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The Role of Water Motion in Natural Processes

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The Role of Water Motion in Natural Processes

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A study of the behavior of water during its movements under mechanical shaking is presented. It is shown that rhythmic shaking of water with 1Hz causes the same rhythmic effects in a periodic [H+] growth and products with higher positive potential. This paper discusses the role of water motion in nature.
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Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 2017, 5, 19-32
http://www.scirp.org/journal/msce
ISSN Online: 2327-6053
ISSN Print: 2327-6045
DOI: 10.4236/msce.2017.54003 April 30, 2017
The Role of Water Motion in Natural Processes
A. D. Styrkas
Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Russia
Abstract
A study of the behavior of water during its
movements under mechanical
shaking is presented. It is shown that rhythmic shaking of water with 1Hz
causes the same rhythmic effects in a periodic [H+
] growth and products with
higher positive potential. This paper discusses the role of water motion in n
a-
ture.
Keywords
Water, Mechanical Movement, Protons, Potential,
Relaxation, Nature Processes
1. Introduction
Water plays a major role in the natural processes. Life originated in the water of
the seas with permanent shaking of waves of a frequency of about 1 Hz. Blood is
85% water. The pulse of living organisms has the same frequency. Cardiac ar-
restdeath certificate. Disturbance of the blood circulation causes pathologies
in living organisms and its collapse causes dying and stopping of all the vital
processes and functions. Similar examples of the influence of water movement
are visible in almost all natural phenomena. Probably, the study of water motion
provides a basis that could allow to clarify the role of the mechanical effects of
water in natural processes and provide some insights for better understanding
and solving of many questions, including, for example, understanding the role of
the water movement has already helped to understand the ions dissociation me-
chanism; It helps to indicate the origin of oxygen on Earth, revealed the reason
for the constancy of hydrogen peroxide in moving water. Also the formation of
the products from the water, which is discussed in this paper, that yield electrical
signals, could probably lead to an engineering solution of converting them into
environmentally friendly sources of energy the inexhaustible energy of the Cos-
mos, despite their small magnitude and smallness and frequency that may be
perceived as “inconvenient” from the point of view of converting and enhancing
How to cite this paper:
Styrkas, A.D.
(201
7) The Role of Water Motion in Natu-
ral Processes
.
Journal of
Materials Science
and Chemical Engineering
,
5
, 19-32.
https://doi.org/10.4236/msce.2017.54003
Received:
February 5, 2017
Accepted:
April 27, 2017
Published:
April 30, 2017
Copyright © 201
7 by author and
Scientific
Research Publishing Inc.
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Open Access
A. D. Styrkas
20
these signals. One could remember discoveries of Luigi Galvani and Alessandro
Volta that evolved from a discovery of tiny energy source with zero frequency to
the emergence and successes in modern times of power and electronics indus-
tries all over the world. Also, the findings of this paper may provide some basis
for the understanding of the formation of unexplained natural vortices in su-
perconductors that may be linked to chemical processes that may take place at
the extremely low temperatures. Another example of areas where the results of
this paper may provide more insights is the understanding of structured water
behavior in complex living organisms under the exposure to microwave reso-
nant therapy in medicine. Mechanics (physics) leads to the processes of trans-
formation of water (chemistry) to substance necessary for life (biology) and
global processes of the Earth (Geology).
Thus, the water behavior both in inorganic processes, as well as in living na-
ture, confirms idea of unity laws for “living” nature (“ecosystems”) and “non-
living” objects (“environment”) that everything in nature is interconnected, and
the division of its laws on physical, chemical, biological and geological is a con-
sequence of our limited knowledge. The Nature is indivisible. In order to check
the character of the behaviorof water or water solution during its mechanical
movement we performed measurements of Red-Ox potentials.
