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Efficacy of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Date Palm) Creams on Healthy Skin

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The date palm fruit ( Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) is used in most of the countries of the world and is an essential part of the diet, especially in many Arabian countries. Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits are a rich source of sugars (glucose and fructose), vitamins (A, C, and B complex), fibers, minerals, and phenolic compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study is designed to explore the Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit for skin care. A single-blinded, placebo control trial was conducted, including 11 healthy female volunteers after their informed consent. The efficacy of the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract (4%) was evaluated in cream form after one, two, three, four, six, and eight weeks of treatment compared with the baseline. Prior to the study, the composition of the extract was analyzed to understand the underlying mechanisms by which the extract affects skin. Treating facial skin with the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract significantly improved all parameters investigated, such as skin elasticity, pigmentation, redness, brightness, and hydration and led to the improvement of the facial skin. There were no adverse reactions noted during the course of the patch test, demonstrating that the extract could be safe to apply on the skin. The Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract serves as a skin care ingredient that significantly improves characteristics important for perception of skin ageing and health. The efficacy of the treatment is possibly due to a combination of numerous active substances found in the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract. View Full-Text
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cosmetics
Article
Efficacy of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Date Palm) Creams
on Healthy Skin
Sidra Meer 1, Naveed Akhtar 1, Tariq Mahmood 2, * and Joanna Igielska-Kalwat 3
1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Alternative Medicine,
the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan;
capricorn_sid29@hotmail.com (S.M.); nakhtar567@hotmail.com (N.A.)
2Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Central Punjab, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
3
Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz Universityin Pozna ´n, Pozna´n 61-614, Poland; ji11602@amu.edu.pl
*Correspondence: dr.tariq@ucp.edu.pk; Tel.: +92-333-232-2200
Academic Editor: Enzo Berardesca
Received: 1 February 2017; Accepted: 28 April 2017; Published: 8 May 2017
Abstract:
The date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) is used in most of the countries of the
world and is an essential part of the diet, especially in many Arabian countries. Phoenix dactylifera L.
fruits are a rich source of sugars (glucose and fructose), vitamins (A, C, and B complex), fibers,
minerals, and phenolic compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study
is designed to explore the Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit for skin care. A single-blinded, placebo control
trial was conducted, including 11 healthy female volunteers after their informed consent. The efficacy
of the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract (4%) was evaluated in cream form after one, two, three, four, six,
and eight weeks of treatment compared with the baseline. Prior to the study, the composition of
the extract was analyzed to understand the underlying mechanisms by which the extract affects
skin. Treating facial skin with the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract significantly improved all parameters
investigated, such as skin elasticity, pigmentation, redness, brightness, and hydration and led to
the improvement of the facial skin. There were no adverse reactions noted during the course of the
patch test, demonstrating that the extract could be safe to apply on the skin. The Phoenix dactylifera L.
fruit extract serves as a skin care ingredient that significantly improves characteristics important for
perception of skin ageing and health. The efficacy of the treatment is possibly due to a combination
of numerous active substances found in the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract.
Keywords: Phoenix dactylifera L.; emulsion; in vivo evaluation
1. Introduction
Medicinal plants are sources of various nutrients and also have therapeutic values, therefore they
can be used to synthesize and develop drugs [
1
]. The medicinal importance of plants is dependent on
their phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and essential
oils [2].
Phoenix dactylifera L., commonly known as date palm, belongs to the Arecaceae family and its
fruit (dates) has been used in folk medicines for many heart diseases and also for antifungal and
antibacterial purposes [
3
]. They are a rich source of sugars (glucose and fructose), vitamins (A, C, and
B complex), fibers, minerals, and phenolic compounds having potent antioxidant activity [
4
]. There
are almost 35 countries worldwide which produce dates and their composition varies according to the
variety and degree of ripening [5].
Phoenix dactylifera L. consists of polyphenols like cinnamic acid and their derivatives in which
$
coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acids are major compounds [
6
]. The darker color variety of the
date fruit has a higher concentration of polyphenols compared to the lighter variety [
4
]. The date palm
Cosmetics 2017,4, 13; doi:10.3390/cosmetics4020013 www.mdpi.com/journal/cosmetics
Cosmetics 2017,4, 13 2 of 8
kernel contains phytohormones; thus, it produces a significant anti-wrinkle effect and can be used in
antiaging products [
7
]. Date fruits are rich in phenolics and also possess antioxidant activity. Date
seeds can also be used in skin products, as they can yield a moisturizing oil with different essential
fatty acids [8].
