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Social Pressures in Informal Groups

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... The notion that physical proximity prompts friendship formation is not new. Researchers have long argued that most friendships arise from passive contact (Festinger et al., 1950). Mere exposure creates the impression of familiarity, which increases liking. ...
... The findings suggest that friendships with classmates are not exclusively predicated on exposure. Recall that repeated exposure creates the impression of familiarity, which Festinger et al. (1950) hypothesized as the foundation for attraction. Primary school students in the same class do not lack for exposure to one another: The students in this study spent most of every day with the same 15 or so classmates. ...
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The present study tests the hypothesis that friendships form on the basis of classroom seating proximity. Participants included 235 students (129 boys, 106 girls) in grades 3–5 (ages 8–11) who nominated friends at two time points (13–14 weeks apart). Teachers described seating arrangements. Concurrent analyses indicated that students sitting next to or nearby one another were more likely to receive friend nominations and be involved in reciprocated friendships than students seated elsewhere in the classroom. Longitudinal analyses indicated that classroom seating proximity was associated with the formation of new friendships. Most results for randomly selected outgoing friend nominations and randomly selected reciprocated friend dyads were replicated in analyses that included all friend nominations and all friend dyads.
... Friendships developed at work represent a key element in the informal structure of an organization (Barney, 1985). Social theories indicate that frequent interactions and proximity between individuals allow for friendship formation within the informal organization (Festinger et al., 1950;Shaw, 1981). Friendship opportunities are associated with an increase in job satisfaction, job involvement, organizational commitment, and a significant decrease in intention to change jobs (Riordan & Griffeth, 1995). ...
... Once ties are formed they are likely to lead to similar new ties through introduction of "friends of friends" and "colleagues of colleagues." Network qualities become self-reproducing (for emerging cliques among students see Festinger et al., 1950; for socializing relations in an MBA cohort see Kleinbaum, 2018; for homophilous association more generally, see McPherson et al., 2001; for homophilous association among China's political elite, see Opper et al., 2015). Clearly, institutions define the probabilities with which certain types and kinds of people are likely to meet others, as well as the likelihood of physical meetings turning into actual associations, depending on time spent together, frequency of meetings, and shared goals or tasks performed within certain institutional structures (Small & Gose, 2020). ...
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Almost two decades ago, Asia Pacific Journal of Management , 19(2/3): 251–267 Peng (2002) called attention to the promise of institution-based strategy research. The puzzle was to explain differences in strategies around the globe. Building on the work accomplished so far, I ask: Can institution-based strategy succeed when embedded in inappropriate social networks? Institutions and networks are usually studied as separate phenomena, yet each also defines the capabilities of the other. Institutions shape social network contacts and structures because institutions define opportunities for affiliation and the relative value of distinct contacts and network structures. At the same time, social networks shape institutions and organizations’ capabilities for institutional innovation. Thus, the social network in which a manager or organization is embedded can either amplify or counteract success in implementing institution-based strategy. After I review the co-constitutional nature of institutions and networks and discuss a number of sample studies using China as a productive research site, I sketch questions that need to be answered to more tightly integrate network behavior into institutional strategy research, and discuss four emerging areas of research into how network-strategy fit affects performance: (1) network fit to adaptive strategy, (2) network fit to change strategy, (3) institutional dynamics and network-strategy fit, and (4) institutional distance and network-strategy fit.
... Given the relevance of social interactions to people's lives (Festinger et al., 1950;Vaughan, 1986;Baumeister and Leary, 1995;Qualter et al., 2015;Tamir and Hughes, 2018), there has been some effort to describe social interactions in psychologically meaningful ways. To our knowledge, seven taxonomies of social interactions exist (Bales and Strodtbeck, 1951;Krause, 1970;Moos, 1973;Price and Blashfield, 1975;Forgas, 1976;Nascimento-Schulze, 1981;King and Sorrentino, 1983). ...