2. Experiment
The studied samples of water were water distilled and here in dissolved gases
removed. The reciprocating motion of the water sample with the specified input
frequency or with a relay, or the movements of the sample water volume with a
time-delay switch that was made on the by means of a medical dispensrer system
(the dispenser can release the required accurate portion of water for each push)
that allowed to vary the frequency of the same portion of water in a still water
vessel. ∆Е of a glass electrode ESL 48-11, and ∆Е of Pt or Pt/q-h (q-h is quinhy-
droneC6H4O2∙C6H4(OH)2) electrodes again saturated calomel (SCE) electrode by
a “METЕX” ME-31 voltmeter was noted manually or with H307/1 plotter con-
tinuously. Processes conducted in low ambient light. Water movement was not
on electrodes comparison. Indicated electrode was shaken along with the con-
tainer of water, or was fixed, but shaken by surrounded water that was washed
around the electrode. The background was measured close to running engines in
calm water.
Overall the experiments were conducted more than 1000 times over 10 year
period. More than 10,000 curves were analyzed. Various compositions of elec-
trodes were used, and various types of water were used, such as distilled, rain-
water, melting water, tap water. These numerous experiments were conducted to
establish the impact of water movement.
3. Experimental Results and Discussion
1. Chemical processes in the movement of water
With periodic shake of water potentials of the indicator electrodes varies with
A. D. Styrkas
21
the same frequency [1] [2] [3]. This can’t be attributed to changes in the compo-
sition of the electrical double layer of the electrode while stirring because of the
lack of water foreign bodies. There is good reproducibility and freedom from the
background generated by nearby electrical mechanisms. Figure 1 shows that
shaking for the long-time leads to the rise of the potential of studied electrodes
(from point “a”) followed by its relaxation when shaking is stopped (point “b”).
However, when shaking is stopped the E relaxes, reaching almost the initial
values. Similar behavior may be observed when using any electrode. This is due
to a change in concentrations of both the red-ox products as well as ions.
Red-ox products and ions are formed as result of mechanochemical process
[1] [2] [3] [4]. It was noted a significant increase in [H+] by the action of the ex-
plosive waves [5]. It was also established that the creation of H2O2using sonic
waves (sonolise) and proposed their hypothesis of the creation in the Nature of
O2 due to mechanical decay of water [6] [7] [8]. The constancy of hydrogen pe-
roxide content in rain, rivers, oceans, regardless of the composition of the at-
mosphere was established [9] [10] [11].
In Figure 2, curve 1 shows the total change of potential of Pt electrode (∆EΣ)
after a single mechanical push was applied. The push forms Red-Ox products
Figure 1. E with long-term variations (from (a) to (b)). Relaxation after the stop (b).
Figure 2. Effects of single mechanical push on the change of electrodes’ potential (E).
Curves: 1) Pt; 2) Pt at pH = 3; 3) Pt/quinhydrone 4) background Pt in clean water 5)
background Pt in water with pH = 3 and quinhydrone.
A. D. Styrkas
22
and ions via two ways: 1) radical way: the O-H chemical bonds break with
breaking electron pair: H÷O:H → H* + OH* and subsequent reactions of the
radicals 2H*H2; 2OH* → H2O2; 2H2O22H2O+O2; and 2) ionic way: the O-H
chemical bonds break with the preservation of electron pair: H|:O:HH++OH.
In Figure 2, curve 2 shows the impact on the change in potential due to reac-
tions by the radical way (E*) Curve 3 shows the impact on the change in poten-
tial due to reactions by a ionic way (∆EpH).
In Figure 2, curves 4 and 5 show the background (no push,
i.e.
