Book

Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior

Authors:
  • Australian Catholic University North Sydney

Abstract

I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.

Chapters (11)

The study of motivation is the exploration of the energization and direction of behavior. Psychological theories are motivational theories only insofar as they address these two aspects of behavior.
The human organism is inherently active, and there is perhaps no place. where this is more evident than in little children. They pick things up, shake them, smell them, taste them, throw them across the room, and keep asking, “What’s this?” They are unendingly curious, and they want to see the effects of their actions. Children are intrinsically motivated to learn, to undertake challenges, and to solve problems. Adults are also intrinsically motivated to do a variety of things. They spend large amounts of time painting pictures, building furniture, playing sports, whittling wood, climbing mountains, and doing countless other things for which there are no obvious or appreciable external rewards. The rewards are inherent in the activity, and even though there may be secondary gains, the primary motivators are the spontaneous, internal experiences that accompany the behavior.
Intrinsic motivation is the innate, natural propensity to engage one’s interests and exercise one’s capacities, and in so doing, to seek and conquer optimal challenges. Such motivation emerges spontaneously from internal tendencies and can motivate behavior even without the aid of extrinsic rewards or environmental controls. Intrinsic motivation is also an important motivator of the learning, adaptation, and growth in competencies that characterize human development. One would think from this description that intrinsic motivation is a ubiquitous phenomenon, and yet the examination of many settings suggests just the opposite. In factories and classrooms, offices and kitchens, one finds evidence of boredom, alienation, and inactivity. There appears to be a strong indication that people are prone to disinterest and stagnation.
The convergence of results reported in the last chapter represents an important step in understanding the impact of external events on people’s motivational processes. The research reviewed in that chapter focused primarily on the events themselves, the presence or absence of surveillance and the nature of the reward structure, for example, and explored their average effects on people’s motivation and on related variables. According to cognitive evaluation theory, however, the impact of an event on motivational processes is determined, not by the objective characteristics of the event, but rather by its psychological meaning for the individual. The perceived locus of causality and perceived competence are descriptors of a person’s experience with regard to a behavior, rather than a property of the environment. They reflect the individual’s organization of reality. Similarly, whether an event will be interpreted as informational, controlling, or amotivating is an issue of the relative salience of these aspects to the perceiver, and is affected by his or her sensitivities, background, agendas, as well as by the actual configuration of the event. In short, environmental events are affordances that are used by the perceiver in the internal construction of motivationally relevant inputs.
Organismic theories in psychology are constructed around two core notions: that behavior is regulated in part by internal structures that are elaborated through experience; and that human beings are by nature active. There is no place where these assumptions are more critical than in the area of development, for as we will see they are essential to an understanding of the ubiquitous phenomenon of children working eagerly and continually to master their internal and external environments.
Throughout the book, we have made varied references to three broad classes of behaviors and motivationally relevant psychological processes, generally referring to them as self-determined, control-determined, and amotivational.
Early in this century, American psychology rallied around the study of overt behavior, as had been suggested by Thorndike (1913) and Watson (1913). This perspective, which had its roots in the philosophy of logical positivism, demanded the use of operational definitions that were specified in terms of overt, observable behaviors. The most influential spokesperson for this position was undoubtedly Skinner (e.g., 1938), who proposed and elaborated an operant theory of behavior. Although the perspective is no longer as central to empirical psychology as it once was, there are still a number of psychologists who subscribe to a relatively orthodox operant perspective, and the field of applied behavior modification is firmly rooted in operant theory.
Cognitive theories are generally organized in terms of the processing of information and have frequently used the flow chart as a tool for explication. When applied to the study of motivated behavior they are often referred to as expectancy theories, for they are based on the assumption that people’s behavior is a function of their expectations about achieving desired outcomes. By processing information about behavior-outcome relationships, people are said to form expectations and make decisions about what behaviors to engage in.
Curiosity is a basic propensity in human functioning. The desire to explore, discover, understand, and know is intrinsic to people’s nature and is a potentially central motivator of the educational process. Yet all too frequently, educators, parents, and policymakers have ignored intrinsic motivation and viewed education as an extrinsic process, one that must be pushed and prodded from without. Recent reviews of motivation in education (e.g., Dweck & Elliott, 1983; Harter & Connell, 1984; Ryan et al., 1985; Thomas, 1980) have increasingly recognized the importance of intrinsic motivation and have emphasized the role of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational processes in the promotion of children’s learning and achievement. With the recognition of the importance of intrinsic motivation has come a new perspective on extrinsic motivation that is more congruent with the active, growth-oriented nature of the child.
The application of motivation theory is nowhere more complex and multifaceted than in the domain of psychotherapy and behavior change. The wide array of goals, styles, methods, and approaches bears witness to the fact of there being differing motivational assumptions and the absence of an accepted set of unifying principles for practice. Perhaps the one common denominator among mental health practitioners is that all are concerned with some type of human change. Strupp (1978), for example, argued that all approaches to therapy are concerned with bringing about changes in the behavior or personality of the patient seeking help, but the various approaches disagree regarding what is to be changed and how the changes can best be achieved.
Sports are the focus of a tremendous amount of energy and resources among the people of industrialized nations. Twenty million American youngsters between the ages of 6 and 16, for example, participate in organized sports programs (Magill, Ash, & Smoll, 1978), and numerous sporting events draw the attention of tens of millions of television viewers. Although the history of organized sport dates back to ancient times, most social commentators agree that the magnitude of involvement, both in terms of numbers and time, has never been greater and is continuing to rise.
... Bu doğrultuda motivasyonun en belirgin özelliğinin kişiyi belli amaçlara teşvik etmesi ve bu amaçlar doğrultusunda harekete geçirmesi olduğu söylenebilir. Motivasyon öz-belirleme kuramına göre üç gruba ayrılmıştır (Deci ve Ryan, 1985). Bunlar içsel motivasyon, dışsal motivasyon ve motivasyonsuzluktur. ...
... İçsel Motivasyon: İçsel motivasyon bireyin bir şeyleri hoşlandığı ve içsel olarak ilgi duyduğu için yapmasıdır (Deci ve Ryan, 1985). Bireyin davranışlarını gerçekleştirmesindeki neden bireyin ihtiyaçlarıdır. ...
... Görüldüğü gibi çocuğun fen öğrenmeye yönelik motivasyonu ailesi, çevresi ve öğretmeni tarafından desteklenmediğinde motivasyonsuzluk meydana gelmektedir. Deci ve Ryan (1985), öğretmen, aile ve arkadaş gibi sosyal unsurların öğrenci motivasyonunu etkilediğini belirtmişlerdir. Legault, Green-Demers ve Pelletier (2006) de öğretmen, aile ve arkadaşların öğrenci motivasyonsuzluğu üzerinde etkisi olan önemli sosyal destek unsurları olduğu üzerinde durmuştur. ...
Article
Bu araştırmanın temel amacı fen bilimleri dersinde motivasyonsuz olan öğrencilerin motivasyonsuz olmalarına neden olan faktörlerin incelenmesidir. Çalışmanın evrenini 2018-2019 eğitim-öğretim yılında Kars il merkezinde bulunan 23 okuldaki 6. 7. ve 8. sınıflarda eğitim alan öğrenciler oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemi için basit seçkisiz örneklem ile 6 okul seçilmiştir. Daha sonra küme örnekleme yöntemiyle her okuldan 2’şer şube alınarak toplam 716 öğrenci örnekleme dâhil edilmiştir. Araştırma tarama modelindedir. Araştırmada veri toplamak amacıyla “Fen Bilimlerinde Motivasyonsuzluk Ölçeği (FBMÖ)” geliştirilmiştir. Ölçek Aile-Çevre, Psikolojik-Kişisel ve Korku-Endişe ile ilişkili nedenler olmak üzere üç alt boyuttan oluşmaktadır. Geliştirilen bu ölçek çalışmanın örneklem grubuna uygulanmıştır. Bu şekilde 716 öğrenciden 126’sı FBMÖ’ den en yüksek puanları alarak fen bilimleri dersi için motivasyonsuz öğrenciler olarak nitelendirilmiş ve bu öğrencilerden elde edilen veriler değerlendirilmiştir. Çalışmadan elde edilen bulgular sonucunda fen bilimleri dersinde motivasyonsuz olan öğrencilerin motivasyonsuz olmalarını Aile-Çevre ve Korku-Endişe ile ilişkili nedenlerin orta düzeyde etkilediği, Psikolojik-Kişisel nedenlerin ise daha düşük düzeyde etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca veriler cinsiyet, sınıf, anne-baba eğitim durumu ve bir dönem önceki başarı notları açısından da değerlendirilmiştir.
... This contributed to two distinct features that characterized the early stage of COVID-19-induced shift to remote work: 1) a high degree of uncertainty surrounding the crisis' severity, reach, duration and economic outcomes and 2) a degree of isolation due to social distancing and remote work. As such, the COVID-19 pandemic directly impacted two basic human needs, the need for control/autonomy and the need for belongingness (Deci & Ryan, 1985. Since individuals vary in the degree to which they prioritize these needs, employees are likely to perceive and cope differently with the challenges to needing fulfilment brought on by the forced shift to remote work. ...
... Since individuals vary in the degree to which they prioritize these needs, employees are likely to perceive and cope differently with the challenges to needing fulfilment brought on by the forced shift to remote work. We draw on the framework of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci & Ryan, 1985; for a review, see Deci et al., 2017) and integrate it with two resource-based theories of stress-the job demands-control model (JDC, Karasek, 1979) and Social Baseline Theory (SBT, Beckes & Coan, 2011), to explain individual differences in the way the forced shift to remote work brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic affected employees. We also examine individual preferences for work and nonwork boundaries as potential moderators of these effects. ...