The aim of the present study was to formulate a stable emulsion containing the
Phoenix dactylifera L.
extract and to evaluate its effect on different skin parameters like melanin,
erythema, hydration, sebum, and elasticity. The effects produced by this cream were compared
with the effects produced by a base without Phoenix dactylifera L. extract.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Materials
2.1.1. Plant Material
Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit (Family: Arecaceae) purchased from the local market was used as
plant material.
2.1.2. Chemicals
Paraffin oil (Merck, Germany). ABIL-EM 90 (Cetyl Dimethicone copolyol with HLB 5, Franken
Chemical, Germany), Lemon oil (Pakistan), Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract (methanolic), and distilled
water (prepared in the laboratory of the Pharmacy Department, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur,
Bahawalpur, Pakistan).
2.2. Method
2.2.1. Extraction of the Plant Material
The extract was taken by soaking the 100 g of chopped fruit in 900 mL of 80% methanol for 24 h.
Then the sample was stirred for 15 min and then filtered first through eight layers of muslin cloth and
then through Whatman filter paper #01. Afterwards, the dark yellowish colored extract was obtained
by evaporating the filtrate to one-third of the initial volume at 40
C under reduced pressure by using
a rotary vacuum evaporator.
2.2.2. Determination of Antioxidant Capacity
Antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging activity) of Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract was
determined using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) method. The extract was diluted with
an equal volume of DPPH (5
µ
L) using methanol (analytical grade) and kept in an incubator (37
C)
for half an hour. Then, the absorption of the sample was measured at 517 nm and compared with
Vitamin C (Control). The activity of free radicals in the form of % inhibition was calculated by using
the equation
% inhibition =(A Control A Sample)
A Control
The antioxidant activity of Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract was 89%.
2.2.3. Formulation Development
The oil phase was prepared by heating paraffin oil (16%) and ABIL EM90 (2.5%) to
75 ±1C
.
At the same time, the aqueous phase (water) (q.s) was heated to the same temperature. The
Phoenix dactylifera L. extract was added to the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase was subsequently
added to the oil phase drop by drop with continued stirring at 2000 rpm by a mechanical mixer for
15 min until the entire aqueous phase was added. During this stirring time, two to three drops of
Cosmetics 2017,4, 13 3 of 8
fragrance (fruit oil) were added to yield a good fragrance to the emulsion. The test and placebo
compositions are detailed in Table 1.
Table 1. Cream compositions.
Phase Placebo Cream Cream with Extract
Oily Phase Liquid paraffin—16% Liquid paraffin—16%
ABIL EM 90—2.5% ABIL_ EM 90—2.5%
Aqueous Phase Distilled water (q.s)—100% Plant extract—4% (conc.)
Distilled water (q.s)—100%
After continuous stirring for 15 min at 2000 rpm, the speed of the mixer was reduced to 1000 rpm
for a period of 10 min for homogenization. The speed of the mixer was then further reduced to 500 rpm
for a further 5 min until the emulsion cooled at room temperature.
The same method was used to formulate the base without the addition of Phoenix dactylifera L.
fruit extract.
2.2.4. Emulsion Stability Test
The stability tests were performed for both emulsions at different time intervals during 28 days.
The conditions used were 8
±
0.1
C (in refrigerator), 25
±
0.1
C, 40
C, 40
C
±
75% relative humidity
and 50
±
0.1
C (in incubator). The physical characteristics (color, liquefaction, phase separation)
of both the base and formulation were evaluated. The formulation was stable with respect to all
these parameters.
2.2.5. Evaluation of the Emulsion on Human Skin
Eleven female volunteers with an age range of 23–30 years (mean age 25.5) were selected for
inclusion in the study. To determine any possible reactions to the creams, a patch test was performed
on the forearms of each individual volunteer and after 48 h, results were recorded for any skin irritancy.
