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Water, energy and food nexus in Egypt - Nexus Country Profile

Nexus Country Prole
Country Data
Total land area (ha): 99,545,000 [3]
Population densit y (people per km² of land area): 80 (2011) [1]
Population growth (%): 1.7 (2012) [1]
GNI per capita (2005 PPP $): 5,704 (2012) [2]
GINI coecient: 30.8 (2011) [1]
Poverty gap at national poverty line at 1.25$ (PPP) (%): 4 (2005) [1]
HDI value: 0.662 (2012) [2]
MPI value: 0.024 (2008) [2]
GII value: 0.59 (2012)[2]
Mean years of schooling (a): 6.4 (2012) [2]
Adult literacy rate, ages 15 and above (%): 74 (2012) [1]
Life Expectancy at birth (total years): 71 (2011) [1]
Mortality rate under 5 (per 1000 of live births): 21 (2012) [1]
Investment and Sector Finance
General government nal consumption expenditure (constant 2005
US$/% of GDP): 14,236 mio./11 (2012) [1]
Household nal consumption expenditure/per capita (constant 2005
US$): 96,436 mio./1,176 (2012) [1]
Foreign direct investment net inows, (bio. current US$/% of GDP):
2,8/ 1.1 (2012) [1]
Net ODA received (% of central government expense): 0.6 (2011) [1]
Agriculture (source denotes incomplete data)
[7] Total investment in agriculture sector and related industrial sub-
sectors (mio. US$): 12,021 (2008)
Share of government investment (%): 69.4 (2008)
Share of foreign investment (%): 30.6 (2008)
Total land area allocated by foreign investment: 10,000 ha by Saudi
Arabia agricultural rms [4,5]*
Water [12, 14, 9]
Egyptian government budget on water infrastructure (bio. US$): 663
Egyptian government budget on water supply and sanitation (bio.
US$): 1,086 (2004)
Private/foreign investment in water sector: no data available
Low recovery levels in water sector - tari nancial ow accounts for
10% (2009)
Governmental expenditure in energy sector: no data available
Private/foreign investment in energy sector: no data available
Subsidies in food and fuel account for the largest par t in government
spending with 18 mio. $ in 2011 to 2012 [10]
GDP and WEF Sector
GDP per capita (constant 2005 US$): 1560 (2012) [1]
GDP growth annual (%): 2.2 (2014) [1]
Government revenues (bio. US$): 302,009 (2011) [13]
Government spending (bio. US$): 436,148 (2011) [13]
Central government debt, total (% of GDP): 86 (2007) [1]
Ination, GDP deator (annual %): 12 (2012) [1]
Tax revenue (% of GDP): 14 (2011) [1]
Subsidies and other transfers (% of expense): 42 (2011) [1]
GDP by sector, electricity and water (%): 1.9 (2006/2007) [11]
GDP by sector, industry, petroleum & mining (%): 32.4 (2006/07) [11]
Services, etc.
Sector Contribution to GDP, 2011
Employment in agriculture
Employmen t in industry
Employment in services
Unemployment total
Employment in Sector, 2005
Population Trend
100 M io
80 Mio
60 Mio
40 Mio
20 Mio
20 11
ODA Water
ODA Ener gy
ODA Agriculture
Net ODA recei ved (in %)
Net ODA recei ved (in US$)
Ocial Development Aid in Sectors
Current US$/capita
20 11
Nexus Country Prole Water
Water for Energy
Water for Land/Food
Water available per capita: 682.5 m³/cap*a (2011) [1]
Water consumption per capita: 973.3 m³/cap*a (only 2000) [1]
Rainfall average: 51mm/a [2]
Rainfall distribution spatial: 0 -200mm/a [2]
Rainfall distribution temporal: low, irregular & unpredictable [2]
Internal Renewable Water Resources
Surface Water, actual: 56km³/a (99% Nile, 2011) [1]
Groundwater, acutal: 1.3 km³ (2011) [1]
Total renewable resources, acutal: 57.3 km³/a (2011) [1]
Direct use of agricultural drainage water: 11 km³/a (2001)[1]
Produced/collec ted/treated municipal wastewater: 8.5, 6. 5, 4.8 km³/a
(2 011) [1 ]
Direct use of municipal wastewater/for irrigation: 0.7/0.29 km³/a
(2 011) [1 ]
Desalination water: 0.1km³/a at north coast (2002) [1]
Non renewable sources, estimated: 0.6 to 3.8 km³/a [2]
Surface water entering the country, natural: 84 km³/a (2011) [1]
Surface water leaving the country, natural: 0km³/a (2011) [1]
Surface water inow secured/submitted through treaties: 55.5 km³/a
(2 011) [1 ]
Hydropower is the third largest source for electricity in Egypt and ac-
counts for 8% (2011) of electricity generation [8]. Hydropower generated
12.93 TWh in 2011[9]. The installed capacity of 2,692 MW is often not ex-
ploited due to low water levels [10]. The existing two dams and reservoirs,
the Aswan Dam and the low Aswan Dam, have a storage capacity of 162
and 5 km³[11]. FAO indicates that the overall use for hydropower accounts
for 4km³ annually [2].
