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Properties of whole grain wheat flour and performance in bakery products as a function of particle size

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of particle size distribution on composition, properties rheological, pasting, microstructural and baking properties of whole grain wheat flour (WGWF) of three different particles sizes (194.9 μm, 609.4 μm and 830.0 μm). The quantification of free sulfhydryl groups (-SH) of WGWF samples, together with the effects observed in the behavior of the dough and bread showed that particle size influences the functionality of the gluten network in a differentiated way. Firmer and lower breads volume compared to refined wheat flour (RF) were correlated with the quality of the gluten network. In the sample of finer particles, more pronounced adverse effects in quality (dough rheology, bread volume and texture) compared to the medium and coarse particle size sample suggests that the larger contact surface and the increased release of reactive compounds due to cell rupture interact with the gluten-forming proteins changing their functionality.

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... The trend observed in this study with regards to the ash, fat and protein contents after fractionation, is similar to previous reports (Ahmed, Thomas, & Arfat, 2019;Dhen et al., 2016;Sullivan, Engebretson, & Anderson, 1960). However, some authors found the opposite, with protein content decreasing with a reduction in particle size (Ahmed, Al-Attar, & Arfat, 2016;Bressiani et al., 2017;Memon et al., 2020). Differences noted in the effect of particle size on the proximate composition of flours may be attributed to several factors. ...
... Another plausible reason could be attributed to the milling efficiency with regards to the initial size of the flour and compositional differences in terms of the type of flour may also influence the variation observed. For instance, in this study, the flour used was a composite of whole-wheat (80%) and Bambara groundnut flour (20%) while majority of the studies where protein fractions decreased with a reduction in particle size used only whole-grain wheat flour (Ahmed et al., 2016;Bressiani et al., 2017;Memon et al., 2020). ...
... From the result of sensory evaluation, it appears that the finer the particles, the less defective was the pasta appearance. Findings by earlier researchers noted that the particle size distribution of flour samples play an important role on its properties and determine the quality of resulting products (Bressiani et al., 2017). ...
Article
Pasta from whole-grain wheat is highly nutritious but has poor sensory properties. Hence, this study prepared pasta from fractionated whole-grain wheat flour enriched with 20% Bambara groundnut. The chemical, anti-oxidant and sensory properties of the pasta were assessed using standard methods. The fat, protein, ash contents, lightness and antioxidant properties value of the flour and pasta increased, while carbohydrate and fibre contents decreased with a reduction in particle size from 500 μm to 112 μm. Potassium (246.50-249.00 mg/kg), calcium (223.50-254.00 mg/kg) and magnesium (184.50-192.00 mg/kg) were the major mineral element in the pasta samples, while zinc (1.00-2.00 mg/kg) and iron (3.50-13.00 mg/kg) are present in small quantities. The optimum cooking time of pasta (average 6.55 min) from the fractionated flours was shorter compared to the control pasta (pasta made from unfractionated wheat flour), but the cooking loss was not significantly affected. Pasta from flour with particle sizes of 300 and 112 μm were very similar in their sensory attributes and showed the highest ratings in overall acceptability. Fractionation of whole-grain wheat flour seems very promising in producing pasta with fairly good antioxidant potentials and high level of protein and fibre to improve the health of pasta-loving individuals.
... (27,5 ± 0,9) % муки состоит из частиц размерами более 37-248 мкм. Авторы [9] описывают, что в эту фракцию входят крупные зерна крахмала, освободившиеся от белковой подложки. Большую часть муки (63,7 ± 0,6) % представляют крупные фрагменты, возможно, это отдельные клетки эндосперма и неразрушенные скопления клеток и оболочечных частей, раз-меры которых доходят до 995,9 мкм. ...
... Данный фракционный состав свидетельствует о том, что мелкие частицы муки способны участвовать в процессе тестоприготовления, простые сахара (полученные в результате осахаривания крахмала при проращивании зерна) интенсифицировать жизнедеятельность дрожжевых клеток, а наличие крупных фракций позволяет корректировать реологические свойства теста путем умеренного действия фермента α-амилазы и получать изделия хорошего качества [9,13]. ...
... Исследователи отмечают, что изза увеличенного простых сахаров во время прорастания зерна, возможно снижение вносимого сахара-песка, согласно рецептуре хлебобулочных изделий. Также отмечается наиболее выраженное потемнение мякиша и корки изделий, в результате более интенсивного протекания реакции Майяра [9]. Результаты определения числа падения цельнозерновой муки, полученной из проросшего пшеницы, представлены на рис. 2. ...
... Some studies report an improvement in baking performance when WWF particle size decreases (Heiniö et al. 2016;Li et al. 2012;Bressiani et al. 2017). The micronization process by jet mill allows for the reduction of WWF particle size without the loss of quality in heat- sensitive components, as the jet mill process remains at low temperatures. ...
... Our research group has reported the effect of the particle size of whole wheat flour on dough rheology and bread quality (Both et al. 2019;Bressiani et al. 2019Bressiani et al. , 2017. In a previous study, we reported for the first time the phenolic compounds and free sulfhydryl groups in whole grain wheat flour with added xylanase (Both et al. 2019). ...
... Stable Micro Systems, England), equipped with a Kieffer Dough and Gluten Extensibility Rig probe (A/KIE), was used to evaluate the extensional properties. The dough was prepared as described by Bressiani et al. (2017) by preparing the dough in Promylograph equipment using water absorption of the flour and replacing this value of 2% sodium chloride. The dough was mixed until achieve a consistency of 500 units. ...
Article
The micronization process by jet mill of whole wheat flour in addition to xylanase application may be used to improve dough properties and baking quality. This study aimed to evaluate the dough formation and bakery performance of whole wheat flour micronized using jet mill and having different particle sizes and xylanase content A decrease in particle size increased water absorption and increased dough stability by 3.7 units. Increase in xylanase content decreased the dough stability and mixture tolerance , resulting in reduced strength. Although the dough quality reduced, this was not evident in bread quality. In bread, the increase in xylanase content increased the specific volume and improved the texture profile. The 158 and 261 lm particle sizes with 60 and 100 mg kg-1 xylanase content reduced the undesirable effects of fibers in the dough, which may lead to improved bread making, thus enhancing improved consumer acceptance.
... A similar trend has been observed while comparing refined and whole flours due to the interference of fiber in network formation [40,41]. In the case of RWFs, the weakening of the gluten network could be due to depolymerization phenomena, favored by the presence of free-SH groups, particularly abundant in WFs with coarse particles (average particle size: 830 µm) [42]. Certainly, the presence of high amounts (more than 15% w/w) of large particles (>1000 µm size) in RWFs from Bolero, Bona Vita and Skorpion cvs might have negatively affected protein-protein interactions via physical mechanisms [42]. ...
... In the case of RWFs, the weakening of the gluten network could be due to depolymerization phenomena, favored by the presence of free-SH groups, particularly abundant in WFs with coarse particles (average particle size: 830 µm) [42]. Certainly, the presence of high amounts (more than 15% w/w) of large particles (>1000 µm size) in RWFs from Bolero, Bona Vita and Skorpion cvs might have negatively affected protein-protein interactions via physical mechanisms [42]. Similarly, the low percentage (only 7%) of the same size class in the RWF from CWRS might account for its opposite performance: both maximum torque and aggregation energy exhibited higher values than those determined in SWF. ...
... Indeed, small particles (<250 µm) could have a negative effect on bread characteristics as they promptly interfere in protein-protein interactions due to their high contact surface [43]. Also large particles might exert an undesirable action towards gluten development and gas cell stabilization [42] and bread appearance and texture [45]. ...
Article
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Despite the interest in stone-milling, there is no information on the potential advantages of using the resultant wholegrain flour (WF) in bread-making. Consequently, nutritional and technological properties of WFs obtained by both stone-(SWF) and roller-milling (RWF) were assessed on four wheat samples, differing in grain hardness and pigment richness. Regardless of the type of wheat, stone-milling led to WFs with a high number of particles ranging in size from 315 to 710 µm), whereas RWFs showed a bimodal distribution with large (>1000 µm) and fine (<250 µm) particles. On average, the milling system did not affect the proximate composition and the bioactive features of WFs. The gluten aggregation kinetics resulted in similar trends for all SWFs, with indices higher than for RWFs. The effect of milling on dough properties (i.e., mixing and leavening) was sample dependent. Overall, SWFs produced more gas, resulting in bread with higher specific volume. Bread crumb from SWF had higher lutein content in the wheat cv rich in xanthophylls, while bread from RWF of the blue-grained cv had a moderate but significantly higher content in esterified phenolic acids and total anthocyanins. In conclusion, there was no relevant advantage in using stone-as opposed to roller-milling (and vice versa).
... Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK), equipped with a Kieffer Dough and Gluten Extensibility Rig probe (A/KIE) was used to evaluate the extensional properties. The dough was prepared as described by Bressiani et al. (2017) and the test was performed at 10 mm/s for a distance of 75 mm, measuring the extension resistance and extensibility of the dough. ...
... The bread was prepared using a small-scale baking instrumental following the method described by Bressiani et al. (2017). Briefly, the formulation was composed of flour (with and without yerba mate in different proportions and particle sizes) (100 g), hydrogenated vegetable oil (3 g/100 g flour), sodium chloride (12 g/100 g flour), ascorbic acid (0.01 g/100 g flour), sugar (5 g/100 g flour), yeast (3 g/100 g flour), and water based on the water absorption of flour obtain 650 UF (±20) in Farinograph equipment. ...
... This highlight a longer time to fully develop. Again, this is likely due to the presence of YM fibers and phenolic compounds as matrix components (Bressiani et al., 2017;Pejcz et al., 2018;Cappeli, Oliva et al., 2020). Already dough stability was decreased following YM incorporation as compared with the WWF control. ...
Article
This study investigated the effects of different yerba mate (YM) proportions (1.5, 2.5, and 4.5 g YM/100 g whole wheat flour (WWF) and particle sizes (245, 415.5, and 623.9 µm) on dough rheological properties, antioxidant activity, and bread characteristics. The addition of YM leaves led to a possible interaction between its phenolic compounds and the gluten network within the dough, without negative effects on dough formation. However, the larger YM particle size (623.9 µm) caused a weakening of the protein network, resulting in lower quality product compared to the other samples. Improved bread quality was found when the YM leaves were added at 2.5 g YM/100 g WWF. The total amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity increased as the proportion of YM increased in both flour and bread. Moreover, the phenolic compounds in 2.5 g YM/100 g WWF breads were stable during baking, showing no significant losses in the amount of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. These results suggest the YM can be successfully incorporated into baked product, improving its functional characteristics. Practical Application This study evaluates the technological quality of bakery product made by incorporating yerba mate leaves in whole wheat flour. The results will contribute to the production of a bread with greater functional properties due to the presence of polyphenols and phytochemicals.
... One study reported the distribution of phenolic compounds in buckwheat graded fractions, where the hull was removed from whole buckwheat grains by dehulling apparatus with disks, and the remained groats with endosperm and bran were milled to buckwheat flours and separated by weight from outer to inner parts in 16 fractions, with the fraction that contained the outermost part of the grain (bran) being the most concentrated in phenolic content [5]. It has been reported that whole grain rice flours, whole grain wheat flours, and wheat bran fours sieved with different particle size have shown different phenolic concentrations because of the different parts obtained from the buckwheat after the sieving [17][18][19]. Nevertheless, there is no study about buckwheat flour fractions from whole grain with different particle size, which would allow a gradual reduction milling system and this could be advantageous in order to obtain enriched flour fractions for the obtention of desired end-use products of high functionality [11]. ...
... Hence, according to these results, as the particle size decreases from 215 µ m there is a decrease in the phenolic content ( Figure 1), this trend was similar to that obtained in previous works. Bressiani et al. (2017) [19] evaluated the total phenolic concentration in sieved whole grain wheat flours, which was higher in the fraction with the particle size of 194.9 µ m (3.06 mg gallic acid/100 g flour), followed by 608.44 µ m (2.23 mg gallic acid/100 g flour), 830 µ m (2.11 mg gallic acid/100 g flour), and finally at 82.67 µ m (1.69 mg gallic acid/100 g flour); therefore, as the particle size decreases from 194.9 µ m, the phenolic content decreases. Bolea and Vizireanu (2017) [17] evaluated the phenolic content in different black rice flours that were sieved at 630, 550, 315, 180, 125, and 90 µ m, the fraction with 180 µ m had the highest phenolic content (483 ± 5.32 mg gallic acid/g flour), closely followed by the fraction with 315 µ m (432.13 ± 7.32 mg gallic acid/g flour); whereas fractions with 125 µ m and 90 µ m had almost the same content (402.26 ± 8.01 and 405.32 ± 6.32 mg gallic acid/g flour, respectively). ...
