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UTILIZING E-LEARNING SYSTEMS IN THE LIBYAN UNIVERSITIES: CASE STUDY; TRIPOLI UNIVERSITY, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

Authors:

Abstract

E-learning in teaching and learning considered as the easy way to use information and communication technology by using of the internet. With the support of E-learning higher education can be delivered anywhere and at any time. Although E-Learning is very importance in Libyan higher education, It’s implementation is facing many challenges in the Libyan universities. This paper focuses on the implementation of E-learning in Libyan Universities. The main aim of this paper is to discover the implementation of E-learning in Libyan higher education and to identify the factors affecting the use of its technology. The research findings and recommendations will benefit the Libyan policymakers and the stakeholders.
UTILIZING E-LEARNING SYSTEMS IN THE LIBYAN
UNIVERSITIES: CASE STUDY; TRIPOLI UNIVERSITY,
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Dr. Aisha Ammar Almansuri1 and Rowad Adel Elmansuri2
1University of Tripoli - Libya
2University of Huddersfield - UK
ABSTRACT
E-learning in teaching and learning considered as the easy way to use information and communication technology by
using of the internet. With the support of E-learning higher education can be delivered anywhere and at any time.
Although E-Learning is very importance in Libyan higher education, It’s implementation is facing many challenges in the
Libyan universities. This paper focuses on the implementation of E-learning in Libyan Universities. The main aim of this
paper is to discover the implementation of E-learning in Libyan higher education and to identify the factors affecting the
use of its technology. The research findings and recommendations will benefit the Libyan policymakers and the
stakeholders.
KEYWORDS
E-learning, Higher Education, Libya.
1. INTRODUCTION
During the last three decades, researchers have started to pay extensive attention to learning styles such as
those working in the field of computer science who have adopted the idea of using learning styles in
education, one of these ideas is E- learning in teaching and learning which can be defined as information
presented and learned by using a network or Internet.
E-learning used in colleges and universities to make learning more accessible and efficient. It gives
students the chance to learn at anytime, anywhere, and at their own. Accordingly, e-learning improves the
learning process by offering a different way of delivering education. This is does not prevent the fact that
some People find it easier to understand a new concept by reading a textbook or verbal explanation.
Despite the importance of E-Learning in higher education (HE), in Libya, a number of challenges still
face the implementation of E-learning in Libyan universities such as ICT infrastructure; Leadership; Culture;
and E-learning strategy.
In order to achieve effective adoption and implementation of E-learning technology and to gain the
potential advantages from employing this technology, this research will investigate the potential benefits of
using e-learning in Libyan Higher Education and identify the factors affecting the use of E-learning
technology, to make recommendations regarding viability and potential implementation. Recommendations
of this study will benefit the teachers and learners as well as the policymakers who are planning and
designing the Libyan HE system.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
E-learning has started in many developing countries in order to convene the increase of the requirement for
education and meet the increasing decline of trained teachers, (UNESCO, 2006).
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2.1 E-learning
There is a wide range of definitions for E-learning. It can be defined as learning facilitated and supported
through the use of information and communications technology. Lahwal et al., (2009) clarified that
E-learning is a kind of learning supported by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), it is an
interactive learning in which the learning content is available online and offers feedback to the student’s
learning activities. Khan (2001) stated that E-learning can be thought of as anything that includes technology
with interactivity to support learning, training and communication between groups and between individuals.
It included web-based learning (WBL); internet-based training (IBT); advanced distributing learning (ADL);
and online learning (OL).
E-learning also can be easily operated for large groups of students such as online each group for instance
can be in different place. Since in some instances of E-learning tools and materials, the lecturer and the
learner can modify the learning materials to their own needs and suitability, students have more control over
the learning process and have the possibility to better understand the material leading to a faster learning
compared to instructor-led training.
2.1.1 E-learning Challenges
E-learning can be a sensible example of useful use of technology in life and this effective learning culture
may meet the growing need of flexibility in facilitating education to the population. However, many
challenges facing E-learning shows its growth in the world, different factors such as technical, economy,
political and cultural conditions are the challenges to implement E-learning in different countries.
