective on reducing BP 13 although its actions do not last as long as after aerobic exercise in elderly individuals with essential hypertension. ...
Article
We studied the blood pressure lowering effects of a bout of exercise and/or antihypertensive medicine with the goal of studying if exercise could substitute or enhance pharmacologic hypertension treatment. Twenty‐three hypertensive metabolic syndrome patients chronically medicated with angiotensin II receptor 1 blockade antihypertensive medicine underwent 24‐hr monitoring in four separated days in a randomized order; a) after taking their habitual dose of antihypertensive medicine (AHM trial), b) substituting their medicine by placebo medicine (PLAC trial), c) placebo medicine with a morning bout of intense aerobic exercise (PLAC+EXER trial) and d) combining the exercise and antihypertensive medicine (AHM+EXER trial). We found that in trials with AHM subjects had lower plasma aldosterone/renin activity ratio evidencing treatment compliance. Before exercise, the trials with AHM displayed lower systolic (130±16 vs 133±15 mmHg; P=0.018) and mean blood pressures (94±11 vs 96±10 mmHg; P=0.036) than trials with placebo medication. Acutely (i.e., 30 min after treatments) combining AHM+EXER lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) below the effects of PLAC+EXER (‐8.1±1.6 vs ‐4.9±1.5 mmHg; P=0.015). Twenty‐four hour monitoring revealed no differences among trials in body motion. However, PLAC+EXER and AHM lowered SBP below PLAC during the first 10 hours, time at which PLAC+EXER effects faded out (i.e., at 19 PM). Adding exercise to medication (i.e., AHM+EXER) resulted in longer reductions in SBP than with exercise alone (PLAC+EXER). In summary, one bout of intense aerobic exercise in the morning cannot substitute the long‐lasting effects of antihypertensive medicine in lowering blood pressure, but their combination is superior to exercise alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In opposition, the HIIE did not produce any effect on either the reactivity or in the absolute levels of BP. This absence of effect of HIIE on BP control diverges from recent studies showing beneficial impact of this mode of exercise in subjects with obesity [50,51] and also in other groups with increased cardiovascular risk [40]. Overall increase in sympathetic activation might have underlined the HIIE results, which deserves further investigation. ...
Article
Objective: To investigate the effects of a single session of moderate-intensity and high-intensity interval exercise in cardiovascular reactivity to the cold pressor test in young adults with excess body weight. Methods: Twenty-two subjects with excess body weight (23 ± 2 years; 30.0 ± 3.4 kg·m) performed three sessions: (1) moderate-intensity exercise (30-minute cycling at 50%-60% of heart rate reserve); (2) high-intensity exercise (four series of 3-minute cycling at 80%-90% of heart rate reserve, interspersed by 2-minute recovery) and (3) control (i.e. 30-minute seated). Before and 30 minutes after the interventions, subjects undertook assessments of SBP/DBP and heart rate in response to the cold pressor test (1-minute rest + 1-minute hand immersed in 4°C water). Reactivity was calculated as the absolute response of SBP, DBP and heart rate to cold pressor test and compared between interventions using a two-way analysis of variance (P < 0.05). Results: Neither moderate-intensity exercise or high-intensity interval exercise attenuated SBP/DBP reactivity to cold pressor test compared with control. On the other hand, heart rate reactivity was reduced after moderate-intensity exercise compared with control (1.36 ± 8.35 bpm vs. 5.18 ± 9.45 bpm). Furthermore, moderate-intensity exercise reduced absolute levels of SBP/DBP from pre- to post-intervention. Conclusion: A single session of moderate-intensity exercise or high-intensity interval exercise did not reduce the SBP/DBP reactivity to cold pressor test. However, absolute levels of SBP/DBP were lower after moderate-intensity exercise, indicating a hypotensive effect promoted by a single session of moderate-intensity exercise in young adults with excess body weight.
... Such decrease is of clinical relevance, with a potential effect on cardiovascular risk reduction. 2 Similar effect has been reported in hypertensive individuals, 20,23,24 with increased resting BP. In this regard, PEH results from a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance by reduction in sympathetic activity. ...
Article
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Background: Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is one of the main risk factors for heart disease. Among the benefits linked to different modalities of physical exercise, post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is a key point for exercise prescription in this condition. Objective: To investigate and compare PEH in response to continuous aerobic exercise (CONT) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), matched by volume, in sedentary individuals. Methods: A randomized cross-over study, composed of sedentary, healthy male subjects submitted to two acute physical exercise protocols matched by volume, HIIE and CONT, on a treadmill. Hemodynamic measures for the evaluation of PEH were performed pre, immediately after exercise and every five minutes thereafter, during one hour of recovery. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measurements was used for comparisons between groups and Bonferroni post hoc test as appropriate. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Both exercise protocols promoted significant PEH, with reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). HIIE promoted a reduction of SBP and MAP at the 15th minute, whereas the same effect was observed at the 30th following CONT. Conclusion: Both HIIE and CONT, matched by volume, promote PEH of similar magnitude. However, PEH occurs earlier following HIIE, suggesting a better time / effectiveness ratio, and an additional beneficial effect of this modality.
... This was consistent with a previous study that reported that hiie causes vasodilation in participants, and moderate and continuous aerobic exercise can decrease blood pressure after exercise. 16 in addition, a study showed that production of nitric oxide increased after acute exercises. 17 however, nitric oxide decreases vasoconstric- ...
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Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) recovery strategies on the blood pressure levels and related physiological parameters after high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE). Methods: This randomized crossover study included 20 men (21.5±1.6 years). Each participant performed a maximum-exertion exercise performance test on a bicycle, and heart rate was measured. Subsequently, six cycles of HIIE (1 minute at 120% heart rate reserve [HRR] and 4 minutes at 40% HRR) were performed in a random sequence, and the recovery period involved either CWI or static rest (SR). Results: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at the 6th and 20th minute of CWI recovery were significantly higher than those during SR and significantly higher than those during a quiet state at the 6th minute. The heart rates at the 20th minute and 35th minute of CWI recovery were significantly lower than that during SR, and the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) at the 6th and 20th minute of CWI recovery were significantly lower than that during SR. No significant difference in lactate production was evident between the two recovery strategies. Ear temperature was not significantly different when it was quiet, at the end of exercise, and at the 6th and 35th minute of recovery; however, at the 20th minute of recovery, ear temperature during CWI was significantly higher than that during SR. Conclusions: CWI after HIIE reduced the extent to which blood pressure decreased. For the fatigue-related heart rate and RPE indicators, CWI was superior to SR.
... Most of these studies examined the effects of exercise at moderate intensities (i.e., below 80% of maximal heart rate; (Cornelissen et al. 2009;Pescatello et al. 2004a, b). However, it is becoming evident that a bout of HIIT is more effective at lowering blood pressure, at least in hypertensive MetS patients, than an isocaloric bout of MICT when blood pressure effects are monitored immediately (Tjonna et al. 2011) or during the 60 min that followed the exercise bout (Morales-Palomo et al. 2017). However, we have not determined if this superior blood pressure lowering effects of HIIT last during the hours of habitual daily activity that follow exercise. ...