On the next day, two creams (placebo cream and cream with extract) were provided to each
volunteer. Each cream was marked “right” and “left” for application to the “right” and “left” cheek,
respectively and volunteers applied it once daily at bedtime. Volunteers were instructed to apply the
creams for eight weeks and to return for measurements on Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8. This study was
approved by the Board of Studies, Department of Pharmacy, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur
and all the volunteers agreed and signed an informed consent before start of the study.
2.2.6. Patch Test
The patch test was performed on the forearms of each volunteer on the first day of skin testing.
For this purpose, a 5
×
4 cm region was marked on both the forearms of each volunteer with the help of
a scale. The zero value of skin melanin and erythema were noted with the help of a Mexameter. Small
amounts of base and formulation were applied separately on each forearm on the marked area and the
area was covered with surgical dressing. Dressings were removed after 48 h and measurements of
melanin and erythema values were performed on both forearms.
2.2.7. Mathematical Analysis
The following formula was used to calculate the percentage changes for the individual values of
different parameters.
Percentage Change = [(TATB)/TB]×100
where T
A
= Individual value of any parameter after Weeks 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8; T
B
= Baseline value of
particular parameter.
Cosmetics 2017,4, 13 4 of 8
2.2.8. Statistical Analysis
The measured values obtained for different parameters (skin moisture, sebum, melanin, erythema,
and elasticity) were analyzed statistically using SPSS 12.0 version (paired samples t-test for variation
between the two preparations; two-way ANOVA for variation between different time intervals) at
5% level of significance.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Stability Tests for Base and Formulation
Samples of base and formulation were kept at different storage conditions and their stability was
studied. The tests were performed at 8 C, 25 C, 40 C, 40 C with 75% relative humidity, and 50 C.
Both the base and the formulation were stable against different storage conditions.
Organoleptic parameters relating to stability (color, liquefaction, phase separation) and
centrifugation test results are presented in the Table 2.
Table 2.
Physical characteristics of base and formulation kept at 8
C, 25
C, 40
C, 40
C with 75%
relative humidity, and 50 C.
Observed
Parameters
Fresh At 8 C At 25 C At 40 C 40 C with 75% RH At 50 C
After 28 Days After 28 Days After 28 Days After 28 Days After 28 Days
B F B F B F B F B F B F
Color W
OW
W OW W OW W OW W OW W OW
Liquefaction NA NA −−−−−− ++ +
Phase
separation NA NA −−−−−− ++ +
OW = Off-White; F = Formulation; B = Base; = No change; + = Slight change; NA = Not Applicable.
There was no change in the color of base and formulation at all storage temperatures. As far as
the viscosity and phase separation of the emulsions is concerned, there was a slight change in the base
after 21 weeks at 40
C with 75% relative humidity and 50
C, while that change was observed in the
formulation only at 50 C.
The Phoenix dactylifera L. extract has very good antibacterial and antifungal activity.
It contains high levels of tannins and phenolic compounds—such as ferulic acid,
$
-coumaric acid,
$
-hydroxybenzoic acid, certain oxidative enzymes, steroids, flavonoids, etc.—which are responsible
for antibacterial activity. They have reported antibacterial activity against gram negative bacteria
like K-pneumonia and E. coli [
9
]. Presence of different polyphenols are responsible for its antifungal
activity especially against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Albedinis (Foa) [
10
]. Most probably, due to the
presence of Phoenix dactylifera L. extract in the formulation (off-white formula) stabilizes it at high
temperatures when compared to base (white formula).
The presence of a lipophilic emulsifier, such as Abil EM 90, also stabilizes the emulsions at high
temperatures [11].
The thermal kinetic energy overcomes the gravitational energy of the emulsions and is responsible
for stabilizing the emulsions against phase separation [12].
3.2. Dermatological Tests
3.2.1. Melanin
Skin color is determined by pigmentation and protects the body against UV radiations. It is due
to the presence of a pigment named melanin. Melanin is synthesized by melanocytes and stored in
melanosomes. Melanosomes are spread into the skin by melanocytes with the help of dendrites and
with the spread of these melanosomes, the melanin also spreads [13].