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Social interactions are essential aspects of social relationships. Despite their centrality, there is a lack of a standardized approach to systematize social interactions. The present research developed (Study 1) and tested (Study 2) a taxonomy of social interactions. In Study 1 (5,676 descriptions of social interactions from N = 708 participants, age range 18–83 years), we combined a bottom-up approach based on the grounded theory with a top-down approach integrating existing empirical and theoretical literature to develop the taxonomy. The resulting taxonomy (APRACE) comprises the components Actor, Partner, Relation, Activities, Context, and Evaluation, each specified by features on three levels of abstraction. A social situation can be described by a combination of the components and their features on the respective abstraction level. Study 2 tested the APRACE using another dataset (N = 303, age range 18–88 years) with 1,899 descriptions of social interactions. The index scores of the six components, the frequencies of the features on the most abstract level, and their correlations were largely consistent across both studies, which supports the generalizability of the APRACE. The APRACE offers a generalizable tool for the comprehensive, parsimonious, and systematic description of social interactions and, thus, enables networked research on social interactions and application in a number of practical fields.
... 17 Conformity is a type of "social influence": the fact that a person's emotions, opinions or behaviors are affected by others. There are two types of conformity, "normative influence" is often used to refer to situations in which individuals are susceptible to social influence in order to conform to or identify with others (Festinger, Schachter and Back, 1950;Asch, 1953;Cai, Chen and Fang, 2009;and Fatas, Heap and Arjona, 2018). Alternatively, "informational influence" (also known as "social proof") is used to describe social influence in a context in which the behavior of others is useful in order to infer inaccessible information about an objective state of the world (Banerjee 1992;Anderson and Holt, 1997;Goeree and Yariv, 2015;and Muchnik, Aral and Taylor, 2013). ...
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The implications of (public or private) pre-play communication and information revelation in a labour relationship is not well understood. We address these implications theoretically and experimentally. In our baseline experiments, the employer offers a wage to the worker who may then accept or reject it. In the public and private treatment, workers, moving first, make a non-binding private or public wage proposal. Our theoretical model assumes that wage proposals convey information about a worker’s minimum acceptable wage and are misreported with a certain probability. It predicts that, on average, wage proposals lead to higher wage offers and acceptance rates, with the highest wages under private proposals. While both, public and private, proposals increase efficiency over the baseline, private proposals generate higher worker incomes. Broad support for the theoretical predictions is found in the laboratory experiments. Our work has important implications for recent policies promoting public information on wage negotiations. We find that while wage proposals promote higher wages, efficiency, and income equality, public information on wage negotiations is likely to benefit firms more than workers.
... The third concept of interest, the concept of social cohesion, is currently not so much discussed in the field of psychology than in the social sciences such as in sociology, political sciences and economics [although it has its roots also in early psychology, see (62)(63)(64)], and has frequently been used in the public discourse by policymakers (65). Social cohesion includes micro, meso and macro systems of a society that refer to individuals, institutions and communities, respectively (66). ...
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The current study explores the relationship between three constructs of high relevance in the context of adversities which have, however, not yet been systematically linked on the level of psychological dispositions: psychological vulnerability, psychological resilience, and social cohesion. Based on previous theoretical and empirical frameworks, a collection of trait questionnaires was assessed in a Berlin sample of 3,522 subjects between 18 and 65 years of age. Using a confirmatory factor analytical approach, we found no support for a simple three-factor structure. Results from exploratory structural analyses suggest that instead of psychological resilience and psychological vulnerability constituting two separate factors, respective indicators load on one bipolar latent factor. Interestingly, some psychological resilience indicators contributed to an additional specific latent factor, which may be interpreted as adaptive capacities, that is, abilities to adapt to changes or adjust to consequences of adversities. Furthermore, instead of evidence for one single social cohesion factor on the psychological level, indicators of perceived social support and loneliness formed another specific factor of social belonging, while indicators of prosocial competencies were found to form yet another distinct factor, which was positively associated to the other social factors, adaptive capacities and social belonging. Our results suggest that social cohesion is composed of different independent psychological components, such as trust, social belonging, and social skills. Furthermore, our findings highlight the importance of social capacities and belonging for psychological resilience and suggest that decreasing loneliness and increasing social skills should therefore represent a valuable intervention strategy to foster adaptive capacities.