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PurposeThe effectiveness of exercise to lower blood pressure may depend on the type and intensity of exercise. We study the short-term (i.e., 14-h) effects of a bout of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. Methods Nineteen MetS patients (55.2 ± 7.3 years, 6 women) entered the study. Eight of them were normotensive and eleven hypertensive according to MetS threshold (≥130 mmHg for SBP and/or ≥85 mmHg for DBP). In the morning of 3 separated days, they underwent a cycling exercise bout of HIIT (>90% of maximal heart rate, ~85% VO2max), or a bout of isocaloric moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; ~70% of maximal heart rate, ~60% VO2max), or a control no-exercise trial (REST). After exercise, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP; 14 h) was monitored, while subjects continued their habitual daily activities wearing a wrist-band activity monitor. ResultsNo ABP differences were found for normotensive subjects. In hypertensive subjects, systolic ABP was reduced by 6.1 ± 2.2 mmHg after HIIT compared to MICT and REST (130.8 ± 3.9 vs. 137.4 ± 5.1 and 136.4 ± 3.8 mmHg, respectively; p < 0.05). However, diastolic ABP was similar in all three trials (77.2 ± 2.6 vs. 78.0 ± 2.6 and 78.9 ± 2.8 mmHg, respectively). Motion analysis revealed no differences among trials during the 14-h. Conclusion This study suggests that the blood pressure reducing effect of a bout of exercise is influence by the intensity of exercise. A HIIT exercise bout is superior to an equivalent bout of continuous exercise when used as a non-pharmacological aid in the treatment of hypertension in MetS.
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Interval exercise is safe and effective to reduce blood pressure in the first few hours after a session of exercise, a phenomenon characterized by a decrease in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure after a single session of physical exercise, in comparison both to resting values (pre-exercise) and to a control condition (without exercise). Thus, the purpose of this editorial comment is to describe the potential physiological mechanisms underlying hypotension following interval exercise.
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Whether intensity or other characteristics of physical activity can better promote the release of nitric oxide (NO) and reduction of blood pressure in hypertensive older-adults is still unknown. In this study, the post-exercise blood pressure (BP) response and NO release after different intensities of aerobic exercise in elderly women were analyzed. Blood pressure response and NO were analyzed in 23 elderly mildly hypertensive women. Participants underwent (1) high-intensity incremental exercise (IT); (2) moderate-intensity 20 min exercise at 90 % of the anaerobic threshold (AT), and (3) control (CONT) session. BP was measured before and after interventions; volunteers remained seated for 1 h. NO estimates were made through NO2 (-) analyses. After CONT session, both diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were significantly higher than during pre-exercise resting. Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) was observed after exercise at IT and 90 % of AT. Although exercise in both sessions lowered SBP and MAP compared with CONT, exercise at the highest intensity (IT) was more effective on lowering systolic BP after exercise. In comparison with pre-exercise resting, NO2 (-) increased significantly only after IT, but both exercise sessions caused NO2 (-) to increase compared with CONT. Exercise intensity and NO release may exert a role in eliciting PEH in mildly hypertensive elderly women.
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Introduction: Insulin resistance in obesity is decreased after successful diet and exercise. Aerobic exercise training alone was evaluated as an intervention in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Methods: Eighteen nondiabetic, sedentary subjects, 11 with the metabolic syndrome, participated in 8 wk of increasing intensity stationary cycle training. Results: Cycle training without weight loss did not change insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome subjects or sedentary control subjects. Maximal oxygen consumption (V·O 2max), activated muscle AMP-dependent kinase, and muscle mitochondrial marker ATP synthase all increased. Strength, lean body mass, and fat mass did not change. The activated mammalian target of rapamycin was not different after training. Training induced a shift in muscle fiber composition in both groups but in opposite directions. The proportion of type 2× fibers decreased with a concomitant increase in type 2a mixed fibers in the control subjects, but in metabolic syndrome, type 2× fiber proportion increased and type 1 fibers decreased. Muscle fiber diameters increased in all three fiber types in metabolic syndrome subjects. Muscle insulin receptor expression increased in both groups, and GLUT4 expression increased in the metabolic syndrome subjects. The excess phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) at Ser337 in metabolic syndrome muscle tended to increase further after training in spite of a decrease in total IRS-1. Conclusions: In the absence of weight loss, the cycle training of metabolic syndrome subjects resulted in enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and increased the expression of insulin receptors and GLUT4 in muscle but did not decrease the insulin resistance. The failure for the insulin signal to proceed past IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation may be related to excess serine phosphorylation at IRS-1 Ser337, and this is not ameliorated by 8 wk of endurance exercise training.
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The study investigated whether resistance and aerobic concurrent exercise (CE) with different intensities influenced postexercise hypotension (PEH). 21 healthy men (20.7±0.7 yr) performed 4 sessions: control [CTL 60 min of rest], and CE1, CE2, and CE3 consisting respectively of 2 sets of 6 exercises at 80% 1RM followed by 30 min of cycle ergometer exercise at 50%, 65%, and 80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). All sessions lasted approximately 60 min and began with resistance prior to aerobic sessions. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (BP) were assessed at baseline and every 10 min during 120-min recovery. The magnitude of SBP decrease was similar after all CE sessions [CE1: 4.2±2.5 mmHg; CE2: 4.8±2.7 mmHg; CE3: 6.0±2.0 mmHg; p=0.06], but the PEH lasted approximately 1 h longer following CE2 and CE3 [120 min] compared to CE1 [60-70 min] (P<0.05). The magnitude of DBP decrease was slightly greater after CE3 and CE2 [2 mmHg] than after CE1 [1 mmHg] (P<0.05), being longer following CE3 [60 min] compared to CE2 and CE1 [40 min] (P<0.05). In conclusion, CE sessions combining resistance and aerobic sessions elicited PEH, especially when the intensity of the aerobic exercise was higher than 65% VO2peak.
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The Global Cardiometabolic Risk Profile in Patients with hypertension disease survey investigated the cardiometabolic risk profile in adult outpatients with hypertension in Europe according to the control of blood pressure (BP) as defined in the European Society of Hypertension and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESH/ESC) guidelines. Data on BP control and cardiometabolic risk factors were collected for 3370 patients with hypertension in 12 European countries. Prevalence was analyzed according to BP status and ATP III criteria for metabolic syndrome. BP was controlled (BP < 140/90 mmHg for nondiabetic patients; BP < 130/80 mmHg for diabetic patients) in 28.1% of patients. Patients with uncontrolled BP had significantly higher mean weight, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower (women only) compared with patients with controlled BP (P < 0.05). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes was also significantly higher in patients with uncontrolled BP compared with controlled BP (P < 0.001) (metabolic syndrome: 66.5 versus 35.5%; diabetes 41.1 versus 9.8%, respectively). 95.3% of patients with both metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes had uncontrolled BP. In a multivariate analysis, diabetes and metabolic syndrome were found to be associated with a high risk of poor BP control: odds ratio, 2.56 (metabolic syndrome); 5.16 (diabetes). In this European study, fewer than one third of treated hypertensive patients had controlled BP. Metabolic syndrome and diabetes were important characteristics associated with poor BP control. Thus, more focus is needed on controlling hypertension in people with high cardiometabolic risk and diabetes.