still water)
change in potential respectively in pure still water (4) and still water at pH = 3 in
aces of q-h. As seen in the figure, the ratio ∆EΣ/∆EpH ~ 2. In Figure 2 ∆EΣ arises
due to decay water on radicals and dissociation, and EpH results from the
growth of [H+] at a constant ratio [Ox]/[Red] and therefore negligible addition
of E* (Figure 2). Also it is observed thatE* = 0.5EΣ when in water there is
excess of acid (Figure 2, curve 3). Equality of partial E and their Σ to EΣ indi-
cates that only two types of breakage of O-H occur and that their respective
energies are equal. This conclusion may also supported by the data elsewhere [5]
[6] [7] [8]. The same is said NMR spectrum with one and not the two types of
bonds for O-H contrary to the view: covalent 10 times are stronger than ionic
bonding, which is the case for gas H2O. In liquid water has no distinction ties H
with hisand “alien” O (as O-H••O). A gap requires equal energy. If EpH/E*
= 0, 1 dissociation would be more efficient than radical formation. In water hy-
drogen bonds give unified energy system. The same is said NMR spectrum with
1, not 2 types of bonds for O-H opposing to the view that covalent 10 times
stronger ionic bond, as in the case for gas molecules. Hydrogen bonds give uni-
fied energy system. Benzene has 1 type of link, and not 2, as must be at the exis-
tence of single and double bonds. In
4
NH
+
all H are identical and are arranged
on the tops of a tetrahedron with N in the center, when gas NH3 molecule has
the form of a trigonal pyramid with N at the top. The NMR spectrum also con-
firms this. Ion
2
HF
is drawn as F-H-F not F-H••F according to its properties
and NMR spectrum. And keto-enolatautomerism is because the energetic posi-
tion of the H atoms in the structure of the ketone or enola on bond strength is
almost equal. The same substance manifests itself enole or a ketone depending
on the neighboring atoms in the molecule or an external reagent.
The noise (Figure 2, curves 4 and 5) arises from the drift of the readings and
temperature fluctuations. At shake water noise higher than when introduced ad-
ditives, an excess of which does not see the increase in the concentration of de-
cay products is negligible in comparison with them. The noise drift of the read-
ings (curve 5 Figure 2) is lower than the background in curves 1 - 4. It says that
impact of temperature shakes lead to dissociation, and mechanism is also due to
mechanical effects.
The facts require a revision of the model water in the gas laws. For their ap-
plication administered activity
a = fc.
Water has f = 1, c = const and [H+]. [OH]
= 1014 for water dissociation it turns out that the fluctuations of 1 molecule will
take energy 107 other. But at small kT to break a connection O-H kT dissociation
A. D. Styrkas
23
exist! The water is not molecules, but polymers, their impact O-H ties are bro-
ken with equal energy (Figure 2) on radical pairs section e between the H and O
ions and retain it at O refutes opinion about the difference of energy of covalent
and ionic bonding in water as in the gas. In (H2O)n with n =8 and more e- stable
[12]. Analogues water Н2Э from Teto S natural to decrease T boiling and melt-
ing sharply increase at water. Transport Number of ions of the 1st group re-
duced from Cs to Li, but increases sharply to H. “Anomalies” of different prop-
erties creates “anomalous” hydrogen bond of water. The atom 6 valence e 4 give
2 pairs of e, gives the remaining 2 valence bond with two strangers and there is
ionic too. In the molecule each O is donor of two e pairs for unoccupied levels.
One proton can bind 2 neighboring water molecules. The sizes of O and OH
are small and therefore give a polymer [13]. The water is not electrostatic (180˚)
or valence (90˚) for p-electrons the angle between the links OH, and is 104.5˚.
The structure of water is not chaotic (as vapor), not strictly tetrahedrically not
dense pack (as ice). Short-range order is the same, but in the emptiness of the
leaky lattice of secondary molecules is embedded, giving “abnormal” growth d
water in comparison with ice. Water is liquid glass, polymer clusters of 100 µ
[14] [15]. Its movement gives rise to H2O2. It gives Earth of O2 [1]-[8]. With a
single energy cluster cracking occurs without the violation of the conservation
law [16]. The energy of the collision tearing one O-H bond, without prejudice to
the cluster, though equally probable (Figure 2) with section a pair of electrons
[1]-[8] and without it [1]-[3]. Model with a symmetrical long-range Coulomb
forces is also inadequate. Theory of common electrons in the area requires in-
troduction of “effective mass” (
me
), (as
f
in the model gas). It is one which has
(-) values for the mass and length of the free path e is smaller than the size of an
atom! The lack of physical meaning of the obtained “results” is questionable in
the sense of calculations by the proposed model. The model based on the num-
ber of existing bonds wiser. Pauling noted that the theoretical physicists solutions
of the Schrödinger equation for any complex substances for such a long period
there is no, so we have to use reliable structural chemical representations [17].