... As another example, Festinger and colleagues' Social Pressures in Informal Groups provides an exemplary illustration of the use of multimethod research, where each method overcomes the limitations of the last to describe and explain the creation of social norms within groups over time (Festinger et al., 1950). The researchers took advantage of the formation of two new groups: former military officers and their wives moving in to two new housing estates close to the M.I.T. campus. ...
Article
Field social psychology is a conceptual and methodological approach to describe, examine, and explain psychological phenomena at multiple levels of analysis with emphasis on the sociocultural environments in which people are embedded, the unfolding of psychological processes over time, and the use of ecologically valid multiple methods in conjunction. In this essay, we first define a contemporary form of field social psychology from its roots in the history of psychological study. Second, we argue for the necessity of the reemergence of this approach given the limitations of the dominant current social psychological paradigm exposed by the replication crisis. Third, we outline an integrative and actionable model of field social psychological research. We describe two contemporary examples of field social psychological research concerning climate change protests in Norway and restorative justice in the U.S.A. to illustrate this framework. We end with implications of field social psychology for developing psychological science. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Social networks are complex structures based on relationships between the actors/agents; in other words, social networks are systems of interactions and interdependencies. Initially, social networks were studied by social anthropology [Barnes, 1954] and social psychology [Festinger et al., 1950]. In recent decades, a vast body of sociological research has sought to conceptualize the analytical potential of social network studies [Freeman, 2004;Scott, 2017]. ...
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The concept and practice of knowledge management in development have been largely shaped by the emergence and complexity of modern times. The increasing number and intensity of natural catastrophes as a result of the changing climate renders a new social order that is highly complex, oftentimes uncertain, and largely ambiguous. This exploratory research on the case of Marikina City, Philippines aimed to provide evidences on how local governments can use adaptive knowledge sharing to manage complexity inherent in urban disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM). Using Complexity Theory as a guide, this research examined the interrelated variables of knowledge sharing channels, knowledge sharing behavior, and social networks of the members of the DRRM Council. The social networks were mapped out in terms of the four thematic areas of DRRM: disaster prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery and rehabilitation. Result of analyses suggest that (1) flexibility is a key component in developing adaptive capacity; (2) network density reflects robustness and resilience of system; (3) skewed attention given to scientific knowledge undermines the importance of local knowledge in reducing uncertainties and dealing with complexity; and (4) social networks are important in navigating DRRM organizations towards the edge of chaos.
... If the majority of them do not practice social distancing or do not wear face masks, then individuals feel it is not an offense since most people observe the same behaviour. This is supported by studies that find that social proof is the result of social comparisons involving the individual opinions with others to produce an accurate validity assessment of an opinion or behaviour (Festinger, Schachter & Back, 1950;Hardin & Higgins, 1996;Turner, 1991). Social proof is also found to be more likely to occur in communities that are collective rather than individual (Bond & Smith, 1996). ...
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The study explores on the compliance behaviour of Malaysians during the pandemic of COVID-19 from the social psychology perspectives. Most of the research materials referred in this study are from secondary resources which are from research articles, newspaper articles, materials from magazines and bulletin. Then, content analysis was employed to obtain relevant themes for the study. Five themes are identified namely, (i) social norms during the COVID-19 outbreak, (ii) compliance with new norms through social restrictions, (iii) social conformity to adhere to new norms, (iv) optimistic bias during new norms and (v) diffusion of responsibilities during new norms. The implication of the study showed that there are varies compliance and non-compliance behaviours that are demonstrated by fellow Malaysians as the pandemic shows no signs of slowing down. It is therefore vital for Malaysians to follow the appropriate Standard Operation Procedures and be vigilant and resilient in facing this pandemic.