Cosmetics 2017,4, 13 5 of 8
The melanin values of the skin of the cheeks were measured by using a Mexameter MX 18
(Courage + Khazaka, Cologne, Germany). These values were measured on the first day before the
application of base and formulation and then on Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8. The percentage changes in
the skin melanin after the application of base and formulation are given in Figure 1.
Cosmetics 2017, 4, 13 5 of 9
Figure 1. Percentage of change in skin melanin content after application of base and formulation.
The effect of base and formulation on the production of skin melanin were observed. There was
an increase in the skin melanin with the application of base while a significant decrease was observed
with the application of formulation from Weeks 1 to 8.
When ANOVA was applied with the 5% level of significance, it showed a significant result with
time. With the paired sample t-test, the result showed that there are significant variances after two
weeks in the effects of base and formulation.
In the fruit of Phoenix dactylifera L., the presence of polyphenolic compounds and flavonoid
glycosides of luteolin, quercetin, and apigenin is the reason behind the antioxidant activity of this
fruit. The antioxidant activity of the fruit varies depending upon the variety and the method of
extraction [3].
3.2.2. Erythema
The changes in erythema were observed by using a Mexameter MX 18 after the application of
base and formulation. The percentage changes in the skin erythema are given in the Figure 2.
There was an irregular decrease in erythema after application of the base, while application of
the formulation showed a marked decrease with the passage of time.
When the ANOVA test was performed it showed a mild decrease in skin erythema contents with
the application of base and a significant decrease with the application of formulation. The paired
sample t-test also showed significant variances after four weeks in the results of effects of base and
formulation.
The extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit has superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity.
So, it has an antioxidant and antimutagenic property [14]. This is the cause of erythematic properties
of the formulation.
week1
week2
week3
week4
week6
week8
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
Percent Change
Base Formulation
Figure 1. Percentage of change in skin melanin content after application of base and formulation.
The effect of base and formulation on the production of skin melanin were observed. There was
an increase in the skin melanin with the application of base while a significant decrease was observed
with the application of formulation from Weeks 1 to 8.
When ANOVA was applied with the 5% level of significance, it showed a significant result
with time. With the paired sample t-test, the result showed that there are significant variances after
two weeks in the effects of base and formulation.
In the fruit of Phoenix dactylifera L., the presence of polyphenolic compounds and flavonoid
glycosides of luteolin, quercetin, and apigenin is the reason behind the antioxidant activity of this fruit.
The antioxidant activity of the fruit varies depending upon the variety and the method of extraction [
3
].
3.2.2. Erythema
The changes in erythema were observed by using a Mexameter MX 18 after the application of
base and formulation. The percentage changes in the skin erythema are given in the Figure 2.
Cosmetics 2017, 4, 13 6 of 9
Figure 2. Percentage of change in skin erythema content after application of base and formulation.
3.2.3. Skin Moisture Content
The changes in the skin moisture contents were observed by using a Corneometer CM 825
(Courage + Khazaka) after the application of base and formulation. The percentage changes in the
skin moisture are given in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Percentage of change in skin moisture content after application of base and formulation.
The application of base showed a mild increase in the skin moisture contents while the
application of formulation showed a marked increase in the skin moisture contents.
With ANOVA, the result found in the base application was not significant, while the formulation
showed a significant result. The paired sample t-test also showed significant variances after three
weeks in the results of effects of base and formulation.
The presence of phenolic acids and vitamins like ascorbic acid and vitamin E is reported in the
flesh and the pit of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit [15]. This helps in stimulating dermal
fibroblasts, which increases collagen synthesis, resulting in an improvement of the hydration level.
3.2.4. Skin Sebum Content
The changes in the skin sebum contents were observed by using a Sebumeter SM 815 (Courage
+ Khazaka) after the application of base and formulation. The percentage changes in the skin sebum
are given in Figure 4.
week1
week2
week3
week4
week6
week8
-8
-7
-6
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
Percent Change
Base Formulation
week1
week2
week3
week4
week6
week8
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Percent Change
base formulation
Figure 2. Percentage of change in skin erythema content after application of base and formulation.
There was an irregular decrease in erythema after application of the base, while application of the
formulation showed a marked decrease with the passage of time.
When the ANOVA test was performed it showed a mild decrease in skin erythema contents with
the application of base and a significant decrease with the application of formulation. The paired
Cosmetics 2017,4, 13 6 of 8
sample t-test also showed significant variances after four weeks in the results of effects of base
and formulation.