... Hence, according to these results, as the particle size decreases from 215 µ m there is a decrease in the phenolic content ( Figure 1), this trend was similar to that obtained in previous works. Bressiani et al. (2017) [19] evaluated the total phenolic concentration in sieved whole grain wheat flours, which was higher in the fraction with the particle size of 194.9 µ m (3.06 mg gallic acid/100 g flour), followed by 608.44 µ m (2.23 mg gallic acid/100 g flour), 830 µ m (2.11 mg gallic acid/100 g flour), and finally at 82.67 µ m (1.69 mg gallic acid/100 g flour); therefore, as the particle size decreases from 194.9 µ m, the phenolic content decreases. Bolea and Vizireanu (2017) [17] evaluated the phenolic content in different black rice flours that were sieved at 630, 550, 315, 180, 125, and 90 µ m, the fraction with 180 µ m had the highest phenolic content (483 ± 5.32 mg gallic acid/g flour), closely followed by the fraction with 315 µ m (432.13 ± 7.32 mg gallic acid/g flour); whereas fractions with 125 µ m and 90 µ m had almost the same content (402.26 ± 8.01 and 405.32 ± 6.32 mg gallic acid/g flour, respectively). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fractionation processes based on physical separation are a good strategy to produce enriched cereal flours. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the suitability of sieving of buckwheat flours to produce protein and phenolic (especially rutin) enriched fractions. Because of that, dehulled whole buckwheat flour (GSTQ) was sieved obtaining fractions with a particle size of 215 µm, 160 µm, 85 µm, and 45 µm (GS215, GS160, GS85, and GS45). For that purpose, the determination of protein, ash, and total starch content and free and bound phenolic compounds was carried out. The highest content of total phenolic compounds was obtained in GS215 (3118.84 mg Kg−1 d.w.), followed by GS160 (2499.11 mg Kg−1 d.w.), GS85 (989.46 mg Kg−1 d.w.), GSTQ (983.15 mg Kg−1 d.w.), and GS45 (481.31 mg Kg−1 d.w.). Therefore, the phenolic content decreased with the particle size decrease from 215 µm to 45 µm. Besides, there were no significant differences between the total phenolic content in GS85 and GSTQ. The fraction with 215 µm reported the highest protein and mineral salt content and presented rutin amounts four times higher than GSTQ.
... The importance of the disulfide bonds and their interactions between bran, germ and endosperm in dough formation is emphasized in studies that address wheat flour quality. 4,5 It is considered that the formation of disulfide bonds and free sulfhydryl (-SH) groups has a significant influence on the structural formation of the gluten network and therefore these are determinants of the rheological properties of the dough. 6,7 The majority of free -SH groups are present in the bran and germ, and the germ fraction corresponds to 25% of reduced glutathione in the grain content. ...
... The existence of many disulfide bonds and a low content of free -SH groups results in a high-quality dough. 5 In the refined flour, after the removal of germ and bran, the content of free -SH groups is reduced 8 and the white refined flour results in a higher dough quality than WGWF. It has been reported that the values of free -SH group content vary widely and, according to Rakita et al., 9 the content of free -SH groups is dependent on the wheat cultivar, quality and/or post-harvest treatment, such as temperature, pressure and chemical products. ...
... It has been reported that the values of free -SH group content vary widely and, according to Rakita et al., 9 the content of free -SH groups is dependent on the wheat cultivar, quality and/or post-harvest treatment, such as temperature, pressure and chemical products. However, Bressiani et al. 5 reported an 87% reduction in free -SH groups during the first incubation time of refined flour compared to WGWF (particle size of 194.98 μm) when both white and whole wheat flour were produced from same wheat grain. ...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Knowledge on structural behavior of the dough elaborated using whole grain wheat flour (WGWF) and xylanase is fundamental for the elaboration of products with high nutritional content, especially when the particle size of the flour is altered. In this study, we investigated the effect of varying concentrations of xylanase on the formation of dough with different particle sizes of WGWF. RESULTS Phenolic compounds, fibers, and proteins are the components that undergo most changes and interfere with dough formation. Small particle size favors the extraction of phenolic compounds and dietary fibers, resulting in a high‐quality dough. The protective effect of the stable phenolic compounds on gluten network. An increase in fiber degradation and a decrease in phenolic compounds was noted as the xylanase concentration increased. Although xylanase increased free sulfhydryl (‐SH) groups in gluten, there was no change in dough formation and dough stability with increasing xylanase concentration. CONCLUSIONS The WGWF with smaller particle size does not contribute to the loss of quality in dough elaboration, and the addition of intermediate amounts of xylanase (20 mg·kg‐1) in samples with a particle size of 158 μm can be used to improve the dough characteristics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Particle size of flour influences the rheological properties of dough. Bressiani et al. (2017) mentioned that particle size influenced the functionality of the gluten network and consequently the bread volume. Reduced particle size of flour leads to increase starch damage (break starch to small particle sizes) and increase surface area that causes more dough absorption and consequently more dough stickiness (Gaines, 1985). ...
... The effect of adding different particle sizes of bran to flour was reported in literature contradictory (Noort et al., 2010). Bressiani et al. (2017) mentioned that reducing particle size of bran enhanced bread volume. While Noort et al. (2010) stated that reducing particle size of bran had negative effect on baking. ...
Article
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The issue related to suitable wheat age after harvesting for producing flour is raised regularly during a harvest season. Therefore, determining the suitable wheat storage for different wheat strength and with high extraction rate (80%) is necessary to produce a good quality flour. Four varieties of bread wheat (Adina, Aibaa99, Sham6, and Rasheed) were tested. Gluten amount, gluten index, amylase activity, dough rheological properties (farinograph parameters), and flour size were detected. Results showed that gluten index was stable for Adina variety (the strongest variety), but it was reduced significantly during week 11 th and 15 th for Sham6 and Aibaa99 (weak wheat varieties) respectively. The α-amylase activity of all varieties was reduced during storage periods. Dough stability increased during storage period for all four varieties. However, the increment was higher in Adina compared to others (lower strength wheat). Mixing tolerance index (MTI) of Adina was changed slightly during the storage period while for other varieties MTI increased sufficiently. In conclusion, wheat varieties behaved differently depending on wheat strength, and there was no specific time that all that dough properties improved during the study period.
... The nutritive composition of WGWF is claimed to contain more fibers, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals than refined wheat flour. The composition of WGWFs has been approximately reported as 12% moisture, 15% protein, 2% fat, 2% ash and 12-16% dietary fiber (Bressiani et al., 2017). Apart from its nutritional properties, the sensory attributes of WGWB are key factors that drive consumer preference and purchasing decisions. ...
... This could have been caused by the addition of non-gluten ingredients which lowered the dough forming ability of the wheat flour (Păucean and Man, 2013). Bressiani et al. (2017) reported that the particle size of whole wheat flour effect on bread volume resulted in bread with finer particles, which had more pronounced adverse effects on the bread volume compared to a medium or coarse particle size of the whole wheat flour. It has been suggested that finer particles in whole wheat flour results in a larger contact surface and the increased release of reactive compounds due to cell rupture interactions, with the gluten-forming proteins changing their functionality. ...
Article
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Corn milk by-product (CMBP) is normally wasted or used as animal feed. In this study, fresh-CMBP (F-CMBP) and powdered-CMBP (P-CMBP) (14, 28 and 42% whole wheat flour) were used to improve the textural and other physical properties of whole wheat bread (WWB). Bread samples were kept for 6 days, and analyzed at days 0, 3 and 6 using room temperature storage. Dough height, bread height, crust color, crumb color, hardness and the specific volume of bread were measured. Fortification with 14 and 28% F-CMBP increased the specific volume of WWB, but lowered the bread height. This indicated the collapsed structure of WWB as the CMBP disturbed the dough and bread structure. F-CMBP and P-CMBP lowered the hardness of WWB compared to traditional WWB. Fortification with 14% F-CMBP produced the best result, reducing the hardness of WWB. However, a greater amount of F- and P-CMBP for fortification resulted in a higher hardness value. The WWB samples fortified with CMBP seemed to have increased crust L* values, but decreased L* values for bread crumb color. This study suggested the potential of CMBP as a food ingredient to improve textural and other physical properties of food products.
... Tam tahıllı buğday ununda (TTBU), bozulmamış formda endosperm, kepek ve ruşeym gibi tahılın tüm anatomik bileşenleri mevcuttur. Bu sebeple, TTBU, rafine buğday ununa göre (RU) çok daha fazla lif, vitamin, mineral ve fitokimyasallar ihtiva etmektedr [99]. Tam buğday, tip 2 diyabet, kardiyovasküler hastalıklar, obezite ve kanser gibi kronik hastalıkların risklerini azaltmaya yardımcı oldukça değerli ve işlevsel bir besin kaynağı olarak kabul edilmektedir [100][101][102][103][104]. Tam tahıl içerikli gıdalar karbonhidrat, lif, protein, B grubu vitaminler E vitamini, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg ve çeşitli antioksidanlar içerir [105]. ...
... Tam buğday un haline getirilirken uygulanan öğütme teknolojisi, nişasta tanecik boyutundaki etkisi sebebiyle farklı hacimlerde ekmeklerin oluşmasına sebebiyet vermektedir. Bu sebeple tam buğday una işlenirken uygun partikül boyutunda olmalıdır [99]. Tam tanenin öğütme boyutunun küçültülmesi daha kaba hacimli bir ekmek elde edilmesini sağlamaktadır [114]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wheat plant, which has a history as much as human history, is one of the few foods with increasing strategic importance in the world. In addition to being a major source of starch and energy, whole wheat grain, which contains a number of beneficial ingredients with protein, vitamins (notably B vitamins), dietary fiber, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity, is the most suitable food source created according to human metabolism and needs. The portrayal of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) refined products developed after the green revolution as the cause of diseases such as diabetes, digestive system and obesity has caused public concern and as a result, the demand for gluten-free products has increased. Although there has been an increase in genetic progression rates in terms of gluten content and strength in varieties developed in recent years, the biological basis of gluten-induced symptoms has not been adequately explained, and the claims that gluten triggers non-celiac gluten sensitivity symptoms are not clear. On the other hand, the association of whole wheat consumption with the reduction in the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease risk, type-II diabetes and some types of cancer has led researchers to determine health-based quality characteristics in parallel with the serious demand in the society. Nowadays, variety richness developed in accordance with the specified quality characteristics of refined flours for obtaining coarse volume bread can meet the production needs. However, it is understood that the quality characteristics determined for refinery flours in which storage proteins play a decisive role will be insufficient to respond to the need in studies aimed at determining the quality of whole wheat flours, including shell/bran (13-17%) and embryo (2-3%). Therefore, determining the quality characteristics of whole wheat and its products and developing appropriate processing technologies will facilitate the breeders to determine the appropriate variety. In addition to high grain yield, it is possible to develop genotypes in bread wheat, which has a wide variation in terms of nutrients and bioactive components required for healthy nutrition of people. ÖZ İnsanlık tarihi kadar bir geçmişi olan buğday bitkisi, dünyada talebi artan stratejik öneme sahip sayılı gıdaların başında gelmektedir. Nişasta ve enerji kaynağı olmanın yanı sıra sağlık için gerekli protein, vitaminler, diyet lifi, fitokimyasallar ve antioksidan aktivitesi ile faydalı bir dizi bileşen muhtevasına sahip tam buğday danesi, insan metabolizması ve ihtiyacına göre yaratılmış en uygun gıda kaynağıdır. Yeşil devrim sonrası geliştirilen hexaploid buğday (Triticum aestivum L.) rafine edilmiş ürünlerinin diyabet, sindirim sistemi ve obezite gibi hastalıkların sebebi olarak gösterilmesi, kamuoyunda endişelere sebep olmuş bunun sonucu glutensiz ürünlere olan rağbet de artmıştır. Son yıllarda geliştirilen çeşitlerde gluten oranı ve güçlülüğü bakımından genetik ilerleme oranlarında artış kaydedilmekle birlikte gluten ile indüklenen semptomların biyolojik esası yeterince izah edilememiş olup, glutenin çölyak dışı gluten hassasiyeti semptomlarını tetiklediği iddiaları da açık ve net değildir. Öte yandan tam buğday tüketiminin kardiyovasküler hastalık riski, tip-II diyabet ve bazı kanser türlerine yakalanma gibi kronik hastalıklarin gelişme riskindeki azalmayla ilişkilendirilmesi, toplumda ciddi talep oluşmasına paralel araştırıcıları da sağlık esaslı kalite özelliklerini belirlemeye itmiştir. Günümüzde kaba hacimli ekmek elde etmeye yönelik rafine unlarına ait belirlenmiş kalite özellikleri ile buna uygun geliştirilen çeşit zenginliği üretimin ihtiyacını karşılayabilmektedir. Ancak depo proteinlerinin belirleyici rol aldığı rafineri unlar için belirlenen kalite özelliklerinin kabuk/kepek (%13-17) ve embriyo (%2-3) kısmının dâhil edildiği tam buğday unlarının kalitelerinin belirlenmesine yönelik çalışmalarda ihtiyaca cevap vermede yetersiz kalacağı anlaşılmaktadır. Bu sebeple tam buğday ve mamüllerine ait kalite özelliklerinin belirlenmesi ile uygun işleme teknolojilerinin geliştirilmesi, uygun çeşit belirlemeye esas çalışmalarda ıslahçılara kolaylık sağlayacaktır. Yüksek tane verimine ek olarak insan sağlığına esas faydalı unsurların içerik ve kompozisyonları bakımından geniş bir varyasyona sahip ekmeklik buğdaylarda amaca uygun genotiplerin geliştirilmesi mümkündür.
