Verbascum songaricum subsp. subdecurrens: a new record, typification and the true identity of V. aspinum as a new synonym of V. stachydiforme in the Flora of Iran

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Verbascum aspinum is introduced as a new synonym of V. stachydiforme. V. songaricum subsp. subdecurrens (Scrophulariaceae) is reported for the first time from North and Northwest Iran. Distribution maps are provided for Iran.

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... kermanensis and Pterocephalus incanus cannot be found in any paper in Google Scholar (last accessed 11 January 2022). • Verbascum songaricum Schrenk were named by Sotoodeh et al. (2017), while the subspecies V. songaricum subsp. songaricum never appears. ...
Archaeological areas often become hotspots for biodiversity and refugia for plant species. The management activity of a site permits the conservation of natural habitats. This first contribution to the floristic assessment of an Iranian archaeological site, aims to preserve its natural values. The Pasargadae World Heritage Site (6th century BC) located at the border between the Zagros mountains and the Irano-Turanian region, showed a richness of 244 species, belonging to 38 families and 163 genera. The most represented families are Asteraceae (56), Poaceae (34), and Fabaceae (22). Herbaceous species represented 90% of the flora [therophytes (42%), hemicryptophytes (39%), and geophytes (9%)]. Asiatic, Irano-Turanian, and Mediterranean species are the most recurrent species with a high component of endemic ones. Astragalus ghashghaicus, Taraxacum plicatulum, Acantholimon serotinum, and Linaria farsensis were among the more interesting floristic elements. The comparison with past data, even if limited in quantity, indicated a good floristic conservation status. This research also showed the need to deepen our knowledge of the taxonomic features of this Iranian flora, sometimes still resulting in an ambiguous or unresolved status. The collected floristic data will help in elaborating management protocols, to enhance the cultural and natural value of the site.
... The genus Verbascum L. is usually known as mullein, is a member of family Scrophulariaceae, which includes more than 400 wide-reaching species. Forty-five species (Rami-Porta et al. 2007) and a few fusions of Verbascum exist in the plants of Iran, 20 of which are widespread (Rechinger 1981;Sotoodeh et al. 2017). This class includes Verbascum thapsus L., which grows wild on flinty ground, in woodland, wasteland, clearings, and along the side of roads (Speranza et al. 2010). ...
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More than half of the population in developing nations depends on natural medication for treatment of different sicknesses and problems. Among them, Achillea millefolium from Asteraceae family is one restoratively significant plant called as “yarrow” and revealed as being utilized in folklore medication for sicknesses, for example, skin irritations, convulsive, hepatobiliary, and gastrointestinal issues. Monoterpenes are the most delegate metabolites, establishing 90% of the fundamental oils comparable to the sesquiterpenes, and a wide scope of chemical compounds have likewise been found. Distinctive pharmacological examinations in numerous in vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated the capability of A. millefolium with anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anticancer activities, and so forth loaning help to the reasoning behind various of its conventional uses. Because of the essential pharmacological activities, A. millefolium will be a superior alternative for new medication discovery. Our chapter extensively gathers late phytochemical and pharmacological activities of A. millefolium, and should, accordingly, act as an appropriate reference for future investigation into the plant’s phytochemical profiling and by and large pharmacological assessment.Keywords Achillea millefolium PhytochemistryTherapeutic usesPharmacologyConstituents
... The genus Verbascum L. is usually known as mullein, is a member of family Scrophulariaceae, which includes more than 400 wide-reaching species. Forty-five species (Rami-Porta et al. 2007) and a few fusions of Verbascum exist in the plants of Iran, 20 of which are widespread (Rechinger 1981;Sotoodeh et al. 2017). This class includes Verbascum thapsus L., which grows wild on flinty ground, in woodland, wasteland, clearings, and along the side of roads (Speranza et al. 2010). ...
Capsella bursa-pastoris L. is widely found in countries such as Cyprus, Europe, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Pakistan, India, Iraq, Iran, China, Azerbaijan, and in ethnomedical records of many other Asian countries. C. bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic—a traditional herb belongs to genus Capsella. Animal model-based preclinical studies have provided important comprehensive scientific data of its phytochemistry and phytopharmacology besides its various important uses. The main focus of this chapter aims to provide a detailed information about the traditional uses, scientific evidence-based pharmacological actions, and phytoconstituents from C. bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic based on the data available from the past 40 years. The data available shows that the plant’s crude extracts and some phytoconstituents have anti-inflammatory, smooth muscles contraction, infertility, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular, anticancer, sedative, antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase inhibition potential. The data also showed that C. bursa-pastoris (L.) has a good nutritional value due to the presence of plethora of phytoconstituents which include flavonoids, phytosterols, phenolics, etc. Other than immense pharmacological potential, C. bursa-pastoris is a rich source of nutrients also. The available scientific data on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological actions of C. bursa-pastoris suggest that this plant can be a promising target for discovery and development of novel drugs for treating wide range of human ailments due to the safe and effective nature of C. bursa-pastoris. More scientific studies need to be carried out on this plant because different traditional uses and phytoconstituents.KeywordsEthnopharmacologyPhytochemistryPharmacological actionsPhytosterolsPhenolicsFlavonoidsAnti-inflammatory C. bursa-pastoris
... The genus Verbascum L., commonly known as mullein, belongs to the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprised of over 400 worldwide species. Forty-five species and several hybrids of Verbascum exist in the flora of Iran, twenty of which are endemic (Rechinger, 1981;Sotoodeh et al., 2017). Medicinal uses of several Verbascum species for the treatment of respiratory problems such as bronchitis, dry coughs, whooping coughs, chronic coughs, tuberculosis, and asthma have been traditionally reported (Turker and Gurel, 2005). ...
