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Lime Juice as a source of Organic Acids for growth and Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Croiler chickens.

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An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of lime juice (Citrus aurentifolia) on growth and nutrient digestibility of broilers. Three hundred day- old mix-sex broiler chicks of Anak strain were used. The lime juice was assessed for its citric and ascorbic acids content. Its antibacterial action on feed was determined. A basal diet was formulated as control and designated as treatment 1 (T1). Other treatments were formed by mixing the lime juice with the basal diet at different levels. The levels were 1.0, 1.50, 2.0 and 2.50% representing T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Birds were randomly allotted to the 5 treatments and each treatment was replicated thrice. Each replicate had 20 birds. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD). Feed and water were given ad libitum. Results showed that the juice contained 1.60 and 1.20% of citric and ascorbic acids respectively with pH value of 4.5. The bacteria population in the feed was reduced by the lime juice. At the starter phase, the lime juice improved feed intake and 2.50% significantly (P<0.05) improved final live weight and weight gain. At the finisher phase, final live weight was significantly (P<0.05) improved by 2.0 and 2.50%. Feed intake, weight gain, feed: gain ratio and protein efficiency ratio were not influenced (P>0.05). Digestibility of protein, fat and oil was improved by 1.50% and above. Therefore, lime juice could be used to sanitize poultry feed and addition of 2.0% lime juice in broiler diets is recommended to be adopted.
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Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery
2017
Vol. 1 No. 1:3
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© Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License | This arcle is available from: hp://www.imedpub.com/veterinary-medicine-and-surgery
Research Article
Ndelekwute EK and
Enyenihi GE
Department of Animal Science, University of
Uyo, Uyo 520003, Nigeria
Corresponding author: Ndelekwute EK
ndelekwute.ek@gmail.com
Department of Animal Science, University of
Uyo, Uyo 520003, Nigeria.
Tel: +2348061220967
Citaon: Ndelekwute EK, Enyenihi GE.
Lime Juice as a Source of Organic Acids for
Growth and Apparent Nutrient Digesbility
of Broiler Chickens. J Vet Med Surg. 2017,
1:1.
Introducon
Feed addives have numerous benecial eects in meat animal
producon like control of pathogenic microorganisms and
enhancement of growth of benecial microorganisms [1]. High
level of producon, least cost feed and ecient feed conversion
are the needs of the modern broiler producon which to a certain
extent could be achieved by the use of specic feed addives.
Anbioc growth promoters have been extensively used in
animal feed especially in the poultry and pig industries [2]. They
are thought to stabilize the intesnal microora and to prevent
some specic intesnal pathogens leading to beer gain and
feed conversion [1]. Anbiocs possess these benecial eects,
but their use in animal feeds has been intensely and extensively
controversial because of the development of bacterial resistance
and potenal consequences on animal and human health [3].
Received: February 02, 2017; Accepted: February 17, 2017; Published: April 07,
2017
Lime Juice as a Source of Organic Acids
for Growth and Apparent Nutrient
Digesbility of Broiler Chickens
Abstract
An experiment was conducted to determine the eect of lime juice (Citrus
aurenfolia) on growth and nutrient digesbility of broilers. Three hundred day-
old mix-sex broiler chicks of Anak strain were used. The lime juice was assessed
for its citric and ascorbic acids content. Its anbacterial acon on feed was
determined. A basal diet was formulated as control and designated as treatment
1 (T1). Other treatments were formed by mixing the lime juice with the basal
diet at dierent levels. The levels were 1.0, 1.50, 2.0 and 2.50% represenng T2,
T3, T4 and T5 respecvely. Birds were randomly alloed to the 5 treatments and
each treatment was replicated thrice. Each replicate had 20 birds. The experiment
was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD). Feed and water were given
ad libitum. Results showed that the juice contained 1.60 and 1.20% of citric and
ascorbic acids respecvely with pH value of 4.5. The bacteria populaon in the feed
was reduced by the lime juice. At the starter phase, the lime juice improved feed
intake and 2.50% signicantly (P<0.05) improved nal live weight and weight gain.