2. Physical processes in the movement of water
M. Folmer [18] said: "In contrast to the biological analogy in the formation of
crystalline embryos is "spontaneous". Is this true? For example, water, whose
polymers are exposed to the structure of the boundary phases, consider the for-
mation/growth of new phases in water/ice system. Believed that ice is slippery by
pressure melts. But ice is slippery at low T, when the pressure is not enough for
melting, so a layer of water on the ice surface always exists [19]. Surface struc-
ture is different from bulk. At the movement processes and changes in the
structure of the clusters are active on the phase boundary. Structures and effects
on them depend on external substances. The “tin plague” comes at the germ is
isomorphic to [20] αSn, InSb, CdTe. Infection at a distance [21] [22] is possible,
as by contact with an inert substance, earlier contacted the seed [23], infects only
in the presence of water vapor. [24]. In a vacuum no infection even with a con-
tact the seed to the tin by “crocodile”, so Sn covered with a layer of oxide. Stable
A. D. Styrkas
24
below −120˚C Ic is isomorphic with the structure of αSn and equal a lattice, epi-
taxial gives the seed in nano quantities, is able to reach the surface of the tin
through nano-defects in the SnO due to the size of water molecules. Nano quan-
tities do not allow to undergo the phase transformation to ordinal water at room
T [24]. Treatment by matter, the solvent of the Ic, remove it in the desiccator or
vacuum, infection doesn’t. It is natural to expect inability of infection under the
water. But it happens after ~1 year, but only with shaking. Water is formed an
epitaxial structure the seed. The Sn when infected behind the germs, gives a po-
lycrystalline powder. But rare in water Iсgives a small number of embryos, and
rate of growth above the rate form of new. From any crystals βSn (Figure 3(a)).
One germ causes the growth of only single crystal αSn (Figure 3(b)). To grow
the single crystal αSn from the βSn single crystals of different orientation was
not possible. [22], growing under water do it [25] [26] (Figure 3(b), left side).
Ultrasound reduces the time of infection under the water from ~1 year to some
minute, so the abundance of embryos gives the powder αSn.
(a)
(b)
Figure 3. (а) polycrystal βSn; (b) left half of the same sample under ice became a mono-
crystal αSn. Then ice was removed and the remaining part of the sample form became
polycrystal of αSn (B, right half).
A. D. Styrkas
25
The structure of water and its ability to change with shaking lead to other
“Anomalies”. Transport number (TN) of electricity in solutions of ions is due to
the structure of the polymers of water. TN ions decrease with their size owing to
the growth of hydration from Cs to Li, but increase sharply at H because it does
not moves through the solution. When a mobile integrated power system of the
excited electron increases “mobility” of remaining in the place of protons, the
structure with no long-range order constantly changes. On the surface the life-
time of structures are more than in volume, and they are influenced by boundary
material. The ice surface is covered with a thin water slide. At low T not caused
by the phase transition from pressure. Snowflakes grow in hexagonal symmetric
particles of different shapes. They come in contact with dust particles of various
nature and other different factors. Type embryos depend on them, but each
germ is formed according to its program, and all rays are the same of crystalline
at each snowflake due to the mobility of the water clusters at surface when driv-
ing their changing structures.
3. Biological processes in the movement of water
Engels said: “Life is the mode of existence protein bodies”. The jellyfish is 95%
of water, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, saltswhere? The herbs, trees, vegetables,
and fruits generally have no protein. So they are inanimate? Every life form re-
quires water. The constancy of H2O2 in moving water due to reactions of water,
not the absorption of O2 depleted atmosphere for them [9] [10] [11]. Conversely,
when vibrations arise, these substances are essential to life. An environmental
disaster occurs when the oil spills in the “calming” waves, and stops supplies
from vibrations. The water is not filled up by them, and fish are dying without
them. Rain gives the plants the necessary substances and building material in the
form of polymers with defects. The expression “Grow like mushrooms after
rain” perceives that mushrooms just need in the water. But the mushrooms liv-
ing in the rich wet soil of swamps after the rain grow harder. They need not only
water, but moving, rich need for life products. Idea that life is the existence of
proteins, is ridiculous, because most of the plants are “outside”. Life originated
in the sea. Wave vibrations with a frequency of 1 Hz and pulse beings ~1 Hz, it is
hardly by chance similar. And the name of the creator of the unit of frequency is
the Heart! Coincidence eloquent. “The lifemovement is animated water” (Leo-
nardo da Vinci) Almost word for word: life-movement of structured water.