Wastewater is being reused in Egypt for biofuel production with active
governmental promotion. In total, 0.26 bio. m³ of secondary treated was-
tewater and 0.44 bio. m³ of primary treated wastewater are reused for irri-
gation [16]. According to Abdel Shafy, the extensive use of sewage water
for irrigation aects groundwater resources. His study revealed that the
majority of w ater samples exceeded th e maximum levels for BOD, COD and
Water Eciency and Cropping Patterns
On the cultivated area in Egypt, 94% are annual crops, and 6% are perma-
nent crops. There is a decrease in cultivation of bre, oil, fodder and legu-
me crops and a correlated increase in cereals, fruit, sugar and vegetables.
The three cropping seasons are the summer, winter and Nile season. Only
0.2% of croplands are rainfed, the remaining area is irrigated. Surface irri-
gation accounts for 302,854 ha; 171,910 ha for sprinkler and 221,415 ha for
drip or trickle irrigation [5].
Virtual Water
[6] Major crops imported and associated with virtual water are soybeans,
followed by wheat a nd maize. Major exporte d crops associated with virtu -
al water are citrus and sugar.
The main pollution source in Egypt is industry, due to direct or after treat-
ment discharge of sewage. While drainage water in the delta region is
reused, it is directly discharged in the upstream region. Increasing use of
fertilizers and pesticides caused ourishing of weed and, therefore, an in-
crease in evapotranspiration. Also, there are high levels of pollutants
because of uncontrolled and accumulated discharge[7].
Water Withdrawal by Sector, 2004
- Rapidly decreasing water resources per capita due to population growth
and contamination
- Very high depen dency on Nile water resources with growing vulnerability
to changes in water use of upstream countries
- Despite high access to improved water sources, several protest move-
ments in the last years are due to disruptions in supply, water quality and
pricing [3]
- 47% of rural population has no access to sewer systems, resulting in corre-
lated contamination of groundwater bodies due to low water levels [4],[7]
- 6.5 km³ of 8.5 km³ generated wastewater is collected, but only 4.8 km³ is
treated [1]
Total Import (Mm3)
Total Export (Mm3)
Groundwater production
Soil water consumption
for agriculture (Mm3/Y)
Virtual Water, 2006
Unimproved Water, Total
Unimproved Sanitation, Total
Unimproved Water, Rural
Unimproved Sanitation, Urban
Unimproved Water, Urban
Unimproved Sanitation, Rural
Access to Water and Sanitation, 2010
[Percent %]
Total water withdrawal
Water resources : total renewable
Average precipitation in volume
Water resources : total exploitable
Water Resources and Consumption, 2011
Nexus Country Prole Energy
Energy for Water Energy for Land/Food
Energy use per capita: 987 ktoe/cap*a (2011) [1]
Electric power consumption per capita: 1743 kWh/cap*a (2011) [1]
TPES: 77.69 Mtoe (2011) [2]
Reserves and Potential:
Crude oil reserves: 4,400 mio. barrels (2013) [3]
Natural gas: 2,186 trillion m³ (2013) [3]
Coal reserves: 17 mio. short t (2008) [4]
Solar potential, DNI: 74 bio. MWh, 1970 to 3200 kWh/m²/a [5]
Biomass potential: 40 mio. tons, 3,600 ktoe [5]
Wind potential, wind speed: 20,000 MW, > 7m/s in Western part [5]
Geothermal potential: no data available
Falling water, total hydraulic resources: 125,000 mio. kWh (2008) [6]
Energy consumption for water is generally high in Egypt because water
supply is dependent on pumping water from the Nile to higher levels.