... Self-Determination Theory (SDT), a meta-theory of human motivation, posits that individual psychological growth and well-being are dependent on successful satisfaction of basic psychological needs-namely, the need for autonomy (having a choice and volition in one's actions), the need for competence (one being responsible for competent performance) and the need for belongingness (one's need for connection to others) (Deci & Ryan, 1985. Prior research has shown that challenges to these basic needs create negative outcomes while enhancing them does the opposite (Deci et al., 2017;Van den Broeck et al., 2016). ...
... A motivation theory applicable in both educational and professional contexts conceptualised by Pink (2009) postulates that autonomy, mastery, and purpose are essential for human beings to be motivated, assuming that individuals would like to learn, create, and make the world a better place. The core constituents of Pink's (2009) theory are founded on Deci and Ryan's (1985) self-determination theory (SDT) and Csikszentmihalyi's (1988) concept of flow, both of which centre around intrinsic motivation, which is the innate satisfaction an activity brings about. ...
... SDT draws on existential, humanistic, and organismic psychologies (Noels et al., 2019) and it postulates that individuals' innate psychological needs must be satisfied if they are to develop and flourish (Deci & Ryan, 1985;Ryan & Deci, 2017). The existential character of SDT lies in the fact that people strive to have meaningful lives, whereas its humanistic feature encapsulates the notion that people are content when they are true to their authentic self. ...
... Finally, the organismic nature of SDT is indicative of individuals' inherent curiosity, and their relentless desire to grow by constantly acquiring new skills and exploring their environment. Deci and Ryan (1985) and Ryan and Deci (2017) also posit that autonomy, competence, and relatedness are prerequisites of self-actualization, well-being, and optimal functioning. In Pink's (2009) conceptualisation of motivation, autonomy cannot be equated with independence, it rather provides an individual with choice. ...
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While second language (L2) motivation has been widely researched in the field of applied linguistics, the role of English for specific purposes (ESP) in L2 motivation has received considerably less attention. If we narrow down the scope of enquiry to adult L2 learners in a corporate context, empirical research is even more scarce. This paper contributes to the growing body of research by presenting the results of a quantitative questionnaire study on the role of ESP in motivating adult learners of English in Hun-garian corporate contexts. The study conducted with 232 adult learners compared the strength of ESP exerting its influence on L2 motivation with that of nine other dimensions related to the language teacher. The relationships between ESP and the other teacher-related dimensions, as well as the connection between ESP and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were also investigated. Results show that ESP plays a significant role in motivating adult learners of English in Hungarian corporate contexts. Furthermore, in the environment investigated, there were significant correlations between ESP and all the teacher-related dimensions and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Finally, the regression analyses conducted attested that ESP contributed to the extrinsic motivation of the participants.
... Research on PECB has become a significant stream in Marketing (Pickett-Baker and Ozaki, 2008;Moser, 2015;Patel et al., 2017). Among extant research on motivations for PECB, the self-determination theory (SDT) has been widely used to explain that behaviors are strongly related to the development of intrinsic motivation (Deci and Ryan, 1985;Ryan and Deci, 2000). Thus, if individuals are intrinsically motivated to participate in an activity primarily for the enjoyment brought about by the activity itself, they are more likely to engage in that behavior. ...
... Under SDT, intrinsic motivation is postulated to be developed by satisfying three basic psychological needs: the need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Deci and Ryan, 1985). However, a review into existing literature on intrinsic motivation for PECB has indicated two main research gaps. ...
... According to SDT, intrinsic motivation refers to doing things because they are enjoyable (hedonic intrinsic motivation) or meaningful (eudaimonic intrinsic motivation) (Deci and Ryan, 1985;. In other words, if an individual is intrinsically motivated, they perform an activity because of the interest, enjoyment or inherent satisfaction experienced from the activity itself rather than for external pressures or rewards. ...
Article
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Increasing single-use plastic consumption has caused tremendous consequences for the ecosystem; therefore, consumers are being encouraged to reduce this. Despite numerous research about single-use plastics, we still have little understanding into how individuals' intrinsic motivation for less single-use plastics can be developed. This study extends the self-determination theory about human motivation and the functioning of basic psychological needs which are essential for behavior change to study how three basic psychological needs can influence intrinsic motivation for reducing single-use plastics. Also, the negative interaction effects of each pair of basic psychological needs on intrinsic motivation were examined in this study. A sample of 468 responses collected in a stated preference survey was used to test the theoretical framework. Findings reveal that intrinsic motivation for reducing single-use plastics can be influenced by the satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Interestingly, the research has extended the self-determination theory by highlighting compensation effects among the fulfillment of basic psychological needs on intrinsic motivation for reducing single-use plastics.
... It also perceived that their motivation and perception in learning social science vary according to sex, track, and academic performance. These assumptions were anchored on Deci and Ryan's [25] Self-Determination Theory. This claims that the determined individuals demonstrate high motivation and perception of the discipline regardless of their challenges. ...
... Theoretically, this paper postulated that the students' high motivation and perception would result in an improved academic performance in social science as anchored on Deci and Ryan's [25] Self-Determination Theory. It also posited that their motivation and perception vary according to their demographics. ...
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Aims: This paper assessed the motivation and perception of Grade 12 public school students in learning social science during the pandemic. It also investigated the difference in their motivation and perception. Study Design: Descriptive-comparative design. Place and Duration of Study: School Division of a Component City in Northern Negros Occidental, between January 2021 to July 2022. Methodology: The study utilized the descriptive-comparative design. The study was assessed by 436 stratified randomly sampled students. The assessments were gathered using the modified motivation and perception questionnaires. In analyzing the data, mean, standard deviation, Mann Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis were employed. Results: Generally, the motivation (M=3.83, SD= 0.67) shows an agreeable result. The extrinsic goal orientation (M=4.15, SD= 0.88) is rated highest with an agreeable result, and social engagement (M=3.46, SD= 0.92) is the lowest with a neutral result. Meanwhile, they have agreeable perceptions (M=3.69, SD= 0.65) with perceived value (M=3.79, SD= 0.79) as highest and perceived teachers' attitude (M=3.46, SD= 0.89) as lowest. Moreover, there was no difference Original Research Article
... Self-Determination and Self-Concordance. Self-determination supports our ability to sustain interest, with the development of this attribute contingent upon conditions that strengthen or undermine satisfaction of three psychological needs: being able to control our actions (autonomy), gain mastery (competence), and engage with others (relatedness) (Deci & Ryan, 1985). The satisfaction of psychological needs facilitates goal pursuit and attainment, along with well-being, whereas unmet needs hinder growth potential and well-being (Vansteenkiste & Ryan, 2013). ...
... Purpose Self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985) Are industrious and exhibit commitment to activities and goals. ...
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This article proposes an integrative model for the psychological resources of grit. The growing body of work in nursing on the topic of grit indicates considerable interest in achieving long-term goals, especially amidst uncertainty from the COVID-19 pandemic. Motivational behaviors are thought to influence engagement in continuing education in nursing, thereby improving clinical practice and patient outcomes. The model was informed by a comprehensive review of the literature. Sixteen attributes for acquiring and strengthening four psychological resources of grit were identified. Each attribute is discussed along with interrelationships and implications for professional nursing development. Given the complex demands placed on health professionals, this model is both timely and relevant for all nurse and education providers interested in enhancing personal characteristics that may mitigate against stress and build capabilities for goal achievement.
... Numerous studies have confirmed that intrinsic or more internalized forms of motivation are associated with increased interest, engagement, effort, learning, and satisfaction in life [18]. Deci and Ryan [19] identified three basic needs conducive to the development of highly internalized motivation. These are autonomy, competence, and relatedness. ...
... As shown in Fig. 1, the PNS components and the contextual factors serve as independent variables and the developmental outcomes as dependent variables. The PNS variables defined in the model are postulated as comprising of the three components of PNS, including autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as suggested in the literature on this field [17,19,56]. The control variables consist of five contextual factors including gender, sport type, readiness, attendance, and personal training hours. ...
Article
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Background This study examined the contextual factors associated with psychological need satisfaction (PNS) and the predictability of the PNS components, together with the contextual factors, on the developmental outcomes of elite young athletes in the Ethiopian sports academies, and further identified differences in perception of PNS from a comparative perspective. The study used a cross-sectional survey design applying developmental and PNS theories as guiding frameworks. Samples of elite young Ethiopian athletes participated (n = 257, 47.47% were women with a mean age of 17.44 years and SD = 0.87, and 52.53% were men with a mean age of 18.25 years and SD = 1.14). Results Structural equation modeling showed that the three PNS domains, together with the five contextual factors positively predicted the three developmental outcomes measured (41–54% explained variance). Moreover, there were higher differences in PNS (0.55 ≤ Cohen’s d ≥ 0.71) among young athletes classified by the sport types. Discussion As per the findings of this study, young athletes may differ in the levels of PNS they obtained depending on the type of sports enrolled in sports academies. Also, the results of this study indicated that PNS attained may be modestly influenced by some contextual factors. It also evidenced that those developmental outcomes in elite young athletes are significantly positively associated with contextual and PNS factors. Stakeholders such as young athlete coaches, parents, sports psychologists, and administrators must consider the differing implications of program type during the elite young athletes’ participation in sports academics and the significant positive association between contextual factors, PNS, and developmental outcomes of elite young athletes. Conclusions In sum, the PNS of youth athletes may differ across sports types and the talent development of elite young athletes should emphasize the individual nature of the processes. Also, it can be concluded that the PNS components than the contextual factors had higher predictions of developmental outcomes.
... It theorizes that progress enabled through skills is only beneficial when individuals pursue goals that are aligned with their true self in social psychology (Sheldon and Kasser, 1998). Conceptually, a person's pursuit of goals that represent that person's coherent self-identity is mostly attributed to intrinsic goal-orientation and self-concordance anchored in self-determination theory (SDT) (Deci and Ryan, 1985), which some coaching scholars (Spence and Oades, 2011) claim is important to advance evidence-based coaching practice. The view that selfconcordance fosters a coherent self-identity is corroborated by Fusco et al. (2015) in that leaders develop a congruent self in how they develop authenticity through workplace coaching. ...