... Tam tahıllı buğday ununda (TTBU), bozulmamış formda endosperm, kepek ve ruşeym gibi tahılın tüm anatomik bileşenleri mevcuttur. Bu sebeple, TTBU, rafine buğday ununa göre (RU) çok daha fazla lif, vitamin, mineral ve fitokimyasallar ihtiva etmektedr [99]. Tam buğday, tip 2 diyabet, kardiyovasküler hastalıklar, obezite ve kanser gibi kronik hastalıkların risklerini azaltmaya yardımcı oldukça değerli ve işlevsel bir besin kaynağı olarak kabul edilmektedir [100][101][102][103][104]. Tam tahıl içerikli gıdalar karbonhidrat, lif, protein, B grubu vitaminler E vitamini, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg ve çeşitli antioksidanlar içerir [105]. ...
... Tam buğday un haline getirilirken uygulanan öğütme teknolojisi, nişasta tanecik boyutundaki etkisi sebebiyle farklı hacimlerde ekmeklerin oluşmasına sebebiyet vermektedir. Bu sebeple tam buğday una işlenirken uygun partikül boyutunda olmalıdır [99]. Tam tanenin öğütme boyutunun küçültülmesi daha kaba hacimli bir ekmek elde edilmesini sağlamaktadır [114]. ...
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Z İnsanlık tarihi kadar bir geçmişi olan buğday bitkisi, dünyada talebi artan stratejik öneme sahip sayılı gıdaların başında gelmektedir. Nişasta ve enerji kaynağı olmanın yanı sıra sağlık için gerekli protein, vitaminler, diyet lifi, fitokimyasallar ve antioksidan aktivitesi ile faydalı bir dizi bileşen muhtevasına sahip tam buğday danesi, insan metabolizması ve ihtiyacına göre yaratılmış en uygun gıda kaynağıdır. Yeşil devrim sonrası geliştirilen hexaploid buğday (Triticum aestivum L.) rafine edilmiş ürünlerinin diyabet, sindirim sistemi ve obezite gibi hastalıkların sebebi olarak gösterilmesi, kamuoyunda endişelere sebep olmuş bunun sonucu glutensiz ürünlere olan rağbet de artmıştır. Son yıllarda gelişitirilen çeşitlerde gluten oranı ve güçlülüğü bakımından genetik ilerleme oranlarında artış kaydedilmekle birlikte gluten ile indüklenen semptomların biyolojik esası yeterince izah edilememiş olup, glutenin çölyak dışı gluten hassasiyeti semptomlarını tetiklediği iddiaları da açık ve net değildir. Öte yandan tam buğday tüketiminin kardiyovasküler hastalık riski, tip-II diyabet ve bazı kanser türlerine yakalanma gibi kronik hastalıklarin gelişme riskindeki azalmayla ilişkilendirilmesi, toplumda ciddi talep oluşmasına paralel araştırıcıları da sağlık esaslı kalite özelliklerini belirlemeye itmiştir. Günümüzde kaba hacimli ekmek elde etmeye yönelik rafine unlarına ait belirlenmiş kalite özellikleri ile buna uygun geliştirilen çeşit zenginliği üretimin ihtiyacını karşılayabilmektedir. Ancak depo proteinlerinin belirleyici rol aldığı rafineri unlar için belirlenen kalite özelliklerinin kabuk/kepek (%13-17) ve embriyo (%2-3) kısmının dâhil edildiği tam buğday unlarının kalitelerinin belirlenmesine yönelik çalışmalarda ihtiyaca cevap vermede yetersiz kalacağı anlaşılmaktadır. Bu sebeple tam buğday ve mamüllerine ait kalite özelliklerinin belirlenmesi ile uygun işleme teknolojilerinin geliştirilmesi, uygun çeşit belirlemeye esas çalışmalarda ıslahçılara kolaylık sağlayacaktır. Yüksek tane verimine ek olarak insan sağlığına esas faydalı unsurların içerik ve kompozisyonları bakımından geniş bir varyasyona sahip ekmeklik buğdaylarda amaca uygun genotiplerin geliştirilmesi mümkündür. Anahtar Kelimeler: Ekmeklik buğday, gluten, kalite ıslahı, sağlık, tam buğday Bread Wheat Quality Approaches Based on Human Health ABSTRACT Wheat plant, which has a history as much as human history, is one of the few foods with increasing strategic importance in the world. In addition to being a major source of starch and energy, whole wheat grain, which contains a number of beneficial ingredients with protein, vitamins (notably B vitamins), dietary fiber, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity, is the most suitable food source created according to human metabolism and needs. The portrayal of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) refined products developed after the green revolution as the cause of diseases such as diabetes, digestive system and obesity has caused public concern and as a result, the demand for gluten-free products has increased. Although there has been an increase in genetic progression rates in terms of gluten content and strength in varieties developed in recent years, the biological basis of gluten-induced symptoms has not been adequately explained, and the claims that gluten triggers non-celiac gluten sensitivity symptoms are not clear. On the other hand, the association of whole wheat consumption with the reduction in the risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease risk, type-II diabetes and some types of cancer has led researchers to determine health-based quality characteristics in parallel with the serious demand in the society. Nowadays, variety richness developed in accordance with the specified quality characteristics of refined flours for obtaining coarse volume bread can meet the production needs. However, it is understood that the quality characteristics determined for refinery flours in which storage proteins play a decisive role will be insufficient to respond to the need in studies aimed at determining the quality of whole wheat flours, including shell/bran (13-17%) and embryo (2-3%). Therefore, determining the quality characteristics of whole wheat and its products and developing appropriate processing technologies will facilitate the breeders to determine the appropriate variety. In addition to high grain yield, it is possible to develop purpose-based
... However, in this study, the water-holding capacity was lower in the case of the fine bran, contrary to what is usually considered in the literature. In the study by Bressiani et al. (2017), unlike what was observed by Navrotskyi et al. (2019), a clear influence of particle size reduction on mixing properties was found, by increasing water absorption and reducing dough development time. It should be noted that the study by Bressiani et al. (2017) analyzed bran with a much smaller particle size (194.98 ...
... In the study by Bressiani et al. (2017), unlike what was observed by Navrotskyi et al. (2019), a clear influence of particle size reduction on mixing properties was found, by increasing water absorption and reducing dough development time. It should be noted that the study by Bressiani et al. (2017) analyzed bran with a much smaller particle size (194.98 mm) than that of Navrotskyi et al. (2019), but this does not explain the differences between the larger particle sizes. ...
Article
Although the consumption of whole grains, including bread made with whole‐wheat flour, is promoted for health benefits and reduced risk for disease and mortality, consumer acceptance, and consumption of some whole‐wheat products is low compared to that of white breads. This review focuses on the understanding of whole‐wheat flours, both their positive and negative aspects, and how to improve those flours for the production of whole‐wheat breads. The review addresses genetic aspects, various milling systems, and pretreatment of bran and germ. The baking process and use of additives and enzymes may also improve product quality to help consumers meet dietary recommendations for daily whole‐wheat consumption.
... Since whole-wheat noodle produced by superfine grinding (<125 µm) improved the structure characteristics [38], Keumkang milled by JM (versus HM) might be better for making whole-wheat noodles. Meanwhile, Bressiani et al. [39] suggested that WWF with a fine particle size (<90 µm) did not produce the best specific volume or firmness in bread. ...
... In addition, Jokyung milled by JM was located near ash content (%), while that milled by HM was located near the stability (min) and DDT (min) parameters of dough. Khan [31] reported that flour of good quality for making bread requires a low ash content, and Bressiani et al. [39] suggested that WWF with a fine particle size does not produce the best specific volume and firmness of bread. For these reasons, it can be inferred that Jokyung WWF milled by HM would produce bread of better quality than that milled by JM. ...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of milling methods (jet mill (JM) and hammer mill (HM)) and wheat cultivars (Keumkang (K), Jokyung (J), and Anzunbaengi (A)) on physicochemical and dough properties of whole-wheat flour (WWF). The color, particle size, starch damage (SD), falling number (FN), water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), pasting and Mixolab® properties, and dough extensibility of WWF were measured. Significant differences were observed in proximate compositions as well as in color, particle size, FN, and WAI between the distinct milling methods and cultivars ( p<0.001 ). The particle sizes of each cultivar milled with a HM (K: 188.5 µ m; J: 115.7 µ m; A: 40.34 µ m) were larger than those milled with a JM (K: 41.8 µ m; J: 50.7 µ m; A: 20.8 µ m). The final viscosity of WWF milled with a HM (K: 1304 cP; J: 1249 cP; A: 1548 cP) was higher than that of cultivars milled with a JM (K: 1092 cP; J: 1062 cP; A: 994 cP). Dough extensibility and resistance to extension also differed among the cultivars, and the C2 Mixolab® parameter (an indicator of protein weakening) was influenced by the milling method. Overall, results from principal component analysis showed that, among the three cultivars, Keumkang WWF was the most affected by the milling method.
... Wholewheat flour, as opposed to refined flour, is rich in fibres, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and other phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids (2). In addition, the intake of wholegrains is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity and colon cancer (3,4). ...
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Research background: Wholewheat flour is a very good source of nutritional compounds and functional ingredients for human diet. However, it causes negative effect on bread quality. Different milling techniques can be used to obtain wholewheat flour, minimizing the negative effect of both bran and germ on bread quality. The aim of this work is to study the effect of particle size and shape of wholegrain flour on the interaction among the different components, water distribution, dough rheology and bread volume. Experimental approach: Wholewheat flour of three varieties (Klein Rayo, Fuste and INTA 815) was obtained in cyclonic, hammer and roller mills. The characteristics of wholewheat flour were explored, and the water distribution and rheological properties of dough were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and Mixolab test, respectively. Finally, microscale bread was prepared. Results and conclusions: The amount of water-soluble pentosans, damaged starch and wet gluten was affected by the milling procedure. Regarding dough rheological properties, wholewheat flour obtained in hammer mill had the lowest water absorption capacity and the highest developing time. This result could be mainly attributed to particle shape in these samples with large amount of endosperm attached to the bran, hindering protein unfolding. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that both fine and large bran particle size seem to have the same effect on water properties in wholewheat dough during heating. Bread made with Klein Rayo variety had the highest specific volume, indicating that wheat with high protein content and breadmaking quality is needed to make wholewheat bread. The results of this work showed that particle shape, rather than particle size, affected the quality of wholewheat flour for breadmaking. Novelty and scientific contribution: The effect of milling type and particle shape of the wholewheat flour had a greater effect than the wheat variety. Thus, the wholegrain milling process should be carefully selected taking to account the shape of the produced particle. This may open new opportunities for developing wholewheat bread with better acceptance by consumers.
... Whole-grain wheat flour contains significant amounts of vitamins, minerals, fibre and phytochemicals than refined wheat flour (Bressiani et al., 2017). Thus, consumption of whole wheat bread is desirable among the elderly and health-conscious individuals considering the associated health benefits including reduction of disease risk such as diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases (Liu, 2007). ...