Egypt has more than 560 pumping stations with more than 1,600 single
pumping units for irrigation of cultivated land. The amount of electricity
needed to operate these stations is indicated in 930 GWh [10].
Due to increasing water scarcity and demand, many desalination plants
have been built in the last 30 years. In 2002, the amount of desalinated
water was 100 mio. m³[11]. Water desalination leads to increasing energy
consumption. According to estimations by Garcia Rodrigez (2003), 13 mio.
m³ of water require 130 mil tons of oil, whi ch furthermore could dras tically
increase the ene rgy demand and CO2 emissions [11]. Although energy use
for pumping and potable water production seems to be quite high, Egypt
was reported to be one of the countries with the least energy intensity in
water supply [13].
Energy Use in Agriculture
The energy use in agriculture in Egypt has experienced a high increa-
se over the last year but remains small in general – around 60% of to-
tal energy consumption in Egypt in 2010[2]. The total energy consump-
tion in 2000 was 292 ktoe with 75% accounting for electricity. In 2010, it
increased to 3,685 ktoe. Energy use in agriculture is expected to rise due
to increasing scarcity and production. When comparing the data repor-
ted by IEA, the highest electricity consumption in agriculture was recor-
ded in 2010 with 494 GWh and does not nearly reach the required supply
for pumping, as reported by Khaled. Further data on the specic use pat-
terns are not available.
Since the late 1970s, agricultural machinery shows a steady increase -
103,188 tractors in use in 2008 [7]. In 2000, the area under power irrigati-
on was 29,379 km³ [8]. While irrigation systems in the old land of the Nile
Valley are based on combined gravity and water lifting systems, the sup-
ply in the new lands is dependent on pumping stations [9]. In the new
lands, there is no legal permission for surface irrigation, thus irrigation is
based on sprinkler and drip technologies. Modernization eorts towards
ecient use of water in the agriculture s ector might lead to an increase in
energy consumption.
Egypt is the largest energy consuming country in North Africa. Energy consumption per capita is in the upper middle range. Highest energy consumption
is in Industry (35%), Transport (30%) and Residential (26%) [2]. Energy exports in 2011 (22,258 ktoe) exceeded imports (12,704 ktoe) [2]. Access to electricity
is 100%. [1] Emissions in 2010 were around 205 Mt of CO2 (2.6 metric tons per capita). Methane emissions in the energy sector account for 29,711 metric tons
of CO2 equivalent in 2010.
Electricity production from hydroelectric sources
Electricity production from oil sources
Electricity production from natural gas sources
Electricity production from renewable
sources excluding hydroelectric
Electricity Production, 2011
1% 8%
Transp ort
Energy Use by Sector, 2011
crude oil
natural gas
geothermal, solar, etc.
biofuels and waste
Energy Production Sources, 2011
Energy Production and Consumption, 2011
Electric power consumption
Electricity production
Energy production
Energy Use
kt of oil equ ivalent / GWh
15000050000 100000 2000000
Energy Imports Exports Balance
Energy imports net
Production and use
Imports to production
and use
20 11
kt of oil equ ivalent
kt of oil equ ivalent
Nexus Country Prole Land
Land for Water Land/Food for Energy
Protected Areas
The propor tion of protected areas is stagnant at 6.08% [6]. The majority of
these are terrestrial protected areas with 580km² of 638km². Water pollu-
tion is one of the key concerns for protected areas. In rural Egypt, waste-
water treatment is not included in governmental plans [7]. With a growing
population, su bstantial investments nee d to be made to protect these are -
as from further pollution.
The resource potential for dams in Egypt is almost exploited [8]. Lake Nas-
ser is the bigges t reservoir in the countr y and covers a surface area of 5,250
km². The lake resulted f rom the construction of the A swan High dam in the
1950s, which supplies Egypt with much of its energy.
Since rainfall is very scarce in Egypt - annual averaged precipitation
amounts in 12mm, rainwater har vesting could only be impleme nted at the
coastal zone [10]. A pilot plant for harvesting was constructed in Alexan-
dria and revealed that it can be a signicant option for Egypt considering
increasing resource scarcity.