... It is further supported in coaching literature (Prywes, 2012;Spence, 2008) indicating that goals may not even need to remain stable over time for clients to report effective outcomes. Intrinsic goal-orientation and self-concordance relate to the three basic human needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness as expressed forms of self-determination (Deci and Ryan, 1985). They refer to the degree to which a goal is aligned with individuals' intrinsic interests, needs, values and motivations (Sheldon and Elliot, 1998;Sheldon et al., 2015). ...
Article
Purpose Little is known about how individual differences play out in the process of authentic self-development (ASD) through workplace coaching. This article explores whether the Big Five personality traits and affective, behavioral, cognitive and desire (ABCDs) components of the Big Five personality traits were relevant to ASD, specifically examining the role of affect as a potential mediator. Design/methodology/approach In total, 176 clients' personality was assessed pre-coaching. Aspects of ASD (perceived competence, goal commitment, self-concordance and goal stability) were assessed post-coaching. Clients' affect balance (AB) scores were obtained post-session. Findings Multilevel path models showed that higher levels of mean AB (but not the slope) mediated the associations between personality and perceived competence and goal commitment. Personality predicted goal self-concordance, but these effects were not mediated by AB, neither personality nor AB predicted goal stability. Research limitations/implications The authors encourage randomized controlled trials to further test findings of this study. Ruling out method variance is not possible completely. However, the authors put forth considerations to support the authors' claim that method variance did not overly influence our results. Practical implications These results suggest the necessity of an optimal experience of affect for ASD in workplace coaching and the understanding of how ABCDs, AB and ASD are related beyond coaching psychology. Social implications A deeper understanding of personality processes is important for fostering ASD to meet the challenges of management development in the authors' volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA) world. Originality/value This is the first study to test personality as a process in workplace coaching linking personality to one of the most valued leadership skills: authenticity.
... This requires the individuals to transform some externally offered norms, values, guidelines, and regulations into their own [2]. Thus, internalization involves a process in which an externally offered phenomenon becomes a more personally endorsed and self-determined regulation [3]. The internalization process enables organizations to update themselves on how they tackle the dynamic institutional demands [4]. ...
... Consequently, there is a need for the faculty to curtail their dependency on direct funding for sustainability-related work by means of indirect sources of finances. For example, during our study, we found that some of the faculty with higher agency [145] and motivation [3] to work on sustainability used to re-deploy their slack resources from other promising projects in their fields of research to support their sustainability-related work. Therefore, it is recommended that the motivation of the employees should be enhanced, so that they would also strive to hunt other projects with sufficient resources and (re)integrate them to create value in terms of internalizing sustainability into their research. ...
Article
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The research and innovation activities at higher education institutions (HEIs) are considered essential in driving forward sustainability in order to facilitate future decision-making. However, a systematic approach regarding sustainability research through administrative efforts is still lacking in HEIs worldwide. Therefore, this manuscript aimed to explore contradictions embedded in the activity systems that hamper the internalization of sustainability research in HEIs. The current study conducted semi-structured interviews with faculty members at a leading research university in Taiwan. The lens of activity theory was used to explore and analyze tensions rooted in the activity systems involved in research and innovation. We found that resources to undertake sustainability-related research have not been allocated in a desirable manner. Moreover, the stakeholders are lacking agency, motivation, and perceived urgency to play their roles in supporting sustainability-related research through their practices. The propositions concluded from this study would help the involved actors to reconfigure their activity systems to make a contribution toward sustainability. This study also serves as a fundamental step towards conducting future empirical studies in contextual theory building directed at co-creating value through sustainability-related research and innovation practices.
... Research on demotivation culminated after Ryan and Deci's proposed Self-determination theory (SDT) [15]. It focuses on the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors. ...
... Labeled as the "Dark side of motivation", demotivation refers to "specific external forces that reduce or diminish the motivational basis of a behavioral intention or an ongoing action" [17]. "The relative absence of motivation that is not caused by a lack of initial interest but rather by the individuals experiencing feelings of incompetence and helplessness when faced with the activity" [15]. In general, the definition implied that demotivation occurs because of internal and external factors that decrease one's motivation to do a specific task. ...
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Teaching demotivation may negatively affect teachers' performance in English language teaching. This present study investigated the demotivating factors and coping strategies of seven Filipino English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in Thailand. Using a qualitative design, a semi-structured interview was used to elicit the views of teachers. Findings have shown five demotivating factors: administration-demotivational factor, colleague-demotivational factor, student-demotivational factor, self-demotivational factor, and parent-demotivational factor. Moreover, self-regulation strategy and pedagogical strategy are useful for the teacher to cope with those factors. Implications were discussed to help foreign EFL teachers in Thailand become aware of teaching challenges in Thailand.
... In terms of motivation, one of the most important theories is the self-determination theory (SDT). According to this theory, motivation shows a continuum that ranges from amotivation, through extrinsic motivation to intrinsic motivation [28,29]. Amotivation is the lack of intention to take part. ...
... In this sense, pedagogical models (e.g., sport education, cooperative learning, social responsibility, etc.) have been shown to influence the perception of some psychological variables. It is also recommended that these strategies be in line with established theory such as SDT [28,31] or CVTAE [34], since they have shown to be effective in improving the experience during PE classes [16,18,36,80]. For example, teachers could involve students in the design of tasks or encourage autonomous behaviour to satisfy autonomy; they could provide positive feedback to satisfy competence; and they also could be friendly and attentive to their students to satisfy relatedness [81]. ...
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This study examined the relationship between extracurricular physical activity (PA) levels and students’ motivational and emotional experience during physical education (PE) classes and how this psychological experience can predict the intention to be physically active. The sample consisted of 811 Spanish secondary education students (371 boys and 440 girls) aged between 11 and 17 years (M = 13.15, SD = 1.16). Students completed questionnaires about their PA levels, their intention to be physically active, and their motivational and emotional experience during PE classes. A cluster analysis was used to classify the students according to their level of extracurricular PA. Based on a regression analysis, the variables enjoyment, pride, hopelessness, competence, satisfaction, and autonomous motivation played the highest role, predicting the intention to be physically active in the future. Statistical differences were found among the different PA profiles in these variables during the PE classes (MANCOVA). In conclusion, hours of PA outside school have a high relationship with the students’ emotional and motivational experience in their PE classes, which is related with the intention to practise PA in the future. A series of strategies have been proposed at both the institutional level and the teacher level to improve the PE psychological experience of those students who practise less extracurricular PA.
... Relinquishing their status as the sole authority in the classroom to engage in TT can be difficult for teachers. Autonomy is such an essential factor that Deci and Ryan (1985) identified it as one of the basic needs that brings about intrinsically motivated teacher behavior. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a preservice team-teaching (TT) course involving seven Japanese students and three international students while undertaking collaborative tasks of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT ) English textbook analysis and TT microteaching. The author’s participant observations, the students’ reflective notes, and individual interviews were scrutinized based on the theoretical assumption of native–nonnative and novice–expert dichotomies compared to regular TT cases. Results show that although the Japanese students’ English competence affected TT role sharing, a power struggle was rarely seen after the instructor’s intervention which aimed to diminish the “native speaker fallacy” (Phillipson, 1992). The international students’ Japanese learning experiences also helped create positive TT relationships by decreasing linguistic power inequalities. Furthermore, the participants’ lack of occupational and pedagogical power as novice teachers helped avoid relational conflicts, supporting Lave and Wenger’s (1991) concept of legitimate peripheral participation, which implies that occupational power (teacher pride) significantly influences power-sharing in TT. 本論は、中・高英語教員免許を取得予定の教育学部所属の日本人学生7名と英語ネイティブスピーカーの交換留学生3名を対象とし、文科省の英語検定教科書分析、及び、ティームティーチング(TT)の模擬授業を含む、教員養成段階でのTT講座の教育的効果を調査するものである。通常のTTのケースと比較分析するため、ネイティブ(NS)・ノンネイティブ(NNS)と初心者・熟達者の二つの二分法的仮説をもとに、参加観察、履修学生の振り返りレポート、及び、被験者10名への個別インタビューを実施した。その結果、日本人学生の英語力がTTの役割分担に影響を及ぼすものの、担当教員による「NS誤信」を軽減するための教育的介入により、TTにおける両者の権力闘争はほとんど散見されず、留学生の日本語学習経験が好ましいTT関係を構築し、NSとNNSの目標言語力の不均衡を是正していたことが判明した。さらに、両者とも正式な教員としての職業力や指導力を有していないため、TTにおける人間関係の衝突が回避され、このことは、Lave & Wenger (1991) の正統的周辺参加の概念を立証し、さらには、TTにおける力配分に職業力(教員としてのプライド)が大きく影響を及ぼすことが示唆された。
... Human beings are subject to intrinsic and extrinsic motivators. They are more prone to reach maximal results when both motivators are present or when the inherent motivation exceeds the extrinsic one [18], [19]. Therefore, the focus is on implementing the Self-Determination Theory to primarily fulfill intrinsic motivation through belongingness, autonomy, and competence. ...
Conference Paper
The contribution of the Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in every economy is undeniably significant. Still, their existence relies on their leadership’s ability to respond to the continuous challenges utilizing best their limited resources. This paper introduces a Democratic Leadership Change Integration Model (DLCIM) that can be used globally to support and institutionalize SMEs’ innovation by maximizing their human intellectual capital’s effectiveness democratically. Knowledge democratization is a crucial stage in knowledge generation. Its benefits encourage both the employees and the organization to create innovative products and services under ethical management values and principles. The proposed framework helps organizations and SMEs achieve a knowledge-based democratic company-employee relationship. It encapsulates the integration of The Company Democracy Model as the tool and base for innovation, the ADKAR model for change management, and the Self-Determination Theory as a leadership principle.