At the nisher phase, nal live weight was signicantly (P<0.05) improved by 2.0
and 2.50%. Feed intake, weight gain, feed: gain rao and protein eciency rao
were not inuenced (P>0.05). Digesbility of protein, fat and oil was improved by
1.50% and above. Therefore, lime juice could be used to sanize poultry feed and
addion of 2.0% lime juice in broiler diets is recommended to be adopted.
Keywords: Ascorbic acid; Broilers; Citric acid; Nutrient digesbility
Owing to anbioc resistance and human health hazard, there
is an increased pressure on livestock industry by consumers and
regulatory agencies to phase out or reduce the use of anbioc
growth promoters. This has forced animal nutrionists to acvely
search for ecacious alternaves to anbioc growth promoters.
As alternave to anbiocs, organic acids (formic, citric, ascorbic,
acec and butyric acids etc.) among others have been reported
to be ecacious by modifying intesnal pH, improving digeson
and absorpon of nutrients [4]. Organic acids currently in use
are synthec types which are expensive and most farmers do
not have access to them. Also going by the campaign in favor
of organic farming or use of natural feed addives in meat
animal feeds, it is important to survey the natural ecosystem to
discover and exploit some natural sources of organic acids. Lime
juice is a good source of organic acids such as citric and ascorbic
acids [5] and could serve this purpose. It was reported that lime
juice also contained some bio-molecules such as avonoids and
2This article is available from: hp://www.imedpub.com/veterinary-medicine-and-surgery
2017
Vol. 1 No. 1:3
Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery
2.0 mg, riboavin 3.0 mg, pyridoxine 4.0 mg, niacin 20 mg,
cobalamin 0.05 mg, pantothenic acid 5.0 mg, Folic acid 0.5 mg,
Bion 0.08 mg, choline chloride 0.2 mg, manganese 0.006 g, Zinc
0.03 g, copper 0.006 g, iodine 0.0014 g, selenium 0.24 g, cobalt
0.25 g and anoxidant 0.125 g.
Management of experimental birds
The experiment was conducted according to the rules and
regulaons of the University Research Ethics Commiee
regarding animal welfare. The birds on arrival to farm the chicks
were given glucose soluon aer they were alloed randomly to
the various treatments. Heat was provided using kerosene stove
for three weeks. All necessary vaccinaons against Newcastle
and infecous bursal (gumboro) diseases were done under the
supervision of a veterinary ocer. The birds were raised in an
open sided deep lier house with pens measuring 2 m × 2 m
each. Each pen formed a replicate which contained twenty birds.
Feed and water were provided ad libitum.
Determinaon of apparent nutrient digesbility
At the end of the experiment, total collecon method was used
to determine the apparent nutrient digesbility. One bird from
each of the replicates was used for the digesbility trial. There
were housed in metabolism cages that were thoroughly washed
and disinfected. The birds were acclimazed for four days during
which their respecve feeds were given to them. Thereaer, they
were fed ad libitum, a known quanty of their respecve diets
for another four days during which faecal collecon was carried
out daily. Plasc trays were placed under the cages to collect the
carotenoids [5]. This could be an added advantage to envisaged
bioacve property of lime juice due to the organic acid content.
Nevertheless, there is scarce informaon on the use of lime juice
as a growth promoter in feeding of broiler chickens. Therefore,
the objecve of this work was to determine the anbacterial
acon of lime juice in the feed and its eect as natural source
of organic acids on growth and nutrient digesbility of broiler
chickens.
Materials and Methods
Site of the experiment
The experiment was conducted at the poultry unit of Teaching
and Research Farm of the University of Uyo, Nigeria, located
on latude 32' N and longitude 7° 54' E with average annual
rainfall of 1500 mm. The average relave humidity during the
experiment was 65% and average ambient temperature was
32°C.
Processing of test lime juice
The lime juice used as the source of organic acids was obtained
from the market. The lime fruits were washed and cut into two
transverse secons with a sharp knife. The juice was expelled
manually by squeezing with the hand. The juice containing the
seeds and some parcles was ltered in order to have a clear
juice.
Determinaon of pH, citric and ascorbic acids
content of lime juice
The juice was tested for pH using a pH Meter (PHep, Hanna
Instruments, Italy) by dipping the pH meter electrode into a glass
tube containing 10 ml of the lime juice. The number at which the
pointer was indicang was taken as the pH. The juice was also
analyzed for citric and ascorbic acids content by traon method
according to Ref. [5].