The first step in introducing a medicinal plant into farming systems and industrial pharmacology is the realization of its metabolic profile and biological features. In the present study, ten Verbascum species including V. cheirantifolium, V. erianthum, V. macrocarpum, V. punalense, V. sinuatum, V. songaricum, V. speciosum, V. stachidiforme, V. thapsus, and V. densiflorum were collected from Iran and their phytochemical characteristics and biological activities were studied. The powdered air-dried aerial flowering parts of the plants were extracted with methanol by maceration. The crude methanolic extracts were further fractionated by solvent-solvent partitioning to obtain various fractions using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The total phenol and flavonoid, phenolics and iridoids contents and metabolic profiling of the obtained extracts and enriched-fractions were assessed using UV, HPLC–PDA, LC–MS and in silico methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity using DPPH and FRAP methods, and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria were also studied. The highest contents of total phenol (51.94 ± 2.30 mg GAE/g DW) and total flavonoid (22.57 ± 1.73 mg QE/g DW) were found in V. sinuatum. The range of the highest content (mg/g DW) among the other compounds were found to be rutin (0.11–21.0), rosmarinic acid (0.33–12.16), p-coumaric acid (0.10–10.22), ferulic acid (0.11–7.82), gentisic acid (0.09–5.73), protocatechuic acid (0.09–4.74), salicylic acid (2.45–4.36), quercetin (0.13–3.21), and harpagoside (0.001−0.320) in the studied species. In addition, twenty-eight compounds were qualitatively identified in the plant extracts. The highest content of metabolites supported the observed highest antioxidant activity in V. speciosum and V. songaricum. Phenolic-enriched fraction of V. songaricum showed the highest antibacterial activity (MIC 0.12 mg/mL) against Staphylococcus aureus. Association analysis showed a significant positive correlation between biological properties and phenolic compounds. In conclusion, V. songaricum and V. sinuatum could be selected as adequate species for further exploitation in agricultural systems and pharmaceutical industry.
... Forty-five biennial, or rarely annual species and several hybrids of Verbascum have been documented in the flora of Iran, 20 of which are endemic (Rechinger, 1981;Sotoodeh et al., 2017). This genus with the common Persian name of "Gol-e-Mahoor" has a broad distribution in T (MAPs) have created problems for these resources and left many medicinal species at risk of extinction. ...
The Verbascum L. genus (Scrophulariaceae) is rich in phenols, flavonoids, and iridoid glycosides, which have been used extensively in traditional medicine. This study aimed to examine the association between genetics and metabolomics of V. songaricum populations (VSPs), collected from different geographical regions of Iran for further breeding and exploitation programs. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis showed a significant difference among the twelve studied VSPs, which were classified into five main groups based on an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic and principal coordinate analysis. Ninety-six bands were produced by fourteen ISSR primers, among which 92.7% of them were polymorphic at the species level. The essential oils were analyzed by means GC–FID and GC–MS and five main chemotypes, including docosane (I), methyl chavicol (II), methyl eugenol (III), β-damascenone (IV), and α-bisabolol (V) were characterized. HPLC–PDA–MS was further used to detect and to measure the phenolic compounds and harpagoside content in methanolic extract of VSPs. The main compounds identified in the VSPs extracts were rutin, quercetin, rosmarinic acid, salicylic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, 2, 5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and harpagoside. Cluster analysis based on phytochemical data divided VSPs into nine groups. Subsequently, data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis to identify the correlation between genetic and metabolic diversity. The phytochemical data as the dependent variable showed significant association with bands obtained from molecular data. The high variation observed in essential oils, phenolics, and harpagoside among the VSPs establish a good potential to select the best genotype in breeding projects.
... The species is distributed in China (Xinjiang), Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Russia (Siberia), Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia and recently reported from Iran (Sotoodeh et al., 2017) and now from India. Present study recorded the species from two districts: Ganderbal (Baltal) and Kargil (Drass, Trespone, Saliakot) in Jammu and Kashmir (Fig. 1). ...