Article
Purpose – Wheat flour (whole grain or white wheat flour) is a major ingredient for production of baked goods and confectionery products in Nigeria. However, due to unfavourable climatic and soil conditions, there is overdependence on importation of wheat having a negative impact on the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP). This has therefore spurred increasing popularity of partial or full replacement of wheat flour with other flour types for economic or nutritional reasons. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of whole wheat flour with indigenous, underutilized crops. Design/methodology/approach –Wholewheat flourwas partially (0–40%) replacedwith acha and/or pigeon pea flours in ratios of 100:0:0 (WAPK), 90:10:0 (WAPL), 80:20:0 (WAPM), 70:30:0 (WAPN), 80:10:10 (WAPO), 70:20:10 (WAPP), 70:15:15 (WAPQ) and 60:20:20 (WAPR). The study evaluated the effects of supplementation on rheological, functional properties of composite flours and nutritional composition of composite bread. Findings – Results showed that dough development and stability time, values of most pasting properties (peak viscosity, final viscosity, setback and pasting temperature)were significantly higher in the composite flours than in WAPK. However, incorporation of acha and pigeon pea flours resulted in significant decrease in breakdown value. Composite flours produced protein-enriched breads with improved essential amino acids exceeding WHO/FAO reference for adults. Composite flours from blends of whole wheat, acha and pigeon pea flours may serve as a potential raw material suitable for production of nutritious and functional baked products. Originality/value – The present study confirms effective supplementation of whole wheat flour with either acha or both acha and pigeon pea flours. Composite flours showed improved functional and pasting properties; thus, it may be suitable for production of baked products such as bread and biscuits.
... However, of the health benefits regardless, WGWF could cause structural and sensory adjustments in food, resulting in lower customer acceptance. As a total result, there are troubles in producing WGWF meals that maintains the required functionality and quality equal to refined grain items (Bressiani et al., 2017). The aim of present study is to evaluate the physiochemical and rheological properties of lentil and millet flour based of whole wheat flour as composite flour. ...
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The consequences of mixture flour which contained four types of flour (lentil, millet, wheat flour and whole wheat flour) on dough rheology and biscuit quality were studied using mixture of two flours (wheat flour and whole wheat flour) and wheat flour (WF) as controls. Farinographic research showed that there were lower dough stability and dough development time in MIXF1 compared to that of the control MIXF2 but higher than WF. The higher water absorption was observed in MIXF2 which was 73.7% compared to MIXF1 which has 70%. The RVA of samples WF and MIXF2 demonstrated higher final viscosity, peak viscosity, setback and breakdown of pasting properties than the MIXF1 sample. The MIXF1 had the poorest peak viscosity, last viscosity, setback and breakdown. Foaming capacity (FC) and Emulsifying Capacity (EC) had been greater in MIXF1 than MIXF2 and WF.
... The wet gluten content indicates the aggregating ability of gluten proteins. 21 The fine WWF contained the highest amount of wet gluten (30.7%), followed by the medium (25.2%) and the coarse WWF (20.9%), indicating that the wet gluten content increased with the decreasing particle size of the WWFs. This was due to that the larger the particle size, the harder the gluten protein aggregation. ...
Article
Whole-wheat flour (WWF) is increasingly popular because of the healthy benefits of whole grains. This study investigated the effect of WWF particle size on dough property, bread quality and in vitro starch digestibility. The WWF was made from intact whole grain directly. Three WWF particle sizes were examined, including coarse, medium and fine with mean size at 1315, 450 and 199 µm, respectively. The dough made from WWF of larger particle size exhibited lower extensibility and stability, and subsequently the bread had more compact structure (i.e. lower open porosity and thicker cell thickness), smaller specific volume and harder texture, which were regarded as poor quality attributes. On the other hand, the bread made from the fine WWF exhibited higher amount of released glucose than those made from the coarse and medium WWFs. Moreover, the particle size of bread bolus showed no significant effect on in vitro starch digestion. The whole study demonstrated that the particle size of WWF plays a critical element in determining both bread quality and digestibility.
... In terms of the second approach of WWF particle size reduction, a whole grain wheat flour (WGWF) of three different particles sizes (194.9 μm, 609.4 μm and 830.0 μm), was produced by changing the milling time in an impact mill. Micronized flour induced the release of reactive compounds that can interact in an diverse way with glutenforming proteins (Bressiani et al., 2017). Graveland and Henderson (1991) described at their patent that air-jet mill can be used to produce flour of low content of damaged starch (8%) and of high baking performance. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of micronized whole wheat flours in breadmaking. The micronization process was achieved by a jet mill and flours (JF) of particle size, ranged from 17 to 84 μm, were used. According to the particle size of the JF, the amount of water added to dough changed and ranged from 77 to 84% as it was calculated in farinograph experiments. JF breads had higher bread yield, firmer crumb, higher elasticity, lower porosity and darker bread color compared to control whole wheat bread. Overall a lower particle size of JF resulted in a close structure of bread. According to sensory evaluation, difference among samples was difficult to perceive. During storage JF bread presented lower limiting firmness potential. After all, there is evidence that jet milled flour determined bread physical characteristics and further storage stability.
... Generally, the relationship between particle size and inherent properties of the food vary with specific products (Ahmed, 2014;Ahmed et al., 2014Ahmed et al., , 2015. Numerous studies have already evaluated the influence of particle size distribution on quinoa flour (Ahmed et al., 2018), wheat (Memon et al., 2019), pumpkin flour (Ahmed et al., 2014), wheat flour (Bressiani et al., 2017), barley and rye flours (Drakos et al., 2017), cooked rice flour (Farooq et al., 2018), and prosopis alba flour (Rodriguez et al., 2019). ...
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Influence of particle size distribution on nutritional composition, microstructural physicochemical and antioxidant properties of orange and purple‐fleshed sweet potato flour (SPF) with particle sizes 75‐355 µm were investigated. As particle size decreased, protein content, water absorption capacity and water solubility index of both SPF decreased, whereas starch, reducing sugar and crude fat increased. Total polyphenol contents (TPC) in purple‐fleshed SPF (8.25 to 9.27 mg GAE/g DW) were higher than orange ones (0.22 to 0.28 mg GAE/g DW), whereas vitamin C contents in orange‐fleshed SPF (23.59 to 29.26 mg/100g DW) were higher than purple ones (4.24 to 4.89 mg/100g DW). Antioxidant capacities of both SPF were gradually increased with decrease of particle size due to the contribution of higher TPC and vitamin C contents. All SPF fractions exhibited irregular‐shaped surface. SPF with particle size 75 µm might be used to produce novel food products with desired nutrients and functional properties.
... Vegetarian dishes are often modified to confer them with additional health benefits. The most common modification is to replace wheat flour with whole-grain flour or add bran from different cereals, which increases the contents of dietary fibre and minerals [18]. ...
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Blood glucose concentration increases after the consumption of any carbohydrate-containing meal. Several factors affect the course of glucose metabolism, including nutritional status. This study evaluated the effect of the nutritional statuses of adults on their glycaemic responses after the consumption of some vegetarian meals (dumplings with potato and curd cheese stuffing; curd cheese dumplings; pancakes with curd cheese), prepared according to the traditional recipe and a partly modified recipe. The 105 participants, aged 20–27 years, with different body mass indexes (BMI), took an oral glucose tolerance test after the intake of a standard glucose solution, and also after each meal (previously analysed for energy value and approximate composition). The consumption of each meal by participants with different nutritional statuses elicited different glycaemic responses, which were reflected in the diverse glycaemic indexes (GIs). The partial modification of the meal recipes contributed to lowering their GIs. Vast differences were observed in the glycaemic responses among the surveyed participants after the consumption of the same meals. The GIs of meals should be determined in different groups of people.
... During flour milling, the different processing technologies (grinding strength, separation, and recombination technologies) will produce wheat flour with varying particles (different in particle size and distribution) [7,8]. ese particles, which may come from the different part of wheat endosperm, inducing significant difference in the chemical compositions, will have different devotion to the whole quality of flour [9]. Previous studies have investigated the effects of protein, gluten, starch, and damaged starch on the quality of wheat flour. ...
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Chemical composition and particle size are the critical factors influencing the quality and application of flour. The present study investigated the microstructure and distribution of bulk and surface chemical composition in wheat flour particles of different size. Eight samples of wheat flour of different particle size were obtained from the same native wheat flour by sieving (sieve aperture from 25 to 112 μ m). Results from scanning electron microscopy and bulk chemical composition analyze showed that flour particles of different sizes differed in microstructure, protein, and starch composition. Further analysis of protein fractions with varying solubility implied that the relative smaller flour particles (diameter <48 μ m) had higher gluten protein (gliadin and glutenin) ratio (60.88–64.06%). Furthermore, amino acid analysis showed that glutamic acid was rich in the medium particles. The results of XPS showed that the surface chemical composition of wheat flour of different sizes had no correlation with the bulk chemical composition, indicating that they would have an independent effect on the quality of flour.
... The most common modification is the use of wholemeal flour instead of purified flour or the addition of bran of various cereal grains. The use of cereal grains increases the content of valuable minerals, as well as the content of dietary fibre [26]. Therefore, this study determined the GI and GL of selected dishes made from yeast dough, based on traditional and modified recipes, and how these values are affected by modifying the recipes and composition of the dishes. ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the glycaemic indices (GI) and glycaemic loads (GL) of four food dishes made from yeast dough (steamed dumplings served with yoghurt, apple pancakes sprinkled with sugar powder, rolls with cheese and waffles with sugar powder), based on their traditional and modified recipes. Modification of the yeast dough recipe consisted of replacing wheat flour (type 500) with whole-wheat flour (type 2000). Energy value and the composition of basic nutrients were assessed for every tested dish. The study was conducted on 50 people with an average age of 21.7 ± 1.1 years, and an average body mass index of 21.2 ± 2.0 kg/m2. The GI of the analysed food products depended on the total carbohydrate content, dietary fibre content, water content, and energy value. Modification of yeast food products by replacing wheat flour (type 500) with whole-wheat flour (type 2000) contributed to the reduction of their GI and GL values, respectively.
... In breadmaking, a lower specific volume, a greater firmness and a darker coloring is observed in bread when the outermost layers of the grain are used, in addition to significant changes in sensory acceptance (Kock et al., 1999;Al-Saqer et al., 2000;Gómez et al., 2003;Gómez et al., 2011;Schmiele et al., 2012;Almeida et al., 2013;Bressiani et al., 2017;Saccotelli et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
There has been growing interest in the use of whole grain wheat flour by the bakery and pasta industry, as a high added value ingredient, to improve the nutritional quality of products and bring health benefits to consumers, as it is rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. However, the industry faces challenges in the elaboration of the different products that incorporate this flour to partially or totally replace refined wheat flour. These challenges involve the need to change process parameters and to solve end product quality problems, such as volume reduction, and color, appearance, flavor, and texture changes in breads and biscuits; and texture and cooking quality in pasta. This chapter will deal with the definitions of whole grain wheat flour in different countries (e.g., Brazil, Argentina, Canada, and USA), differentiating whole grain wheat flour from reconstituted whole grain wheat flour; obtainment processes (stone mills, roller mills, reconstitution, etc.); nutritional, technological and microbiological aspects. Another relevant aspect when working with whole grain wheat flour is to define its quality for specific applications. This chapter will discuss how traditional evaluation methods, used for refined wheat flour, which use equipment such as the farinograph, the extensograph and the alveograph are altered when analyzing whole grain wheat flour. In addition, the chapter will describe the application of whole grain wheat flour in different bakery and pasta products, with examples of the resources available to enhance product quality, including ingredients such as vital wheat gluten, sourdough, additives such as oxidants and emulsifiers, and processing aids such as enzymes. With this, we intend to give a broad overview of the production and use of this flour.
... This is why it is so important to eat food made with wholemeal flours because they supply much nutrition, including protein quality and quantity. Lipid content in the quinoa, amaranth, and chia flours was significantly higher than the lipid content in refined wheat flours because the germ is removed during the refining process, as are outer bran layers, which is where the biggest quantity of fat and fibre is found [46]. Nonetheless, the lipid content of chia seeds of Andean origin can vary according to agronomic conditions (30.7-41.5%) ...
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With regard to constant technological innovations in the bakery sector in order to increase bread nutritional value without affecting its technological and sensory characteristics, we applied pseudocereals/oilseeds to obtain an optimal formulation. A factorial design 33 was used and the independent factors were chia flour (levels: 0, 10, 20% flour basis), quinoa flour (levels: 0, 20, 40% flour basis), and amaranth flour (levels: 0, 20, 40% flour basis). Their effects and interactions were studied through the response surface methodology to optimise the bread formulation from a holistic viewpoint, which included the nutritional, technological and sensory characteristics. The optimum formulation with the highest quality was the blend made with 10, 4, and 20% of chia, quinoa, and amaranth, respectively. The results showed a significant increase in protein amount, ash, lipids, and crumb firmness compared to wheat bread. The calorie value of the control sample and the optimised formula were significantly similar, bearing in mind the high lipid amounts present in raw materials. Loaf-specific volume slightly decreased in comparison to control bread, as expected in formulations with gluten-free raw materials and a large amount of fibre. The optimised formula presented nutritionally/functionally higher indexes and similar overall acceptability to the control bread (p < 0.05).