Experimental design
Completely randomized design (CRD) was employed. The
experiment was conducted with 300 day old unsexed broiler
chicks of Anak strain. The chicks were randomly divided into ve
dietary groups (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) each having 60 chicks. Each
treatment was replicated three mes with 20 chicks each. Starter
and nisher basal diets (Table 1) were formulated to form the
control (T1). 10 ml, 15 ml, 20 ml and 25 ml of the lime juice /kg
feed were respecvely added to the basal diet to form T2, T3, T4
and T5. This represented 1.00, 1.50, 2.00 and 2.50% of the diet
respecvely.
Starter premixes supplied per kg diet: Vitamin A 15,000/10,000
IU, vitamin D3 13000/12,000 IU, thiamin 2/2.0 mg, riboavin
6/3.0 mg, pyridoxine 4/4.0 mg, niacin 40/20 mg, cobalamine
0.05/0.05 g, Bion 0.08/0.08 mg, choline chloride 0.05/0.2 g,
manganese 0.096/0.006 g, zinc 0.06/0.03 g, iron 0.024/0.02 g,
copper 0.006/0.006 g, iodine 0.014/0.001 g, selenium 0.24/0.24
mg, cobalt 0.024/0.25 mg, anoxidant 0.125/0.125 g.
Finisher premix supplied per kg diet: Vitamin A 10, 000 IU,
vitamin D3 12,000 IU, vitamin E 20 IU, vitamin K 2.5 mg, thiamine
Ingredients (%) Starter Finisher
Maize 53 54
Soybean meal 30 27
Fish meal 3 2
Palm kernel cake 6.2 9.3
Wheat oal 4 6
Bone meal 3 3
Lime juice 0 0
Salt 0.25 0.25
Lysine 0.2 0.1
Methionine 0.1 0.1
Premix 0.25 0.25
Total 100 100
Table 1A: Ingredient composion of the basal diets.
Nutrient Composion (%) Starter Finisher
Crude Protein 22.35 20.45
Crude Fibre 4.13 4.13
Ether Extract 4.1 4.1
Total Ash 8 8
Calcium 1.08 1.08
Phosphorus 1.01 1.01
Lysine 1.1 1.1
Methionine 0.5 0.5
Energy (KcalME/kg ) 2875 2901
Table 1B: Nutrient composion of the basal diets.
3
2017
Vol. 1 No. 1:3
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Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery
faeces. Collected samples were quickly taken to the laboratory
and dried to a constant weight in an oven. The proximate
composion was determined according to the methods of Ref.
[6]. The apparent nutrient digesbility was calculated thus,
according to Ref. [7].
( )
100
%
1
Nutrientin feed nutrient in faeces
Nutrient digestibility Nutrient in feed
= ×
Determinaon of anbacterial acon of lime
juice in feed
A kilogram of the basal diet was measured into 5 places labeled
A, B, C, D and E represenng the treatments. Thereaer 0.0, 10,
15, 20 and 25 ml of the lime juice was added to the feed samples
respecvely. Five (5 g) was collected from each of the acidied
sample feeds and the one without lime juice which served as the
control. Each of the samples was le for 24 hours. At the end of
the 24 hours they were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. At the
end of the incubaon period serial diluon method according to
Ref. [8] was used to determine the bacteria load of each sample.
Collecon of data and stascal analysis
Live weight was measured weekly and feed intake daily. The live
weight and feed intake were used to calculate the feed: gain rao.
All data collected were subjected to one way analysis of variance
(ANOVA). Signicant means were separated using Duncan New
Mulple Range Test according to Ref. [9]. Total bacteria load was
represented by bar chart.
Results and Discussion
Results indicated that the lime juice contained 1.60% of citric and
1.20% of ascorbic acid. The pH was also recorded to be 4.50. The
low level of pH of the lime juice was an indicaon of acidity and
thus conrming the presence of organic acids in the lime juice as
conrmed by the presence of citric and ascorbic acids. According
to Ref. [10] lime juice contained citric and ascorbic acids.