Death during cardiac arrest,
i.e.
, cessation of blood flow, which is structured of
water.
Capillaries provide the system for blood circulation within a living organism.
Blood consists of is 80% of water. There are about 2000 capillaries in a 1 mm3 of
a skeletal muscle of a human and blood, passing through them, comes in contact
with 0.5 m2 of surface of their internal walls. The surfaces properties of water are
different from the volume ones. For example there is a thin layer of water on the
interface of ice with other phases [19]. The τ (lifetime) of the structural form of
water in thin surface layers can substantially exceed that in the bulk. A similar
example of the role of water in physicsthe possible to initiate transformation
A. D. Styrkas
26
βSn αSn [27] under water.
The clusters are in the current of the water a variety of forms, but their re-
structuring is going in the specified direction in the presence of external bodies,
for example, biological substances, including midget doses. This is based on the
homeopathy. Molecules of substances surround the polymers of the water,
adapting to their structure, so in the absence of them reproduce the therapeutic
effects.
Peculiarities of structure of water and its behavior under weak mechanical
movement in inorganic systems could be used for explanation of processes in
complex living organisms, to understand efficiency of medical treatment by means
of weak energy influence. The low level of power of EM radiation of mm range,
the influence on an organism in process microwave resonant therapy (MRT) is ef-
fective and enough. The system of the blood circulation in the organism with a
developed capillary surface provides existence of preferential directions for pro-
tons motion along chains of hydrogen bonds in the thin surface layers of water.
Pathologic processes in an organism appear because of the disturbance of proton
conductivity in capillaries. It is possible that quantities of energy necessary for
their recover may be negligible in comparison with the potential barrier between
two equilibrium positions of a proton in the chain. Weak fields affect the proper-
ties of the membranes, the processes in cells, to long-range interaction communi-
cation functions of the system organisms. Water with great speed betrays the sig-
nal of injury and external influences in the system of decision-making for restora-
tion of violations. The mobile network of hydrogen bonds provides the speed and
action at a distance in the transmission of information. Energy for the recovery of
self-consistent vibrations in the H-bonds system (and, consequently, for process of
metabolism) is not necessary at all. The channels of proton conductivity provide
long-distance action because of the soliton mechanism [28] of energy migration. It
is probable that energy in released in locations of damages of the ordered networks
of the H-bonds, and recovers them. These weak influences can’t change the cha-
racter of H-bonds in a correctly functioning structure of near-surface water. It
should be mentioned that the blood capillaries characteristic for skin, skeletal
muscles, muscular system, heart, cerebrum,
i.e.
organs functions of providing
contact with external are the same.
In conclusion, that is a simple experiment illustrating the role of water move-
ment on the example of the growth of Kalanchoe in the same 2 Petri dish with
the same amount of soil from turf and peat soil and sand in the ratio 2:1:1. They
put some of the same kidney with the roots in winter, at ambient light. Water
from melting snow to the control (2) thermostated at 18˚C, and experience (1) at
17.9˚C so irrigation water was the same T. (water is heated at 0.1˚ in the prepa-
ration of water) Water for (1) 30 min pumped with a positive displacement
pump, gaining 10 ml of water from the vessel and introducing her back with a
frequency of 1 Hz. To kidney (1) was water after oscillations, and (2) simple wa-
ter. Portions of 20 ml water the kidneys once every 3 days, after 3 weeks expe-
rience was finished. The effects of the mechanochemical processes in water can
A. D. Styrkas
27
be seen from Figure 4 and Figure 5. Thus, the water behavior both in inorganic
processes, as well as in living nature, confirms idea of unity laws for “living” na-
ture and “non-aliving” objects (“environment”).