... If learners are involved in the management of their own learning and are able to shape it according to their developing interests, they are exploiting but also nourishing. Deci and Richard (1985) associate with intrinsic needs for competence and selfdetermination, this is not to say that autonomous learning is always plain sailing. It means that as long as learners remain involved in their learning, and thus fundamentally committed to its success, lack of motivation will be temporary and short-lived. ...
Conference Paper
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This study focuses on transitive and intransitive verbs in Japanese and Javanese. This study uses a contrastive analysis method that exists in lingual elements in linguistics. The object of study in this study is the morphology of transitive and intransitive verbs in Japanese and Javanese. After contrasting the forms of transitive and intransitive verbs in both languages, a conclusion is drawn in this study. The results of this study indicate that vThis transitive erba in Japanese is basically patterned S (wa / ga), O (o), P (tadōshi). whereas intransitive verbs in Japanese, only use the particle ga to explain the topic, and particle ni to describe the place. As for the patterns that form it, generally S (ga) and P (intransitive).In Japanese, transitive and intransitive verbs have a suffix as a marker for each verb. Namely: a) -aru (tran), -eru (intran), b) -aru (intran), -u (tran), c) -reru (intra), -su (tran), d) -reru (intra ), -ru (tran), e) - arareru (intran), -u (trans), f) --ru (intran), -su (tran), g) --eru (intran), -asu (tran), h) -u (intran), -asu (tran), i) -iru (intra), -osu (tran), and j) -u (intran), -eru (tran).Whereas in Javanese, transitive verbs tend to use the basic form, namely without using any affixes. However, there is still a suffix that follows in the form of ~ ake. Meanwhile, intransitive verbs are prefix ke ~ which is attached to the basic form of the verb.
... Several studies indicate that intentions based more on personal or affective compared to other factors are more Frontiers in Psychology 04 frontiersin.org predictive of behavior, consistent with the predictions of selfdetermination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985). This includes work on attitudes versus norms (Sheeran et al., 1999) and affective versus instrumental attitudes (Keer et al., 2014). ...
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This manuscript overviews recent research on the intention-behavior gap, focusing on moderators of the intention-behavior relationship. The manuscript draws on the concept of intention strength to make two important points. First, strong intentions provide better predictions of behavior, thereby reducing the intention-behavior gap. However, strong intentions have the additional features of being more stable over time, less pliable in the face of interventions to change them, and more likely to bias information processing about engaging in the behavior. These four features of intention strength are not independent. For example, stable intentions are likely to provide better predictions of behavior. Second, various predictors of strength (e.g., importance, certainty, extremity) may also constitute important, but little studied, moderators of the intention-behavior relationship. Moreover, the effects of these moderators of the intention-behavior relationship may be mediated through intention stability (and perhaps other features of intention strength). Future research on the intention-behavior gap would benefit from a more systematic consideration of a broad range of moderators of the intention-behavior relationship both individually and in combination. In addition, future research could usefully explore how these moderating effects might be explained. Such a systematic approach may further our understanding of the intention-behavior gap in relation to physical activity and other behaviors.
... Given that the primary objective of family foster care is to ensure the child's well-being, it is essential that any contact with birth parents supports the child's needs and does not undermine his or her development. With this in mind, the theoretical approach used in the present study is derived from research on human needs (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000Patrick, Knee, Canevello, & Lonsbary, 2007;, and specifically from childhood needs theory (F. López, 2008), which in turn is closely linked to attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969). ...
... The teachers to motivate their students can use different motivational strategies, activities, methods and know what kind of motivation their students lack to improve their learning and develop their skills in the learning process especially in English classes. Richard and Edward (2000) have shown a detailed description of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation saying that the most basic distinction is between Intrinsic Motivation which refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable, and extrinsic motivation, which refers to doing something because it leads to a separable outcome. ...
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Este libro abarca las memorias del 2do Congreso Internacional de Didáctica de la Lengua Inglesa, convocado por la Escuela de Lingüística Aplicada de la PUCESE. El congreso es una iniciativa importante para mejorar la calidad de la enseñanza del inglés en la provincia de Esmeraldas. En este congreso se han abordado aspectos importantes como el de la motivación para aprender la lengua inglesa, relevante para el desarrollo formativo de los estudiantes, más necesario en la medida que se avanza en el nivel de estudios, en una provincia que se visibiliza a sí misma con gran potencial turístico. Se aborda también la importancia de hacer uso de la tecnología para mejorar la motivación y la didáctica, así como experiencias concretas que permiten subrayar la necesidad de actualización de los docentes. También se ha abordado la inclusión en la enseñanza del inglés en ámbitos de interculturalidad, señalando que las metodologías de aprendizaje tienen que ser adecuadas al contexto cultural y social.
... Eine der derzeit wichtigsten Theorien zur Motivation ist die Selbstbestimmungstheorie von Deci und Ryan (self-determination theory; SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985). ...
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Self-regulated learning means directing one's own learning toward a self-determined learning goal, selecting appropriate learning strategies, monitoring one's own learning progress during learning, and adjusting strategies as necessary. It also involves mustering and maintaining motivation in the face of adversity and reflecting at the end of the learning process on whether the learning goal was achieved and what actions contributed or hindered it. Competencies for self-regulated learning (SRL) are on the one hand the goal of higher education and the basis of lifelong learning, but on the other hand they are already of great importance during studies: they are a necessary condition for the development of professional competencies and for academic success. This compendium is intended to provide instructors and course directors with a tool to support self-regulated learning, motivation, and motivation regulation in their students. It draws on established theories of self-regulated learning and motivation and presents methods that have been proven in practice.
... As a result, women leaders must take the initiative and invest in their professional development to achieve their career goals. According to the self-determination theory (see Deci & Ryan, 1985;Ryan & Deci, 2017, three psychological needs must be met: autonomy (i.e. freedom of expression and decision-making), competence (i.e. ...
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Orientation: Despite promising legislative frameworks and policies to eradicate gender imbalances in the workplace, women have yet to earn their rightful place as senior business leaders. Research purpose: The primary goal of this study was to investigate the factors that prevent women from advancing to senior leadership positions in a variety of South African business contexts. Motivation for the study: More research is required to understand the unique challenges that senior women leaders experience in various South African business contexts. Research approach/design and method: This research followed a qualitative approach. Data were gathered using semistructured interviews with nine women (n = 9) who made significant inroads in their respective professions. Theme analyses were applied to analyse the data. Main findings: The findings revealed six factors that hinder the career advancement of women to senior leadership positions: societal perceptions and stereotypes, a lack of mentorship, masculine corporate cultures, leadership identity distortions, inadequate training and development and poor work-life balance. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations are encouraged to create more feminine workplace cultures that allow women to realise their full potential and establish their identity as senior leaders. Mentoring, networking, and professional development opportunities can all assist women in advancing their careers. Senior female leaders play an essential role in fostering workplace cultures that promote equal opportunity and combat unfair discrimination on various grounds. They pave the way for younger, upcoming female talent to move into senior management positions more quickly. Contribution/value-add: This study fills important gaps in the global understanding of the factors limiting women’s career advancement to senior leadership positions. The findings of this study emphasise the importance of recognising and embracing women’s leadership competence in the modern workplace.
... Under external motivation, an individual acts because of the potential reward or because a threat might be lifted. Such circumstances reinforce fear of failure and may negatively impact academic performance (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Those with a low degree of academic procrastination are motivated by both internal and external motivations, while high degree procrastinators are mostly motivated by external factors (Brownlow & Reasinger, 2000;Quispe-Bendezú, 2020). ...
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This qualitative study examines academic procrastination among Israeli Master of Education students writing their theses. The majority of the the participants (80% of the 145) reported behaving differently on this task than on other assignments. One of the primary factors influencing procrastination derives from the complexity of the assignment. Considering the research literature describes tight relationships between academic procrastination and academic achievement, one surprising finding concerns the fact that respondents saw no relationship between their procrastination and their final grade. A gap was found between students' self-perception and their actual performance. Approximately 75% of the students perceive themselves as academic procrastinators, but in actuality nearly half of them completed the assignment on time. The starting date was found to be significant. Students who immediately began work upon receiving the assignment strongly tended to submit it on time. Students who did not begin early completed the project later than the scheduled date, if at all. Practitioner Notes Practitioner Notes 1. There are challenges to responding to student procrastination 2. Procrastination has a direct effect on student achievement 3. There is a gap between students' self-perception and their actual performance. 4. The complexity of the assignment has an effect on procrastination
... Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; identifies autonomy, competence, and relatedness as distinct basic human needs that are necessary for mental health. Autonomy is related to having freedom and choice in one's actions. ...
Article
ABSTRACT The governmental restrictions in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic led to social isolation, with many people spending more time at home with their pets. The relationships between pet ownership, pet attachment, and wellbeing were examined using two online surveys: one in the early stages of the pandemic (May, 2020) and the other over one year later (September, 2021). Resilience, optimism, and basic psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) were examined as potential moderators. Study 1 had an international sample of 495 participants (70% pet owners), while study 2 had a UK sample of 243 participants (57% pet owners). Most participants reported that their pets provided emotional comfort and had a positive impact on their lives during the early stages of the pandemic. Pet ownership and pet attachment were positively associated with wellbeing in people with low levels of resilience. Conversely, people with high resilience who were pet owners or had higher pet attachment had lower wellbeing than non-pet owners and those less attached. Optimism and basic psychological need satisfaction were not significant moderators. Although some of the associations found in study 1 might have been specific to the beginning of the pandemic, other results were replicated a year later in the UK sample when social restrictions were eased (study 2). The findings from the two studies suggest that higher scores on a subscale of pet attachment, which involves the pet playing a more central role than humans in the owner’s life, might be directly linked to lower resilience and wellbeing and increased loneliness. The combination of high resilience and higher levels of pet attachment or pet ownership might be unfavorable. Nonetheless, pet ownership and healthy human–animal bonds can be protective factors for people with low levels of resilience.