The extract of Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit has superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity.
So, it has an antioxidant and antimutagenic property [14]. This is the cause of erythematic properties
of the formulation.
3.2.3. Skin Moisture Content
The changes in the skin moisture contents were observed by using a Corneometer CM 825
(Courage + Khazaka) after the application of base and formulation. The percentage changes in the skin
moisture are given in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Percentage of change in skin moisture content after application of base and formulation.
The application of base showed a mild increase in the skin moisture contents while the application
of formulation showed a marked increase in the skin moisture contents.
With ANOVA, the result found in the base application was not significant, while the formulation
showed a significant result. The paired sample t-test also showed significant variances after three
weeks in the results of effects of base and formulation.
The presence of phenolic acids and vitamins like ascorbic acid and vitamin E is reported in the
flesh and the pit of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit [
15
]. This helps in stimulating dermal
fibroblasts, which increases collagen synthesis, resulting in an improvement of the hydration level.
3.2.4. Skin Sebum Content
The changes in the skin sebum contents were observed by using a Sebumeter SM 815 (Courage +
Khazaka) after the application of base and formulation. The percentage changes in the skin sebum are
given in Figure 4.
The application of base showed an irregular increase and little decrease in the skin sebum contents
while the application of formulation showed a marked decrease in the skin sebum contents.
With ANOVA, the result yielded by the base was not significant, while the formulation showed
a significant result after four weeks. The paired sample t-test showed insignificant variances in the
results of effects of base and formulation.
Dates are rich in many types of fatty acids and among those oleic and linoleic acid are the
most important [
16
]. These fatty acids inhibit the enzyme
α
-1 reductase, which causes a decreased
production of sebum [17].
Cosmetics 2017,4, 13 7 of 8
Cosmetics 2017, 4, 13 7 of 9
Figure 4. Percentage of change in skin sebum content after application of base and formulation.
The application of base showed an irregular increase and little decrease in the skin sebum
contents while the application of formulation showed a marked decrease in the skin sebum contents.
With ANOVA, the result yielded by the base was not significant, while the formulation showed
a significant result after four weeks. The paired sample t-test showed insignificant variances in the
results of effects of base and formulation.
Dates are rich in many types of fatty acids and among those oleic and linoleic acid are the most
important [16]. These fatty acids inhibit the enzyme α-1 reductase, which causes a decreased
production of sebum [17].
3.2.5. Skin Elasticity
The changes in the skin elasticity contents were observed by using an Elastometer EM 25
(Courage + Khazaka) after the application of base and formulation. The percentage changes in the
skin elasticity are given in Figure 5.
Figure 5. Percentage of change in skin elasticity after application of base and formulation.
The application of base showed a mild increase in the skin elasticity while the application of
formulation showed a marked increase in the skin elasticity.
With ANOVA, a significant result was found after the application of base and formulation. The
paired sample t-test also showed significant variances after one week in the results of effects of base
and formulation.
week1 week2
week3
week4
week6
week8
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
Percent Change
base formulation
week1
week2
week3
week4
week6
week8
0
5
10
15
20
25
Percent Change
base formulation
Figure 4. Percentage of change in skin sebum content after application of base and formulation.
3.2.5. Skin Elasticity
The changes in the skin elasticity contents were observed by using an Elastometer EM 25 (Courage
+ Khazaka) after the application of base and formulation. The percentage changes in the skin elasticity
are given in Figure 5.
Cosmetics 2017, 4, 13 7 of 9
Figure 4. Percentage of change in skin sebum content after application of base and formulation.
The application of base showed an irregular increase and little decrease in the skin sebum
contents while the application of formulation showed a marked decrease in the skin sebum contents.
With ANOVA, the result yielded by the base was not significant, while the formulation showed
a significant result after four weeks. The paired sample t-test showed insignificant variances in the
results of effects of base and formulation.
Dates are rich in many types of fatty acids and among those oleic and linoleic acid are the most
important [16]. These fatty acids inhibit the enzyme α-1 reductase, which causes a decreased
production of sebum [17].