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To quantify the duration of postexercise hypotension at different exercise intensities, we studied six unmedicated, mildly hypertensive men matched with six normotensive controls. Each subject wore a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitor at the same time of day for 13 consecutive hours on 3 different days. On each of the 3 days, subjects either cycled for 30 minutes at 40% or 70% maximum VO2 or performed activities of daily living. There was no intensity effect on the postexercise reduction in blood pressure, so blood pressure data were combined for the different exercise intensities. Postexercise diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were lower by 8 +/- 1 (p less than 0.001) and 7 +/- 1 mm Hg (p less than 0.05), respectively, than the preexercise values for 12.7 hours in the hypertensive group. These variables were not different before and after exercise in the normotensive group. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 5 +/- 1 mm Hg (p less than 0.05) for 8.7 hours after exercise in the hypertensive group. In contrast, systolic blood pressure was 5 +/- 1 mm Hg (p less than 0.001) higher for 12.7 hours after exercise in the normotensive group. When the blood pressure response on the exercise days was compared with that on the nonexercise day, systolic blood pressure (135 +/- 1 versus 145 +/- 1 mm Hg) and mean arterial pressure (100 +/- 1 versus 106 +/- 1 mm Hg) were lower (p less than 0.05) on the exercise days in the hypertensive but not in the normotensive group. We found a postexercise reduction in mean arterial pressure for 12.7 hours independent of the exercise intensity in the hypertensive group. Furthermore, mean arterial pressure was lower on exercise than on nonexercise days in the hypertensive but not in the normotensive group. These findings indicate that dynamic exercise may be an important adjunct in the treatment of mild hypertension.
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Our purpose was to examine the effects of sprint interval training on muscle glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activity and exercise performance. Twelve healthy men (22 +/- 2 yr of age) underwent intense interval training on a cycle ergometer for 7 wk. Training consisted of 30-s maximum sprint efforts (Wingate protocol) interspersed by 2-4 min of recovery, performed three times per week. The program began with four intervals with 4 min of recovery per session in week 1 and progressed to 10 intervals with 2.5 min of recovery per session by week 7. Peak power output and total work over repeated maximal 30-s efforts and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) were measured before and after the training program. Needle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis of nine subjects before and after the program and assayed for the maximal activity of hexokinase, total glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The training program resulted in significant increases in peak power output, total work over 30 s, and VO2 max. Maximal enzyme activity of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase was also significantly (P < 0.05) higher after training. It was concluded that relatively brief but intense sprint training can result in an increase in both glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activity, maximum short-term power output, and VO2 max.
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The independent effects of diet- or exercise-induced weight loss on the reduction of obesity and related comorbid conditions are not known. The effects of exercise without weight loss on fat distribution and other risk factors are also unclear. To determine the effects of equivalent diet- or exercise-induced weight loss and exercise without weight loss on subcutaneous fat, visceral fat skeletal muscle mass, and insulin sensitivity in obese men. Randomized, controlled trial. University research center. 52 obese men (mean body mass index [+/-SD], 31.3 +/- 2.0 kg/m2) with a mean waist circumference of 110.1 +/- 5.8 cm. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four study groups (diet-induced weight loss, exercise-induced weight loss, exercise without weight loss, and control) and were observed for 3 months. Change in total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat; skeletal muscle mass; cardiovascular fitness; glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Body weight decreased by 7.5 kg (8%) in both weight loss groups and did not change in the exercise without weight loss and control groups. Compared with controls, cardiovascular fitness (peak oxygen uptake) in the exercise groups improved by approximately 16% (P < 0.01). Although total fat decreased in both weight loss groups (P < 0.001), the average reduction was 1.3 kg (95% CI, 0.3 to 2.3 kg) greater in the exercise-induced weight loss group than in the diet-induced weight loss group (P = 0.03). Similar reductions in abdominal subcutaneous, visceral, and visceral fat-to-subcutaneous fat ratios were observed in the weight loss groups (P < 0.001). Abdominal and visceral fat also decreased in the exercise without weight loss group (P = 0.001). Plasma glucose and insulin values (fasting and oral glucose challenge) did not change in the treatment groups compared with controls (P = 0.10 for all comparisons). Average improvement in glucose disposal was similar in the diet-induced weight loss group (5.6 mg/kg skeletal muscle per minute) and in the exercise-induced weight loss group (7.2 mg/kg skeletal muscle per minute) (P > 0.2). However, these values were significantly greater than those in the control and exercise without weight loss groups (P < 0.001). Weight loss induced by increased daily physical activity without caloric restriction substantially reduces obesity (particularly abdominal obesity) and insulin resistance in men. Exercise without weight loss reduces abdominal fat and prevents further weight gain.
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Hypertension (HTN), one of the most common medical disorders, is associated with an increased incidence of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Lifestyle modifications are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HTN, with exercise being an integral component. Exercise programs that primarily involve endurance activities prevent the development of HTN and lower blood pressure (BP) in adults with normal BP and those with HTN. The BP lowering effects of exercise are most pronounced in people with HTN who engage in endurance exercise with BP decreasing approximately 5-7 mm HG after an isolated exercise session (acute) or following exercise training (chronic). Moreover, BP is reduced for up to 22 h after an endurance exercise bout (e.g.postexercise hypotension), with greatest decreases among those with highest baseline BP. The proposed mechanisms for the BP lowering effects of exercise include neurohumoral, vascular, and structural adaptations. Decreases in catecholamines and total peripheral resistance, improved insulin sensitivity, and alterations in vasodilators and vasoconstrictors are some of the postulated explanations for the antihypertensive effects of exercise. Emerging data suggest genetic links to the BP reductions associated with acute and chronic exercise. Nonetheless, definitive conclusions regarding the mechanisms for the BP reductions following endurance exercise cannot be made at this time. Individuals with controlled HTN and no CVD or renal complications may participated in an exercise program or competitive athletics, but should be evaluated, treated and monitored closely. Preliminary peak or symptom-limited exercise testing may be warranted, especially for men over 45 and women over 55 yr planning a vigorous exercise program (i.e. > or = 60% VO2R, oxygen uptake reserve). In the interim, while formal evaluation and management are taking place, it is reasonable for the majority of patients to begin moderate intensity exercise (40-<60% VO2R) such as walking. When pharmacological therapy is indicated in physically active people it should be, ideally: a) lower BP at rest and during exertion; b) decrease total peripheral resistance; and, c) not adversely affect exercise capacity. For these reasons, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (or angiotensin II receptor blockers in case of ACE inhibitor intolerance) and calcium channel blockers are currently the drugs of choice for recreational exercisers and athletes who have HTN. Exercise remains a cornerstone therapy for the primary prevention, treatment, and control of HTN. The optimal training frequency, intensity, time, and type (FITT) need to be better defined to optimize the BP lowering capacities of exercise, particularly in children, women, older adults, and certain ethnic groups. based upon the current evidence, the following exercise prescription is recommended for those with high BP: Frequency: on most, preferably all, days of the week. Intensity: moderate-intensity (40-<60% VO2R). Time: > or = 30 min of continuous or accumulated physical activity per day. Type: primarily endurance physical activity supplemented by resistance exercise.
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This Position Stand provides guidance on fluid replacement to sustain appropriate hydration of individuals performing physical activity. The goal of prehydrating is to start the activity euhydrated and with normal plasma electrolyte levels. Prehydrating with beverages, in addition to normal meals and fluid intake, should be initiated when needed at least several hours before the activity to enable fluid absorption and allow urine output to return to normal levels. The goal of drinking during exercise is to prevent excessive (>2% body weight loss from water deficit) dehydration and excessive changes in electrolyte balance to avert compromised performance. Because there is considerable variability in sweating rates and sweat electrolyte content between individuals, customized fluid replacement programs are recommended. Individual sweat rates can be estimated by measuring body weight before and after exercise. During exercise, consuming beverages containing electrolytes and carbohydrates can provide benefits over water alone under certain circumstances. After exercise, the goal is to replace any fluid electrolyte deficit. The speed with which rehydration is needed and the magnitude of fluid electrolyte deficits will determine if an aggressive replacement program is merited.