... The elevation of particle size might provide a limit contact surface, which could lead to a restriction in chemical reactions. Consequently, the larger particle size could decrease the interaction of gluten network and formation [49][50][51]. Furthermore, the effect on morphology on the textural properties was reported in relation to the disruption of granule as irregular shape could increase the water absorption, leading to the dilution of the gluten network [51]. However, the replacement of wheat flour by UPP results in a reduction in the formation of gluten network of pancakes. ...
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Papaya is one of the most economic and valuable fruits in tropical countries. However, the fruit processing industries generate a high volume of unripe papaya waste and by-products. To reduce this waste, unripe papaya powder (UPP) was manufactured and incorporated into pancake formulation. The results showed that a particle size of UPP was 140.8 ± 2.1 µm, which contained polyphenolic compounds, dietary fiber and demonstrated ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Compared with wheat flour, UPP had higher values of water absorption index, water solubility index and swelling index and lower level of amylose. In the cholesterol-reducing effect, UPP decreased the formation of cholesterol micellization and bound bile acids. Interestingly, incorporation of 5–20% UPP into pancakes could decrease the glucose release with a concomitant increase in the percentage of undigestible starch. The hardness and chewiness of pancake was increased with a higher amount of UPP (10–20%). The results suggest that UPP from fruit processing waste can be regarded as a promising functional ingredient to incorporate with pancakes.
... According to the author the aggregates were seen segmented into smaller segments which was attributed to the increased intensity of flour milling. Bressiani et al. (2017) also stated that in the whole wheat flour the bran and starch granules can be easily depicted because of the less interaction between starch granules and protein that can be attributed to the presence of outer layer. In a study by Srivastava et al. (2014), the microstructure of wheat flour showed both small and large granules of starch entrapped in protein matrix. ...
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The purpose of the research was to use food to food fortification of staples, as a tool to deliver micronutrients especially minerals to the population. In this research moringa leaves powder (MLP), a local nutrient dense source, was utilized for increasing the micronutrients in whole wheat flour biscuit. Microstructural and mineral analysis of whole wheat flour (WWF) and MLP was carried out. WWF biscuit were prepared by incorporating MLP in different percentages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%). Mineral profile, phytic acid content and microstructure of the biscuit were analyzed. The microstructural analysis showed that the gluten network was infered by inculsion of MLP, creating some cavities, but the entire protein matrix was not disrupted. The results of the mineral analysis indicated a significant increase in magnesium (42.34%), calcium(84.91%), potassium(49.82%), phosphorus (32.32%) and iron content(50.92%) of the cookies fortified with MLP. Phytic acid of the biscuit decreased from 0.66 to 0.39%. It can be concluded that MLP can be a tool to alleviate malnutrition and solve food insecurity especially in the developing counteries.
... The elaboration of doughs for the fermentation process was performed using a small-scale baking instrumental test described by Bressiani et al. (2017). Doughs were manually divided into portions of 30 g, and the fermentation process was carried out using a camera (MP20, Multipoint, Brazil) at 30 ± 2 • C and 80% relative humidity. ...
Article
This study investigated the effect of different fermentation times of dough made with whole wheat flour (WWF) added with yerba mate (YM), and the effect on rheological behavior, release of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity. Three treatments were evaluated: YM1 (2.5%; w/w), YM2 (4.5%; w/w), and the control sample (0%). The dough fermentative behavior showed an alteration in CO2 production, and dough volume was reduced in the presence of YM. The addition of YM, together with the fermentation process, increased the free, bound, and total phenolic content, as well as the antioxidant activity of the dough. The addition of 4.5% of YM showed higher content for free phenolic compounds on the dough after the fermentation. 26 phenolic compounds were identified in the dough samples. Rutin was the main compound in doughs with YM, comprising 79% and 61% of total phenolic content of YM2 and YM1, respectively. The phenolic profile demonstrated that fermentation times of 30 and 60 min released greater amounts of compounds in the three studied doughs, mostly caffeic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, isoquercetin, and rutin. These results suggest that the dough fermentation process may be a determining factor for the release of phenolic compounds.
... Thus, relatively strong bonds with water are related to the effects at the molecular level. A similar finding was reported in a previous study, which evaluated the properties of whole grain wheat flour and performance in bakery products as a function of particle size (Bressiani et al., 2017). ...
Article
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The effect of particle size (PS), cultivars (C), and their interactions (PS × C) on the hydration of whole wheat flour (WWF) intended for cookie production was evaluated by different approaches. Three Brazilian wheat cultivars and three particle sizes were evaluated. Total arabinoxylans content was affected by PS, increasing up to 6.18 times with the reduction in particle size. Water-soluble arabinoxylans were more influenced by the cultivar. The water absorption capacity by farinograph indicated that the PS had a greater influence, with high absorption in fine particle size flour. Water absorption based on swelling capacity and absorption kinetics by Enslin-Neff device evidenced high water absorption for coarse particle size flour, regardless the cultivar. ORS Vintecinco cultivar demonstrated the best hydration properties and desired quality for short-dough cookies. The different methods to predict the hydration properties of the flours resulted in different behaviors, demonstrating that the presence of outer layers of the grain of WWF promotes distinct mechanisms in the water absorption capacity, which are significantly influenced by genotype and particle size factors.
... Data analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using statistical software applications Minitab. The comparison of means was performed by Tukey test at 5% significance level (Bressiani et al, 2017;Rambing, 2013). ...
Article
Tapai is one of the food ingredients that is processed into various food dishes and preferred. The shelf life of the tapai is easily damaged after being produced, because tapai has high moisture content, it is necessary to make an effort to extend the shelf life. The purpose of this research was to get the best treatment and to analyze the effect of different concentrations of Natrium Metabisulfite and drying temperatures on the quality of tapai flour. The method used in this study is an experimental research method with Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The first factor is concentration of natrium metabisulfite as much as 0 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 3000 ppm and 4000 ppm. The second factor is the drying temperature of 45ºC, 55ºC, and 65ºC. The results of data analysis obtained the best treatment at concentration of 2000 ppm Natrium Metabisulfite with temperature of 55ºC, reducing sugar content of 4.35%, ash content of 1.5%, moisture content of 4.8%, yield 52.4% and value of the degree whiteness of 85.49.
... Most of the nutritional values are concentrated in the bran layers and germ of wheat (Borneo et al., 2011). However, regardless of the health benefits, there are difficulties in producing wholemeal flour that maintains the desired functionality and quality equivalent to refined grain products (Bressiani et al., 2017). An increase of surface area to mass of wheat bran increased extraction of antioxidant and phenolic compounds with reduction in particle size (Brewer et al., 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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The aim of this research was to investigate the drop size distribution of the standard flat fan nozzle in different positions of its spray fan. Moreover, the symmetry of the drop size distribution of the spray fan was checked by comparing the right and left side of the spray fan. Drop size distribution was measured by laser diffraction device (Sympatec GmbH-HELOS-VARIO/KR). There were fifteen measurement positions alongside the spray fan, seven position on the right side and the same number on the left beside one measurement on the spray fan centreline. The measurements were done with 3.0 bar pressure and in 50cm bellow the nozzle tip. The results showed that almost two-third of the spray volume is consisted of drops sizes ranging from 100 to 300 mu m. The two sides of the spray pattern were identical at the middle positions (near the centreline) for all drop size ranges. However, there was a slight difference between right and left side of the spray pattern concerning the drop size ranges at the edge positions.
... Particle size influences the flour properties; reducing the particle size of the flour leads to increase starch damage and increase the surface area that causes more dough absorption and consequently more dough stickiness (Gaines, 1985). Further, Bressiani et al. (2017) reported that particle size affects the functionality of the gluten network and subsequently the bread volume. Therefore, FPQ and FPB should be controlled to be similar to FPI to express its quality appropriately. ...
Article
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Three types of mills (Buhler, Quadrumat, and industry mill) have been used to determine the effect of mill type on the quality of the produced flour. Quadrumat and Buhler mills are usually used to produce flour at a laboratory level. Flour quality has been determined physically, chemically, and rheologically. Results showed that the particle size of flour produced by Buhler mill (FPB) was finer (mostly less than 132µm) than other produced flour, while flour produced by Quadrumat mill (FPQ) had 8% particle size bigger than 50gg, which is more than Iraqi accepted limit (5%). The moisture content of FPQ exceeded the moisture content limit (14%). While, all flour produced by industry mills (FPI) was within the Iraqi standard in term of particle sizes and moisture content. Gluten content of FPB was higher than other produced flours; however, most increments were not significantly different. The results also showed that using different mills has no clear effect on the gluten index and alpha-amylase activity. Farinogram and extensogram results showed that FPQ was stronger than other produced flour followed by FPI. In conclusion, the quality of FPQ was closer to the quality of FPI, however, Quadrumat mill needs to be adjusted to produce flour with finer particle sizes and lower moisture content. The Buhler mill, on the other hand, needs to be adjusted to produce flour with bigger particle size. Both laboratory mills (Quadrumat and Buhler) need to be adjusted to produce flour that expresses FPI correctly.
... It is often used in the manufacture of bakery and pasta products and cereals. Products made from whole grains and whole grains are usually used for dietary nutrition [23][24][25][26][27]. ...
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The research was aimed at developing recipes for buns studying the nutritional value of securities. In the work, an assortment of bakery products was developed from flour, composite mixtures of leguminous crops and dry powders of sugar beets. As a result, bakery products with useful properties and improved qualities were obtained. In the recipe, sugar was completely replaced by dry powders of sugar beet. The optimal combination for making a bun from composite flour and dry sugar beet powder was 10% chickpea and 5% mung bean flour with 9.23 g of dry sugar beet powder added per 100 g flour. Physical and chemical indicators, including mineral elements, vitamin composition, and safety indicators, were determined. It was proven that the use of composite flour from leguminous crops contributes to a contraction of the technological process of the production of bakery products, reducing the time needed for dough preparation and baking. The use of technology for obtaining bakery products and recipes in production allows expanding the range of bakery products, reducing the duration of the technological process of production, improving the quality of finished products, and increasing labour productivity. It also helps to improve the socioeconomic indicators of bakery and confectionery enterprises.
... The negative correlation indicates that in wheat, the more accessible thiols are present, the lower the protein network strength, because such thiols reflect a low degree of protein polymerization. An inverse relationship between accessible thiols and specific loaf volume was observed for refined (Cao et al., 2017) and whole-wheat systems (Bressiani et al., 2017). In our sample set, accessible thiol concentrations displayed significant positive correlations with protein solubility in buffer (p < .05, ...
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Background and objectives To benefit from ecosystem services provided by intermediate wheatgrass (IWG, Thinopyrum intermedium) cultivation, its processing conditions require optimization to facilitate its use in foods. This study assessed tempering as a strategy to improve IWG flour properties relevant for dough making. Findings Tempered IWG samples had significantly higher maximum torque in the GlutoPeak, which strongly correlated with lower contents in total and water-extractable arabinoxylans (p<0.05, r= -0.481; p<0.01, r= -0.611) and phosphate buffer-soluble proteins (p<0.01, r= -0.893). While higher maximum torque was observed when IWG was tempered to 14% (compared to 12%), target moisture and tempering time did not have any effect. Tempering induced significant reductions in accessible thiols, which also negatively correlated with maximum torque (p<0.05, r= -0.473). SDS-PAGE analysis however did not indicate a shift in flour protein profiles. Conclusions Tempering significantly increased maximum torque and significantly reduced the contents of phosphate buffer-soluble proteins, accessible thiols and arabinoxylans. Together, these findings imply increased protein aggregation and an improved IWG protein network. Significance and novelty This work demonstrates that the interaction between proteins and arabinoxylans is crucial for IWG dough properties and can be influenced by processing methods.
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This study explored the noodle-making performance of flour blends with different particle sizes and blending ratios of purple-colored wheat bran and their antioxidant properties. The bran particle size was reduced using an ultra-centrifugal mill equipped with 1, 0.5, and 0.2 mm sieves. The damaged starch and swelling capacity of the bran were analyzed. Quality of the flour-bran blends at different blending ratios was analyzed by solvent retention capacity (SRC). Noodles made from the blends and their corresponding antioxidant activities were examined. The damaged starch and swelling capacity of bran were higher for smaller particles than for larger particles. Water and sodium carbonate SRC values of blends increased as the bran particle size decreased. The smaller the bran particles incorporated in the cooked noodles, the greater firmness and springiness measured. The antioxidant activity of noodles made with blends reflected better embedding of the small particles of bran than the large particles into noodle sheets. Small bran particles significantly enhanced noodles’ quality and antioxidant activity at higher blending ratios than large bran particles. Particle size reduction of bran enhanced the noodle-making performance of flour blended with purple-colored wheat bran; this could increase the utilization of bran to produce noodles with health benefits.
