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Permanent Fillers

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Abstract

Permanent fillers are mainly used in the correction of furrows and deep depressions of the skin that are beyond the normal facial wrinkles that appear with aging. They can be an excellent option in facial rejuvenation, especially when there is need for facial and body volume restoration, such as in HIV lipodystrophy. Of the permanent fillers currently available, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used, and has been shown to be safe, effective, and long lasting.

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Article
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Bio-Alcamid is a non-FDA approved permanent dermal filler with a few known adverse effects including granuloma formation at injection site, skin infections, abscess and painful inflammation. Embolization of Bio-Alcamid has not been reported and likely represents a very rare complication. We present the case of a thirty-one-year-old female who presents with cough, dyspnea, hemoptysis, fever, and pleuritic chest pain several hours after receiving Bio-Alcamid gluteal injections. The patient's symptoms progress rapidly and, within three days, she develops acute respiratory failure requiring intubation. A chest x-ray consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is viewed. Concurrently, a 2D echocardiogram reveals a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and severe pulmonary hypertension. Five weeks after initial presentation to the emergency department, the patient demonstrates flaccid quadriplegia, is poorly responsive when sedation is held, and her CT scan of the brain showed multifocal infarcts involving bilateral cerebral hemispheres. A CT of the abdomen reveals renal and splenic infarcts. This case study presents a rare complication of a nonbiodegradable dermal filler, Bio-Alcamid.
Article
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Progression of lipodystrophy syndrome is a big challenge in HIV treatment. Nowadays, fat loss at the lower part of buttocks has become another problem as patients have started to complain that it is painful to be seated for a long time and/or on hard surfaces. We developed a method for buttock lipoatrophy treatment with PMMA-microspheres, as silicone prostheses and autologous fat transplant were not completely efficient. The treatment consisted of net-crossed injections, in the subcutaneous layer, of a 30% PMMA-microspheres solution on the atrophic areas of the buttock. One hundred and fifty-four patients were included. The amount of PMMA-microspheres used to treat buttock lipoatrophy depended on the degree of atrophy and size of the area to be treated. Patients were satisfied with this treatment and reported to be more comfortable to be seated for longer period of time. We demonstrated that soft tissue augmentation with PMMA-microspheres is safe and efficient for the treatment of buttock lipoatrophy associated with HIV lipodystrophy.
Article
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Background Treatment of facial lipoatrophy of HIV/AIDS patients is mandatory by law in Brazil due to its negative impact on their quality of life. The index for facial lipoatrophy (ILA) is used as one of the inclusion criteria for patient treatment. Objectives To define a correct diagnosis and staging of facial lipoatrophy, by employing the ILA. Patients and methods This is an observational study of a series of case reports from patients submitted to facial lipoatrophy evaluation through ILA and treated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) fillers. Facial lipoatrophy was classified in grades from I to IV, corresponding to mild, moderate, severe and very severe stage, according to ILA. Response to the treatment was defined as excellent (≥91%), good (71–90%), moderate (51–70%) and insufficient (≤50%). Results A total of 20 patients were included in this study: 18 men and two women. Median age was 49 years (35–61) and average ILA was 9.9 (7.2–16.8). Ten patients presented facial lipoatrophy grade II (moderate), 5 grade III (severe) and 5 grade IV (very severe). The average volume of PMMA used was 13 mL (5.5–22 mL). All patients showed good or excellent response, with a median of 86% (74–100%). The most typical adverse effect was local oedema but there were no late adverse effects. Conclusion The ILA is an excellent method for evaluation of facial lipoatrophy and also for the assessment of the response to therapy. Facial filling with PMMA showed efficacy and safety in the treatment of facial lipoatrophy in HIV/AIDS patients.
Article
