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A Detailed Analysis on Feature Extraction Techniques of Panoramic Image Stitching Algorithm

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Image stitching is a technique which is used for attaining a high resolution panoramic image. In this technique, distinct aesthetic images that are imaged from different view and angles are combined together to produce a panoramic image. In the field of computer graphics, photographic and computer vision, Image stitching techniques are considered as current research areas. For obtaining a stitched image it becomes mandatory that one should have the knowledge of geometric relations among multiple image co-ordinate system [1].First, image stitching will be done based on feature key point matches. Final image with seam will be blended with image blending technique. Hence in this paper we are going to address multiple distinct techniques like some invariant features as Scale Invariant Feature Transform and Speeded up Robust Transform and Corner techniques as Harris Corner Detection Technique that are useful in sorting out the issues related with stitching of images.
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(IJEACS) International Journal of Engineering and Applied Computer Science
Volume: 02, Issue: 05, May 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-6-6
www.ijeacs.com
DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0205/01
147
A Detailed Analysis on Feature Extraction
Techniques of Panoramic Image Stitching Algorithm
Shivangi Pandey
Department of Electrical &
Electronics Engineering
National Institute of Technical
Teachers‟ Training & Research
Bhopal, India
Anjali Potnis
Department of Electrical &
Electronics Engineering
National Institute of Technical
Teachers‟ Training & Research
Bhopal, India
Madhuram Mishra
Department of Electrical &
Electronics Engineering
National Institute of Technical
Teachers‟ Training & Research
Bhopal, India
AbstractImage stitching is a technique which is used for
attaining a high resolution panoramic image. In this technique,
distinct aesthetic images that are imaged from different view and
angles are combined together to produce a panoramic image. In
the field of computer graphics, photographic and computer
vision, Image stitching techniques are considered as current
research areas. For obtaining a stitched image it becomes
mandatory that one should have the knowledge of geometric
relations among multiple image co-ordinate system [1].First,
image stitching will be done based on feature key point matches.
Final image with seam will be blended with image blending
technique. Hence in this paper we are going to address multiple
distinct techniques like some invariant features as Scale Invariant
Feature Transform and Speeded up Robust Transform and
Corner techniques as Harris Corner Detection Technique that
are useful in sorting out the issues related with stitching of
images.
Keywords-SIFT; SURF; RANSAC; Harris Corner Detector;
Panoramic Image.
I. INTRODUCTION
Image stitching is an artificial combination of series of
distinct picturesque images. For stitching of an image some
isolated transformations are required to perform through
warping and merging operations. By merging the overlapping
fields of warped image, we can easily achieve a tantamount
image of same objects, which covers the visible area of scene
completely. [2] Shortly after the photographic process was
developed in 1839, the use of photographs was demonstrated
on topographical mapping. In introductory years when the
technology was not so urbanized on that time for creating the
panorama „n‟ number of cameras were required to capture the
images which were positioned at poles apart locations and at
divergent angles. As we know that for creating the a panoramic
image, one should have the best knowledge about the
geometrical relationships among the co-ordinate system of the
images that are going to be stitched, but as in introductory
period the geometric relations were not taken into consideration
hence a good panoramic image was difficult to created. For
producing the panoramic image some steps are required that
are shown as below diagrammatically.
The below drawn figure shows the distinct steps that are to
be taken into consideration for generation of panoramic image.
Start
Select Position and
image acquisition
Acquire images
Preprocess images
Image registration
Image merging
Output of stitched
image
Image
stitching
Figure 1. Flow Chart for Generating Panoramic Image
As the images are acquired that are to be stitched, some
preprocessing is required like projection of the images need to
be made on surface that can be any mathematical surface like
spherical and cylindrical. The combination of image
registration and image merging helps in further processing of
image stitching process.
The main work of Image registration is to correlate two or
more than two images that belong with the same scene. Here
one image is considered as referenced image. The other images
that are about to stitch undergoes for geometrical
metamorphosis. Many apprehensions are investigated which
Shivangi Pandey et al.
Volume: 02, Issue: 05, May 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-6-6
www.ijeacs.com
DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0205/01
148
are responsible for wrong calibration of multiple images that
are captured like if we are capturing the image from a dynamic
platform or maybe there are some distortions in lens or sensors.
Figure 2. Registration of Two MRI Images of Brain
There are various application are available of image
registration. The flow chart evolving panoramic image is
shown below.
Start
Define Wk on image Ik
Define Wk+1(u,v)
Calculate all
possible Sk(u,v)?
Calculate Sk(u,v)
Select (u*,v*) from
Sk(u,v)
Calculate required
translation from (u*,v*)
Yes
No
End
Figure 3. Flow Chart of Image Registration Technique for Generating
Panoramic Image
Where Wk gives a window that is defined on Ik .
Figure 4. Wk is the Window at location (a,b) in Ik.
By averaging the intersection of red, green and blue
channels of kth images in sequence of applied input image an
image will be obtained given as Ik.
The variable k can be from I to the total no. of images in
sequence of images.
is an another window with the position (u,v).
is called as similarity measure with the position
(u,v) and its value can be given as,