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Recently, post-exercise blood pressure (BP) has been considered a predictive tool to identify individuals who are responsive or not to BP reductions with exercise training (i.e., “high” and “low responders”). This study aimed to analyze the inter- and intra-individual BP responsiveness following a single bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and continuous exercise (CE) in normotensive men (n=14; 24.5±4.2 years). Mean change in BP during the 60 minute period post-exercise was analyzed and minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated to classify the subjects as “low” (no post-exercise hypotension [PEH]) and “high responders” (PEH occurrence) following each exercise protocol (interindividual analysis). The MDC for systolic and diastolic BP was 5.8 and 7.0 mmHg. In addition, a difference equal/higher than MDC between the exercise protocols was used to define an occurrence of intra-individual variability in BP responsiveness. There were “low” and “high” PEH responders following both exercise protocols (inter-individual variability) as well as subjects who presented higher PEH following a specific exercise protocol (intra-individual variability between exercise protocols). These results were observed mainly for systolic BP. In summary, PEH is a heterogeneous physiological phenomenon and, for some subjects, seems to be exercise-protocol dependent. Further investigations are necessary to confirm our preliminary findings.
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Background: For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), substrate oxidation rates and lipid metabolism in the hours following exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Following an overnight fast, ten T2D subjects (M/F: 7/3; age=60.3±2.3years; body mass index (BMI)=28.3±1.1kg/m(2)) completed three 60-min interventions in a counterbalanced, randomized order: 1) control (CON), 2) continuous walking (CW), 3) interval-walking (IW - repeated cycles of 3min of fast and 3min of slow walking). Indirect calorimetry was applied during each intervention and repeatedly for 30min per hour during the following 5h. A liquid mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT, 450kcal) was consumed by the subjects 45min after completion of the intervention with blood samples taken regularly. Results: Exercise interventions were successfully matched for total oxygen consumption (CW=1641±133mL/min; IW=1634±126mL/min, P>0.05). EPOC was higher after IW (8.4±1.3l) compared to CW (3.7±1.4l, P<0.05). Lipid oxidation rates were increased during the MMTT in IW (1.03±0.12mg/kg per min) and CW (0.87±0.04mg/kg per min) compared with CON (0.73±0.04mg/kg per min, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), with no difference between IW and CW. Moreover, free fatty acids and glycerol concentrations, and glycerol kinetics were increased comparably during and after IW and CW compared to CON. Conclusions: Interval exercise results in greater EPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas effects on substrate oxidation and lipid metabolism are comparable.
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The age-specific relevance of blood pressure to cause-specific mortality is best assessed by collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from the separate prospective studies. Methods Information was obtained on each of one million adults with no previous vascular disease recorded at baseline in 61 prospective observational studies of blood pressure and mortality. During 12.7 million person-years at risk, there were about 56 000 vascular deaths (12 000 stroke, 34000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 10000 other vascular) and 66 000 other deaths at ages 40-89 years. Meta-analyses, involving "time-dependent" correction for regression dilution, related mortality during each decade of age at death to the estimated usual blood pressure at the start of that decade. Findings Within each decade of age at death, the proportional difference in the risk of vascular death associated with a given absolute difference in usual blood pressure is about the same down to at least 115 mm Hg usual systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 75 mm Hg usual diastolic blood pressure (DBP), below which there is little evidence. At ages 40-69 years, each difference of 20 mm Hg usual SBP (or, approximately equivalently, 10 mm Hg usual DBP) is associated with more than a twofold difference in the stroke death rate, and with twofold differences in the death rates from IHD and from other vascular causes. All of these proportional differences in vascular mortality are about half as extreme at ages 80-89 years as at,ages 40-49 years, but the annual absolute differences in risk are greater in old age. The age-specific associations are similar for men and women, and for cerebral haemorrhage and cerebral ischaemia. For predicting vascular mortality from a single blood pressure measurement, the average of SBP and DBP is slightly more informative than either alone, and pulse pressure is much less informative. Interpretation Throughout middle and old age, usual blood pressure is strongly and directly related to vascular (and overall) mortality, without any evidence of a threshold down to at least 115/75 mm Hg.
Article
This study investigated which exercise mode (continuous or sprint interval) is more effective for improving insulin sensitivity. Ten young, healthy men underwent a non-exercise trial (CON) and 3 exercise trials in a cross-over, randomized design that included 1 sprint interval exercise trial (SIE; 4 all-out 30-s sprints) and 2 continuous exercise trials at 46% VO2peak (CELOW) and 77% VO2peak (CEHIGH). Insulin sensitivity was assessed using intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) 30 min, 24 h and 48 h post-exercise. Energy expenditure was measured during exercise. Glycogen in vastus lateralis was measured once in a resting condition (CON) and immediately post-exercise in all trials. Plasma lipids were measured before each IVGTT. Only after CEHIGH did muscle glycogen concentration fall below CON (P<0.01). All exercise treatments improved insulin sensitivity compared with CON, and this effect persisted for 48-h. However, 30-min post-exercise, insulin sensitivity was higher in SIE than in CELOW and CEHIGH (11.5±4.6, 8.6±5.4, and 8.1±2.9 respectively; P<0.05). Insulin sensitivity did not correlate with energy expenditure, glycogen content, or plasma fatty acids concentration (P>0.05). After a single exercise bout, SIE acutely improves insulin sensitivity above continuous exercise. The higher post-exercise hyperinsulinemia and the inhibition of lipolysis could be behind the marked insulin sensitivity improvement after SIE.
Article
Introduction: Obesity is thought to exert detrimental effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, this relationship is impacted by the co-occurrence of CV risk factors, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and overt disease. We examined the relationships between obesity, assessed by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and CV function in 102 subjects without overt CV disease. We hypothesized that obesity would be independently predictive of CV remodeling and functional differences, especially at peak exercise. Methods: Brachial (bSBP) and central (cSBP) systolic pressure, carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) augmentation index (AGI; by SphygmoCor), and carotid remodeling (B-mode ultrasound) were examined at rest. Further, peak exercise cardiac imaging (Doppler ultrasound) was performed to measure the coupling between the heart and arterial system. Results: In backward elimination regression models, accounting for CV risk factors, neither BMI nor WC were predictors of carotid thickness or PWVcf; rather age, triglycerides and hypertension were the main determinants. However, BMI and WC predicted carotid cross-sectional area and lumen diameter. When examining the relationship between body size and SBP, BMI (β=0.32) and WC (β=0.25) were predictors of bSBP (P<0.05), whereas, BMI was the only predictor of cSBP (β=0.22, P<0.05) indicating a differential relationship between cSBP, bSBP and body size. Further, BMI (β=-0.26) and WC (β=-0.27) were independent predictors of AGI (P<0.05). As for resting cardiac diastolic function, WC seemed to be a better predictor than BMI. However, both BMI and WC were inversely and independently related to arterial-elastance (net arterial load) and end-systolic elastance (cardiac contractility) at rest and peak exercise. Conclusion: These findings illustrate that obesity, without T2DM and overt CV disease, and after accounting for CV risk factors, is susceptible to pathophysiological adaptations that may predispose individuals to an increased risk of CV events.