Kenney et.al, (2005) clarified that E-learning was seen as a chance to cut costs and make savings in space
and human resources, which are unlikely to be realized in the short term and development of E-learning by
the government through funding allocations. In developing countries, it is difficult to provide different
facilities and opportunities required to establish E-learning environments. On the other hand, some
researchers believe that E-learning is not an appropriate way of teaching. For instance, Lytras and Pouloudi
(2001) stated that it is a waste of time because E-learning courses often fail to support value of creating
processes both for teachers and learner and their recognition requires huge efforts.
Bleimann (2004) added that isolation by no social contact, missing part of the informal social
communication and face to face contact of traditional classroom training, also, it may cost more to develop; it
needs new skills in those who create course content.
Sims and Sims (1995) stated that many challenges facing higher education institutions that increase the
pressure on them, e.g. retaining enrolment, providing adequate resources, sustaining quality, raising funding,
and strengthening the curriculum. Rhema and Miliszewska (2010) clarified that a number of technological
challenges faces Libya, such as lacks in the required technological infrastructure, while availability of
computer laboratories are available in most Libyan higher institutions, the network facilities is lack and
makes a serious limitations on Internet access. Also, the limitation of using the educational software within
institutions, and the technical support is almost unavailable in Libya.
2.1.2 E-Learning in Libyan Higher Education
According to Rhema and Miliszewska (2010) the implementation of E-learning and the use of ICTs in Libya
are still in an early stage similar to in most developing countries. Although Libyan Universities still use the
old method of education that depends on face-to-face communications between students and teachers in, and
outside of, classroom, in campus. Some Libyan universities, such as Tripoli University, Benghazi University,
and Academy of Postgraduate Studies and Economic Research, have the basic ICT infrastructure (such as
computers, Internet access, and a local area network).
Kenan et al., (2011) clarified the barriers of implementing e-learning in Libyan HEIs as E-learning in
Libyan institutes is in early years, and still there are many challenges that affect the adoption of E-learning
that can be categorised as: Technological, mismanagement, Cultural and other issues. They provided a set of
recommendations for students and instructors to improve e-learning in Libyan HE institutions as follows:
Improve students’ computer skills before enrolling E-learning course;
The content of the e-learning course should be designed to meet the National Qualifications Framework
(NQF) and Libyan Qualifications Authorities (LQA) requirements.
The attitudes towards e-learning should be taken into consideration.
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Teachers should support learners and institutions should employ an adequate staff members.
The authors provided recommendations for institutions as follows:
Senior managers should support the implementation of e-learning and allocate a fixed budget.
Instructors should be offered adequate training and course developers to be updated on changes to
software and hardware. And tools should be kept up to date at all times.
Some recommendations for governmental HE policies have been addressed by the authors as follows:
Share coordination and resource between different institutions and encourage the successes institutions,
to share their success with other institutions.
Develop partnerships between government, and the private sector.
3. METHODOLOGY
A semi-structured, face-to-face interview technique used to collect the necessary data from the Libyan
students and lecturers from Tripoli university faculty of engineering department of architecture in order to
explore their opinions, as well as to give their advice about how to find solutions to the problems of
implementing E-learning in Libyan higher education. Furthermore, to understand their opinions of current
and traditional way of studding in Libyan higher education institutes. Also, researchers used one students’
study group to make an argument about some points related to using E-learning in higher education, and find
out the problems and solutions to the problems.
4. MAIN FINDINGS
4.1 Summary of the Students’ Main Findings
Most of students are using software, social media and internet in their study as a kind of E-learning.
Almost all students believe that E-learning is an appropriate way of teaching and studding.
All students have chosen the all benefits addressed in the literature, the most benefits of using E-learning
are because it provides a flexible learning and help built self- knowledge and self- confidence after that
mange time, improve preservation and reduce cost.
Most of students have used E-learning in some courses.
All students believe that E-learning services in the Libyan higher education are not good.
Students have chosen many reasons of the limitation of using e-learning in Libyan institutes such as:
Limitation of using E-learning in Universities; lack of ICT infrastructure; lack of personnel qualified;
Limitation of using the educational software within institutions and resistance to change from teachers.