Land for Fuelwood
Biofuels in Egypt are mainly fueldwood. Since 1994, the government has
implemented reforestation plans with a focus on treated wastewater as a
irrigation source for plantations in cities and on production of fuelwood
[11]. The forest area increased slightly to 70,000 ha in 2010[1]. Fuelwood
productio n from nonconifereous wo od was 17,397 mio. m³ in the year 2011
Land for Biofuels
According to IEA, e nergy production by bio fuels and waste was 1,617 ktoe,
of which 24 ktoe were exported in 2011. Recently, national programs for
the use of wastewater for aorestation planted 84 ha of jatropha for bio-
diesel produ ction [12]. Limitations exist r egarding the stages of treatm ent,
the crop type and the purpose of usage. According to Said (2013), the the-
oretical energy potential of residues is huge with 417 PJ mostly generated
in agriculture and consumed in rural areas..
- 96% of land area in Egypt is desert
- Agricultural activities and population located along the Nile Valley
- Extreme water stress and increasing vulnerability to climate change [9]
- Highly dependent on food imports [1], [9]
- Trend of decreasing aid deliveries, despi te acceleration of food insecurity
due to increasing poverty rates and other economic crises
Agricultural land per capita: 0.046 ha/inh. (2009) (knoma)
Cultivated land per capita: 0.045 ha/inh. (2011) (knoma)
Food production per capita, Gross PIN: 107 (2012) [13]
Agriculture to GDP: 14% (2011) [1]
Employment in agriculture: 24% (2011) [1]
Prevalence of undernutrition: -5% (2010-12)[5]
Share of food consumption expenditure: 45% (2009)[3]
Food supply per capita: 3477 kcal/capita/day (2009) [5]
Production Systems: 90% farm sizes within scale of 2 acres
tendency to new land ownership > 5 acres
small proportion in mega projects of 3-4 mio. acres [4]
Main production commodities, quantity: sugar cane & beet, wheat
(2 011) [5]
Main export product:, value: oranges, cotton, sugar (2011) [5]
Main import product, value: wheat, maize, sugar (2011) [5]
Land use
Total Land Area
Agricultural Land
Cultivated Area
Irrigated Area
[1000 ha]
[1000 ha]
50000 100000
3640 3660 3680 3700
Production Index
[mill ion t]
Food Imports and Exports in Egypt
% of merchandi se im/export
Aid Deliveries [t]
Food Imports Food Exports Total Food Aid
20 11
Protected Areas
Protected Areas:
Marine & Terrestrial
Terrestrial and Marine Protected Areas
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Forest AreaFuelwood production
Forest Area [ha]
Fuelwood Production [m3]
Forest Area and Fuel Wood Production
1740 0
Rapid Assessment
Overall Assessment
Egypt faces major water, food and energy security challenges which are
magni ed by the political instability and severely decreasing economic
growth since the 2011 revolution.
The Nile is Egypt’s only renewable water source; however, the shifting
geostrategic balance between states in the Nile basin means it threatens
Egypt’s share of th e Nile’s  ow. Pressures o n water resources have increase d
with population growth, and the per capita share of water has decreased.
In regards to energ y, Egypt is heavily d ependent on its oil and gas re serves.
The energy demand is likely to grow due to increasing energy consump-
tion in the agriculture and water sector, and the growing population and
One in  ve Egyptians are currently e xperiencing food insecurity as a result
of structural issues in the food supply system. There is a growing gap
between Egypt’s long-term agricultural production potential and its esti-
mated population growth. The country is dependent on the global food
market to secure the food demand of its population, but a reduction in
imports appears di cult to obtain, given land availability and production
Water shortages will have a severe impact on Egypt’s food security. Of
Egypt’s total water supply, 80% is used for agriculture. As water availa-
bility shrinks and available agricultural land is used, Egypt’s food produc-
tion capacit y will fall. The impacts of resource scarcity will be exacerbated
by the changing global climate.
In the longer term, environmental issues related to solid waste manage-
ment, air pollution, small holder farming combined with land degrada-
tion and the loss of biodiversity are intensi ed by an increasing popula-
tion and limited by arable land, deserti cation and climate change. These
pose signi cant challenges for food security.
To address the present challenges, Egypt has to resolve the structural
weaknesses of the economic sector and attract private investment to
return sustainable economic growth.