3.2.5. Skin Elasticity
The changes in the skin elasticity contents were observed by using an Elastometer EM 25
(Courage + Khazaka) after the application of base and formulation. The percentage changes in the
skin elasticity are given in Figure 5.
Figure 5. Percentage of change in skin elasticity after application of base and formulation.
The application of base showed a mild increase in the skin elasticity while the application of
formulation showed a marked increase in the skin elasticity.
With ANOVA, a significant result was found after the application of base and formulation. The
paired sample t-test also showed significant variances after one week in the results of effects of base
and formulation.
week1 week2
week3
week4
week6
week8
-12
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
Percent Change
base formulation
week1
week2
week3
week4
week6
week8
0
5
10
15
20
25
Percent Change
base formulation
Figure 5. Percentage of change in skin elasticity after application of base and formulation.
The application of base showed a mild increase in the skin elasticity while the application of
formulation showed a marked increase in the skin elasticity.
With ANOVA, a significant result was found after the application of base and formulation.
The paired sample t-test also showed significant variances after one week in the results of effects of
base and formulation.
Different types of minerals and vitamins, especially vitamin C, are present in date fruits [
18
].
Vitamin C has a proven anti-aging activity because it induces the enzyme collagenase 1 and enhances
collagen production [19].
4. Conclusions
The conclusion of this study is that a topical cream containing Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract
has different effects on different skin parameters. It can produce a decrease in skin melanin contents
(whitening effects), decrease in skin erythema contents (anti-inflammatory effect), decrease in skin
sebum contents (anti-acne effects), increase in skin moisture contents (moisturizing effect), and
an increase in skin elasticity (anti-aging effects).
A further study is needed on this plant in order to use it to treat different skin disorders.
Acknowledgments:
Authors are highly thankful to Cosmin Moldovan, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of
Târgu Mures, Târgu-Mure¸s, Romania for his valuable effort in improving this manuscript for English editing.
Cosmetics 2017,4, 13 8 of 8
Author Contributions:
N.A. conceived and designed the experiments; S.M. performed the experiments; T.M. and
J.I. contributed analysis tools and wrote the paper; all four authors analyzed the data.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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(CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... Moreover, they are rich in fiber and phenolic compounds, and they show high oxidative stability and sensory acceptability [69][70][71][72]. In addition, fatty acids and oil are derived from date seeds used in cosmetic industries [73,74]. Different kinds of traditional, natural, and man-made materials have been developed from date palm waste, such as mats, screens, baskets, crates, fans, walking sticks, brooms, fishing floats, and fuel. ...
... Date fruit waste is also considered to have chemoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties [79,80]. Meer et al. (2017) demonstrated that date fruit extract significantly improved skin health [73]. Date seeds contain 6-8% essential oil suitable for usage in the production of moisturizing soaps/creams, shampoos, and other skincare products [81,82]. ...
... Date fruit waste is also considered to have chemoprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties [79,80]. Meer et al. (2017) demonstrated that date fruit extract significantly improved skin health [73]. Date seeds contain 6-8% essential oil suitable for usage in the production of moisturizing soaps/creams, shampoos, and other skincare products [81,82]. ...
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Abstract: Many recent studies in the field of cosmetics have focused on organically sourced substances. Products made from organic materials are safe, high quality, cruelty-free, and more effective than those made from synthetic materials. Many organic compounds are known to be physiologically active in humans and have an extended storage capacity and long-lasting environmental effects. Agro-industrial waste has recently increased substantially, and the disposal of date palm waste, often performed in primitive ways such as burning, is harmful to the environment. Fruit processing industries generate over 10% of the total date seed waste daily, which could be converted into useful food products. Date fruit and seed are rich in sugar, vitamins, fiber, minerals, and phenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that significantly promote human and animal health. This waste is rich in bioactive compounds and essential oils used in many kinds of food, medicine, and cosmetics. Most active cosmetic ingredients come from natural sources such as fruit, fish, and dairy, and recent research shows that date extract and seed oil help to reduce melanin, eczema, acne, and dry patches, while increasing skin moisture and elasticity. This review details the bioactive compounds and nutraceutical properties of date fruit and seed, and their use as cosmetic ingredients.