... Why? Because, else being equal, network density is inversely associated with network size as the number of potential ties grows exponentially with each additional node (de Nooy et al. 2018). As such, larger networks tend to be sparser than small ones, and we have learned that individuals are more likely to violate group norms in sparse networks than in dense ones (Festinger et al. 1950;Finke and Stark 2005;Granovetter 2005). Saal also highlights the key role that Salafist preachers play in the development and spread of Jihadism. ...
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Historical and comparative social scientists are increasingly interested in explaining the spread of innovations—which social scientists commonly refer to as diffusion and, broadly conceived, can include the spread of new ideas, behaviors, technologies, and institutions. However, in spite of the profusion of studies, researchers do not always specify a diffusion model or its underlying causal mechanisms. Whereas many studies document spatial diffusion, not all specify a vector, model flows of influence and information, or show how people and places are connected (tied) to one another. In reviewing some of the most important work on the spread of religion, violent conflict, and social movements over the last few decades, it is clear to us that social network analysis has revolutionized the historical study of diffusion. Even so, many studies have yet to embrace concepts, methods, and measures from social network analysis. Nevertheless, we are convinced that the combination of historical perspectives on change and innovation, new methods of historical data collection and analysis, and growing sophistication in the application of network concepts and models is shedding light on a host of historical questions and contributing to our general understanding of diffusion.
... There are two types of conformity emphasized in the literature: "normative influence" and "informational influence". The former is often used to refer to situations in which individuals are susceptible to social influence in order to conform to or identify with others (Festinger et al. 1950;Asch, 1953;Cai et al. 2009;and Fatas at al. 2018). Alternatively, informational influence (also known as "social proof") is used to describe social influence in a context in which the behavior of others is useful in order to infer inaccessible information about an objective state of the world (Banerjee 1992;Anderson and Holt, 1997;Goeree and Yariv, 2015;and Muchnik et al. 2013). ...
... (1) Los estudios de la primera corriente señalan que niños y adolescentes se eligen utilizando como criterio la similaridad entre el que elige y el elegido, de esta forma se tiende a evaluar como positivo lo que se parece y negativamente lo diferente. Autores de reconocido prestigio en la temática como lo son Festinger, Schachter y Back (10) explican el proceso de comparación social, asumiendo que los individuos buscan relacionarse con otros que sean semejantes a ellos, en aras de poder validar sus creencias, comportamientos y preferencias. De este modo el vínculo funciona como un Investigaciones recientes afirman que a pesar de que los agrupamientos en el contexto escolar son realizados por la propia institución existe un proceso de selección de amistades dentro del grupo que responde a varios criterios, uno de los más reconocidos es "[…] la tendencia humana a afiliarse a otros que son semejantes". ...
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A 2500-year history of invasion, conquest, and resistance has left Afghanistan ethnically diverse and culturally rich. And yet, this storied history has bequeathed to the nation’s people a legacy of political fragmentation, economic impoverishment, and in recent times, even some international isolation. The last 40 years of relentless conflict, encompassing two superpower invasions and decades of a smoldering civil war, have placed entire generations of Afghans at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder and have pushed the nation into a cycle of poverty, reduced educational opportunity, and violence. It is the contention of this paper that several academic concepts–the neuroscience principle of propinquity, the scholarly disciplines of behavioral economics and game theory, and the blockchain technology promoted by “Satoshi Nakamoto”—can be woven together into a practical application to create business partnerships, jobs, and an entrepreneurial middle class for Afghanistan, thereby decreasing poverty and the fallout of crime and violence significantly. Based on these principles, a genuinely non-exploitative partnership structure can be built between United States and Afghan interests. The central role of military can be replaced by private sector players, to achieve through human security what could not be achieved through kinetic force. In such a diverse culture, and amidst the difficulties of Afghanistan’s geographical and topographical scenario, military dominance in Afghanistan has always failed, for thousands of years. Yet, that never would have been the true solution anyway. It seldom is. Afghanistan may utilize its vast mineral wealth as a starting place for trade, human security and national security, assisted but unexploited. And done in partnerships rather than as suppliers, they may then begin to extract the wealth of its human resources and find its future as a contributing and secure world citizen. The discussion below will sketch a broad outline of a possible path forward, employing twenty-first century innovative business structure to solve for the underlying long-standing impediments to security and prosperity. Like gravity, applications of these principles are true whenever humans compete for value or security. Anywhere self-interests have vetoed the common good, to the ultimate demise of both, these principles and guidelines that follow will prove useful for building the hope of a nation.