... Our findings present a strong case for aesthetic experiences as a heretofore underexplored predictor of flourishing in a profession that has been described as plagued by growing mental health problems. In line with theories of intrinsic motivation, self-actualization, and self-determination (Deci and Ryan, 1985;Deci et al., 1994;Rawolle et al., 2016;Heintzelman, 2018;Thrash et al., 2019), aesthetic experiences appear to be a source of flourishing in science in the disciplines of biology and physics. Generally, the present study affirms findings from the literature that reported positive links between aesthetics and well-being (Mastandrea et al., 2019). ...
Article
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In response to the mental health crisis in science, and amid concerns about the detrimental effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on scientists, this study seeks to identify the role of a heretofore under-researched factor for flourishing and eudaimonia: aesthetic experiences in scientific work. The main research question that this study addresses is: To what extent is the frequency of encountering aesthetics in terms of beauty, awe, and wonder in scientific work associated with greater well-being among scientists? Based on a large-scale ( N = 3,061) and representative international survey of scientists (biologists and physicists) in four countries (India, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United States), this study employs sets of nested regressions to model the associations of aesthetic experiences with flourishing while controlling for demographic factors and negative workplace and life circumstances such as burnout, job/publication pressure, mistreatment, COVID-19 impacts, other stressful life events, serious psychological distress, and chronic health conditions. The results show that the frequency of aesthetic experiences in scientific work in the disciplines of biology and physics has a very large and statistically significant association with flourishing and eudaimonia that remains robust even when controlling for demographic factors and negative workplace and life circumstances, including COVID-19 impacts. Aesthetic experiences in scientific work are even as strongly associated with flourishing as the presence of serious psychological distress and are most strongly associated with the flourishing domain of meaning in life, thus pointing to a link with eudaimonic well-being. In line with neurophysiological evidence and positive psychological models of flow, self-transcendence, and intrinsic motivation, aesthetics are a key source of flourishing for scientists in the disciplines of biology and physics. While future research needs to test the causal mechanism, the strength of the findings could encourage leaders of scientific labs and research organizations generally to remove obstacles to experiencing the aesthetic dimensions of science. Fostering cultures in which the aesthetic experiences that are intrinsic to scientific practice are fully appreciated might potentially protect or boost flourishing by reducing the impacts of burnout, job/publication pressure, and mistreatment-related experiences in science.
... According to the present study, intrinsic motivation is a stronger predictor of language proficiency than extrinsic motivation, which is consistent with findings reported in previous research (Noels et al., 2000;Noels, 2001;Hong et al., 2017;Sun and Gao, 2020). Intrinsic motivation "generally refers to motivation to engage in an activity because that activity is enjoyable and satisfying to do" (Noels et al., 2000, p. 61) and builds upon innate needs for competence and self-determination (Deci and Ryan, 1985). By contrast, extrinsic motivation closely relates to the motive to achieve some instrumental objectives. ...
Article
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The impact of motivation, anxiety and learning strategies on the achievement of foreign language proficiency has been widely acknowledged in the context of traditional offline classroom settings. However, this issue has not been extensively documented in relation to online learning, which has become the predominant form of language learning during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study was conducted to investigate the relative prediction of motivation, anxiety and learning strategies for second language achievement among 90 Thai adult learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) who took online Chinese courses. The participants completed a questionnaire dealing with motivation, anxiety, learning strategies, and their Chinese proficiency was measured by self-report and a Chinese vocabulary size test. A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed two major findings. First, anxiety emerged as the most stable factor for the participants' CFL achievement, followed by learning strategies and motivation. Second, motivation, anxiety and learning strategies only significantly predicted the participants' self-rated Chinese language proficiency, but not their performance on the Chinese vocabulary size test. The overall results indicate the relative importance of motivation, anxiety and learning strategies to Chinese language learning in the online environment and suggest different measures of CFL achievement may lead to different research findings. The general findings were of theoretical and pedagogical significance for understanding and addressing individual differences factors in online language learning.
... The self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985;Ryan and Deci, 2002) can be useful in understanding the effect of relational attachment on happiness at work. According to this theory, there are three psychological needs: "autonomy, competence, and relatedness". ...
Article
Purpose Drawing upon theories of conservation of resources (COR), broaden-and-build (BnB), self-determination, and the job demands- resources (JD-R) model, this study uniquely tries to understand the mechanisms that contribute to happiness at work by proposing a model of the effects of emotional culture of joy on happiness at work, where psychological safety and relational attachments serve as intervening mechanisms among the aforesaid relationship. Design/methodology/approach A three-wave time-lagged study with 340 employees from Pakistani organizations was conducted. Data were analyzed using covariance-based structural equation modelling. Findings The results indicate that emotional culture of joy significantly predicts happiness at work. Furthermore, emotional culture of joy significantly and positively influences both psychological safety and relational attachment. Finally, the relationship between emotional culture of joy and happiness at work is found to be mediated by both relational attachment and psychological safety. Practical implications The results are of utmost importance as they provide insights to policy makers and organizations administrators on the value of emotional culture of joy and its contribution to employees’ wellbeing, and indeed its role in fostering important psychological and emotional resources such as psychological safety and relational attachment. Originality/value This study is unique for the following reasons. First, it addresses and bridges a gap pertaining to the drivers of happiness at work. Second, this is the first study that considers emotional culture of joy as an antecedent to happiness at work. Third, the employment of both psychological safety and relational attachment as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between emotional culture of joy and happiness at work has not been previously addressed in the management and wellbeing literature. Finally, the study shifts direction from studying organizational drivers (i.e. HR, organization support, etc.) of happiness at work to the examination of psychological and emotional resources that may influence happiness at work.
... A theory presented as a theoretical framework for this study is Self-Determination Theory, developed by Deci and Ryan (Deci and Ryan, 1985). It is predicated on the assumption that humans' motivation to perform a task is determined by three basic psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Gagné and Deci, 2005;Jeno et al., 2017). ...
Article
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In the literature, a mass of studies have inspected the effects of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) on Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ achievement. However, the effects of CALL and MALL on psychological factors, such as motivation, anxiety, and self-efficacy, have largely remained unexplored. Thus, this study explored the effects of CALL and MALL, and face-to-face (FTF) learning environments on Iranian EFL learners’ motivation, anxiety, and self-efficacy. To this aim, using a random sampling method, a total of 137 male EFL intermediate learners were selected and homogenized using the Oxford Quick Placement Test (OQPT). Based on the test scores, a total of 90 EFL learners were selected and randomly assigned to three groups, namely, CALL (n = 30), MALL (n = 30), and FTF (n = 30). Then, the participants’ motivation, anxiety, and self-efficacy were gauged prior to the instructions. Afterward, they received CALL-based, MALL-based, and conventional instructions which lasted 25 1-h sessions held twice a week. At the end of the instructions, the participants’ motivation, anxiety, and self-efficacy were measured again. The collected data were analyzed through a one-way MANOVA. Findings evidenced that the experimental groups’ motivation, anxiety, and self-efficacy were positively affected by the CALL-based and MALL-based instructions. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between the CALL group and MALL group concerning the gains of motivation, anxiety, and self-efficacy. In light of the findings, a range of implications is suggested for relevant stakeholders.
... SDT, which originated with the work of Deci and Ryan (1985), "is a macro theory of human motivation in which issues related to choice, or more precisely, to human autonomy are in the forefront" (Moller et al., 2006, p. 104). It is a theory comprising six mini theories that are continuously refined based on empirical foundations, where"each mini-theory representing an extension of an existing body of knowledge that was already been established within SDT" (Ryan & Deci, 2019, p. 116). ...
Article
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Consumer citizenship has attracted significant attention from researchers over time. Recent discussions in this domain indicate that some of the citizenship behaviors that consumers engage in have spilled over to non-consumption arenas as well (i.e., outside the spheres of choice, purchase and use, and behaviors closely related to them). Such behaviors are evident in consumer involvement in organized movements related to an organic farming and consumption, such as Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) and Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS). Though consumer citizenship has been studied from many perspectives, theorizing what motivates consumers to engage in such behavior has received scant attention. Such theorization is particularly important in the context of consumer citizenship behavior outside the domain of consumption because such behaviors require relatively greater effort and commitment compared to citizenship behaviors executed within consumption. Guided by concepts of the Self-Determination Theory and current literature on consumer citizenship, this paper presents three propositions on how consumers may be motivated to engage in citizenship behaviors outside the domain of consumption, such as volunteering to act as evaluators in PGS. Keywords: Consumer citizenship, Self-determination theory, Autonomous motivation, Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Basic psychological needs.
... The positive outcomes of peer-mentoring can be explained using self-determination theory (SDT). SDT postulates that motivation ranges on a continuum from purely controlled motivation (i.e., performing a task for financial rewards or to avoid publishment) to autonomous motivation (i.e., performing a task for its alignment with one's values or for personal enjoyment) (Deci & Ryan, 1985). SDT also suggests that the extent to which an individual has autonomous motivation to complete a task depends on the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: (1) the need for autonomy (i.e., performing with a feeling of volition), (2) the need for competence (i.e., seeing oneself responsible for successful performance), and (3) the need for relatedness (i.e., being connected to others). ...
Article
Many doctoral students do not finish their studies. Social support has been shown to lower the likelihood of student withdrawal. I propose peer-mentoring as one of the practices that makes a significant difference in doctoral student attrition. In this longitudinal study, I investigated the influence of peer-mentoring on students’ motivation and retention. Data were collected four times from 35 participants (a total of 140 surveys) in a Canadian university, where senior doctoral candidates mentored first year doctoral students. Data analysis indicates that students who received high levels of peer-mentoring experienced both steady and high autonomous motivation for their studies and low intention to leave. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... The call for motivation was detected not only by our respondents but also in researches by e.g., Bekesova et al. (2021), Cheung et al. (2021). Examining motivation should be complex, multifaced, and situation-dependent because low motivation contributes to bad study results (Deci & Ryan, 1985). As discovered a decade ago (e.g. by Hartnett et al., 2011), motivation as the mover of any activity is necessary for online distance instruction as well. ...