... 27 Meer et al explained the association between date fruit antioxidants and reduction in the skin melanin level. 26 Yusofzadeh et al 27 Previous studies have shown phytohormone's effects with different mechanisms such as increase in testosterone and production of Beta sito-sterol by Phoenix dactylifera. [53][54][55] Kordi et al considered that the date's phytoestrogens are effective on preparing uterus and cervical ripening. ...
... 38 In the included studies, zinc and cadmium of date were mentioned as factors promoting uterine contraction. 34,36,44 Meer et al 26 The fatty acids of date such has oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid are involved in the creation of prostaglandins. 34 Prostaglandins induce muscle contraction and reduce postpartum bleeding. ...
... 57 Razali et al 29 bleeding. 33 In addition to these compounds, other compounds of date palm were explained in included studies; such as the role of linoleic acid and peroxidase enzyme in smooth muscle contraction 40 or the role of antimicrobial compounds of dates on skin health and protection of oral mucosa 26,31 or the role of date's glucose for maintaining the normal process of delivery. 41 ...
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Purpose The aim of present study was to review and categorize the clinical trials investigating the clinical effects of different botanical parts of dates compared with any controls. Methods All clinical trials (randomized, pilot, quasi-experimental, cross-over. and non-randomized clinical trials) evaluating the clinical effects of date palm from 2000 until August 2019 in English and Persian languages were included in this systematic review. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the risk of bias assessment of Cochrane handbook of systematic reviews, and then reported using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. Results Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were performed in 8 categories based on different botanical parts of date palm. These categories were obstetrics, gynecology, oncology, dermatology, hematology, gastroenterology, endocrinology, metabolism, and infertility. A total of 38 % of included studies were randomized controlled trials. Further, 80 % of the included studies had performance and detection bias. Finally, about 50 % of them had selection bias and about 20 % had attrition and reporting bias. Conclusion The widespread consumption of date palm as medicinal and botanical plant suggests the importance of this plant in human healthcare. The clinical trials conducted so far have explained a number of clinical effects of date palm. However, there is not enough clinical evidence to support the clinical effects in other review articles and traditional medical systems, and further randomized controlled trials with robust designs and methods are required.
... Traditionally, it was commonly used for varied conditions in different parts of the world. In Morocco, people used it for diabetes and hypertension (Vickers, 2017); pulp boiled in milk as tonic and powdered mixture of almonds, dates, pistachio nuts, spices, quince seeds and sugars as nourishing diet for pregnant and lactating mothers (Puri et al., 2000); and also used for anti-aging activity (Meer et al., 2017), bronchitis, burning sensation, cough, gastropathy, nephropathy, rheumatism and sexual debility (El-Hilaly et al., 2018). ...
... Previously, plant-derived polyphenols increased the blood circulation and nutrition to the skin [53] and may significantly inhibit the catabolic actions of collagenases and elastases and add to the synthesis of collagen and elastin fibers facilitating the normal skin anatomy, increase elasticity and hydration and reverse the effects of photo-damage [48,55]. Thus, the increased skin elasticity and hydration level by formulation could be associated with the presence of these polyphenols rich bark extract. ...
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Several plants found rich in flavonoid, polyphenols, and antioxidants reported antiaging, oppose inflammation and carcinogenic properties but have rarely been applied in dermatology. The present study was an active attempt to formulate a stable phytocosmetic emulsion system loaded with 2% pre-concentrated Prosopis cineraria bark extract, aiming to revive facial skin properties. In order to obtain potent therapeutic activities, we first prepared extracts of stem, leaves, and bark and screen them on basis of phenolic, flavonoids contents and antioxidant, antibacterial, lipoxygenase and tyrosinase inhibition activities. Furthermore, cytocompatibility of the extract was also determined prior starting in vivo investigations. Then the in vivo performance of 2% bark extract loaded emulsion formulation was determined by using non-invasive probe cutometer and elastometer with comparison to base formulation. The preliminary experiment showed that bark extract has a significant amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds with eminent antioxidant potential. Furthermore, indicated an efficient antibacterial, lipoxygenase, and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition activities. Importantly, the bark extract did not induce any toxicity or apoptosis, when incubated with HaCat cells. Moreover, the in vivo results showed the formulation (size 3 μm) decreased the skin melanin, erythema and sebum contents up to 2.1-,2.7-and 79%, while increased the skin hydration and elasticity up to 2-folds and 22% as compared to the base, respectively. Owing to enhanced therapeutic effects the phytocosmetic formulation proved to be a potential skin whitening, moisturizer, anti-acne, anti-wrinkle, anti-aging therapy and could actively induce skin rejuvenation and resurfacing.