... Verbascum, commonly known by the term "mulleins", is a genus that includes about 400 species [68,69]. Traditionally, the genus is well known for the treatment of certain diseases as headache, rheumatic pain, eczema, blood disorders, relieving of burns, lesions, wounds and acting as diuretic [68]. ...
As part of the nomenclatural revision of the genus Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae) in Iran, we noted that seven names are still untypified. Thus, we have carried out a nomenclatural investigation which led to the designation of seven lectotypes for V. cheiranthifolium var. asperulum, V. flavidum, V. macrocarpum, V. sinuatum var. adenosepalum, V. straussii, V. suwarowianum var. pseudopersicum and V. szovitsianum.
Verbascum thapsus is annual or biennial herb, which belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae. It has becomes naturalized in most temperature regions of the world, where it can be found in abundance on roadsides, meadows, and pasture lands. The plant V. thapsus is commonly known as “Mullein.” V. thapsus has a broad native range including Europe, North Africa, Western and Central Asia. It has been introduced to Japan, Sri Lanka, the United States of America, Australia, and New Zealand. The herb has been utilized as a medicinal herb since ancient times, and has a great potential to treat a number of ailments. Mullein is supposed to be loaded with significant number of bioactive constituents including triterpene, tetraglycosides, saponins, terpenes, flavonoids, carotenoids, tannins, carbohydrates, phenolic acid, sugars, proteins, and minerals. Due to the presence of these potent phytoconstituents, it has been traditionally used as a folk medicine for a majority of locals in different parts of world. Reported literature of the plant available from primary and secondary search engines unveil a number of pharmacological activities of the plant, including antitumor, cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antiviral, nephroprotective, anthelmintic, analgesic activity, etc. The aim of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive review of the various therapeutic activities of the plant along its phytochemical constituents which are responsible for its medicinal status. Keywords: Verbascum thapsus · Mullein · Scrophulariaceae · Phytochemical moieties · Pharmacological profile
Verbascum birjandense and V. urumiense are described as new endemic species of Verbascum from eastern and northwestern Iran. It was not possible to assign the samples of these two taxa to any of the known Verbascum species in Iran and adjacent regions. Collating the morphological characters of the samples against the specialized and pertinent literature of the genus led us to propose them as new species. Both belong to section Bothrosperma, subsection Fasciculata. These new species are morphologically close to V. erianthum and V. songaricum based on some key characteristics, but show some differences in basal leaves shape, pedicel size, the ratio of pedicel to calyx, presence of hairs inside the corolla, and the hair color of the stamen’s filaments. Distribution map and details of important characters are also presented.
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We analyzed Verbascum kermanense Hub.-Mor., V. carmanicum (Bornm.) Hub.-Mor. and V. gabrielae (Bornm.) Hub.-Mor. (Scrophulariaceae) to resolve their classification using morphological traits and molecular evidence. Verbascum kermanense previously synonymized with V. gabrielae is presented as a subspecies of V. carmanicum, and V. gabrielae as a valid species based on morphological and molecular characteristics. The present article discusses morphological and hierarchical clustering analyses of key characters of these taxa, and provides their conservation status assessment and their distribution map for Iran.
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A new endemic species from north of Iran: Verbascum parsana Sotoodeh, Attar & Civeyrel, sp. nov. is described. Considering the combination of some characteristics like ebracteolate and single flowers, violet hairs on filaments, pedicel size between 3 to 10 mm and stellate-glandular indumentum, the new species is related to Verbascum punalense Boiss. & Buhse, but several differences have been observed between the two species: the shape of the anthers, the petiole of basal leaves, the corolla size and the calyx hairs. We investigate the genetic distance of the new species with close genera using ITS and plastid regions (trnS-G, trnL-F, trnH-psbA and partial matK). The new species showed significant molecular and morphological distance from closely related species. Photos and distribution map are presented.
A new endemic species, Verbascum shahsavarensis, is described from north of Iran. Based on two unique characters of this species, these being two anterior longitudinally obliquely inserted anthers and an ebracteolate pedicel, we compared it to species described by Murbeck in 1933. The new species can be easily distinguished from the other Iranian species by having bi-colored hairs on the stamen filaments and the unique anther and pedicel characters. A distribution map is provided. The name of new species comes from Shahsavar, the ancient name of Tonekabon, an old coastal city on the Caspian Sea.
Verbascum oreophilum Koch var. oreophilum and Verbascum cheiranthifolium var. asperulum (Boiss.) Murbeck (Scrophulariaceae) are reported and illustrated for the first time from North-West of Iran. The diagnostic morphological characters from closely related taxa are discussed, and a distribution map of these taxa is provided for Iran.
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