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Objective Personal networks play a fundamental role in the daily lives of older adults. Although many studies examine how life course factors and personal preferences shape network formation, fewer consider how the places in which older adults live present opportunities and obstacles to cultivate social relationships. In the present study, we explore how geographic context is associated with the ability to bridge social ties within one’s personal network. Method We use data from the Person-to-Person Health Interview Survey (N=709), a representative sample of Indiana residents. Personal network data were collected using four name generating prompts. Logistic regression models and linear regression models were used to assess two measures of network bridging. Results A minority of respondents reported the ability to bridge ties within their networks. Respondents residing in rural and mixed counties were less likely than urban respondents to have at least one member of their network who was completely disconnected from all other members. Discussion These findings suggest that the communities in which older adults live condition opportunities for accessing unique network resources. Additional research adopting a network perspective is needed to provide insight into geographic disparities occurring among the older population.
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Chapter
Social networks are ubiquitous. The science of networks has shaped how researchers and society understand the spread of disease, the precursors of loneliness, the rise of protest movements, the causes of social inequality, the influence of social media, and much more. Egocentric analysis conceives of each individual, or ego, as embedded in a personal network of alters, a community partially of their creation and nearly unique to them, whose composition and structure have consequences. This volume is dedicated to understanding the history, present, and future of egocentric social network analysis. The text brings together the most important, classic articles foundational to the field with new perspectives to form a comprehensive volume ideal for courses in network analysis. The collection examines where the field of egocentric research has been, what it has uncovered, and where it is headed.
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Group cohesion is critical in the workplace, especially when individual and contextual constraints coexist but high performance is essential. We assess the source of variation in group members’ perceptions of cohesion. Using an interactional psychology perspective, and within the context of intensive care, this study examines the interactive effects of nurses’ self‐concept and the objective social context within which they are embedded. Individual‐ and unit‐level factors are investigated since they jointly shape the degree to which nurses perceive their intensive care units as cohesive. A multi‐source, multi‐level study of approximately 140 nurses employed in 20 units across Denmark demonstrates the role self‐concept plays in easing and enhancing the constraints workplaces impose on cohesion. Implications for research on emergent states and interactional psychology are discussed.
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The purpose of this study was to empirically answer the longstanding question regarding industry differences in reactions to workplace romance. Departing from prior research designs, and employing the largest workplace romance sample to date, close to 1,000 adults in major US cities reported their workplace romance experiences and beliefs through an internet survey. Beliefs about workplace romance’s career reputation effects, workplace romance occurrence, and comfort with workplace romance differed by industry, with Healthcare, Education, Administration, and Other Professional industries appearing to represent the most conservative workplaces, and Finance, Trade, and Sales; STEM; and Blue-Collar and Manual Labor industries the most liberal. Industry also interacted with employee sex, management status, and age to affect workplace romance outcomes. Furthermore, workplace romances were seen as more damaging to women’s than men’s careers. Results suggest that human resources professionals should develop workplace romance policies that match the norms and values of their workplaces. A “one-size-fits-all” policy will be ineffective and, in some industries, may be construed as infringing on privacy. Workplace romance’s effect on career reputations depends on the participant’s industry, management status, age, and gender, underscoring the need for awareness of cultural influences on evaluations of employee sexuality. This study empirically demonstrates, for the first time, that industry is associated with beliefs about workplace romance’s career reputation effects. Findings for Blue-Collar and Manual Labor work, previously overlooked, suggest particularly intriguing connections among masculinity, sexuality, aggression, and reputation effects.