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The corium is diminished to about half of its thickness in skin defects and wrinkles. All biological materials that increase the thickness of the corium are resorbed within a certain time. Therefore, a lasting effect can be achieved only with nonresorbable synthetic substances. Artecoll consists of microspheres of 30-40 microm in diameter, of exceptional surface smoothness, purity, and homogeneity related to PMMA. These microspheres are suspended in atelocollagen which serves as a vehicle for subdermal implantation. Due to its smooth surface and consequential lack of electrical charges, each single microsphere is immediately encapsulated with the patient's own collagen fibers, thus preventing dislocation. Within 3 months, collagen (making up 75% of Artecoll) is replaced by the body's own connective tissue. The microspheres (25% of Artecoll) serve merely as a stimulus to the fibroblasts. Indications for Artecoll are all facial folds, lip- and philtrum augmentation, chin- and malar augmentation, dark-shadowed eyelids, enophthalmos, bony defects in face and hands, nipple reconstruction and augmentation, and urinary incontinence. Questionnaires were sent to all patients who had received Artecoll in 1993 and 1994. Of a total of 950 questionnaires sent, 515 were returned by September 1995. Satisfaction was rated "very good" in 29%, "good" in 38%, "satisfactory" in 23%, and "no difference" in 8% of the patients. The question, "Would you repeat the treatment again?" was answered by 91% of the patients with "yes." The overall complication rate was 3%. Strictly subdermal implantation will prevent longer lasting redness or visibility of the Artecoll.
Article
The use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in AIDS has been associated with lipodystrophic syndrome, which is characterized by metabolic alterations and abnormal corporal fat distribution. Our goal was to describe and evaluate the use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) to treat lipoatrophy in patients with AIDS from Amazonas, Brazil. Patients with AIDS undergoing ART and presenting with facial lipoatrophy were invited to participate in the study. A face-to-face interview was conducted, and patients were treated with applications of PMMA 30%. A total of 49 cases were included. The mean age was 45 (SD 6.1) years old, and the mean educational level (measured in schooling years) was 10.5 (SD 3.2) years of schooling. The median of CD4 cell count was 482.5 (interquartile range: 338-574.5) cells/mm(3) . Stavudine and zidovudine were the most frequently prescribed ART drugs. The total number of PMMA injections ranged from one to five times, and side effects were not frequent. A total of 42 (85.7%) patients reported satisfaction after a follow-up of more than 12 months, presenting good fullness of the deformity. Our data showed that patients with AIDS with lipoatrophy related to ART could safely benefit from PMMA-based treatment.
Article
The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters.
Article
Synthetic permanent fillers for soft-tissue augmentation have acquired an important role in cosmetic improvement of patients with facial aging, facial atrophic scars, or lipoatrophy leading to facial defects. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a filler introduced to the market as one option for long-lasting treatment. PMMA microspheres are purified, and the particles are larger than 20 microm. The product used as a filler has proven to be safe, effective, and long lasting. To determine the efficacy and safety of PMMA as a facial filler. Two hundred sixty-six patients (aged 17-72; 154 women) received injections of PMMA to correct facial defects. The number of sessions ranged from one to four, with an interval of 40 to 60 days between applications. Seventy-nine subjects (30%) had facial atrophy related to HIV infection, 159 (60%) had photoaging signs with deep wrinkles and atrophic areas, 25 (9%) had depressive scars from acne process, and three (1%) had residual depressions from lupus profundus. The results were satisfactory and long lasting. Side effects were transient. No late complications were observed. PMMA used for the treatment of atrophy, depressions, and facial wrinkles has been shown to be effective, long lasting, safe, and gratifying to patients and physicians.
Article
Among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, facial lipoatrophy has become epidemic. Those affected are stigmatized, leading to psychological distress, social and career impediments, and impaired compliance to human immunodeficiency virus medications. Temporary treatment options are limited by excessive cost, necessity of frequent treatments, and lack of a natural look or feel beneath the skin. Affected patients require more persistent, affordable, safe, and effective treatment options. The objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of highly purified 1000-cSt silicone oil injected by microdroplet serial puncture technique for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipoatrophy. Data on 77 patients with a complete correction were analyzed to determine the number of treatments, amount of silicone, and time required to reach complete correction, relative to initial severity. The volume of silicone, number of treatments, and time required to reach a complete correction were directly related to initial severity of lipoatrophy (p < 0.0001). Supple, even facial contours were routinely restored, with all patients tolerating treatments well. No adverse events were noted. In this pilot trial, we have demonstrated that highly purified 1000-cSt silicone oil is a safe and effective treatment option for human immunodeficiency virus facial lipoatrophy. Longer-term safety and efficacy in human immunodeficiency virus patients remain to be proven.
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