4. Geological processes in the movement of water
V. I. Vernadsky called the mineral water as a creator of landscape and pro-
cesses on the planet. Movement of water to create products that affect the physi-
cal properties, gives life, heals, nurtures, creates geological masterpieces, moun-
tains and continents, and mighty rivers in the rocks, the threat of a tsunami,
move the continents, currents that regulate the planet’s climate. The role of wa-
ter and its movement in geological processes is huge. In [9] [10] [11] observed
the constancy of the H2O2 content in rain waters from different areas of the US
with all sorts of atmospheric composition with significant differences in content
Figure 4. Buds (1) visible formed new leaves (shaking of water leads to the growth of
plants).
Figure 5. Buds (2) of Kalanchoecontrol experience. Water without shaking.
A. D. Styrkas
28
of oxides of S and N. Believed that shake of water in the clouds leads to the dis-
solution of O2 from atmosphere (however, lower concentrations than at the sur-
face!) and the formation of peroxide. It is proved that the mechanochemical de-
composition of water with a gap of a pair of electrons H:O÷H gives the radicals
OH* and H* that give the peroxide, the excess is decomposed, giving O2 to the
Earth, H2 upper layers of the atmosphere. On the Earth has not dried up O2 due
to the energy of the Cosmos, constantly influencing to the movement of water.
Idea [6] [7] [8] about the abiogenic emergence of O2 on the Earth due to the
movement of water is more and more evidence, and direct evidence of the for-
mation of gases H2 and O2 [4] removed the last doubts. Probably, in case of a
spill on water oil the fish dies because oil calms the sea, continuing education is
necessary for life substances. In the beginning the Earth was not them. When
icing the stationary ice does not allow them to appear. This conjecture has op-
ponents. Exact origin of water on our planet, covering 71% of the surface is still a
mystery to science. Suspect that the water of the Earth for 4.5 billion years would
evaporate, the water came later, when massive celestial bodies of the Solar sys-
tem fell to the Earth. Perhaps they had the water (but why it there wasn’t evapo-
rated?), could deliver it to us. Comets with tails of ice did it too. But here a
trouble: in their water more of deuterium! The Earth’s water is not from them,
but our own, Earthly Nature. Space is full of H2, it is in the formation of hot ce-
lestial bodies reacts with all other elements, and O2 couldn’t remain at high
temperatures and an excess of H2. During the cooling of the planet’s water is
frozen and ice as light substance covered the surface of the Earth. But the core
processes of Land given to volcanoes with the content of gasesoxides of C, S, N.
They created a layer of the atmosphere called the greenhouse effect, the ice was
melting, and shakes of water were given oxygen and, therefore, the life. Plants
create from carbon dioxide and water, but by him for the appearance had
needed oxygen. Usually think of O2 on Earth is the product of photosynthesis.
Process nCO2 + 2О = n(СН2О) + nO2 possible in the warm time of the year,
on day and if there are plants. The water of the oceans is 71% of the Earth’s sur-
face and ranges round always at any time of the year. Always added by the same
movement of water in clouds, rivers, waterfalls, avalanches. Of the 29% of land
plants are not suitable glaciers, rock, deserts. For the remaining 15% is photo-
synthesis only during the day and only in the warm time of the year, in 4 more
times, reducing the opportunity. Photosynthesis increases the content locally,
without raising it in the end. Avalanches of ice also give rise to O2. From the
friction of the ice in the spring ice drifts, the air is richer with oxygen, ozone. We
all know how much easier it is to breathe near waterfalls, fountains, on the em-
bankments of the rivers and seas. The plants are not eternal. When they decay,
the reaction goes exactly the opposite, without changing anything in total. The
role of photosynthesis is large, but it is not necessary to ascribe to other merits.