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Built environment research has long been interested in understanding the complexities of transitional spaces by investigating their hosted interactions. One approach used in efforts of this kind is actor-network theory (ANT), which conceptualizes built spaces as networks of relations that allow for certain interactions but not others. Previous studies have not considered the full variety of such interactions, having either addressed such multiplicity generically or focused on particular interactions related to a specific activity. Filling this gap, this article utilizes an ANT-inspired ethnographic approach to unpack the spatial diversity of a Jordanian university’s corridor space by mapping the various interactions therein. The findings present the relational dynamics within the various networks created and show how they have diversifying effects on the very shaping of the corridor. Ultimately, this article suggests a more nuanced conceptualization of transitional spaces through a better understanding of the multitude of interactions, offering designers a tool to create distinctive spaces that serve different user needs.
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The study of social networks is increasingly central to health research for medical sociologists and scholars in other fields. Here, we review the innovations in theory, substance, data collection, and methodology that have propelled the study of social networks and health from a niche subfield to the center of larger sociological and scientific debates. In particular, we contextualize the broader history of network analysis and its connections to health research, concentrating on work beginning in the late 1990s, much of it in this journal. Using bibliometric and network visualization approaches, we examine the subfield’s evolution over this period in terms of topics, trends, key debates, and core insights. We conclude by reflecting on persistent challenges and areas of innovation shaping the study of social networks and health and its intersection with medical sociology in the coming years.
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This is an overview of the foundation for, and substance of, emerging research on network broker behavior, research that constitutes a second generation of work on network brokerage. I begin with a capstone of key past results along with my cautions and enthusiasms about directions in which things are going. I discuss the information breadth, timing, and arbitrage advantages of network brokers, and returns to those advantages contingent on a broker’s social standing. Research linking network structure with success has been a first generation of work. That work is well advanced, but far from complete. I discuss the current position becoming stronger and broader with replication, attention to negative results, and attention to dynamics. Shifting to an exciting second generation of work, research has emerged focused on the behavior by which broker advantage is linked with success. I discuss framing and frame shifts, the importance of personal engagement, the uncertain moderating effects of culture and personality, and a few behavioral variations in brokerage. I discuss the context dependence of tertius gaudens tactics iungens versus separans, and the distinction between brokers who consume versus produce emotional energy in their colleagues.
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Self-reflection is suggested to attenuate feelings, yet researchers disagree on whether adopting a distant or near perspective, or processing the experience abstractly or concretely, is more effective. Given the relationship between psychological distance and level of abstraction, we suggest the "construal-matching hypothesis": Psychological distance and abstraction differently influence emotion intensity, depending on whether the emotion's appraisal involves low-level or high-level construal. Two meta-analyses tested the effects of psychological distance (k = 230) and level-of-abstraction (k = 98) manipulations on emotional experience. A distant perspective attenuated emotional experience (g = 0.52) but with weaker effects for high-level (g = 0.29; for example, self-conscious emotions) than low-level emotions (g= 0.64; for example, basic emotions). Level of abstraction only attenuated the experience of low-level emotions (g = 0.2) and showed a reverse (nonsignificant) effect for high-level emotions (g = -0.13). These results highlight differences between distancing and level-of-abstraction manipulations and the importance of considering the type of emotion experienced in emotion regulation.
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We study the interplay between parental and peer socialization in shaping criminal behavior among adolescents. We develop a simple cultural transmission model where parents affect how the society influences their children’s decision. The model predicts that parental and peer socialization are substitutes in the development of juvenile crime. We then take the model to the data using information on a representative sample of adolescents in the United States. Using the geographic distances between residential addresses of individuals in the same grade and school to measure peer influences, we find that negative peer effects on juvenile crime are significantly lower for teenagers with engaged mothers. Consistent with the prediction of our model, this evidence reveals an important role of parents in mediating the impact of neighborhoods on youth crime. The influence of parents is especially important for drug trafficking, assault and battery.