Article
Controversy exists as to whether aerobic exercise training decreases arterial stiffness in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantify the effect of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffness in obese populations. MEDLINE, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched up until May 2013 for trials assessing the effect of aerobic training interventions lasting 8 weeks or more on arterial stiffness in obese populations (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)). Standardized mean difference (SMD) in arterial stiffness parameters (augmentation index, β-stiffness, distensibility, pulse wave velocity, arterial waveforms) was calculated using a random-effects model. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were used to study potential moderating factors. Eight trials, comprising a total of 235 subjects with an age range of 49-70 years, met the inclusion criteria. Arterial stiffness was not significantly reduced by aerobic training (SMD -0.17; 95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.39, 0.06, P = 0.14). Similarly, post-intervention arterial stiffness was similar between the aerobic-trained and control obese groups (SMD 0.02; 95 % CI -0.28, 0.32, P = 0.88). Neither heterogeneity nor publication bias were detected in these analyses. In subgroup analyses, arterial stiffness was significantly reduced in aerobic-trained subgroups having below median values in post- minus pre-intervention systolic blood pressure (SBP) (P < 0.01), exercise intensity rating score (P < 0.01), and methodological quality score (P < 0.01). Equivalent results were obtained in meta-regression analyses. Based on current published trials, arterial stiffness is generally not reduced in middle-aged and older obese populations in response to aerobic training. However, in studies using low-intensity aerobic training and yielding a decrease in SBP, arterial stiffness may decrease. Long-term studies are needed to assess the prognostic value of these findings.
Article
Background and Aims Exercise training can improve health of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, which MetS factors are most responsive to exercise training remains unclear. We studied the time-course of changes in MetS factors in response to training and detraining. Methods and Results Forty eight MetS patients (52±8.8 yrs old; 33±4 BMI) underwent 4 months (3 days/week) of supervised aerobic interval training (AIT) program. After 1 month of training, there were progressive increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and reductions in waist circumference and blood pressure (12±3%, -3.9±0.4, and -12±1, respectively after 4 months; all P<0.05). However, fasting plasma concentration of triglycerides and glucose were not reduced by training. Insulin sensitivity (HOMA), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and exercise maximal fat oxidation (FOMAX) also progressively improved with training (-17±5; 21±2 and 31±8%, respectively, after 4 months; all P<0.05). Vastus lateralis samples from seven subjects revealed that mitochondrial O2 flux was markedly increased with training (71±11%) due to increased mitochondrial content. After 1 month of detraining, the training-induced improvements in waist circumference and blood pressure were maintained. HDL-c and VO2peak returned to the values found after 1-2 months of training while HOMA and FOMAX returned to pre-training values. Conclusions The health related variables most responsive to aerobic interval training in MetS patients are waist circumference, blood pressure and the muscle and systemic adaptations to consume oxygen and fat. However, the latter reverse with detraining while blood pressure and waist circumference are persistent to one month of detraining.
Article
In this secondary analysis of the Weight Loss Maintenance trial, the authors assessed the relationship between blood pressure (BP) change and weight change in overweight and obese adults with hypertension and/or dyslipidemia who were randomized to 1 of 3 weight loss maintenance strategies for 5 years. The participants were grouped (N=741) based on weight change from randomization to 60 months as: (1) weight loss, (2) weight stable, or (3) weight gain. A significant positive correlation between weight change and systolic BP (SBP) change at 12, 30, and 60 months and between weight change and diastolic BP (DBP) change at 30 months was observed. From randomization to 60 months, mean SBP increased to a similar degree for the weight gain group (4.2±standard error=0.6 mm Hg; P<.001) and weight stable group (4.6±1.1 mm Hg; P<.001), but SBP did not rise in the weight loss group (1.0±1.7 mm Hg, P=.53). DBP was unchanged for all groups at 60 months. Although aging may have contributed to rise in BP at 60 months, it does not appear to fully account for observed BP changes. These results suggest that continued modest weight loss may be sufficient for long-term BP lowering.
Article
To characterize the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its five components and their pharmacological treatment in US adults by gender and race over time. MetS is a constellation of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease, stroke, kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prevalence estimates were estimated in adults (≥20 years) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999-2010 (in 2-year survey waves). The biological thresholds, defined by the 2009 Joint Scientific Statement, were: (1) waist circumference ≥ 102 cm (males), and≥ 88 cm (females) (2) fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl (3) blood pressure of ≥130/85 mm Hg (4) triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl (5) high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dl (males) and <50 mg/dl (females). Prescription drug use was estimated for lipid-modifying agents, anti-hypertensives, and anti-hyperglycemic medications. From 1999/2000 to 2009/10, the age-adjusted prevalence of MetS (based on biologic thresholds) decreased from 25.5% (95%CI: 22.5-28.6) to 22.9% (20.3-25.5). During this period, hypertriglyceridemia prevalence decreased (33.5% to 24.3%), as did elevated blood pressure (32.3% to 24.0%). The prevalence of hyperglycemia increased (12.9% to 19.9%), as did elevated waist circumference (45.4% to 56.1%). These trends varied considerably by gender and race/ethnicity groups. Decreases in elevated blood pressure, suboptimal triglycerides and HDL-C prevalence have corresponded with increases in anti-hypertensive and lipid-modifying drugs, respectively. The increasing prevalence of abdominal obesity, particularly among females, highlights the urgency of addressing abdominal obesity as a healthcare priority. The use of therapies for MetS components aligns with favorable trends in their prevalence.
Article
A single bout of aerobic exercise produces a post-exercise hypotension associated with a sustained post-exercise vasodilation of the previously exercised muscle. Work over the last few years has determined key pathways for the obligatory components of post-exercise hypotension and sustained post-exercise vasodilation and points the way to possible benefits that may result from these robust responses. During the exercise recovery period, the combination of centrally mediated decreases in sympathetic nerve activity, in addition to a reduced signal transduction from sympathetic nerve activation into vasoconstriction, and local vasodilator mechanisms contribute to the fall in arterial blood pressure seen after exercise. Important findings from recent studies include the recognition that 1) skeletal muscle afferents may play a primary role in post-exercise resetting of the baroreflex via discrete receptor changes within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), and 2) sustained post-exercise vasodilation of the previously active skeletal muscle is primarily the result of histamine H1- and H2-receptor activation. Future research directions include further exploration of the potential benefits of these changes in the longer term adaptations associated with exercise training, as well as investigation of how the recovery from exercise may provide windows of opportunity for targeted interventions in patients with hypertension and diabetes.
Article
Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.
Article
Exercise training is a clinically proven, cost-effective, primary intervention that delays and in many cases prevents the health burdens associated with many chronic diseases. However, the precise type and dose of exercise needed to accrue health benefits is a contentious issue with no clear consensus recommendations for the prevention of inactivity-related disorders and chronic diseases. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that high-intensity interval training (HIT) can serve as an effective alternate to traditional endurance-based training, inducing similar or even superior physiological adaptations in healthy individuals and diseased populations, at least when compared on a matched-work basis. While less well studied, low-volume HIT can also stimulate physiological remodelling comparable to moderate-intensity continuous training despite a substantially lower time commitment and reduced total exercise volume. Such findings are important given that 'lack of time' remains the most commonly cited barrier to regular exercise participation. Here we review some of the mechanisms responsible for improved skeletal muscle metabolic control and changes in cardiovascular function in response to low-volume HIT. We also consider the limited evidence regarding the potential application of HIT to people with, or at risk for, cardiometabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes. Finally, we provide insight on the utility of low-volume HIT for improving performance in athletes and highlight suggestions for future research.