Mobile water wilts to the depths of the Earth, and the reactions with hot car-
bides giving us the oil, as demonstrated by Mendeleev. The usual theory of oil
from dead plants is questionable. The depth of oil is high and it is difficult to
A. D. Styrkas
29
imagine lungs of the plants got there. The richness of oil by sulfur compounds,
which are not plants, said the weakness of traditional theories. Processes of vol-
canic eruptions, earthquakes associated with the chemical processes between
water and hot in the bowels of Earth substances. Water is creator of geological
processes. Displacements, disappearances or appearances of continents, Islands
speak about the role of moving water. Due to the motion of the water, there is a
unique Sargasso sea without shores with a high level of water. Soft water break-
ing the rocks, created the mighty Niagara falls and the Grand canyon of Colora-
do. What does tsunami! Museums of natural beauty are created by the water
movement under the name “Karst phenomena”. Surprising similarities are lo-
cated on different sides of the Earth Australia and Greenland. In the mid of
Australia there is a desert without vegetation and greens; in Greenland, a deso-
late glacier is in the center and greens are around the edges, which gave the
name to the continent. Only water movement was spared, and its absence leads
to the death of all living things. Archaeology says that the Sahara desert was
blooming with a mild climate and there was water. The desert was the result of
man-made disaster. Now Aral sea disappeared, disappearing marshes and rivers,
changing their directions, and creating seas. The Nature grew “assistant”. In
Sukhumi monkeys nursery among the rich subtropical vegetation was the land
plot. To monkey were given freedom, democracy, individual rights. So there is
not one leaf of grass was hurt, is already a formed polished bare soil. Reminis-
cent of what makes progress with the water, flora, fauna,the atmosphere, our en-
vironment. It is hoped that Nature will repent its child, Homo sapiens, and the
movement of water will keep O2 from destruction by vehicles, furnaces and
thermal power plants.
4. Conclusions
This paper has studied the processes of water molecules breakdown, which
seemed to be impossible, as the result of mechanical exposure. A mechanism of
these processes is proposed that is analogous to the mechanical cracking that
occurs during the destruction of polymers.
It has been demonstrated the equality, and not radical differences, of energies
of covalent and ionic bonds between O and H resulting from equalizing of all
bonds in the condensed phase that is facilitated by hydrogen bonds in water
molecular clusters.
This contests the sustained opinion of their differences, as this takes place in
gases. The energy of water clusters due to hydrogen bonds is significantly larger
than the energy of O-H and the formation of radicals does not contradict the law
of the conservation of energy. Collisions of water clusters break chemical bonds
in liquids and solids, and form radicals, ions. Liquid water is considered as a
“perfect set of anomalies”. It is the hydrogen bonds that are responsible for this.
Hydrogen bonds equalise all O-H bonds, which have different strength in
gases with individual molecules, and these bonds break with equal probability,
and not as covalent and ionic bonds. In water covalent and ionic bonds are
A. D. Styrkas
30
equal. Water anomalies cannot be explained by laws that are applicable to gases
and crystals. New ways should be sought to model and explain the water anoma-
lies, e.g. models of glass or polymers. A role of other substances is shown to be
impacting the formation metastable structures, which exist for prolonged time
under such impact. In organisms, that consist of 70% to 90% of water clusters
(water polymers), such polymers exist in their respective structures. The “frag-
ments” of water polymers adjust to them helping the organisms to grow. The
moving water yields products of chemical reactions and builds structures analo-
gous the matrices of foreign inclusions, impacting physical, chemical, biological
and geological processes. Water, which has the leading role for lives on Earth,
also helps sciences. The process of water dissociation into ions is now explained
as resulting from the motion of water. The mechanism of water dissociation is
explained. The origin of oxygen on Earth is also explained as a result of mech-
anochemical processes and not for photosynthesis, which has crucial signifi-
cance.
In Nature everything is interlinked and the division of natural philosophy into
separate sciences only manifests the limitation of our current knowledge. Me-
chanics (physics) leads to the conversion processes in water (chemistry) into
substances, which are vital for lives (biology) and global processes of Earth (ge-
ology). Thus, the water behaviour both in inorganic processes, as well as in living
nature, confirms idea of unity laws for “living” nature (“ecosystems”) and “non-
living” objects (“environment”). In summary, it has been:
1. Shown the equality of the energies of all of the links O-H in liquid water.
2. Explained the reason for the existence of electrolytic dissociation.
3. Confirmed the idea of the biogenic origin of O2 and the role of water
movement in this process.
4. Shown the positive role of the water movement on the development of
plants.
5. Explained the reason for the constancy of the peroxide in the moving water.
Acknowledgements
Author is grateful for useful advices, discussion of results, made remarks and
displayed interest to the work to unforgettable N. G. Nikishina.
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