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Date palm counts among the oldest fruit crops of the world and is mainly cultivated for its highly nutritious fruits consumed as a staple food in many countries, especially in the Gulf region. Dates are enriched with numerous therapeutic bioactives and functional compounds such as phenolics, flavonols, carotenoids, minerals, and vitamins that not only provide an appreciable amount of energy required for the human body but also act as an effective therapeutic agent against several diseases. This review aimed to provide a deep insight into the nutritional as well as phytochemicals profile of date fruit and its seeds in order to explore their biological (anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory properties), functional food, and nutra-pharmaceutical attributes.
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The date palm fruit is a drupe exhibiting a high diversity in texture, shape, color and chemical composition depending on the genotype, environment, season and cultural practices. The fruit typically characterize the variety. The socio-economic value of dates is particularly known from oases, where date palms grow and fruits were historically the medium of exchange between populations. The geographical distribution of date palm cultivars is not yet well studied and the international demand on some of them will have disastrous impacts on the sustainability of this crop in the long term. This impoverishes germplasm and narrows the diversity grown among oases. In addition, despite the presence of several reports on the chemical composition and the nutritional value of dates, many other potentialities of the fruits remain to be explored. Many claims report on the antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antiulcer and immuno-modulatory properties of dates. Recently, the antioxidant activity of some cultivars was investigated and attributed to phenolic compounds. Dates are very rich in phenolics, in quality and quantity, which opens many fields of investigation in terms of new potential uses. This study summarizes the recent progress in date research, providing an up-to-date overview of the worldwide production/commercialization and the traditional and medicinal uses. Other current and future applications of dates also are highlighted.
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Date is one of the world's oldest food-producing plants wich has always played an important role in the economy and social life. Various researchers examined chemical composition and nutritional values of edible parts of dates while limited information about chemical composition and nutritional quality of date seed is available. In this study, fatty acid composition and total tocopherol content of 14 Iranian date seed oils were studied. Statistical analysis was performed through SPSS computing package. According to the fatty acid profiles, seven fatty acids were found through nearly 50% oleic acid in seeds. Shekar cultivar by 51.40% had the maximum amount and Lasht cultivar by 33.38% had the minimum amount of oleic acid. Tocopherol content in the samples varied between 33.86 μg vit E/g oil for Shahabi2 to 10.09 μg vit E/g oil for Shekar. Tocopherol content was 1.88 and 0.61 μg respectively in one-gram seed of these two cultivars. Iranian date seed oils classified as oleic-lauric oil, had a high amount of oleic acid and could serve as a profitable source of valuable oils for industrial applications.
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Skin aging is a complex biological process influenced by a combination of endogenous or intrinsic and exogenous or extrinsic factors. Because of the fact that skin health and beauty is considered one of the principal factors representing overall "well-being" and the perception of "health" in humans, several anti-aging strategies have been developed during the last years. It is the intention of this article to review the most important anti-aging strategies that dermatologists have nowadays in hand, including including preventive measurements, cosmetological strategies, topical and systemic therapeutic agents and invasive procedures.
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The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic profile of seven different varieties of ripe date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) from Algeria by LC–DAD–MS (ESI+), to investigate their respective antioxidant activities by the DPPH· method and to estimate their phenolic content using the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The total phenolic content was in the range of 2.49 ± 0.01 to 8.36 ± 0.60 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per 100 g fresh fruit. This fruit was shown to possess an antioxidant activity, giving values of antiradical efficient (AE) from 0.08 ± 0.00 to 0.22 ± 0.00. The phenolic contents and the antiradical efficiencies of the different varieties were highly correlated (R2=0.975). All the varieties were found to contain mainly p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids and some cinnamic acid derivatives. Three different isomers of 5-o-caffeoylshikimic acid were detected. Different types of flavonoids were identified, mainly flavones, flavanones and flavonol glycosides.