Article
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During the covid-19 pandemic, schools at all levels were often closed and online distance instruction (ODI) was applied. The main objective of this research was to discover the main didactic features of online distance instruction; and based on the collected data to define didactic recommendations towards improving the quality of the process. Five hypotheses were set that evaluated students’ opinions in the areas of teachers’ support for learners within ODI, types of sources exploited within ODI, means used for practising and fixing new knowledge within ODI, assessment of learners’ performance within ODI, and students’ feedback on ODI. In total, 272 respondents from upper secondary and higher education institutions participated in the research. Each respondent described the process of online distance instruction in two courses they selected of 64: (1) in a course that they appreciated, liked, enjoyed, and considered efficient from the point of view of their learning; (2) in a course that caused them discomfort in learning, as it was conducted in a way that did not suit them, and their learning did not bring the expected learning outcomes. Data were collected via a questionnaire; Chí-square test, adjusted residuals, and t test for comparison of means were calculated. Before the research started, teachers were trained in online distance instruction. Therefore, we expected that they will be competent in designing online distance courses and the courses will follow didactic principles. The results discovered significant differences in the frequency of occurrence of observed features in courses that received positive feedback compared to those having negative evaluation. However, some exceptions were detected.
... Our two-factor solution derived from PCA analysis is consistent with previous studies' dichotomous categorizations of students' goal-oriented motivational regulation (Wolters, 1998;Wolters and Rosenthal, 2000), which differentiated mastery self-talk from performance self-talk; and with Schwinger et al.'s (2007) intrinsic vs. extrinsic classification. Our finding is also in line with the distinction educational psychologists have drawn between, on the one hand, more mastery-and intrinsic-oriented learning goals, and on the other, more performance-and extrinsic-oriented ones (Deci and Ryan, 1985;Elliot, 1999). ...
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Motivational regulation is crucial to explaining autonomous self-regulated learning, yet has received relatively little empirical attention. This study therefore examined how 230 college students’ motivational-regulation strategies affected their proximal and distal second-language writing-achievement emotions (i.e., enjoyment and anxiety), and sought evidence of interactive effects of such strategies and self-regulated learning strategies on each of these two types of emotions. All the studied types of motivational-regulation strategy were found to directly predict both proximal and distal writing enjoyment, under a “the more the happier” principle, but only a performance-oriented motivational regulation strategy predicted proximal or distal writing anxiety. A social-behavior learning strategy was found to counteract the high proximal anxiety caused by heavy use of the performance self-talk motivational regulation strategy; and motivational-regulation predictors also emerged as stable predictors of both proximal and distal writing well-being. These findings are expected to be both theoretically valuable to the study of motivational regulation under the self-regulated learning framework, and of practical value to educators, learners, and curriculum designers.
... The term "interest" refers to an individual's ability to be compelled by anything just on the basis of their own internal feelings. According to Deci and Ryan (1985), interest is "an important directive role in intrinsically motivated behavior in that people naturally approach activities that interest them." Students who are just beginning to acquire an interest in a topic might benefit from the utility value by encouraging them to return to the material on a regular basis and thereby deepen their understanding (Renninger, 2000;Shahbaz et al., 2016;Sawatsuk et al., 2018;Sulashvili et al., 2020). ...
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Based on the reinforcement theory of motivation, the purpose of this research was to measure the effect of school innovation climate on students’ motivational outcomes, including behavioral engagement, academic self-efficacy, interest, and utility value. Furthermore, the conditional influence of students’ attitude toward technology on the link between school innovation climate and students’ motivating outcomes has been investigated and reported. Data were gathered from the 305 entrepreneurship program students of five different universities located in Wuhan, China. In the SamrtPLS 3.3.3 program, the analysis was carried out using SEM. Results revealed that the school innovation climate has a favorable impact on improving the motivating outcomes of students. Additionally, results also provided support for moderation hypotheses that “students’ attitude toward technology” moderated the relationship between “school innovation climate” and academic self-efficacy. On the contrary, “students’ attitudes about technology,” did not appear to be a significant moderator in terms of enhancing the influence of the “school innovation atmosphere” on the students’ behavioral engagement, interest, and utility value. This study provides key policy and theoretical and practical implications as well as future research avenues for entrepreneurial school managers and education scholars.
... History reveals that integrative/instrumental dichotomy originally proposed by Gardener and Lambert (1972) has been the focus of researchers. According to Deci and Ryan (1985) and Lepper and Hodell (1989), the researchers looked at intrinsic & extrinsic motivation later on. Intrinsic motivation is without external inducement while the extrinsic is with external inducement. ...
Article
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This paper measures the importance of conducive classroom climate, positive self-concept and motivation for Pakistani EFL learners. Data were collected through randomly selected sample of 110 Pakistani EFL learners from both the public and private institutes. The simple data need no complicated statistical formula for analysis to maintain clarity and objectivity. So, data were simply elaborated through tables and diagrams. Finally on the basis of findings, a number of generalizations are made in relation to the importance of conducive classroom climate, positive self concept and motivation for Pakistani EFL learners. There are also given some recommendations that may help Pakistani teachers and EFL learners to achieve effective learning outcomes in future.
... "The application fits my needs") using two self-developed items for each. For evaluating the motivating effect of the GBL application four scales of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) were used that are based on the Self-Determination Theory by Deci and Ryan (1985). .36** ...
Conference Paper
Although game-based learning (GBL) applications are becoming more and more popular in higher education, the challenges in terms of fit to the users’ needs, technical requirements, and sustainability are also becoming increasingly apparent. One way to address these common obstacles is to actively involve future users – in this case, students as well as teachers – in the development of GBL. We therefore present a user-centered approach of the development of a GBL application in the context of a vocational training and education study program as best practice example. First, we conducted a requirement analysis to systematically assess students’ and teachers’ needs and adapt the design of the GBL application accordingly. We then iteratively developed and evaluated prototypes of the GBL application with students and teachers combining a variety of methods. Moreover, we explicitly examined the effect of participation in a survey with n = 112 students who took part in the evaluation of the last prototype. Preliminary research findings suggest that perceived participation as well as perceived target group fit are related to a more positive evaluation of the prototype, highlighting the importance of participation for the success of the resulting product. By presenting our work-in-progress and preliminary research findings, we aim to contribute to the acceptance and distribution of GBL application in higher education. As best practice example our work provides insights on how to structure developmental processes to ensure participation and hence a satisfactory GBL product.
... Simulation, through reality of function, provides students with opportunities to make choices of interest to them based on the simulation at hand. As students have choice and the teacher minimizes external control, this supports student autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Finally, the design of a simulation can be constructed to incorporate the target culture. ...
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Individual differences (IDs) play an important role in the second language learning process and explain the varied experiences of the L2 learner. The two major IDs, language aptitude and motivation, can be primary factors in one's ultimate proficiency. While language aptitude is largely fixed, motivation is malleable and can aid in overcoming deficits in one's proficiency level. This action research study explores simulation techniques to gauge its impact on the motivation of 15 Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) students. Simulation and role play have demonstrated to be engaging techniques that enhance the learning experience in the second-language classroom; however, it remains to be seen if these techniques have an impact on L2 motivation in the FLES context, namely in regard to integrative orientation. In this mixed-methods study, FLES learner motivation was surveyed to measure change in integrative motivation and attitude toward L2 learning, the two variables in Gardner's (1985) socio-educational framework of motivation. Using a Likert scale L2 Motivation Survey, a Language Background and Perceptions questionnaire, a semi-structured interview, and instructor field notes, findings were triangulated to form a conclusion surrounding this intervention's effectiveness. Quantitative results are conflicting: raw descriptive statistics show a promising correlation; however, they are mostly lacking in statistical significance. Despite this, when findings are combined with qualitative results, there is a concluded benefit for including cultural simulation in the FLES classroom.
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To accommodate wider participants, the first International Conference on Languages and Arts across Cultures (ICLAAC) is launched to invite participants whose research interests range from language teaching, linguistics, design, and arts. ICLAAC is the sequel of ICEAC (International Conference of English across Cultures). As the research interest grew broader, this ICEAC was considered unable to accommodate participants beyond linguistics and language teaching within the field of humanity. The Faculty of Languages and Arts, Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, as the host, therefore decided to widen the ICEAC mission on research dissemination by rebranding the conference name, ICLAAC.
Article
Purpose Based on self-determination theory, this study compared the motivation of emergent bilinguals and full bilinguals in English and Japanese learning at an international elementary school in Japan. Methodology This study employed a questionnaire on motivational orientations in English and Japanese learning. Data and analysis Participants were 104 children who had either English or Japanese as their first language or had an English and Japanese bilingual background. A mixed-measures analysis of variance and correlation analysis were performed on the survey data. Findings Although the degree of internalization of motivation differed depending on whether students were emergent or full bilinguals, the pattern of their motivational intensity in learning English and Japanese was similar among the three groups. Specifically, the full bilinguals internalized motivation in English and Japanese learning equally, while members of both the emergent bilingual groups internalized motivation only in learning the main language of instruction, English. Regarding the respective motivational intensity in the learning of the two languages, autonomous motivation (intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) was significantly stronger in English learning than Japanese learning among the groups, except identified regulation in the emergent bilinguals with English as their first language, while controlled motivation (introjected and external regulation) was significantly stronger in Japanese learning than English learning. Correlation analysis between English learning and Japanese learning additionally showed that for the full bilinguals, intrinsic motivation in English learning did not correlate to that in Japanese learning, whereas such motivation was positively correlated among emergent bilinguals. Originality This is the first cross-lingual study using self-determination theory to compare motivation between emergent children reciprocally learning their first and second languages. It also compares the motivation of emergent children to that of fully bilingual children learning two first languages. Implications Different patterns of motivation among emergent and full bilinguals necessitate corresponding classroom strategies.