 (1)
Again the value of similarity measure is being calculated
which is shown as  at the optimal matching position
() and its value is given as,

 (2)
As the process of registration is being completed now we
need to merge the images for producing a panoramic image
hence process of merging is called image merging.
II. APPROACHES OF IMAGE STITCHING ALGORITHM
There are various approaches used for stitching of image,
here we are going to discuss only two of them.
(i) Direct Approach: Direct techniques helps in reducing the
summation of accurate differences between imbricating pixels
of an image. In this method, each pixel value is compared with
each other. These approaches are having conglomerate
characteristics. In this approach, juxtaposition is made among
all the pixel intensity values of images that are going to stitch.
There are also some benefits of using this method given as
follows.
a) As in this method, each pixel value is compared with each
other; hence contribution of each pixel is also measured.
b) Direct techniques aims at using the existing data in image
coalition optimally.
(ii) Feature Based Approach: The compilation of image
feature (extrema) points can be performed by measuring the
n
m
(a,b)
Ik
Wk
Shivangi Pandey et al.
Volume: 02, Issue: 05, May 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-6-6
www.ijeacs.com
DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0205/01
149
whole features of the existing image with the available images.
Various distinct steps are used in feature based techniques for
extraction of features, registration and blending. For feature
extraction of several images we basically use number of
techniques like Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT),
Speeded up Robust Feature (SURF) and Harris Corner
Detection.
As Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) technique has
sturdiness but it is having low calculation speed hence it is not
fine for real time applications. Speeded up Robust Feature
(SURF) is more exceptional than SIFT and it produces better
computational cost. For improving the computational cost an
integral image is used. One more technique is introduced which
is used for feature extraction is known as Harris Corner
Detector. Harris Corner Detector is not invariant to scale
changes and cross correlation [4].
III. MODEL OF IMAGE STITCHING TECHNIQUE
In this section we will discuss about the model of image
stitching technique. Some vital steps are to be held on for this.
(i) Image acquisition
(ii) Feature Detection and Matching
(iii) Image Matching RANSAC Translation Estimation
(iv) Global Alignment
(v) Blending and Composition
Image Acquisition
Feature Detection and Matching
Image Matching RANSAC
Translation Estimation
Global Alignment
Blending and Composition
Output Panorama
Figure 5. Image stitching model
(i) Image Acquisition: Image acquisition is the primary stride
that pacts with capturing an input image for engendering
diverse separate panoramic images. The acquisition action can
be performed in various ways like acquisition by camera
rotations, acquisition by camera translation and acquisition by
hand held camera.
a) Acquisition by camera rotation: In this method a tripod is
used and it is set at a particular chosen location. Its location
remains constant throughout the whole acquisition process.
Figure 6. Acquisition by Camera Rotation using Tripod and Camera
The geometry of overlapping images is as shown in figure
given below
Figure 7. Geometry of overlapping images
The ratio of the width of the overlapping region to the
width of the image can be calculated as,