Students selected the all options of E-learning challenges collected from literature, the highest rate went
to the lack of implementing e-learning by government and lack of public awareness about ICT, after
that the limitation of basic infrastructural resources and people do not accept the concept of E-learning.
Most students are using social website to communicate with the University.
The majority of students preferred to use computer in presenting lectures.
Most of students prefer to use computer for doing homework.
Other comments raised by students about the benefits of using E-learning are:
Enable people to teach anytime and anywhere and save more time.
Help student to do research for homework
Need computer to log in into university web site and don’t need to carry papers or documents
4.2 Summary of the Lecturers’ Main Findings
Although Universities did not provide any kinds of E-learning, most lecturers are using computer, world
wide web, and software such as PowerPoint to deliver lectures.
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E-learning can be used for many purposes: delivering courses, lectures and instructions, learning over
distance, conferences, communications between lecturer and students.
There were computer labs for students, and internet access for teachers before the revolution of
17/2/2011, but because of the armed conflict, many things are broken.
E-learning in general are very useful way to teach and learn in all learning stages for many reasons
summarised as follow:
Most E-learning programs can be taken when needed; Spread and share knowledge and saves the
students time, effort and cost; E-learning ensures that all learners receive a consistent message of the
target learning; E-learning can accommodate the various learning styles to get the message more
effectively by using audio, visuals, interactivity, and simulation; It's self-paced as most E-learning
programs can be taken when needed; Easy way to find information, references, lessons etc.. and
Flexibility to join discussion areas at any hour, or meet with colleagues and instructors in chat rooms.
Libraries in Libyan Universities are still using the tradition way, however, the department of
architecture provided an electronic library includes materials collected by lecturers and students.
The University web site, have got a registration in many electronic libraries and scientific journals for
teachers and postgraduate students.
The University communicate with teachers and students through the University electronic gate web site.
communication between the department, teachers and students are by using facebook and e-mail
Barriers of implementing E-learning in Libyan Universities as follow:
Weak infra structure (servers, internet reliability, lines expensive); Political issues; Administration;
Lack in physical resources, including accommodation, computer and other ICT related resources,
connectivity and access for those people with individual needs; and Shortage in information advice and
guidance, to ensure that learners are on the correct learning programme at the right level, advice on
progress into new learning programmes, monitoring, assessment and on-programme support.
Lack in learning management and use of management information in order to improve the quality of
content and teaching.
Many points to improve and apply E-learning in Libyan higher education as follow:
Provide a generous funding and lots of careful planning and expertise; Offer good management and
administration; The right person in the right position; Improve ICT infrastructure; Connect with
advanced resources over the world; Provide qualified staff and Improve students’ computer skills;
Changes should be taken gradually in a correct manner; and Employ people who have skills.
The future of Libya will be excellent, because Libya have got many things could make it one of the best
countries in the world.
5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The findings of the study suggest some useful recommendations that could be used in achieving the aim of
this study which is to analyse the opportunities for E-learning in Libyan Universities, in order to assess the
viability and benefits of its introduction in present and future developments. A variety of points, suggestions
and recommendations are highlighted in this section. The objective is not to create a definite strategy but to
recommend some general principles.
Recommendations for lecturers and students to improve E-learning in Libyan Universities as follows:
Improve the methods of teaching and learning and follow the world’s education market.
The content of the E-learning course should be designed to meet the National Qualifications Framework
(NQF) and Libyan Qualifications Authorities (LQA) requirements.
Instructors should support learners and encourage them to use E-learning in their study.
Recommendations for institutions as follows:
Improve learning management, including the management of the curriculum, staff and use of
management information.
Senior managers should support the implementation of E-learning and allocate a fixed budget.
Instructors should be offered adequate training and course developers to be updated on changes to
software and hardware.
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191
Tools should be kept up to date at all times.
Connect with advanced resources over the world.
Provide a qualified staff and changes to e-learning should be taken gradually in a correct manner..
The attitudes towards E-learning should be taken into consideration.