Anbacterial acon of lime Juice in feed
The anbacterial acon of test lime juice is shown in Figure 1. It
was observed that 2.50% level reduced bacteria load more than
any other level. It was also observed that as the level of lime juice
was increased the bacteria load was reduced. The ability of the
lime juice to reduce the bacterial load of the diet could be as a
result of the presence of the organic acids (citric and ascorbic
acids) in the lime juice. These acids have been reported to be
an-bacterial in nature [1,3,10-13].
Growth performance of starter broilers
Eect of lime juice on performance of starter broiler chicks is
shown on Table 2. Diets containing lime juice did not signicantly
(P>0.05) inuence feed: gain rao. The lime juice however,
inuenced live weight, weight gain, feed intake, and protein
intake and protein eciency rao. The nal live weight, daily
weight gain, protein intake and protein eciency rao were
higher (P<0.05) in birds that fed diet containing 2.50% lime juice
compared to control and other lime juice levels. There were no
signicant dierences (P>0.05) between the control, 1.0, 1.50
and 2.0% levels of lime juice. Both nal and daily feed intakes
were higher (P<0.05) in all the levels of lime juice. It was also
observed that birds on 2.50% lime juice diet consumed more
feed compared to other levels of lime juice.
The result of performance at the starter phase as indicated
showed the capacity of lime juice to act as growth promoter in
broiler chickens. Improvement in feed intake was advantageous
as it led to higher live weight. Also, the feeding of diet containing
2.50% lime juice which resulted to increase in protein intake
and beer protein eciency rao underscores its importance
at this phase of producon. That level could have supplied the
required amount of citric and ascorbic acids needed for beer
producvity. Organic acids such as citric acid have been reported
to increase feed intake and subsequently the live weight of
broiler chickens [2]. It could also be armed that the posive
result at this phase was as a result of beer ulizaon of protein
and oil as indicated by the digesbility result in which protein and
ether extract were beer digested using lime juice. Also acons
of other bioacve compounds such as avonoids, carotenoids
and synergism between them and the organic acids may not be
ruled out according to Ref. [11].
Growth performance of nisher broilers
The eect of lime juice on performance of broilers during the
nisher phase was shown in Table 3. Except the live weight, lime
juice did not inuence the parameters. Inclusion of 2.0 and 2.50%
levels of lime juice posted beer live weight than the control.
The dierence in weight between 1.50%, 2.0% and 2.50% was
not signicant (P>0.05). It was observed that 2.0% lime juice
produced higher live weight than the control as against the result
at the starter phase where non signicant dierence existed
between them.
Going by the results obtained at the nisher phase it was clear
that the lime juice was beer ulized at the starter phase as
indices which were signicant and posively inuenced by 2.50%
juice at the starter phase became non-signicant at the nisher
phase. This was clearly expressed in nal live weight where 2.50%
lime juice gave the highest value than the other levels at starter
B
acteria load
(
× 10
3
cfu/g)
0.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Levels of lime juice (%)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
3
Eect of lime juice on bacterial load of experimental diet.Figure 1
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Vol. 1 No. 1:3
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Parameters T1 (0.00) T2 (1.0) T3 (1.5) T4 (2.0) T5 (2.5) SEM
Inial live weight (g) 40.1 40.8 40 40.75 40.5 10.71
Final live weight (g) 950b963b977b982b1133a80.5
Daily weight gain (g) 32.50b 32.94b33.46b33.62b39.02a4.16
Total feed intake (g) 1426c1540b1555b1558b1736a95.66
Daily feed intake (g) 50.93c55.00b55.54b55.60b62.00a3
Feed gain rao 1.57 1.67 1.64 1.65 1.59 0.11
Daily protein intake (g) 11.72b12.66b12.78b12.80b14.27a2.05
Protein eciency rao 2.61b2.60b2.62b2.63b2.73a0.09
Table 2 Eect of lime juice (%) on growth performance of starter broiler chicks.