Chapter
This chapter discusses how learning English as a foreign language was affected by and has impacted the author's sense of self as an individual throughout their journey as a language learner and later as a language teacher and researcher. The author looks into the place of English in their ever-changing sense of self in this process and argues that there was a dynamic interaction between their sense of self and the English language. To give meaning to this interaction, the author uses the framework of L2 motivational self-system. Tracing the critical incidents in their journey of language learning, the author argues that their initial learning experiences were influential in shaping their current sense of self and future possible selves. This in turn impacted on the way they gave meaning to future learning experiences, suggesting a complex, dynamic, and multifaceted relationship between language learning and learners' selves.
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Spotlight Gamification is an emerging digital strategy to engage users across different business domains. Gamification, defined as using game-design elements in nongaming contexts, shows great potential across domains such as education, business, and health. The significance of gamification is highlighted by a $7.17 billion global market in 2019 and is projected to reach more than $40 billion by 2024. This study examines two popular badges and leaderboards that utilize self-determination and social-comparison mechanisms to promote user engagement. We conduct a randomized field experiment (A/B testing) to quantify these effects in one of the largest shopping malls in Asia and further contrast the two games against coupons regarding various shopping outcomes. Quantitatively, badging and leaderboarding promote sales by 21.5% and 22.5% in the treatment period, respectively, whereas couponing delivers a more potent effect of 31.7%. In the posttreatment period, the gamification impacts remain significant, whereas the influence of couponing fades out. Besides, the additional analyses document the salient heterogeneous treatment effects across gender, age, and income. We also zoom in on the contrast between badges and leaderboards, showing that badging is a balanced tool for attracting the general public and leaderboarding is a double-edged sword that could encourage self-reinforcing or self-banishing. Finally, gamification encourages consumers to do more exploration, leading to significant increases in sales.
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Young children have often been shown to be highly motivated towards learning foreign languages in primary school, but for their enthusiasm to decrease during secondary schooling. Many reasons have been put forward, such as novelty wearing off, teaching styles, or societal and peer pressure. Little is known about changes in attitudes and motivation in primary school aged children when these factors are kept constant, the only variable being the age of the children. The present study investigated differences in attitudes and motivation at two different ages (5 and 7) in such a setting. Two intact classes in the same school (53 children with no prior knowledge of French), taught the same material by the same teacher, took part in focus groups and one-to-one interviews during the course of a larger longitudinal project investigating the role of age in early classroom learning. Results show that changes in motivation might occur earlier than previously thought, and be shaped by developmental changes in children’s cognitive, social and emotional growth. Children as young as 5 and 7 were shown to exhibit differences in levels of self-regulation, self-efficacy, and thought and beliefs frames which had a direct impact on their attitudinal and motivational profiles.
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Live-streaming is now a popular form of new media as well as an important driver of E-Commerce. Nowhere is this seen more than in video-game streaming on Twitch. Streaming platforms like Twitch now provide specific affordances specifically designed to promote and facilitate videogame-streaming. Developers too provide their own game-based affordances to encourage the streaming of their games. However, despite the popularity of Twitch with viewers and game developers, this dichotomy of platform- and game-based streaming affordances has received little attention. This study helps to fill this gap in the literature by exploring the factors that drive streamers use of both platform and videogame affordances as they create streaming content. The study uses empirical data on 5,656 Twitch streamers (n = 5,656) to examine how platform affordances are combined with those available in games through a process we call “game-swinging”. Key results of the study show that platform-based affordances lend themselves well to game-swinging behaviours, while videogame-based affordances may be difficult for streamers to utilize without specific emphasis on streaming a single-game. These and other findings yield a deeper understanding of the processes that drive live-streaming content creation across a variety of e-Commerce platforms.
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Self-determination theory (SDT) proposes various types of motivation which fall onto a continuum of self-determination. Some computational techniques allow the estimation of a global score of self-determination, with bifactor-ESEM modeling being a popular estimation method. However, this approach has shortcomings, including changing conceptual interpretation of both general and specific factors. In this study, we applied the bifactor S – 1 modeling strategy to estimate the continuum and explore its potential contribution. By estimating all specific factors except for intrinsic motivation, this model anchors the general factor in intrinsic motivation which is prototypical of self-determination. Tested with five samples of students from elementary school to university (Ntotal > 4000), the bifactor S – 1 modeling strategy was empirically supported, and its general factor yielded a stronger prediction of students’ outcomes (e.g., grades, anxiety) compared to the previously advocated bifactor-ESEM model. The bifactor S – 1 model also explains outcomes with high precision, and its conceptual concordance with SDT makes it easily interpretable.
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This meta-analysis aimed to investigate and compare the efficiencies of gamification and game-based learning in terms of learning achievement and motivation. With distinctive features, gamification and game-based learning were hypothesized to exert different effects on learning achievement and motivation. The effects on learning achievement were more stable and significant for game-based learning (ES = 0.54, 95% CI [0.38, 0.70]) than for gamification (ES = 0.85, 95% CI [0.32, 1.37]). The overall effects on motivation were more significant for gamification (ES = 0.77, 95% CI [0.53, 1.01]) than for game-based learning (ES = 0.60, 95% CI [0.42, 0.78]). Gamification exerted less significant but more stable effects on intrinsic motivation (ES = 0.64, 95% CI [0.37, 0.91]) than on extrinsic motivation (ES = 0.92, 95% CI [0.50, 1.34]). Game-based learning exerted less significant but more stable effects on extrinsic motivation (ES = 0.56, 95% CI [0.35, 0.77]) than on intrinsic motivation (ES = 0.62, 95% CI [0.12, 1.13]). The main conclusion was that gamification and game-based learning, as two distinct game-related pedagogies, differently influenced learning achievement, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation. The dependence on immersion subject to external or internal factors and ludic contexts associated with internalization of motivation influenced the effect stability on learning achievement and motivation.
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This study examined marketing executives" sales performance motivations in Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria. The specific objectives include: (i) to determine the influence of motivation on both objective and subjective performance of marketing executives in Nigerian Deposit Money Banks and (ii) to determine how these 14 motivational variables: basic salary, monthly rent allowance, reimbursement of selling expenses, commission, official cars, promotion opportunities, awards, job security, job autonomy, performance communication feedback, marketing mix tool, job dismissal, promotion delays and suspension from work as punitive measures influence performance of marketing executives in Nigerian Deposit Money Banks. Quantitative survey research design methodology was adopted for the study. By gathering primary data from 334 bank marketing executives and 219 business managers using structured questionnaire and MANCOVA statistical tool for testing the hypotheses and analyzing the data, findings revealed that: motivation has strong and positive influence on both objective and subjective performance of marketing executives in Nigerian Deposit Money Banks and (ii) all the motivational tools mentioned above have strong and positive influence on both objective and subjective performance of marketing executives in Nigerian Deposit Money Banks except monthly rent, official cars and suspension from job. It was recommended that bank managers should pay adequate attention to those motivational tools that have strong positive influence on performance of marketing executives and de-emphasize expenditures on those that do not.
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The series is the expression of the Center for Research on Teaching of Languages, which in Edizioni Ca’ Foscari also has a magazine, Linguistics Education - Language Education, EL.LE, and a necklace, Intercultural Communication, COMINT, dedicated to this important but overlooked aspect of language mastery. In the series, the volumes of which are approved by three blind referees before publication, are three types of search space: a. studies on the epistemologic nature of the science that studies language education, in the wider meaning that includes Italian mother tongue, second and foreign, modern languages and classical ones; b. operational studies on methods, strategies, language teaching methodologies; c. quantitative and qualitative surveys on particular aspects of language teaching in the various training areas. The collection hosts studies of scholars working both at Ca’ Foscari University and in other institutions.
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In line with trends in sport management education that have encouraged a transition from traditional forms of passive and depersonalized learning to active and motivated learning, this essay draws on theoretical and applied insight to provide sport management educators with actionable information related to gamification. In educational contexts, gamification involves using game elements such as narratives, teams, and badges in the classroom as a way to support students’ intrinsic motivation and basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness). This essay presents a case for gamification as a high-impact pedagogical approach that can help sport management educators replicate the global, complicated, and dynamic nature of the sport industry, thus creating more authentic, engaging, and influential experiences for students. Accordingly, this essay outlines gamification in education, discusses game elements and design, and provides a thorough description of a gamified sport psychology course. It concludes with future considerations and key takeaways for sport management educators.
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In contrast to extensive research examining intrinsic motivation in educational and professional settings, the present research investigates the origin, and the development, of the intrinsic motivation to participate in a novel leisure activity. One survey and three experiments show that the enjoyment of a novel leisure activity, and the desire to reengage in the activity, are a function of the alignment between the goal associated with participation and a person’s implicit theory about the skills needed to participate. A mastery goal promotes the development of intrinsic motivation when two conditions are met: (1) people believe their skills are malleable, and (2) first-time participation in the activity results in perceptions of improved mastery. A performance goal promotes the development of intrinsic motivation when two conditions are met: (1) people believe their skills are fixed, and (2) first-time participation in the activity results in perceptions of successful performance. The motivational benefits aligning participation goals and implicit theories are reversed when the execution of a first-time leisure activity is exceedingly difficult.