Article
The objective of this research was to optimize feed composition (whole wheat flour (WWF), whole barley flour (WBF), whole corn flour (WCF) and Indian horse chestnut flour (IHCF)) and evaluating the effects of different ratios of feed composition on the functional, physical and mechanical characteristics of extrudates. Response Surface Methodology was used to optimize the ingredients. Results found that breakfast cereals with 8.3% of WWF, 8.75% of WBF and 3.75% of IHCF had higher rehydration ratios and desirable hardness, porosity, bulk density and color as compared to other treatment samples. Increasing the whole-grain reduced water solubility index, water absorption index and surface mechanical energy. The optimum processing conditions obtained by numerical optimization for the development of breakfast cereals were 10% WWF, 10% WBF, 2.5% IHCF, and 77.5% WCF at 14% of moisture, 110ºC temperature and screw speed of 380rpm. Therefore, the development of breakfast cereals through extrusion cooking of mixture of whole-grains and IHCF is feasible, providing the base for fibre rich healthier snack food products.
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The increase in the consumption of pulses can perform a key role in preventing protein deficiency among people specifically in developing countries. The fortification of whole wheat bread with pulses is an efficient approach to boost the nutritional profile of bread as protein, starches, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and phytochemicals are all abundant in pulses. The optimum ratio of the pulse to whole wheat flour is necessary to determine for producing bread with good quality, sensory attributes, and handling properties. This review investigated the impact of the pulse addition on the whole wheat dough rheology, bread quality, and sensory characteristics, with a particular focus on dough stability, elasticity, strength, and bread volume. The improvement in the nutritional value as well as the negative impact of pulses on whole-wheat bread was also reviewed. The research gaps in pulse supplemented whole grains bread were identified, and further study directions were recommended. Fortification of whole wheat bread with pulses produced affordable bread with a balanced diet for all classes of people. The addition of a higher level of pulses develops a weak gluten structure, which negatively affects dough stability, strength, elasticity, and handling properties. The volume of bread also decreased, and the off-flavor compound produced at a higher level of pulse fortification. The addition of additives and prior processing of pulses not only promote the nutritional value but also produce bread with better dough stability, bread volume, and sensory score.
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Sesbania grandiflora (SG) possess numerous medicinal uses but are merely utilized in the diet. This study has attempted to develop pasta with varying concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%) of distinctly dried SG flowers with T. durum wheat semolina flour. The formulated products were evaluated for cooking quality, sensory attributes, nutritive composition, and Glycaemic Index (GI). As a result, the nutritional profile of SG cabinet oven dried flower powder showed high protein (17.02%) and dietary fiber content (40.92%). Whereas SG freeze dried pasta (SGFD5) revealed high protein (11.78%), insoluble fiber content (11.64%), and better cooking quality (4.68%). Both the pasta depicted low GI (<55). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images reveal the relationship between starch granules and protein matrix in pasta. To conclude, the SG flower incorporation resulted in the development of pasta with better cooking quality, organoleptic property, and low GI hence confirming its potential as food for diabetic subjects.
Article
Background and objectives The particle size of wheat flours contributes to the quality of wheat flour products. Wheat flour of particle size ranging from 358 to 17 µm was produced by the milling and examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, their rheological properties, sulfhydryl content, creep measurements, and the cooking quality were also evaluated. Findings Wheat flour with smaller particle size had a higher amount of damaged starch and increased creep recovery of gluten protein, as well as the water absorption rate, cooking loss rate, and hardness of the noodle. The sulfhydryl content of gluten protein decreased with the decrease in the particle size of the wheat flour, as it changed the rheology and the pasting properties of starch. In addition, the dynamic viscoelastic properties of starch were enhanced by using wheat flour with bigger particle size. Conclusions The results suggested that particle size was a major factor affecting the quality attributes of the wheat flour. The cooking properties and texture of noodles could be modified by the variation of flour particle size. Significance and novelty The result can provide useful information about the important effect of particle size on the quality of the wheat flour and its products. Particle size could be used to potentially predict the product quality characteristics or identify proper quality wheat flour.
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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) bran is an important by‐product produced during cereal milling process, rich in several valuable compounds, such as lipids. Moreover, considering the valorisation potential of these material, the application of innovative and low‐impact techniques can improve the overall quality of by‐products for their future exploitation in the food manufacturing. In this study, the impact of air‐classification and micronization (fine grinding) of rice bran on the lipid components was studied. These treatments allowed to obtain bran fractions, with different granulometry, from coarse to very fine. The total crude fat content was significantly higher in fine air‐classified rice bran fractions. Besides, polyunsaturated triacylglycerols (TAG) were the most abundant compounds and monoacylglycerols concentration increased from ~15 % in rice bran to ~22 % in fine fraction. Considering the relevant emulsifying properties of these compounds, this fraction could be used as functional ingredient for the quality improvement of cereal‐based products, without modifying the valuable fatty acid profile.
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Abstract Antioxidants present in many fruit residues can play an essential role in the prevention of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional and mineral composition, fatty acids profile, anti-nutrients, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and technological properties of flour from residues generated by umbu fruit processing. Nutritional composition showed high levels of dietary fiber, especially insoluble fiber (56.67%). The flour can be classified as a good source of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, and an excellent source of iron, zinc and copper. Palmitic and stearic saturated fatty acids and oleic and linoleic unsaturated fatty acids were identified. No potentially toxic substances were detected. Significant values of ascorbic acid (44.78 mg/100g), carotenoids (463.73 µg/100g) and flavonoids (37.85 mg QE/100g) were found, as well as very high levels of phenolic compounds (20357.26 mg GAE/100g). Strong antioxidant activity was detected in the flour by three methods (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) demonstrating a linear positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The flour showed high absorption of water, oil, emulsifying capacity and emulsion stability presenting a great potential for use in foods, especially meat, bakery and dairy products. These results indicate promising prospects to full use of umbu as a functional ingredient.
Article
In this study, different levels of wheat flour (WF) including 0 (control), 1 (T1), 3 (T3), 6 (T6), and 9% (T9) were substituted with fish protein powder (FPP; produced from silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys moltrix) in bread formulation. The highest protein content and Zeleny index were observed in T9 compared to other flours (P < .05). Regarding the rheological tests in dough samples, substitution of WF at 3% caused the highest development time (4.08 min), stability time (18.55 min), farinograph quality number (93 BU), and the lowest softening degree after 12 min (P < .05). All extensograph parameters except extensibility were significantly elevated with increasing FPP inclusion. Increased FPP substitution led to larger pores in the bread structure and reduced the whiteness index. The sensory evaluation showed the bread staling was postponed in T3 after 48 h (P < .05). Overall, WF can be replaced with FFP at 3% in bread formulation without any negative impacts.
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In order to enrich the cookies' nutrition, black soybean was used to develop cookies, and the effect of its particle size on the characteristics of cookies was analysed. The results showed that the chemical score of black soybean cookies (12.02–13.24) was significantly greater than that of wheat flour cookies (9.14), which was significant for improving cookies’ nutrition. The cookies thickness decreased when the particle size of black soybean flour decreased, but the spread ratio increased. The addition of black soybean flour greatly decreased the lightness of the cookie from 74.79 to 51.32. The decrease in particle size affected texture of cookies, especially for hardness and fracturability, they increased from 12.22 to 13.86 N, and decreased from 1.26 to 1.02 g, respectively. The addition of black soybean remarkably increased the slowly digestible and resistant starch, especially for cookies made from coarse black soybean flour, up to 50.22% and 26.10%, respectively. The black soybean flour enhanced the binding force of free water in cookies system, giving cookies a higher crispness. Based on physicochemical properties and nutrition analysis, using black soybean flour to develop cookies is feasible in industrial practice. And from sensory analysis, superfine black soybean flour was preferred for cookies production.
Article
Relationships amongst solvent retention capacity (SRC) profiles and quality characteristics of triticale cultivars were investigated. Superior triticale grains resulted into flours with preferable quality attributes for baking bread. Standard and supplementary SRC-values exhibited significant correlation with grain, flour, and dough quality. Positive correlations among sucrose-SRC with ash, pentosan, and ferulic acid (FA) contents were significant. The standard SRC-profiles along with metabisulfite-SRC (MBS-SRC) and ethanol-SRC exhibited significant correlation with damaged starch (DS) content. The ethanol-SRC demonstrated strong correlations with water absorption capacity, FA, and Dmax-value alveolab parameter. Triticale flours containing a higher amount of anti-parallel β-sheets and tyrosine exhibited higher lactic acid-SRC (LA-SRC) and gluten-performance-index (GPI). Positive correlations between sodium dodecylsulphate-SRC (SDS-SRC) and anti-parallel β-sheets percentages were noticed. The LA-SRC, GPI, MBS-SRC, SDS-SRC, and SDS+MBS-SRC were positively correlated with SDS-sedimentation, gluten index and negatively to sulfhydryl-groups content. Triticales having higher LA-SRC and MBS-SRC resulted in dough with higher strength and tenacity.
Article
Background Plant-sourced intrinsic dietary fiber (PIDF), mainly composed of nondigestible polysaccharides in a cell wall form, is often existed in plant tissue particles in which the physical structure of the particle size, density and spatial organization of food component as well as the intactness and porosity of cell wall are critical to its physicochemical properties and health functions. However, there is limited information of PIDF compared to isolated and purified DF that is a chemical entity without association with the food context. Scope and approach The health benefit and physical structures of PIDF are emerging as a new research area in the field of DF although there is still limited information in the literature reports. In the current article, available information on the relationship between the physical structure and the physiological function as well as resulted health benefits of PIDF in a whole food context were reviewed in conjunction with food processing. Key findings and conclusions The physical structure of PIDF is a critical factor modulating the intestinal digestion and bioavailability of intracellular nutrients. PIDF can exert its health function through a physical structure-specific microbial fermentation and/or microbiota-independent pathways. A holistic approach to reveal the relationship between the physical structure and health function of PIDF will shed novel insight into the designing of PIDF enriched functional foods.
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The aims of this work were to assess the influence of the physicochemical composition of whole flour from soft and hard wheat genotypes on cookie and bread properties, as well as the ability of the prediction tests to estimate the whole meal flour end-use. Flours from hard and soft wheat genotypes proved to have different chemical composition and particle size distribution. Flours from hard wheat had lower particle average size and dietary fiber content, and higher lipid and wet gluten contents than flours from soft wheat. Particle size distribution, water absorption capacity and chemical composition of whole flours strongly influenced bread and cookie making performance. Considering prediction tests, flours from different wheat types were successfully discriminated using SDS-SI, SRC lac, and GI. However, rather weak correlations were found between the prediction test and the cookie and bread quality parameters. The prediction test, standardized for refined flours, showed a poor performance when whole flours were used. Nevertheless, grain texture and whole flour physicochemical properties did affect bread and cookie quality parameters, thus classical prediction tests should be modified in order to estimate the end-use performance of whole flours. Moreover, a standardization of the milling process should be considered.
Article
A gluten-free diet is usually lacking in dietary fibre and minerals present in the bran and germ of grains. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different extrusion processes of whole grain maize flours (to avoid early rancidity development of the flours) in gluten-free cookies. Particle size and hydration capacity of the flours, rheology of the doughs, physicochemical characteristics, fibre content and sensorial analysis of the cookies were evaluated. The presence of whole-grain flours increased the particle size and the water absorption values. The elastic and viscoelastic modulus of the doughs decreased, allowing a greater expansion of the cookies in the oven, resulting in cookies with a higher spread ratio (reaching values of up to 12.2) and a lower hardness (decreasing in all cases more than 25% in relation to the Control). Cookies prepared with whole grain flours presented higher values of dietary fibre (<8.4g/100g of lipid free cookie) and had a good acceptability. The extrusion of whole-grain maize flour has a positive impact on both in the shelf life of the flour (slower rancidity development) and in cookie quality.
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To use hydrocolloids for improving the breadmaking performance of whole wheat flour dough, relationships between hydrocolloid addition and dough thermomechanical, viscoelastic and microstructural properties were investigated. The responses of dough thermomechanical and viscoelastic properties to hydrocolloid addition depended on the hydrocolloid type. A power-law gel model fitted well to the linear and non-linear viscoelastic parameters, i.e., G'(ω), G''(ω) and J(t), of doughs. The model parameters gel strength (S) and exponent (n) were well indicative of hydrocolloid-induced changes in dough strength and relaxation behavior. The torque-scale mixolab parameters C2, C3 and C5, showed a good linear relationship with hydrocolloid addition. These parameters were also well correlated with S and n. Hydrocolloids played a crucial role in the modification for dough microstructure by forming a more continuous gluten network and better connection between starch granules and protein matrix.