ab means along the same row with dierent superscripts are signicantly dierent (P<0.05); SEM=Standard error of the mean
Parameters T1 (0.00) T2 (1.0) T3 (1.5) T4 (2.0) T5 (2.5) SEM
Inial live weight (g) 950.00b963.00b977.00b982.00b1133.00a80.5
Final live weight (g) 2755.00c2806.00bc 2838.00abc 2888.00ab 2927.00a118.75
Daily weight gain (g) 64.46 65.82 66.25 68.07 64.07 6.05
Total feed intake (g) 4320 4335 4350 4343 4320 145.06
Daily feed intake (g) 154.29 154.82 155.36 155.11 154.29 25.76
Feed:Gain rao 2.39 2.35 2.35 2.29 2.41 0.25
Daily protein intake(g) 30.94 31.04 31.15 31.1 30.94 3.05
Protein eciency rao 2.08 2.12 2.13 2.19 2.07 0.13
ab means along the same row with dierent superscripts are signicantly dierent (P<0.05); SEM=standard error of the mean
Table 3 Eect of lime juice (%) on growth performance of broilers at the nisher phase.
Parameters T1 (0.00) T2 (1.0) T3 (1.50) T4 (2.0) T5 (2.50) SEM
Dry maer (%) 75.05 75.77 76.45 76.75 77.05 9.56
Protein (%) 65.23c71.01bc 74.21ab 78.30ab 78.87ab 10.05
Ether extract (%) 74.03c76.10bc 88.00ab 88.23ab 88.10ab 12.05
Crude bre (%) 45.05 45.33 46.03 45.98 45.65 5.01
Ash (%) 68.02 67.99 69.02 68.99 67.89 6.34
abc means along the same row with dierent superscripts are signicantly dierent (P<0.05); SEM=Standard error of the mean
Table 4 Eect of lime juice (%) on apparent nutrient digesbility of broilers.
phase, but signicantly posted similar values as those of 1.50
and 2.0% levels at the nisher phase. This is an indicaon that
at certain level of the lime juice and for long dietary exposure,
performance of birds could be hampered. According to Ref. [11],
at 2.50% level, lime juice signicantly reduced abdominal fat of
broilers. This could be linked to the reducon in live weight at the
nisher phase by 2.50% compared to other levels. Lime juice has
been recommended by human nutrionists to be used to reduce
human body weight [14-16]. In rat citrus products were reported
to reduce both body weight, serum lipid and liver weight [17]. It
could be opined therefore that lime juice may not be necessarily
be added to diets during the nisher phase but during the starter
phase. It has been reported that inclusion of 0.25% organic acids
[acec, butyric, citric and formic acids] in broiler diets at the
nisher phase did not result to beer growth performance [18].
Apparent nutrient digesbility of broiler birds
The result of the eect of lime juice on apparent nutrient
digesbility is shown on Table 4. It indicates that only protein and
ether extract were improved (P<0.05) by the lime juice at 1.50,
2.0 and 2.50%. There were no signicant dierences (P>0.05)
in both digesbility of protein and ether extract at the three
dierent levels (1.50, 2.0 and 2.50%) of lime juice that improved
digesbility. It was observed that digesbility of protein and
ether extract followed similar trend. Dry maer, crude ber and
ash were not signicantly aected (P>0.05) by lime juice.
The posive inuence of lime juice on digesbility of protein
and ether extract was in line with what has been reported about
lime juice in human nutrion. Lime juice has been reported to
improve digeson in human [5,16]. This result could be linked
with the result of beer performance in live weight observed in
treated birds especially those fed 2.0% lime juice. The organic
acids in the lime juice could have played this important role as
they have been reported to improve digesbility [3,15,19].
Conclusion
Going by the results obtained on the anbacterial eect, growth
performance and digesbility, 2.0% level of lime juice could be
used in broiler diets for opmum producvity.
Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful to the University of Uyo, Nigeria and
Nekel Livestock Consultants, Uli, Anambra State, Nigeria.
5
2017
Vol. 1 No. 1:3
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Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery
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17 Ezekwesili-oli JO, Gwacham NC (2015) Comparave eects of peel
extract from Nigerian grown citrus on body weight, liver weight and
serum lipid in rats fed high fat diet. African Journal of Biochemistry
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18 Ndelekwute EK (2012) Bio-assessment of organic acids and black
pepper using broilers.
19 Ndelekwute EK, Amaefule KU, Anigbogu NM, Onen GE (2011)
Eect of organic acid treated diets on nutrient digesbility and
fecal moisture of broiler chickens. Proceedings of the 36th Annual
Conference of Nigeria Society of Animal Producon, Abuja, Nigeria.