Article
Evidence contends lower levels of physical exertion reduce blood pressure (BP) as effectively as more rigorous levels. We compared the effects of low (40% peak oxygen consumption, Vo(2)peak), moderate (60% Vo(2)peak), and vigorous (100% Vo(2)peak) exercise intensity on the BP response immediately following aerobic exercise. We also examined clinical correlates of the BP response. Subjects were 45 men (mean +/- SEM, 43.9 +/- 1.4 years) with elevated awake ambulatory BP (ABP, 144.5 +/- 1.5/85.4 +/- 1.2 mm Hg). Men completed four randomly assigned experiments: non-exercise control and three exercise bouts at low, moderate, and vigorous intensity. All experiments began with a baseline period of seated rest. Subjects left the laboratory wearing an ABP monitor. Systolic ABP increased 2.8 +/- 1.6 mm Hg less after low, 5.4 +/- 1.4 mm Hg less after moderate, and 11.7 +/- 1.5 mm Hg less after vigorous than control over 9 h (P < .001). Diastolic ABP decreased 1.5 +/- 1.2 mm Hg more after low, 2.0 +/- 1.0 mm Hg more after moderate, and 4.9 +/- 1.3 mm Hg more after vigorous versus control over 9 h (P < .010). Baseline correlates of the systolic ABP post-exercise response to vigorous were fasting glucose (r = -0.415), C-reactive protein (r = -0.362), renin (r = -0.348), fasting insulin (r = 0.310), and fasting low density lipoprotein (r = -0.298) (R(2) = 0.400, P = .002). Baseline correlates of the diastolic ABP post-exercise response to vigorous were Vo(2)peak (r = -0.431), fasting low density lipoprotein (r = -0.431), renin (r = -0.411), fibrinogen (r = 0.369), and fasting glucose (r = -0.326) (R(2) = 0.429, P < .001). The antihypertensive effects of exercise intensity occurred in dose response fashion. Clinicians should weigh the benefits and risks of prescribing vigorous exercise intensity for those with hypertension on an individual basis.
Article
A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.
Article
It has been reported that endurance exercise-trained men have decreases in cardiac output with no change in systemic vascular conductance during post-exercise hypotension, which differs from sedentary and normally active populations. As inadequate hydration may explain these differences, we tested the hypothesis that fluid replacement prevents this post-exercise fall in cardiac output, and further, exercise in a warm environment would cause greater decreases in cardiac output. We studied 14 trained men (VO2,peak 4.66 +/- 0.62 l min(-1)) before and to 90 min after cycling at 60% VO2,peak for 60 min under three conditions: Control (no water was consumed during exercise in a thermoneutral environment), Fluid (water was consumed to match sweat loss during exercise in a thermoneutral environment) and Warm (no water was consumed during exercise in a warm environment). Arterial pressure and cardiac output were measured pre- and post-exercise in a thermoneutral environment. The fall in mean arterial pressure following exercise was not different between conditions (P = 0.453). Higher post-exercise cardiac output (Delta 0.41 +/- 0.17 l min(-1); P = 0.027), systemic vascular conductance (Delta 6.0 +/- 2.2 ml min(-1) mmHg(-1); P = 0.001) and stroke volume (Delta 9.1 +/- 2.1 ml beat(-1); P < 0.001) were seen in Fluid compared to Control, but there was no difference between Fluid and Warm (all P > 0.05). These data suggest that fluid replacement mitigates the post-exercise decrease in cardiac output in endurance-exercise trained men. Surprisingly, exercise in a warm environment also mitigates the post-exercise fall in cardiac output.
Article
In the nationwide Community Hypertension Evaluation Clinic screening of more than 1 million people, the group classifying itself as overweight had prevalence rates of hypertension 50% to 300% higher than other screenees. Frequency of hypertension in overweight persons aged 20 to 39 years was double that of normal weight and triple that of underweight persons. Among those aged 40 to 64 years, the overweight group had a 50% higher hypertension prevalence rate than the normal-weight group and 100% higher than the underweight group. With each higher degree of blood pressure elevation, relative frequency of hypertension with overweight was larger. Thus this study confirms, in the largest group surveyed to date, similar findings in previous cross-sectional surveys. It is also consistent with data from longitudinal and intervention studies on the importance of overweight in relation to hypertension. (JAMA 240:1607-1610, 1978)
Article
b 1. The relation between workload and the antihypertensive effect of exercise therapy in hypertensive patients, and the mechanism of that effect, were investigated. 2. Twenty-six patients participated in the study and were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either low or high workload exercise. In the low workload group, 16 mild hypertensive patients were treated with bicycle ergometer exercise at approximately 50% of their maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) for 60 min three times a week for 10 weeks. In the high workload group, 10 mild hypertensive patients exercised on the same schedule, but at approximately 75% of V̇O2max. 3. After 10 weeks of exercise, the low workload group had significantly lower systolic (9 mmHg), mean (6 mmHg) and diastolic (6 mmHg) blood pressures. In the high workload group, decreases in systolic (3 mmHg), mean (4 mmHg) and diastolic (5 mmHg) blood pressure were not statistically significant. 4. In the low workload group, changes in haemodynamic and humoral variables were not significant, except for a reduction in plasma norepinephrine at week 7. Cardiac index and plasma norepinephrine tended to decrease. In the high workload group, plasma norepinephrine and the renin-angiotensin system were transiently stimulated after 4 weeks of exercise. Stroke volume significantly increased (+26.4%) after 10 weeks of high workload exercise. 5. Based on these results and better patient compliance with the exercise programme in the low workload group than in the high workload group, low workload exercise therapy was recommended to mild hypertensive patients.
Article
This study sought to determine whether 9 months of low- or moderate-intensity exercise training could decrease blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive men and women (mean age 64 +/- 3 years). Patients underwent weekly BP evaluations for 1 month to ensure that they had persistently elevated BP and then completed a maximal treadmill exercise test to exclude those with overt coronary artery disease. The low- and moderate-intensity groups trained at 53 and 73% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), respectively; however, total caloric expenditure per week was similar in both groups. VO2 max did not increase in the low-intensity group with training, but increased 28% in the moderate-intensity group. Diastolic BP decreased 11 to 12 mm Hg in both training groups. Systolic BP decreased 20 mm Hg in the low-intensity group with training, which was significantly greater than the change in the control and the moderate-intensity groups. Although systolic BP decreased 8 mm Hg in the moderate-intensity training group, this reduction was not significant. Training resulted in a somewhat lower cardiac output at rest in the low-intensity group, whereas total peripheral resistance decreased slightly in the moderate-intensity training group. Plasma and blood volumes, plasma renin levels and urinary sodium excretion did not change in either group with training. Both groups manifested lower plasma norepinephrine levels after training during standing rest, but not while supine. Thus, low-intensity training may lower BP as much or more than moderate-intensity training in older persons with essential hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear.
Article
Recently, systolic and diastolic blood pressure have been reported to be significantly lower for several hours after exercise than when measured at rest before exercise in individuals with essential hypertension. We sought to determine the hemodynamic mechanism underlying this reduction in blood pressure. Twenty-four men and women 60-69 yr of age with persistent essential hypertension completed one of the following protocols: exercise at 50% of maximum O2 consumption (VO2 max) followed by 1 h of recovery, exercise at 70% of VO2 max followed by 3 h of recovery, or a 4-h control study. Systolic pressure was significantly lower during recovery after both intensities of exercise, but diastolic pressure was unchanged. The lower blood pressure was primarily due to a reduction in cardiac output, since total peripheral resistance was increased throughout both recovery periods. Cardiac output was reduced in recovery because of a reduction in stroke volume. Heart rate was above, or no different from, that at rest before exercise. Changes in plasma volume could not entirely account for the reduction in stroke volume. Therefore, other mechanisms altering venous return and/or myocardial contractility appear to be responsible for the reduction in systolic blood pressure evident after a single bout of submaximal exercise in individuals with essential hypertension.