In terms of water security, Egypt could protect areas from further pollu-
tion in addition to improving the sanitation value chain in order to assure
safe transportation and treatment of excreta. Part of the capital needed
for the interventions could be gained through a more e ective water
tari system. Despite the a ordability of water and sewer tari s, which
are amongst the lowest in the world, only a fraction of costs is recovered
through revenues from tari s. To achieve this, the government will need
to cooperate with regional stakeholders on water allocations.
Egypt currently has underutilised potential for renewable energy
resources; these could be implemented to satisfy increasing energy
demands. However, in the future Egypt will need to consider the importa-
tion of energy produced by the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam.
Considering the increasing population, Egypt will not be self-su cient
in terms of food security. The country needs to increase food imports
without exacerbating the structural  scal de cit. Trade based food secu-
rity may not be viable in the long-term if Egypt is unable to amend its
struggling economy. Therefore, the country has to explore major gains
that can be achieved in the e cient use of agricultural inputs and reduc-
tion of waste throughout the food system, including restructuring the
food subsidy system. A comprehensive e ort is required to improve agri-
cultural productivity and reduce losses throughout the food and water
supply chains.
Water Security
Egypt is reliant for 98% of its water supply from the river Nile with a growing vulnerabilit y to the changing water uses of upstream countries. Water insecu-
rity rises du e to population growth and cont amination. Despite high access to improve d water sources, several protest move ments have occurred in the last
years due to disruptions in supply, water quality and pricing.
Water supply
High access to improved water sources, low access to improved
sanitation, and weaknesses along the sanitation value chain in
safe treatment and disposal of excreta.
High loss in storage capacities of reser voirs due to increasing sedi-
Virtual water
Virtual water embedded in food import is increasing. Major
exported crops associated with vir tual water are citrus and sugar.
High discharge of untreated excreta into water bodies, pollution
of groundwater and high concentrations of DDT in potable water
storages due to the use of pesticides in agriculture.
Protected Are as
Missing monitoring programs and environmental regulations on
protection of water bodies cause a high threat to nature and the
Food Security
The prevalence of combined foo d insecurity and income poverty in Egy pt is increasing . Population growth and urbanisation are encroaching o nto strips of
fertile land adjacent to the Nile. The consequent environmental degradation is leading to contamination and deserti cation of the limited remaining fertile
areas. E or ts to reclaim land from the desert in order to counteract this trend are restric ted by the need to secure su cient water supplies. Therefore, Egypt
relies on the global market for up to 60% of its food needs, which has been a major cause in the rise of Egypt’s food insecurity in the past.
The rapid assessment of the situation above, based on available data, was established following the UN Water Country Pro les. It provides an overview of
trends according to the following:
Cropping patterns
The three cropping seasons are the summer, winter and Nile
season. Only 3.5% of Egypt ’s landmass is potentially arable. The
remaining land is arid desert.
Food markets
Dependency on food imports increase, whereas self-su ciency
declines. Local food markets exist and are functioning.
Energy use in Agriculture
Energy use in agriculture is ex pected to rise due to increasing scar-
city and produc tion but remains small in general.
Productivity in Agriculture
Urbanisation and environmental degradation endanger Egypt’s
already limited fertile areas. The total area of land cultivated has
Water use e c iency
Croplands are largely dependent on irrigation, of which surface
irrigation is the most common technique. Water use e ciency is
below international standards.
Energy Security
Egypt is the largest energy consuming country in North Africa. Energy security is endangered because of the rising energy demand in the water and agri-
culture sectors.
Wastewater is being reused in Egypt for biofuel production with
active governmental promotion.
Hydropower is the largest source of renewable energy. Yet, its
contribution to total energy consumption is small.
Land for Biofuels
Recently, national programs for biodiesel production have been
Fossil fuels
The main energy source is fossil fuels. Oil and gas reserves are the
main energy suppliers.
Biofuels in Egypt are mainly fuelwoods. This can negatively a ect
soil quantity.
Access to Electricit y
The entire population has f ull access to electricity. Energy cuts and
shortages have been a problem recently.
Wastewater for Energy
There are existing reforestation plans with fo cus on treated waste-
water as an irrigation source for plantations.
insu scient data
trends are of signi cant concern
trends are of concern
trends are stable or progressing on certain issues but not on others
trends show some measure of improvement in all relevant indicators assessed
trends show signi cant improvement and there is no concern
Nexus Country Prole
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Nexus Country Prole
About and Copyright:
This publication is developed by the Research Focus on Water, Ener-
gy and Food Security of the Cologne University of Applied Sciences.