Article
Objective Behaviour change interventions targeting changes in physical activity (PA) can benefit by examining the underlying mechanisms that promote change. This study explored the use of the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behaviour (COM-B) model and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to code and contextualise the experiences of participants who completed a PA coaching intervention underpinned by motivational interviewing and cognitive–behavioural therapy. Design Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of participants. Setting Interviews were conducted in a tertiary hospital in regional Victoria, Australia. Participants Eighteen participants who completed a PA coaching intervention were interviewed. The participants were recruited into the coaching intervention because they were insufficiently physically active at the time of recruitment. Results Thirteen (72%) participants were women and the average age of participants was 54 (±5) years. Four participant themes mapped directly onto five components of the COM-B model, and ten of the TDF domains. Increases in PA were influenced by changes in motivation and psychological capability. The autonomy-supportive PA coaching intervention helped to evoke participants’ own reasons (and motives) for change and influenced PA behaviours. Participants reflected on their own social and/or professional strengths, and used these skills to set appropriate PA goals and action plans. The structure of the PA coaching intervention provided clarity on session determinants and a framework from which to set an appropriate agenda. Relational components (eg, non-judgemental listening, collaboration) were continually highlighted as influential for change, and should be considered in future behaviour change intervention design. Conclusions We demonstrate the beneficial effect of using theory-informed behaviour change techniques, and delivering them in a style that promotes autonomy and relatedness. The views of participants should be a key consideration in the design and implementation of PA coaching interventions Trial registration number ACTRN12619000036112. Post-results analysis.
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Objective This paper explores physical activity patterns and compensation strategies of people with cardiovascular diseases. The aim is to provide insights into the factors and their relationships that may affect physical activity levels positively or negatively during the pandemic. Methods We adopted a qualitative approach with 35 participants who were purposively sampled from different provinces in Austria, including rural and urban areas. Semi-structured interviews were conducted during the second COVID-19 wave in autumn/winter 2020 and the fourth wave in autumn/winter 2021. Content analysis was applied to explore physical activity patterns, the perceived impact of the pandemic on physical activity as well as strategies adopted by participants to maintain physically active during the pandemic waves. Results Results show encouraging signs of a recovery or even increase in physical activity during the pandemic waves. The main drivers for maintaining or even increasing physical activity were intrinsic motivation and self-determined motivation relating to the pursue of individual health goals. Furthermore, analysis suggests a reinforcing effect of exercising in green natural areas by decreasing perception of effort and increasing motivation. There was also one group who experienced difficulties in adapting physical activity behaviors. Study participants who were used to exercise indoors struggled to replace accustomed activity patterns with alternatives that were not impacted by lockdown restrictions. Conclusions This study provides novel qualitative evidence on the effect of COVID-19 lockdowns on physical activity patterns of people with cardiovascular diseases. Public health interventions to enhance a physically active lifestyle during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic are recommended to target moderate outdoor exercising and enhance adaptive capacities of people with cardiovascular diseases.
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Tested the validity of the psychological processes proposed by E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan's (1980) cognitive evaluation theory when the information aspect of the situation is salient. Specifically, whether the effects of verbal feedback on intrinsic motivation are mediated by perceived competence was examined. 115 male undergraduates participated in a 1st phase wherein their intrinsic motivation and perceived competence toward an interesting motor task, the stabilometer, was assessed. 84 Ss who reported at least a moderate level of intrinsic motivation toward the task returned for the 2nd phase of the study in which they were subjected to conditions of either positive, negative, or no verbal feedback of performance. Intrinsic motivation and perceived competence were again assessed. One-way ANOVA showed that positive feedback increased while negative feedback decreased both intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Results of a path analysis conducted with verbal feedback, perceived competence, and intrinsic motivation supported (1) the mediating effects of perceived competence on intrinsic motivation and (2) cognitive evaluation theory. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Considered the relationship between teacher characteristics and the intrinsic motivation and self-esteem of 889 children in Grades 4–6. The research evolved out of E. L. Deci's (1971, 1972, 1975) cognitive evaluation theory, which distinguishes between the controlling and informational aspects of rewards. It was hypothesized that Ss whose teachers were oriented toward controlling them would be less intrinsically motivated and have lower self-esteem than Ss whose teachers were oriented toward supporting autonomy. It was reasoned that control-oriented teachers would tend to use rewards controllingly, whereas autonomy-oriented teachers would tend to use rewards informationally. Data support the hypothesis and also indicate that Ss perceived autonomy-oriented teachers as facilitating personal responsibility and internal control more than control-oriented teachers. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A 2-phase field experiment was conducted with 72 lower-socioeconomic preschool children to test the overjustification effect, which proposes that intrinsic motivation will decrease with the addition of contingent, external rewards which alone are sufficient to justify performance. Ss showing high intrinsic motivation on the target activity were exposed to 1 of 6 conditions. In the 3 experimental conditions the child received either money, an award, or positive verbal reinforcement for his/her performance on the target activity. Comparison groups controlled for time or history, the presence of the E, and the personal attention given the child by the E. Money and awards, expected to be perceived as sufficient to justify performance, reduced subsequent intrinsic motivation during a free-play period. Positive verbal reinforcement, predicted to be insufficient to justify performance, resulted in increased intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation in control groups for time and presence of the E did not change. Unexpectedly, a large decline in intrinsic motivation occurred in a control group where the child was ignored. This effect is discussed in terms of attribution and learning theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
examine the concept of human autonomy as it relates to both normal and psychopathological development / set forth a definition of autonomy that is informed by philosophical and clinical analyses, and that differentiates it from closely related constructs such as independence and detachment / explore how autonomy is intertwined with the developmental processes of intrinsic motivation, internalization, and emotional integration [and regulation during childhood], paying particular attention to how conditions in the social context either support the motivational and emotional bases of normal development or, alternatively, undermine these bases and contribute to psychopathology examine how the development of individual autonomy is intertwined with issues in attachment and the development of interpersonal relatedness, and how both autonomy and relatedness represent critical aspects of the development of self / discuss the dynamics of autonomy and relatedness with regard to varied clinical disorders of a psychological nature, which we view as outcomes of nonoptimal developmental antecedents (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Extended findings that support cognitive evaluation theory to intrapersonal processes by exploring the effects of informational vs controlling feedback, when self-selected and administered vs other-administered, and in conditions of task-involvement (intended to create an informational orientation in relation to the activity) vs ego-involvement (intended to create a controlling orientation in relation to the activity). 128 undergraduates working on a hidden figures task received either an ego- or task-involving induction and then a series of 3 puzzle problems for which half of the Ss received informational feedback and the other half controlling feedback. Half the Ss had the feedback self-administered, and half had it administered by the experimenter. After puzzle-solving, Ss were left alone with additional puzzles and magazines and were observed to see if they worked on the puzzles. Finally, Ss completed a questionnaire assessing their interest and attitudes toward the target activity. Results confirm that controlling feedback, whether self- or other administered, undermined intrinsic motivation relative to task-involvement. Results are discussed in terms of the application of cognitive evaluation theory to intrapersonal processes and self-control theories. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Attempted to refine and extend R. White's (1959) model of effectance motivation, with particular emphasis on its developmental implications. This expanded model focuses on the following: the need to isolate components of effectance motivation at different developmental levels, an examination of the effects of failure as well as success, the relationship between task challenge and the degree of pleasure experienced, the role of social agents and the reinforcing environment, the developmental internalization of a self-reward system, the need to examine the relative strength of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations, certain correlates such as perceived competence and perceived control as consequences and mediators of one's motivational orientation. The need to translate theoretical concepts into researchable formulations which can be empirically tested within a developmental context is emphasized. (45 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviewed research on the issue of self-determination and its relationship to intrinsic motivation in sport using cognitive evaluation theory (E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, 1985). It is argued that much of sport participation is a function of intrinsic motivation, and that such intrinsic motivation is facilitated by conditions conducive to autonomy or self-determination. The dynamics of self-determination have been explored in studies of the effects of external rewards, interpersonal contexts, and styles of self-regulation on intrinsic motivation. The implications of this body of work for sport psychology are discussed, as well as the relevant areas of sport motivation research that to date remain underexamined. (French, Spanish, German & Italian abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The concept of ego energies independent of libidinal and aggressive instincts brings about significant improvements in psychoanalytic ego theory. Following a review of ego psychology, independent ego energies are presented in terms of effectance and competence. There follow sections on reality and its testing, early deviations in ego development, identification as a process of development; self-esteem, sense of competence, and ego strength; and finally, considerations of anxiety, cathexis, and neutralization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Achievement behavior is defined as behavior directed at developing or demonstrating high rather than low ability. Ability can be conceived either with reference to the individual's own past performance or knowledge, a context in which gains in mastery indicate competence, or as capacity relative to that of others, a context in which a gain in mastery alone does not indicate high ability. To demonstrate high capacity, one must achieve more with equal effort or use less effort than do others for an equal performance. The conditions under which these different conceptions of ability function as individuals' goals and the nature of subjective experience in each case are specified. Different predictions of task choice and performance are derived and tested for each case using data from previously published studies. The effects of task and ego involvement, task choice, and self-perceptions are discussed. (125 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A review of the literature revealed that the effects of personal control on intrinsic motivation had not been directly investigated, that the interaction of competence and personal control had not been investigated, and that studies comparing the effects of contingent versus noncontingent reward systems on intrinsic motivation had produced conflicting results and conclusions. A study was designed and conducted using a direct manipulation of personal control over performance as well as the usual reward manipulation. It was found that personal control over performance was a very important determinant of intrinsic motivation but that the type of reward system did not affect intrinsic motivation. An interaction between personal control over performance and competence was found such that both performance and personal control over performance had to be high in order for intrinsic motivation to be high.
Article
The present study examined correlates of mastery-related behavior across the infant's second year of life. Maternal control style was quantified on a control to support-of-autonomy continuum, infant-mother attachment was assessed in the Strange Situation, and mastery-related behavior was observed in a toy play session at 12 and 20 months. Infants whose mothers were supportive of their autonomy displayed greater task-oriented persistence and competence during play than did infants of more controlling mothers; securely attached and avoidant infants tended to exhibit greater persistence at tasks than anxious-ambivalent babies, and ambivalent babies were the most negative in affect.
What is being optimized over development?: A self-determination theory perspective on basic psychological needs across the life span
  • R M Ryan
  • J G La Guardia
Ryan, R. M., & La Guardia. J. G. (in press). What is being optimized over development?: A self-determination theory perspective on basic psychological needs across the life span. In S. Quails & R. Abeles (Eds.), Dialogues on psychology and aging. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Science and human behavior
  • B F Skinner
Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.