Article
Numerous sources of information in both the medical and exercise physiology areas state that exercise training lowers blood pressure at rest and during submaximal exercise in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. Based on these statements, the medical community is currently recommending regular exercise as a non-pharmacological therapy for reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients. The purpose of this review was to assess the existing literature in this area to determine whether a basis exists for this recommendation. Our findings indicate that most of the studies reviewed reported modest reductions in blood pressure (means less than or equal to 10 mmHg) at rest and during submaximal exercise after training. However, even the modest reductions in blood pressure reported in these studies must be interpreted with caution because of numerous methodological shortcomings and inadequate study design, most notably the omission of non-exercising hypertensive control groups. Therefore, the evidence available at the present time is inadequate to recommend exercise training as a non-pharmacological therapy in hypertension.
Article
1. It is known that acute exercise is often followed by a reduction in arterial blood pressure. Little is known about the time course of the recovery of the blood pressure or the influence of the intensity of the exercise on this response. Controversy exists, in particular, concerning the changes in peripheral resistance that occur during this period. 2. Eight normal volunteers performed, in random order on separate days, voluntary upright bicycle exercise of three different intensities (maximal, moderate and minimal load) and, on another day, a control period of sitting on a bicycle. They were monitored for 60 min after each test. 3. Diastolic pressure fell after maximal exercise at 5 min (-15.45 mmHg) and 60 min (-9.45 mmHg), compared with the control day. Systolic and mean pressure also fell (non-significantly) after 45 min; heart rate was significantly elevated for the whole hour of recovery (at 60 min, +7.23 beats min-1). No changes in post-exercise blood pressure and heart rate were observed on the days of moderate and minimal exercises. 4. An increase in cardiac index was observed after maximal exercise compared with control (at 60 min, 2.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.2 l min-1 m-2). This was entirely accounted for by the persistent increase in heart rate, with no significant alteration in stroke volume after exercise on any day.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Recent investigations have demonstrated that there is a sustained reduction in arterial blood pressure after a single bout of exercise, ie, postexercise hypotension (PEH). The purpose of this discussion is to integrate the available information on this topic and to review studies using sustained stimulation of somatic afferents in experimental rats as a model to study the role of somatic afferents in PEH. PEH occurs in response to several types of large-muscle dynamic exercise (ie, walking, running, leg cycling, and swimming) at submaximal intensities greater than 40% of peak aerobic capacity and exercise durations generally between 20 and 60 minutes. PEH is observed in both normotensive and hypertensive humans and in spontaneously hypertensive rats but is generally greater in magnitude in hypertensive subjects. The maximal exercise-induced reductions in systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressures have been on average 18 to 20 and 7 to 9 mm Hg, respectively, in hypertensive humans and 8 to 10 and 3 to 5 mm Hg, respectively, in normotensive humans. PEH has been reported to persist for 2 to 4 hours under laboratory conditions. Whether PEH is sustained for a prolonged period of time under free-living conditions remains controversial, although the results of one study indicate that PEH can persist for up to 13 hours. Possible mechanisms involved in mediating postexercise and poststimulation reductions in arterial blood pressure include decreased stroke volume and cardiac output; reductions in limb vascular resistance, total peripheral resistance, and muscle sympathetic nerve discharge; group III somatic afferent activation; altered baroreceptor reflex circulatory control; reduced vascular responsiveness to alpha-adrenergic receptor-mediated stimulation; and activation of endogenous opioid and serotonergic systems. It appears that the magnitude of PEH in hypertensive subjects is clinically significant; however, more investigation is required to determine if the duration is sufficient under real-life conditions to contribute to the reduction in blood pressure observed with chronic exercise conditioning.
Article
We analyzed nitrate, a major stable end product of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism in vivo in plasma and urine from groups of healthy subjects with different working capacities. Resting plasma nitrate was higher in athletic subjects than in nonathletic controls [45 +/- 2 vs. 34 +/- 2 (SE) microM; P < 0.01]. In other subjects, both the resting plasma nitrate level (r = 0.53; P < 0.01) and the urinary excretion of nitrate at rest (r = 0.46; P < 0.01) correlated to the subjects' peak work rates, as determined by bicycle ergometry. Two hours of physical exercise elevated plasma nitrate by 18 +/- 4 (P < 0.01) and 16 +/- 6% (P < 0.01), respectively, in athletes and nonathletes, compared with resting nitrate before exercise. We conclude that physical fitness and formation of NO at rest are positively linked to each other. Furthermore, a single session of exercise elicits an acute elevation of NO formation. The observed positive relation between physical exercise and NO formation may help to explain the beneficial effects of physical exercise on cardiovascular health.
Article
Ten normotensive, recreationally active participants aged 35.0 +/- 16.3 years, volunteered to participate in the study. Average baseline blood pressure (BP) was 132/75 mm Hg for systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) pressure respectively. On two separate days, participants underwent testing in a randomised, repeated measures fashion such that they performed 30-min bouts of cycle ergometry at a power output which elicited 50 or 75% of VO2 Peak. Blood pressure was monitored continuously throughout the session by the Finapres method with 2-min windows recorded at rest, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min post exercise. SBP was similar between the two trials and became hypotensive at 5 through 15 min post exercise. The largest decrement (8 mm Hg) in SBP occurred 5 min post exercise. DBP was also unaffected by the intensity of exercise and was lower than before exercise at 5 and 15 through 45 min post exercise. Similarly, mean arterial pressure (MAP) showed significant decrements at 5 and 15 through 45 min post exercise irrespective of exercise intensity. Heart rate was greater during the 75% intensity than during the 50% intensity trial. Pre-exercise values were re-established by 45 min post exercise. VO2 remained significantly elevated above pre-exercise values in both trials until 15 min post exercise. Haematocrit increased significantly during both exercise bouts but returned to pre-exercise values by 10 min post exercise. This study indicates that cycle ergometry at 50 and 75% of VO2 Peak elicit similar reductions in post exercise BP. Therefore bouts of mild to moderate intensity exercise may be beneficial in the control of hypertension.
Article
An acute bout of aerobic exercise results in a reduced blood pressure that lasts several hours. Animal studies suggest this response is mediated by increased production of nitric oxide. We tested the extent to which systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition [N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA)] can reverse the drop in blood pressure that occurs after exercise in humans. Eight healthy subjects underwent parallel experiments on 2 separate days. The order of the experiments was randomized between sham (60 min of seated upright rest) and exercise (60 min of upright cycling at 60% peak aerobic capacity). After both sham and exercise, subjects received, in sequence, systemic alpha-adrenergic blockade (phentolamine) and L-NMMA. Phentolamine was given first to isolate the contribution of nitric oxide to postexercise hypotension by preventing reflex changes in sympathetic tone that result from systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition and to control for alterations in resting sympathetic activity after exercise. During each condition, systemic and regional hemodynamics were measured. Throughout the study, arterial pressure and vascular resistances remained lower postexercise vs. postsham despite nitric oxide synthase inhibition (e.g., mean arterial pressure after L-NMMA was 108.0+/-2.4 mmHg postsham vs. 102.1+/-3.3 mmHg postexercise; P<0.05). Thus it does not appear that postexercise hypotension is dependent on increased production of nitric oxide in humans.