Speaker of the Research Focus: Prof. Dr. Lars Ribbe
Dr. Mohammad Al-Saidi, Tatjana Schellenberg, Emma Roach
Aljoscha Nimz, Antonia Fedlmeier, Michael Mensing
Dr. Mohammad Al-Saidi (
Prof. Dr. Lars Ribbe (
Institute for Technology in the Tropics (ITT)
TH Köln (University of Applied Sciences)
When using these materials, include the following citation:
Al-Saidi, Mohammad; Schellenberg, Tatjana; Roach, Emma (2016):
„Nexus Countr y Proles: Egypt“, Nexus Rese arch Focus, TH Köln - Uni-
versity of Applied Sciences.
© TH Köln (University of Applied Sciences)
Useful Resources:
Data Sources:
World Bank Country Database
IEA Statistics
FAO Country Proles Database
FAO Aquastat Database
Nexus Websites:
... In Egypt, the challenges posed by the need to ensure water, energy, and food security are amplified both by political instability and the sharp decline in the economy following the 2011 revolution [29]. Other elements contribute to amplify the precariousness of the situation. ...
... As far as energy is concerned, Egypt is heavily dependent on its oil and gas reserves [29]. The demand for energy is also set to grow due to the increase in energy consumption in the agricultural and water sectors as a result of population and economic growth. ...
... Additionally, with regard to food, it has been estimated that one in five Egyptians is currently facing food insecurity due to structural problems in the food supply system [29]. The country is, furthermore, dependent on the global food market to meet the population's demand, but a reduction of imports now seems very difficult to achieve for two reasons: (i) production yields and land availability are low; (ii) with the reduction of water availability, the small portion of agricultural land available cannot be used efficiently. ...
Full-text available
The Water–Energy–Food (WEF) nexus describes natural resource use in the context of social needs and economic development, addressing food, water, and energy security. Population growth and rising economic prosperity will increase the demand for energy, food, and water in the Mediterranean region, compromising the sustainable use of resources. As governments are required to make decisions in order to cope with increasing demands for resources, this paper performs a review of the legislation and WEF policies, identifying the main political and institutional actors involved and the possible policy (in)coherence in four MED countries located on two continents: Egypt, Italy, Spain, and Tunisia. This choice will allow the identification of the barriers and catalysts influencing the implementation of WEF policies and will improve our understanding of the WEF trade-offs and synergies by exploring them on national, regional, and local scales.
... Siddiqi and Anadon [15], for example, quantified the water requirements of the energy sector and the energy requirements of the water sector at national level for 20 MENA countries. Al-Saidi et al. [16] provide water vulnerability profiles at country level considering the links to the energy sector, while Hoff et al. [14] compare five water-energy-food nexus case studies from the MENA region at the meta level. Other studies focus on country level analysis: for example, Rambo et al. [17] analyze the nexus in Saudi Arabia; Al-Saidi et al. [16] summarize nexus facts for Egypt; Al-Masri et al. [17] explore water-energy nexus policies and governance aspects in Jordan; and Terrapon-Pfaff et al. [18] focus on water-related challenges for the Iranian power sector. ...
... Al-Saidi et al. [16] provide water vulnerability profiles at country level considering the links to the energy sector, while Hoff et al. [14] compare five water-energy-food nexus case studies from the MENA region at the meta level. Other studies focus on country level analysis: for example, Rambo et al. [17] analyze the nexus in Saudi Arabia; Al-Saidi et al. [16] summarize nexus facts for Egypt; Al-Masri et al. [17] explore water-energy nexus policies and governance aspects in Jordan; and Terrapon-Pfaff et al. [18] focus on water-related challenges for the Iranian power sector. However, evidence from practical applications of the water-energy nexus concept at local level are limited-despite the fact that, according to Hoff et al. [14], the operationalization of the nexus approach could be particularly beneficial in the MENA region in light of the challenge the countries face with regard to energy, land, and water aspects. ...