Article
Background In Indonesia, to attain cost-effectiveness, home enteral formulas are produced from fresh foods, but they are not ready-to-use products, not durable, and have unstandardized nutrition contents. Objective We aimed to evaluate sensory characteristics and the physicochemical properties of a local food-based enteral nutrition product. Methods We evaluated sensory characteristics of a local food-based enteral nutrition product consisting of color, odor, flavor, and texture using triangle test. The sensory evaluation involved 30 semi-trained sensory panelists. Physicochemical properties were also assessed through standardized laboratory analyses. The ingredients were arrowroot starch, rice flour, palm sugar, cork fish (Channa striata), tempeh powder, milk, and yellow pumpkins. The flavors were original, ginger and cinnamon. Panelists were asked to assess the color, odor, flavor and texture, and provided a score for each variable according to a 5-point Likert scale from strongly do not like to strongly like. The physicochemical properties, i.e., the water and ash contents, water activity, antioxidant activity, heavy metal content, and viscosity, were analyzed. Results and Discussion There were only significant mean rank differences of color between samples, while odor, flavor, and texture were not. Most panelists selected light brown, which was the original flavor, as their preferred color compared to ginger and cinnamon flavor (52.45 vs. 43.50 vs. 36.05, p=0.026). The most favorable odor was from the ginger flavor, but for flavor, almost all panelists selected the original flavor as being the best. The texture of all products was slightly sandy. The water, ash, Pb contents, Aw and antioxidant activity were 3.14%, 4.18%, 0.016 mg/kg, 0.22, and 14.1 ppm, respectively. Conclusion The original product exhibited better organoleptic properties in terms of color and flavor, while the ginger flavor exhibited a better odor than the other variants. The physicochemical properties of the product met the Indonesian National Standard requirements.
Article
Every year, the winemaking process generates large quantities of waste and by-products, the management of which is critical due to the large production in a limited period. Grape pomace is a source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and antimicrobial properties. Its chemical composition makes it potentially suitable for preparing high-value food products. The aim of this research was to study the effect of adding grape pomace powder with different particle size fractions (600–425, 425–300, 300–212 and 212–150 µm) to the chemical, technological and sensorial characteristics of muffins. The addition of 15% of grape pomace powder, regardless of particle size, led to muffins rich in antioxidant compounds and total dietary fiber (>3/100 g), which could be labelled with the “source of fiber” nutritional claim according to the EC Regulation 1924/2006. As particle size decreased, total anthocyanins, total phenol content and antioxidant activity (evaluated by ABTS and DPPH assays) increased, while muffin hardness and lightness were negatively influenced. The latter observation was confirmed by the sensory evaluation, which also showed that a smaller particle size led to the presence of irregular crumb pores.
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In recent years there has been growing interest in whole grain products. However, few studies have analyzed the influence of whole wheat flour on the quality of Chinese steamed bread. This study determined the influence of different milling processes on the physicochemical properties and steamed bread quality of whole wheat flour. A medium hard red wheat, soft white wheat and Canada hard wheat was used as raw materials. The milling processes including three entire grain grinding and four bran recombining processes. The wheat flour ground by roller mill was used as a control. Results showed that whole wheat flour made from entire grain grinding processes had higher viscosity values but lower particle size than bran recombining processes. Appropriate processes can improve the farinograph characteristics of whole wheat flour. Chinese steamed bread of whole wheat flour obtained from bran recombining had larger height/diameter ratio, specific volume than that from entire grain grinding processes. Ultrafine entire grain grinding process especially when using white wheat improved the color of steamed bread. The texture differences of steamed bread between whole wheat flour and flour were significant. Steamed bread of red wheat from heat-treated bran recombining (HTBR) process got the highest sensory score.
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Fibre-enriched baked goods have increasingly become a convenient carrier for dietary fibre. However, the detrimental effect of fibres on dough rheology and bread quality continuously encourages food technologists to look for new fibres. The effect of several fibres (Fibruline, Fibrex, Exafine and Swelite) from different sources (chicory roots, sugar beet and pea) on dough mixing properties when added singly or in combination has been investigated by applying a response surface methodology to a Draper-Lin small composite design of fibre-enriched wheat dough samples. Major effects were induced on water absorption by Fibrex that led to a significant increase of this parameter, accompanied by a softening effect on the dough, more noticeable when an excess of mixing was applied. Conversely, Exafine increased water absorption without affecting the consistency and stability of dough, which even improved when combined with Swelite. Fibruline showed little effect on dough mixing parameters, but showed synergistic effects with pea fibres. The overall result indicates that the use of an optimised combination of fibres in the formulation of fibre-enriched dough allow improving dough functionality during processing.
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The unique properties of wheat reside primarily in its gluten-forming storage proteins. Their intrinsic viscoelastic behavior is responsible for the characteristics of different wheat-based foods and for the use of wheat gluten proteins in different food products. Wheat-based food processing generally develops and sets the gluten protein network. Heat-induced gluten aggregation proceeds through cross-linking within and between its protein fractions. Prominent reactions include sulfhydryl (SH) oxidation and SH-disulfide (SS) interchange, which lead to SS cross-links. Other covalent bonds are also formed. Gluten functionality can be (bio-) chemically impacted. We focus on bread making, in which gluten proteins contribute to dough properties, bread loaf volume, and structure, and on pasta production, in which gluten proteins generate the desired cooking quality. Furthermore, it is speculated that the structure and texture of soft wheat products are also, at least to some degree, shaped by the heat-induced changes in the gluten protein fraction.
Article
The impact of the hydration capacity and rate of wheat bran on optimal bread dough development and loaf volume was investigated using coarse bran, both native as well as after toasting, milling, presoaking and combinations of the latter. It was found that toasting reduces bran's hydration rate which, during mixing, results in a temporary excess of water in which dough development takes place inefficiently and hence requires additional time. This mechanism was further substantiated by the observation that delayed dough development can be counteracted by presoaking of bran. Milling of bran increases its hydration rate and results in faster optimal dough development. Presoaking of non-milled bran, however, did not result in faster dough development. Smaller bran particles do lead to faster dough development, probably due to increased proper contacts between flour particles. Optimal loaf volumes did not change upon milling and toasting.
Article
The influence of bran particle size on bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) and starch retrogradation was studied. Higher water absorption of dough prepared from WWF with added gluten to attain 18% protein was observed for WWFs of fine bran than those of coarse bran, whereas no significant difference in dough mixing time was detected for WWFs of varying bran particle size. The effects of bran particle size on loaf volume of WWF bread and crumb firmness during storage were more evident in hard white wheat than in hard red wheat. A greater degree of starch retrogradation in bread crumb stored for seven days at 4 degrees C was observed in WWFs of fine bran than those of coarse bran. The gels prepared from starch fine bran blends were harder than those prepared from starch-unground bran blends when stored for one and seven days at 4 degrees C. Furthermore, a greater degree of starch retrogradation was observed in gelatinized starch containing fine bran than that containing unground bran after storage for seven days at 4 degrees C. It is probable that finely ground bran takes away more water from gelatinized starch than coarsely ground bran, increasing the extent of starch retrogradation in bread and gels during storage.
Article
The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of an analytical method for determination of free sulphydryl (SH) groups of wheat gluten performed with previous gluten incubation for variable times (45, 90 and 135 min) at variable temperatures (30 and 37 °C), in order to determine its fitness-for-purpose. It was observed that the increase in temperature and gluten incubation time caused the increase in the amount of free SH groups, with more dynamic changes at 37 °C. The method characteristics identified as relevant were: linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision (repeatability and reproducibility) and measurement uncertainty, which were checked within the validation protocol, while the method performance was monitored by X- and R-control charts. Identified method characteristics demonstrated its acceptable fitness-for-purpose, when assay included previous gluten incubation at 30 °C. Although the method repeatability at 37 °C was acceptable, the corresponding reproducibility did not meet the performance criterion on the basis of HORRAT value (HORRAT < 2).
Article
An interchange experiment showed that it was the gluten/starch fraction of flour and not the level of ferulic acid that controlled rapid breakdown of overmixed doughs. This finding also explains why a large amount of exogenous ferulic acid is needed to cause rapid breakdown. Quantitative analysis of the phenolic acids in wheat flour and doughs showed ferulic acid to be the predominant phenolic acid. During overmixing of wheat flour doughs, ferulic acid was lost from those fractions that initiated breakdown in gluten/starch doughs. As wheat flour dough was overmixed, the concentration of ferulic acid in the free form decreased from 1·0 to 0·3 mg/kg and in the soluble, bound form from 3·8 to 0·9 mg/kg. Ferulic acid in the insoluble, bound form did not decrease in concentration, remaining at about 36 mg/kg. These data are in agreement with the theory that ferulic acid in the water-soluble fraction of wheat flour interacts with the gluten/starch fraction to bring about rapid dough breakdown.
Article
Two wheat varieties ‘C 306’ and ‘WH 542’ were milled to obtain flour fractions of different particle sizes. Various physicochemical parameters such as wet and dry gluten, falling number, solvent retention capacity (SRC), alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC) and damaged starch content of the flour fractions were analyzed. The damaged starch values ranged from 5.14% to 14.79% for different flour fractions and increased significantly with decrease in particle size. AWRC and SRC of the flour fractions also increased with decrease in particle size. AWRC(r00.659) showed positive correlation and cookie spread ratio (r0−0.826) was strongly negatively correlated with the damaged starch levels. Hardness of the cookies in term of compression force showed increasing trend as damaged starch of the flour fractions increased. Spread ratio of the cookies ranged from 6.72 to 10.12. Wheat flour of particle size greater than 150 μm produced cookies with best quality.
Article
The use of bran and whole grain flour changes dough rheology and causes difficulties in manufacturing bakery products. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of substituting refined wheat flour (WF) by wheat bran (WB; 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) or whole grain wheat flour (WGWF; 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%) on dough rheological properties and pan bread quality characteristics. The addition of WB and WGWF increased water absorption and resistance to extension and decreased stability, extensibility and peak viscosity. Effects with WB were more pronounced. The presence of WB or WGWF increased crumb moisture content, firmness and hardness and decreased specific volume of pan bread. It is important to set new farinographic and extensographic standards when using WB and WGWF, allowing for a correct correlation between rheology and quality characteristics of bakery products, as the same standards used for WF are not valid.
Article
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Analyses of the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) type are convenient, simple, and require only common equipment and have produced a large body of comparable data. Under proper conditions, the assay is inclusive of monophenols and gives predictable reactions with the types of phenols found in nature. Because different phenols react to different degrees, expression of the results as a single number—such as milligrams per liter gallic acid equivalence—is necessarily arbitrary. Because the reaction is independent, quantitative, and predictable, analysis of a mixture of phenols can be recalculated in terms of any other standard. The assay measures all compounds readily oxidizable under the reaction conditions and its very inclusiveness allows certain substances to also react that are either not phenols or seldom thought of as phenols (e.g., proteins). Judicious use of the assay—with consideration of potential interferences in particular samples and prior study if necessary—can lead to very informative results. Aggregate analysis of this type is an important supplement to and often more informative than reems of data difficult to summarize from various techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that separate a large number of individual compounds .The predictable reaction of components in a mixture makes it possible to determine a single reactant by other means and to calculate its contribution to the total FC phenol content. Relative insensitivity of the FC analysis to many adsorbents and precipitants makes differential assay—before and after several different treatments—informative.
Article
Commercial hard red spring, hard red winter, soft white and durum wheat brans were used to evaluate the particle size effect of wheat bran on bread baking performance and bread sensory quality. Three different particle size bran samples were obtained from each bran by grinding, not by sifting, the bran samples. The bran samples were similar in chemical composition, but different in particle sizes. Results of baking experiments showed that breads containing fine bran had lower specific loaf volume and darker crumb colour than breads containing coarse or medium size bran. Sensory test panellists found that fine bran contributed smoother crust appearance and less gritty mouthfeel than the coarse bran. The sensory panel also indicated that breads containing soft white wheat bran had significantly better flavour and mouthfeel than breads containing hard red spring wheat bran. © 1999 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
The nature of the adverse effects of wheat bran fractions on bread-making quality was studied. Two fractions of bran, representing different tissue layers and having different compositions, were used. The particle size of the bran fractions was varied by various milling techniques. All fractions were added to white flour and water addition was adjusted to obtain dough with a constant consistency.Both dough-mixing properties and bread-making quality were affected by the addition of bran. The negative influence was enhanced when bran particle size was reduced. The effects on bread quality are strongly correlated to negative effects of bran on gluten network formation. The results show that fibre–gluten interactions are the main cause for the negative effects of fibres, rather than dilution of gluten, piercing of gas cells or particles disturbing the gluten network.Two possible explanations for the enhancement of the adverse effects when reducing the particle size of bran fractions are discussed: 1) increased interaction surface 2) liberation of reactive components due to cell breakage.