Article
Post-exercise hypotension is common after moderate-intensity dynamic exercise. It results from persistent reductions in vascular resistance mediated by the autonomic nervous system and vasodilator substances. These effects appear more pronounced and last longer in hypertensive individuals. Post-exercise hypotension may also play an important role in plasma volume recovery after exercise.
Article
There is strong and consistent evidence that a single exercise session can acutely reduce triglycerides and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C), reduce blood pressure, and improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Such observations suggest that at least some of the effects on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk factors attributed to exercise training may be the result of recent exercise. These acute and chronic exercise effects cannot be considered in isolation. Exercise training increases the capacity for exercise, thereby permitting more vigorous and/or more prolonged individual exercise sessions and a more significant acute effect. The intensity, duration, and energy expenditure required to produce these acute exercise effects are not clearly defined. The acute effect of exercise on triglycerides and HDL-C appears to increase with overall energy expenditure possibly because the effect maybe mediated by reductions in intramuscular triglycerides. Prolonged exercise appears necessary for an acute effect of exercise on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. The acute effect of exercise on blood pressure is a low threshold phenomenon and has been observed after energy expenditures requiring only 40% maximal capacity. The acute effect of exercise on glucose metabolism appears to require exercise near 70% maximal, but this issue has not been carefully examined. Exercise has definite acute effects on blood lipids, blood pressure, and glucose homeostasis. Exercise also has acute effects on other factors related to atherosclerosis such as immunological function, vascular reactivity, and hemostasis. Considerable additional research is required to define the threshold of exercise required to produce these putatively beneficial effects.
Article
Post exercise hypotension (PEH) is a phenomenon of a prolonged decrease in resting blood pressure in the minutes and hours following acute exercise. Knowledge of PEH is potentially useful in designing first line strategies against hypertension as well as allowing a further understanding of blood pressure regulation in both health and disease. Following a brief review of blood pressure responses to exercise, this paper will provide a current and comprehensive summary of PEH and integrate the current state of knowledge surrounding it.
Article
In sedentary individuals, postexercise hypotension after a single bout of aerobic exercise is due to a peripheral vasodilation. Endurance exercise training has the potential to modify this response and perhaps reduce the degree of postexercise hypotension. We tested the hypothesis that endurance exercise-trained men and women would have blunted postexercise hypotension compared with sedentary subjects but that the mechanism of hypotension would be similar (i.e., vasodilation). We studied 16 endurance-trained and 16 sedentary men and women. Arterial pressure, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were determined before and after a single 60-min bout of exercise at 60% peak oxygen consumption. All groups exhibited a similar degree of postexercise hypotension (approximately 4-5 mmHg; P < 0.05 vs. preexercise). In sedentary men and women, hypotension was the result of vasodilation (Deltaresistance: -8.9 +/- 2.2%). In endurance-trained women, hypotension was also the result of vasodilation (-8.1 +/- 4.1%). However, in endurance-trained men, hypotension was the result of a reduced cardiac output (-5.2 +/- 2.4%; P < 0.05 vs. all others) and vasodilation was absent (-0.7 +/- 3.3%; P < 0.05 vs. all others). Thus we conclude the magnitude of postexercise hypotension is similar in sedentary and endurance-trained men and women but that endurance-trained men and women achieve this fall in pressure via different mechanisms.
Article
Individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MS), a clustering of risk factors [triglycerides, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure (BP), abdominal obesity] defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), are at high risk for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and may benefit from aggressive lifestyle modification. We reviewed 1 year of consecutive patients' charts to determine the prevalence of the MS in obese individuals enrolled in a medically supervised rapid weight loss programme, the correlation of weight change with the components of the MS, and response to diet-induced weight loss. Out of 185 individuals, 125 (68%) met the NCEP definition of the MS. A moderate decrease in weight (6.5%) induced by a very low calorie diet (VLCD) resulted in substantial reductions of systolic (11.1 mmHg) and diastolic (5.8 mmHg) blood pressure (BP), glucose (17 mg/dl), triglycerides (94 mg/dl) and total cholesterol (37 mg/dl) at 4 weeks (all p < 0.001). These improvements were sustained at the end of active weight loss (average 16.7 weeks; total weight loss 15.1%), with further significant reductions in BP and triglycerides. Weight loss was related to the changes in each criterion of the metabolic syndrome. The MS is prevalent in two-thirds of obese individuals enrolling in a structured weight loss programme. Moderate weight loss with a VLCD markedly improved all aspects of the MS.
Article
After an acute bout of exercise, there is an unexplained elevation in systemic vascular conductance that is not completely offset by an increase in cardiac output, resulting in a postexercise hypotension. The contributions of the splanchnic and renal circulations are examined in a companion paper (Pricher MP, Holowatz LA, Williams JT, Lockwood JM, and Halliwill JR. J Appl Physiol 97: 2065-2070, 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the cutaneous circulation in postexercise hypotension under thermoneutral conditions (∼23°C). Arterial blood pressure was measured via an automated sphygmomanometer, internal temperature was measured via an ingestible pill, and skin temperature was measured with eight thermocouples. Red blood cell flux (laser-Doppler flowmetry) was monitored at four skin sites (chest, forearm, thigh, and leg), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated (red blood cell flux/mean arterial pressure) and scaled as percent maximal CVC (local heating to 43°C). Ten subjects [6 men and 4 women; age 23 ± 1 yr; peak O2 uptake (Vo2 peak) 45.8 ± 2.0 ml·kg-1·min-1] volunteered for this study. After supine rest (30 min), subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer for 1 h at 60% of their Vo2 peak and were then positioned supine for 90 min. Exercise elicited a postexercise hypotension reaching a nadir at 46.0 ± 4.5 min postexercise (77 ± 1 vs. 82 ± 2 mmHg preexercise; P < 0.05). Internal temperature increased (38.0 ± 0.1 vs. 36.7 ± 0.1°C preexercise; P < 0.05), remaining elevated at 90 min postexercise (36.9 ± 0.1°C vs. preexercise; P < 0.05). CVC at all four skin sites was elevated by the exercise bout (P < 0.05), returning to preexercise values within 50 min postexercise (P > 0.05). Therefore, although transient changes in CVC occur postexercise, they do not appear to play an obligatory role in mediating postexercise hypotension under thermoneutral conditions.
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We examined the single and combined effects of a 1-year diet and exercise intervention on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) metabolic syndrome among middle-aged males. The study was a randomized, controlled, 2 x 2 factorial intervention study. Participants included 137 men with metabolic syndrome according to the IDF criteria aged 40-49 years randomly allocated to four intervention groups: diet alone (n=34), exercise alone (n=34), the combination of the diet and exercise intervention (n=43) or control (n=26). The main outcome measure was metabolic syndrome as defined by IDF criteria (2005). In the combined diet and exercise group, 14 participants (32.6%) (P<0.0001 as compared with control) had the metabolic syndrome after 1-year intervention. In the diet-only group, 22 participants (64.7%) (P=0.023 vs control) and in the exercise-only group 26 participants (76.5%) (P=0.23 vs control) had the metabolic syndrome following the intervention. Utilizing the factorial design, both dietary and exercise intervention had significant effects (P<0.005) on the resolution of the metabolic syndrome. Both exercise and dietary intervention reduced metabolic syndrome prevalence compared with control after 1 year of intervention. However, the combined diet and exercise intervention was significantly more effective than diet or exercise alone in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.