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This chapter discusses solutions for building relational ‘organizational intelligence’ and the use of the latter in effecting change. The era of Industry 4.0 (aka Smart World) involves specific priorities concerning what changes are needed and how they should be effected. Organizations used to be viewed as compilations of tasks, products, employees, profit centers and processes. Today, they are increasingly seen as intelligent systems designed to manage knowledge in a relational setting. Multiple techniques and solutions have been proposed for attaining Industry 4.0 priorities, often causing confusion rather than helping to deliver results. This chapter develops a framework for a systematic analysis of organizational intelligence and its application. Due to the multifaceted nature of the issue, the study includes a method for monitoring factors that stimulates organizational intelligence, factors such as new, disruptive technologies. The framework helps improve change processes leading to implementing relational strategies. Keywords: Organizational Intelligence, Industry 4.0, Technology, Relational Strategies, Organizational Change
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This essay gives an outline of the main research questions of social capital theory and its foundation in the seminal paper by Coleman (1988) on the creation of human capital through social capital. The research questions address the discussions about the elements that make a network beneficial, the emergence of social capital and the relation with other resources, inequality of social capital between groups, and social capital measurements. State of the art research is presented, and the discussions in exemplary social capital research fields are summarized, such as the debate about functional communities, the Mouw-Lin debate, and the community-decline debate. The necessity of parental social capital for the creation of children’s human capital is questioned. The chapter takes stock of the research concerning these debates, sketches open questions, and provides directions for future research. In particular, the combination of different data sources and the extension of the work to new research sites seems promising.
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The influence and significance of social networks in health research are becoming widely discussed. Sociological network research meets the demand for a stronger consideration of “contexts” or the “environment” that influences health and care. Social networks are conceived as a mediating meso-level, which mediates between social macro-structures (e.g., healthcare systems, institutions, and organizations) and individual (not always) rationally acting actors. This perspective offers the possibility to analyze a variety of psychosocial mechanisms. These mechanisms can influence individual health in different ways, including (health) behavior, psyche, or physiology. In this chapter we present some central theoretical concepts, as well as empirical results, on network effects under the headings of “social support,” “social integration,” “social influence,” and “social contagion.”
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Social networks are ubiquitous. The science of networks has shaped how researchers and society understand the spread of disease, the precursors of loneliness, the rise of protest movements, the causes of social inequality, the influence of social media, and much more. Egocentric analysis conceives of each individual, or ego, as embedded in a personal network of alters, a community partially of their creation and nearly unique to them, whose composition and structure have consequences. This volume is dedicated to understanding the history, present, and future of egocentric social network analysis. The text brings together the most important, classic articles foundational to the field with new perspectives to form a comprehensive volume ideal for courses in network analysis. The collection examines where the field of egocentric research has been, what it has uncovered, and where it is headed.
Chapter
Es besteht wohl kein Zweifel darüber, daß die Gemeinde neben der Familie eine der wichtigsten Grundformen der Gesellschaft darstellt; dennoch muß zugestanden werden, daß die soziologische Forschung auf diesem Gebiet – wenigstens in Kontinentaleuropa – noch ungemein unsicher ist, so daß die Verwendung dieses Begriffs höchst vielfältig und gelegentlich alles andere als klar ist. Zumeist wird einfach so verfahren, als sei es ganz selbstverständlich, was unter Gemeinde zu verstehen ist, oder man wirft den Begriff mehr oder weniger willkürlich mit anderen zusammen, wobei dann teils historisch, teils systematisch bedingte Vermengungen unterlaufen. In diesem Zusammenhang muß auch, speziell im Deutschen, an eine auffällige sprachliche Vieldeutigkeit des Wortes Gemeinde (Gemeinschaft, Gemeine, Gemeinderschaft) und an eine Reihe damit auftretender Verwechslungsmöglichkeiten gedacht werden, die – wie schon eine kurze Betrachtung der Literatur zeigen kann – gelegentlich sehr unangenehme sachliche Konsequenzen haben mögen. Dazu kommt noch die grundsätzliche Verwechslung zwischen der Gemeinde als Verwaltungseinheit und der Gemeinde als sozialer Wirklichkeit, wobei etwa in Deutschland der erste Gesichtspunkt bis heute fast aus schließlich behandelt wurde, was den zweiten in einer ganz ungewöhnlichen Unklarheit beließ.
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