... Later, reports indicated that use of natural ingredients as growth promoters such as organic acids, spices, essential oils, carotenoids and flavonoids are key to achieving this task (Windisch et al., 2008). To portray the importance of natural growth promoters, Ndelekwute et al. (2017) advocated the study of phytogenicology in animal s c i e n c e . T h e a u t h o r s d e f i n e d phytogenicolgy as the study of spices, plants parts, and plant extracts in relation to their application in farm animal nutrition and their use to mitigate nutrition-related health challenges. ...
... The dietary acidification of feeds and water for broilers is to inhibit intestinal bacteria that compete with the host for available nutrients, reduction of possible toxic metabolites which result in the improvement of nutrient digestibility, absorption and host immunity (Adil et al., 2011). On the other hand, organic acids (formic, citric, ascorbic, acetic and butyric acids etc.) among others have been reported to be efficacious by modifying intestinal pH, improving digestion and absorption of nutrients (Ndelekwute and Enyenihi, 2017). Since most organic acids currently in use are synthetic types which are expensive and most farmers do not have access to them, natural sources should be explored and exploited Ndelekwute and Enyenihi, 2017). ...
... On the other hand, organic acids (formic, citric, ascorbic, acetic and butyric acids etc.) among others have been reported to be efficacious by modifying intestinal pH, improving digestion and absorption of nutrients (Ndelekwute and Enyenihi, 2017). Since most organic acids currently in use are synthetic types which are expensive and most farmers do not have access to them, natural sources should be explored and exploited Ndelekwute and Enyenihi, 2017). Fruits are major sources of organic acids especially fruits of citrus spp (lime, lemon, grape) which contain citric and ascorbic acids. ...
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... In our investigation, feed consumption generously improved (p<0.05) from 136.4 to 148.4 g/d/bird at 4 th week because of supplementation of molasses. Comparative outcomes were archived somewhere else detailing supplementation of either molasses (Habibu et al., 2014;Ndelekwute et al., 2015;Amjadian et al., 2016) or lemon crush (Behboudi et al., 2016;Basir and Toghyani, 2017;Ndelekwute et al., 2017) indicating improved feed admission in broiler birds. Birds expended moderately more feed during finisher stage notwithstanding decreased all out feed admission because of improved productivity of use (Liu, 2000;Karakas et al., 2001;Faria et al., 2002). ...
... In contrast to primary impacts, association impacts of lemon and molasses were huge for weight gain in 3 rd week (p<0.05). The outcome is predictable with past examinations where, supplementation of either molasses (Habibu et al., 2014;Ndelekwute et al., 2015;Toghyani et al., 2015;Amjadian et al., 2016) or lemon (Behboudi et al., 2016;Basir and Toghyani, 2017;Ndelekwute et at al., 2017;Salehifar et al., 2018) improved weight gain in broiler bird. The dynamic increment of feed consumption from more significant levels of molasses in the current examination came about checked increment in definite body weight and weight addition of the trial birds. ...
... Considering dry matter, crude protein and ether extract, this result agreed with the report of Ndelekwute et al. [33] on lime juice but at variance with the result of ash. ...
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This experiment was conducted to determine the bioactive substances in normal lime juice and mashed lime juice. The substances were citric acid, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids and phenols. The effect of the mashed lime juice on growth performance and digestibility of broiler chickens was assessed. A total of one hundred and fifty (150) Anak strain day old chicks were used and were divided into five dietary groups of 30 birds each. The groups were further replicated with ten birds per replicate. The experiment was conducted in completely randomize design (CRD). A basal starter and finisher diets were formulated which formed the control (T1). Other dietary treatments (T2 - T5) were formed by adding 10, 15, 20 and 25 ml/kg diet of mashed lime fruit juice respectively. This was fed for seven weeks starting from day old. Feed and water were offered ad libitum throughout. Results indicated that the mashed lime juice contained higher bioactive substances than the normal juice. Final live weight, feed: gain ratio and protein efficiency ratio were significantly improved by 20ml/kg mashed lime fruit juice over the control at both the starter and finisher phases. Addition of 15, 20 and 25 ml/kg gave better protein, ether extract and ash digestibility than the control. Therefore, it is concluded that the incorporation of 20 ml/kg diet mashed lime fruit juice in broiler diet could be adopted. Keywords: Bioactive substances; Broiler chickens; Digestibility; Growth performance; Mashed lime fruit juice
... Les travaux de [29] ont indiqué un CUDa CB de 22,15 % MS, très faible par rapport aux valeurs obtenues dans la présente étude. En revanche, d'autres auteurs [30,31] ont eu des valeurs de digestibilité de la CB d'aliments contenant 54 % de céréales proches de celles obtenues avec les cinq TGC testés. La digestibilité de la CB des grains de maïs (77 % MS) s'est révélée plus élevée que celle des autres TGC. ...