Full-text available
Water availability plays an important role in the expansion planning of utility-scale solar power plants, especially in the arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa. Although these power plants usually account for only a small fraction of local water demand, competition for water resources between communities, farmers, companies, and power suppliers is already emerging and is likely to intensify in future. Despite this, to date there has been a lack of comprehensive studies analyzing interdependencies and potential conflicts between energy and water at local level. This study addresses this research gap and examines the linkages between water resources and energy technologies at local level based on a case study conducted in Ouarzazate, Morocco, where one of the largest solar power complexes in the world was recently completed. To better understand the challenges faced by the region in light of increased water demand and diminishing water supply, a mixed-method research design was applied to integrate the knowledge of local stakeholders through a series of workshops. In a first step, regional socio-economic water demand scenarios were developed and, in a second step, water saving measures to avoid critical development pathways were systematically evaluated using a participatory multi-criteria evaluation approach. The results are a set of water demand scenarios for the region and a preferential ranking of water saving measures that could be drawn upon to support decision-making relating to energy and water development in the region.
... Furthermore, Egypt relies on the international market for up to 60% of the food needs of its increasing population, making any loss of prime agricultural land highly associated with direct impacts on food security and livelihoods. Today, one in five Egyptians is experiencing food insecurity because of structural issues in the food supply system (Al-Saidi et al., 2016). In addition, food security challenges are further exacerbated by a number of natural and humaninduced stressors that have been documented in the literature including, among others, rapid growth and high concentration of population, soil erosion, land degradation, and climate change (El Banna and Frihy, 2009;Hereher, 2010). ...
Full-text available
The Nile Delta of Egypt is increasingly facing sustainability threats, due to a combination of nature- and human-induced changes in land cover and land use. In this paper, an analysis of big time-series data from remotely sensed satellite images and the Random Forests classifier was undertaken to assess the spatial and temporal dynamics of urbanization and cropland in the Nile Delta between 2007 and 2017. Out of thirteen variables, five spectral indices were chosen to build 500 decision trees, with a resulting overall accuracy average of 91.9±1.5%. The results revealed that the urban extent in the Nile Delta has increased, between 2007 and 2017, by 592.4 km2 (1.92%). Particularly, the results indicated that the years 2011 and 2012, which coincided the 2011 political uprising in Egypt, so-called "the Arab Spring", were associated with significant land-use changes in the Nile Delta, both in rate and scale. As a result, the cropland area in the region decreased between 2010 and 2011 by 1.63% (502.21 km2). Moreover, the results showed that during the period 2012-2017, the mean annual urbanization rate in the region stood at 60 km2 /year. In contrast, croplands decreased during the same period at an average annual rate of 2 km2 /year. At the governorates' level, the results suggested that top agricultural producing governorates in the Nile Delta, such as Elmonoufia, Elkalubia, Elbouhyra, and Elghrbia, witnessed the highest rates of decrease in cropland areas during the period 2012-2017. Over the same period, urban areas increased the most in Elkalubia, Domiate, and Elmonoufia by 1.98%, 1.72% and 1.34%, respectively. The findings from this analysis are discussed along with their implications for sustainable land-use and urban planning policies.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Wastewater characteristics and flow vary greatly from urban to rural areas and even from small to big rural areas. This work investigates the raw wastewater characteristics and the performance of low cost wastewater treatment plants in rural areas. Field data collection on population census and activity, water supply, sewage system and water and wastewater samples from water bodies, sewage network outlet and septic tank is available from a field survey
"Large-scale acquisitions of farmland in Africa, Latin America, Central Asia and Southeast Asia are making headlines in a flurry of media reports across the world. Lands that only a short time ago seemed of little outside interest are now being sought by international investors by the tune of hundreds of thousands of hectares. And while a failed attempt to lease 1.3 million hectares in Madagascar has attracted much media attention, deals reported in the international press constitute the tip of the iceberg. Despite the spate of media reports and rare published research, international land deals and their impacts still remain little understood. This report is a step towards filling this gap. The outcome of a collaboration between IIED, FAO and IFAD, the report discusses key trends and drivers in land acquisitions, the contractual arrangements underpinning them and the way these are negotiated, and the early impacts on land access for rural people in recipient countries. While international land deals are emerging as a global phenomenon, this report focuses on sub-Saharan Africa. The report draws on a literature review, on qualitative interviews with key informants internationally, on national inventories of ongoing and proposed land acquisitions since 2004 in five African countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mali and Sudan) and qualitative studies in Mozambique and Tanzania, and on legal analysis of national law and of a small sample of investor-state contracts."
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