Article
Organic wheat production has increased in Sweden, and there is a need to describe the quality of the final product. To optimize utilization of alternatively grown wheat for human consumption, it is necessary to understand the effects of crop and processing variation on the sensory qualities of the final product. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of farming systems, milling technique, and variation in formulation on the sensory attributes of whole wheat pan bread. Six samples of wheat (Triticum aestivum, variety Kosack) from field trials, three grown in conventional farming systems and three in organic farming systems (biodynamic and ecological), were roller-and stone-milled, respectively. Breads were baked according to an experimental design in which two levels of flour and two levels of kneading were also included. Sensory analysis, achieved through a descriptive profiling test, was conducted with eight trained assessors using 19 sensory attributes for 48 different bread types in two replicates. Image analysis was used to establish the slice area of the breads. Milling technique had a greater impact on the sensory qualities of bread and on the slice area than did farming system and baking technique. Conventional wheat had lower protein and ash contents, but higher volume weight than did the organic wheat. Damaged starch, extensographic values ðR m ; EÞ and farinographic values for water absorption, dough development time and dough stability were higher for roller-milled samples than for the stone-milled. Whole meal breads of roller-milled wheat were dominated by sweetness, juiciness and compactness attributes, whereas those from stone-milled wheat were characterized by saltiness, deformity and roasted cereal attributes. The six wheat samples revealed that variation in breads' sensory qualities was larger for the three organic samples than for the three conventional samples.
Article
Gluten from wheat damaged by heteropterous insects loses its functionality after a short period of resting. In this study the properties of the gluten from damaged wheat are compared with that from sound wheat in order to understand the changes produced during incubation at 37 °C. The amounts of free thiol and amino groups were quantified, obtaining a marked increase of those groups during incubation of the damaged wheat. The thermal characterization of the damaged gluten showed a decrease in the denaturation temperature and a pronounced increase in the protein denaturation enthalpy after a short incubation, although the value of that enthalpy greatly dropped with a longer incubation period. The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) were rapidly hydrolysed while the low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) showed a slower degradation. It seems that the HMW-GS backbone was first hydrolysed, leading to a protein structure with higher thermal stability but, as the hydrolysis proceeded, a deeper degradation of the structure yielded a protein structure with lower denaturation enthalpy. The loss of gluten functionality results from complex changes in the gluten structure at the first and second level of the protein organization structure. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
A new method, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique characterized by T(2) relaxation time, was developed to study the water migration mechanism between arabinoxylan (AX) gels and gluten matrix in a whole wheat dough (WWD) system prepared from whole wheat flour (WWF) of different particle sizes. The water sequestration of AX gels in wheat bran was verified by the bran fortification test. The evaluations of baking quality of whole wheat bread (WWB) made from WWF with different particle sizes were performed by using SEM, FT-IR, and RP-HPLC techniques. Results showed that the WWB made from WWF of average particle size of 96.99 μm had better baking quality than those of the breads made from WWF of two other particle sizes, 50.21 and 235.40 μm. T(2) relaxation time testing indicated that the decreased particle size of WWF increased the water absorption of AX gels, which led to water migration from the gluten network to the AX gels and resulted in inferior baking quality of WWB.
Article
In an attempt to improve intake of dietary fibre and antioxidants and quality of whole grain products, whole grain meals from barley, millet, rye and sorghum were evaluated individually and in blends with wheat flour in terms of starch pasting properties and protein heat damage, during cycles of heating and cooling in RVA tests. The whole grain meals were blended with either hard or soft wheat flour and processed into bread, cake, cookie or snack products. The products were then evaluated with regard to physical properties and acceptability. Significant differences were observed between cereals in starch peak, breakdown and setback viscosities as well as in protein peak viscosity. The results showed that RVA could be used to help formulate cereal blends with certain pasting properties. Substitution of wheat flour, with 15% of barley, rye, millet or sorghum whole grain, did not have significant detrimental effects on physical properties or acceptability of pita bread. Additionally, replacement of wheat flour with up to 30% of barley, rye, millet or sorghum whole grain meal had no significant effects on quality of cakes or cookies. A multigrain snack-like food was also developed as a healthy product and was highly acceptable in a sensory test. The developed product would help enhance consumption of whole grain foods, resulting in improved intake of fibre and health-enhancing components.
Article
Dough and bread prepared from wheat flour containing varying amounts of added Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB) rhizome powder [0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/w)] were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) during fermentation and baking. The structure of the doughs containing added GEB was found to be related to the protein matrix. Further, it was found that large starch granules and strings of small starch granules play an important role in dough structure. The control dough (no added GEB) had a membrane-like structure, and doughs with 0.5–1.0% added GEB had membrane-like structures that were more developed than those of the control, resulting in increased bread volumes. At 1.5–2.0% GEB levels, however, the doughs tended to have mesh-like structures and result in decreased bread volumes. The dough samples with 0.5 and 1.0% added GEB powder had well-developed gluten matrices with evenly dispersed starch granules. These samples resulted in breads with numerous gas bubble eruptions on their surfaces and consequently in larger loaf volumes than were obtained at other levels of GEB. After the second fermentation, many expanded starch granules were observed and these starch granules were dispersed more evenly than after the first fermentation. In 0.5–1.0% GEB bread, many of the large starch granules had expanded after fermentation, but small starch granules had not. The data obtained in this study suggest that bread baked with 0.5–1.0% GEB exhibits a better loaf volume due to the more complete development of a gluten matrix.
Article
Phytochemicals and antioxidants in whole grains have not received as much attention as the phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables although the increased consumption of whole grains and whole grain products has been associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers and all-cause mortality. Recent research has shown that the total phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of whole grains have been commonly underestimated in the literature, and that whole grains contain more phytochemicals than was previously reported. Most whole grain phenolics are in bound form, 85% in corn, 76% in wheat, and 75% in oats. In addition, whole grains contain unique phytochemicals that complement those in fruits and vegetables when consumed together. The beneficial effects associated with whole grain consumption are in part due to the existence of the unique phytochemicals of whole grains. The majority of phytochemicals of whole grains that are beneficial for health are present in the bran/germ fraction. In whole wheat flour, the bran/germ fraction contributed 83% of total phenolic content, 79% of total flavonoid content, 78% of total zeaxanthin, 51% of total lutein, and 42% of total β-cryptoxanthin. The bran/germ fraction of whole wheat may therefore impart greater health benefits when consumed as part of a diet, and help reduce the risk of chronic diseases. This paper will review recent research on the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of whole grains and their unique contribution to the health benefits of whole grains.
Article
Effects of bran concentration, bran particle size distribution, and enzyme addition – fungal phytase, fungal alpha-amylase – on the mixing and fermentative behaviour of wheat dough and on the amount of phytic acid remaining in bread have been investigated using a factorial design of samples 24. Bran concentration and bran particle size significantly affected all Farinograph parameters, whereas enzyme effects were particularly observed on both the water absorption of the flour and the parameters characterizing the overmixing. Water absorption was maximized in doughs with higher fine bran addition and/or in doughs with no enzymes, and was minimized in blends containing coarse added bran and alpha-amylase and/or alpha-amylase and phytase. alpha-Amylase addition had a significant positive effect on dough development and gassing power parameters during proofing. At low bran addition, phytate hydrolysis takes place to a greater extent than at high bran addition levels. Combination of bran with amylolytic and phytate-degrading enzymes could be advisable for overcoming the detrimental effect of bran on the mineral availability (phytase) or on the technological performance of doughs (alpha-amylase).
Article
The effects of different phenolic acids on the rheological properties and gluten proteins of hard wheat flour dough and bread were investigated. Caffeic, ferulic, syringic and gallic acids were each blended with hard wheat flour at a concentration of 4.44 µmol L(-1) g(-1) flour. Mixing time and tolerance were reduced with the addition of phenolic acids. The phenolic acids reduced the maximum resistance to extension (R(max)) and increased the extensibility of dough, with effects in the following order: gallic < syringic < ferulic < caffeic acid. The effect on R(max) was more pronounced in overmixed dough. Loaf volume was most significantly decreased with the addition of caffeic acid. Extraction of sodium dodecyl sulfate-soluble high-molecular-weight proteins was increased in both mixed and fermented doughs by the addition of ferulic and caffeic acids. The order of influence of the phenolic acids on the rheological properties and protein structure of dough and bread was consistent with that of their antioxidant activity. The addition of caffeic and ferulic acids reduced R(max) and increased the extensibility of hard wheat flour dough by modifying the high-molecular-weight gluten, which resulted in decreased bread volume.
Article
Wheat bran is an undervalued by-product of white flour and has great nutritional potential due to its high content in fibres and bioactive compounds. Micronized bran could be used as a food ingredient to improve the nutritional potential of cereal products, or be used as a starting material for other processes (bioactive compound extraction or bran fractionation). The aim of this work was to find a way to efficiently decrease the particle size of bran. The influence of the grinding temperature (ambient or cryogenic grinding) on the granulometric distribution of particles, their composition, and their microstructure was studied, at lab-scale and pilot-scale. It showed that the intrinsic characteristics of bran (glass transition within intermediate layers at -46 degrees C) had more influence on its grinding behaviour than the type of grinding device used: the particles size distributions obtained after grinding at lab-scale and pilot-scale were very similar. At both scales, the granulometric curves were narrow for cryogenic grinding, while for ambient grinding they were spread over the whole particle size range. Ultrafine particles were obtained in both ambient and cryogenic conditions. Negative temperatures, by increasing the material's brittleness, favoured a fast fragmentation of bran: one step of cryogenic grinding allowed a median particle size of nearly 50 mu m to be reached, whereas three successive steps of ambient grinding were needed for the same result. On the other hand, ambient temperature favoured the dissociation of the different constituent layers of wheat bran, and produced less composite particles than cryogenic grinding.
Article
A whole grain consists of the intact, ground, cracked, or flaked caryopsis, whose principal anatomical components--the starchy endosperm, germ, and bran--are present in the same relative proportions as they exist in the intact caryopsis. Whole grain food products can be intact, consisting of the original composition of bran, germ, and endosperm, throughout the entire lifetime of the product, or reconstituted, in which one or more of the original components of a whole grain is recombined to the relative proportion naturally occurring in the grain kernel. Increased consumption of whole grains has been associated with reduced risk of major chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and some cancers. Whole grain foods offer a wide range of phytochemicals with health benefits that are only recently becoming recognized. The unique phytochemicals in whole grains are proposed to be responsible for the health benefits of whole grain consumption. In this paper, whole grain phytochemicals and the health benefits associated with their consumption are reviewed.
Article
Recent consumer interest in controlling and preventing chronic diseases through improved diet has promoted research on the bioactive components of agricultural products. Wheat is an important agricultural and dietary commodity worldwide with known antioxidant properties concentrated mostly in the bran fraction. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of genotype (G) and growing environment (E) to hard winter wheat bran antioxidant properties, as well as correlations of these properties to growing conditions. Bran samples of 20 hard winter wheat varieties grown in two locations were examined for their free radical scavenging capacities against DPPH, ABTS cation, peroxyl (ORAC), and superoxide anion radicals and chelating properties, as well as their total phenolics and phenolic acid compositions. Results showed significant differences for all antioxidant properties tested and multiple significant correlations between these properties. A factorial designed analysis of variance for these data and pooled previously published data showed similar results for four of the six antioxidant properties, indicating that G effects were considerably larger than E effects for chelating capacity and DPPH radical scavenging properties, whereas E was much stronger than G for ABTS cation radical scavenging capacity and total phenolics, although small interaction effects (GxE) were significant for all antioxidant properties analyzed. Results also showed significant correlations between temperature stress or solar radiation and some antioxidant properties. These results indicate that each antioxidant property of hard winter wheat bran is influenced differently by genotype and growing conditions.
Adaptation of Methods for Whole Wheat Flour Technological Quality Assessment
  • T Oro
Oro, T., 2013. Adaptation of Methods for Whole Wheat Flour Technological Quality Assessment. PhD Thesis. Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil. https:// repositorio.ufsc.br/bitstream/handle/123456789/107225/319262.pdf? sequence¼1 [3 July 2015].
American Association of Cereal Chemists International
  • Aacci
AACCI. American Association of Cereal Chemists International, 2010. Approved Methods of Analysis, eleventh ed. AACC International, St Paul, MN, USA.