Better training to students and staff, and better ongoing technical support from the system vendor
Provide appropriate training at different levels,
Make researches to gather data for future developments;
Libyan institutions have to accept E-learning and to fulfil the potential of ICT and to get quick
technological development, Libyan institutions may follow a neighbouring countries’ experiences for
teaching and learning.
Recommendations for governmental higher education policies as follows:
Improve physical resources, including accommodation, computer and other ICT-related resources.
Provide a generous funding and lots of careful planning and expertise.
Improve ICT infrastructure.
Share coordination and resource between different institutions and encourage the successes institutions,
to share their success with other institutions.
Increase partnerships between government, and the private sector.
Convince the community and the learners’ needs,
Integrate E-learning in the education system.
Libyan government should pay more attention and great effort to ensure the development and motivation
towards e-learning and suitable responses.
Finally, it can be summarising that students and lecturers indicated a positive attitude towards E-learning.
E-learning in Libyan higher education institutions as in many developing nations is still remains an
unexplored entity and further research is needed to discover and determine the types, and challenges of
educational settings as associated to ICT and E-learning in higher education institutes in Libya. It is wished
that the findings of the dissertation will be as a source of information for academics, and decision-makers
involved the implementation of E-learning in Libya. Clearly indicate advantages, limitations and possible
applications.
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ISBN: 978-989-8533-40-1 © 2015
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... Sadly, it is now 2020 and integrating E-learning has not become a reality yet. Much research in the Libyan context has addressed issues related to Integrating ICT and Elearning in Libyan higher education (Hamdy, 2007;Rhema & Miliszewska, 2010;Kenan & islaru,2012;Kenan er al.,2014, Elgatait, 2015Almansuri & Elmansuri, 2015;Mustafa & Hussin, 2017;Saleh, 2018). The results of these studies generally indicated the positive attitudes of Libyan school and university teachers for integrating ICT in education and for implementing E-learning (Almansuri & Elmansuri, 2015;Mustafa & Hussin, 2017). ...
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... The majority of them (76.8%) have got reliable internet accessibility which is a fundamental requirement for implementing remote teaching. It is notable that internet services in Libya have witnessed considerable improvement during the last two decades (Hamdy, 2007;Almansuri & Almansuri, 2015;Saleh, 2018). However, the higher educational institutions in Libya are not provided with internet service and both teachers and students have to pay for this service. ...
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Investigation of e-learning implementation in HE institutions in Libya Student
  • Kenan Th
  • C Pislaru
  • L Bennett
Kenan Th., Pislaru C. And Bennett L. 2011, Investigation of e-learning implementation in HE institutions in Libya Student, Poster, Dept of Engineering and Technology, School of Computing and Engineering, available online [http://www.hud.ac.uk/media/universityofhuddersfield/content/documents/computingandengineering/events/researche rsconference/posters/kenan.pdf]
Mission and place: Strengthening learning and community through campus design
  • D R Kenney
  • R Dumont
  • G S Kenney
Kenney, D. R., Dumont, R., & Kenney, G. S., 2005, Mission and place: Strengthening learning and community through campus design. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Association for Information Systems
  • M D Lytras
  • A E Pouloudi
Lytras, M.D. and Pouloudi, A.E. 2001, ''E-learning: just a waste of time'', in Strong, D., Straub, D. And DeGross, J. (Eds), Proceedings of the 7th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Association for Information Systems, Boston.
Teachers and educational quality: Monitoring global needs for 2015
UNESCO, 2006. Teachers and educational quality: Monitoring global needs for 2015. Report. Retrieved September 20, 2009 from http://www.uis.unesco.org/TEMPLATE/pdf/Teachers2006/TeachersReport.pdf.
Perception Cultural Impacts: Principles for Trainer's skills for Elearning
  • B H Khan
Khan, B. H. 2001c. Webbased training: An introduction. In B. H. Khan (Ed.), Webbased training. (pp. 5-12). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications Lahwal F., Amaimin M., and Al-Ajlan A., 2009 Perception Cultural Impacts: Principles for Trainer's skills for Elearning, Fifth International Joint Conference on INC, IMS and IDC.