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La présente étude a pour objectif d'évaluer la valeur alimentaire de différents Types de Grains de Céréale (TGC) utilisés en alimentation de la volaille au Bénin. Un dispositif expérimental de bloc complètement aléatoire à cinq traitements et à huit répétitions d'un coquelet chacun, soit quarante coquelets adultes ISA BROWN, a été utilisé dans un essai de digestibilité in vivo de sept jours. Cinq TGC locaux constitués de Maïs blanc (Mb), Maïs jaune (Mj), Sorgho blanc (Sb), Sorgho rouge (Sr) et Mil (Mi) ont été testés. Les résultats montrent que la digestibilité métabolique apparente de la MO des cinq TGC variant de 87 à 91 % était plus élevée pour Mj. La PB et les CT des TGC ont été digérées de la même manière par les coquelets. La CB et la MG contenues dans Mj ont été les mieux digérées par les coquelets. Le régime exclusif aux TGC a entrainé la diminution de la cholestérolémie de l'ordre de 13 % chez les coquelets, quel que soit le TGC considéré. La protéinémie totale post-alimentation a été affectée par le TGC et était plus élevée chez les coquelets soumis au Mj. Cette étude qui est une première au Bénin, renseigne sur la valeur alimentaire des grains de céréale chez la volaille et suggère que Mj est le meilleur TGC pour les coquelets. Ces résultats sont très utiles pour la formulation d'aliments à base de grains de céréale destinés aux poulets par les fabriques d'aliments, les éleveurs et les scientifiques. Abstract Cereal grains in broilers feeding in Benin : Metabolic digestibility and biochemistry parameters induced The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of cereal grains (CG) used in poultry feeding in Benin. A completely randomized block of five treatment having eight replicates of a cockerel each. Forty ISA BROWN cockerels, was used in a seven day in vivo digestibility test. Each single local CG: White Corn (Mb), Yellow Corn (Mj), White Sorghum (Sb), Red Sorghum (Sr) and Millet (Mi) were tested. The results showed that the apparent metabolic digestibility of OM ranged from 87 to 91 % with the higher value in yellow maize. Crude protein and 26 Afrique SCIENCE 15(5) (2019) 25-38 Ghislaine Sègbédji Théodora ATCHADE et al. ash of CG were similarly digested by cockerels. The best digestibility of crude fiber and ether extract were also found in yellow maize treatment. Irrespectively of the type CG, the single grain diet decreased cockerel's cholesterolemia of about 13 %. Total protein concentration was affected by the type of CG with the highest value in cockerels fed with yellow maize. This study, the first in Benin inform on the nutritional value of cereals grains in poultry. It suggest that yellow maize is the best cereal grain for cockerels. These results are therefore very useful for poultry balanced feeds formulation by factories, farmers and scientists.
... According to Dibner 5 low pH is essential for protein digestion in chickens and other monogastric animals. Ndelekwute et al. 16 referring to ascorbic and citric acids content of lime juice reported that lime juice improved nutrient digestibility of 7 week old broiler chickens because of the two organic acids it contained. ...
... Smulikowska, Czerwiński, Mieczkowska, & Jankowiak, 2008) illustrated increased nitrogen retention in the host supplemented with fat coated organic acids, because of their enhanced bioavailability in the distal digestive tract and the greater epithelial cell proliferation.In broiler chickens,Ndelekwute and Enyenihi (2017) reported that citric and ascorbic acids of lime juice improved digestibility of nutrient at 7 weeks of age of broiler chickens. Also,Ndelekwute et al. (2018) found that digestion coefficients of protein, fibre and ether extract were significantly improved by addition of organic acids in drinking water (p < .05). ...
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