(3)
This can also be written as,


(4)
Where L = width of acquired image
l = the width of overlapping region between adjacent images.
There are a number of advantages are illustrated of using the
camera rotation for image acquisition some are listed as
below,
(i) In this method camera remains constant at single position
for capturing a number of images.
(ii) Measurement requirement is less and this can be executed
smoothly.
b) Acquisition by Camera Translation: In this proposed
method, camera position does not remain same it keeps on
moving parallel in direction of imaging plane. For this purpose
camera is positioned onto a sliding plate. For capturing the
image directly, the camera and sliding plates are implanted in
front of object and it captures the images until a succession of
image does not envelop the entire range.
Shivangi Pandey et al.
Volume: 02, Issue: 05, May 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-6-6
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DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0205/01
150
Figure 8. Geometry for image acquisition for camera translation
Where l = the width of overlapping region between adjacent
images.
L = length of acquired image.
t = camera translation
d = object of interest
The ratio of the overlapping image to the whole image can be
calculated as,

(5)
c) Acquisition using Hand Held Camera: Working with the
handheld camera is very simple as just take the camera and
start capturing the images either by staying at the same place
only by rotating your body or moving along the directions of
imaging plane. Bu the images captured by this method is
difficult to stitch because of unnecessary camera rotations for
acquiring the images.
(ii) Feature Detection and Matching: The base of image
stitching model lies under the two main steps as disclosure of
feature and feature matching. It would be favorable for
analyzing some important features of the images than going
through the whole image. Multiple feature extraction
techniques are used like Scale Invariant Feature Transform
(SIFT), Speeded up Robust Feature (SURF) and Harris Corner
Detection.
Some leverage related with this approach is as shown below.
a) This algorithm produces more robustness in opposition to
scene movement.
b) These algorithms are probably faster.
(iii) RANSAC for Homography: Homography basically deals
with relating the two images that are having the same planar
surface in space. Homography is adopted for rectification of
images, registration of images and analyzing the camera
translation rotation and movement between two images.
Homography is a matrix M given as below,
  
  
   (6)
Homography relates the pixel co-ordinates in two images if

Where x and x‟ are the points given as  in one
image and  in another image.
In this section, the parameter of homography is determined
using Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm.
RANSAC loop involves selecting four feature pairs (at
random); compute Homography H (exact); compute inliers,
keep largest set of inliers, and finally it recomputed least-
squares H estimate on all of the inliers [3]. RANSAC
algorithm finds its goal by choosing a random subset of
original data iteratively. RANSAC is used for adjusting the
model existence of data outliners. Here we are going to
discuss a fitting problem with parameter „x‟. Following are the
assumptions that are to taken into consideration for
determining parameters.
a) „N‟ number of data items is used for determining the
parameters.
b) Total number of available data item is M.
c) If in any situation algorithm fails to find out a good fit test
then the probability if one exists is denoted as Pfail.
The algorithm for RANSAC is given presented by using a
flow chart.
Start
Estimate parameter x
bar
Select one data item at
random
Let K number of data items of m fit the
model with parameter vector x bar
within a user given tolerance .
K is big enough ?
Accept fit
Success
Yes
Figure 9. Flow Chart for RANSAC Algorithm
Shivangi Pandey et al.
Volume: 02, Issue: 05, May 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-6-6
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DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0205/01
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(iv) Global Alignment: in case that we are having the
numerous images of same scene and want to combine all of
them in an exact 3D reconstruction so for this purpose bundle
adjustment is contemplate as the best technique. The aim of
this step is to find a globally consistent set of alignment
parameters that minimize the miss-registration between all
pairs of images. Initial estimates of the 3D location of features
in the scene must first be computed, as well as estimates of the
camera locations [3]. Then, bundle adjustment applies an
iterative algorithm to compute optimal values for the 3D
reconstruction of the scene and camera positions, by
minimizing the log-likelihood of the overall feature projection
errors using a least-squares algorithm [6]. If we are given an
unordered set of images to register, we need to discover which
images go together to form one or more panoramas [5].
(v) Blending and Composition: The fundamental objective of
blending as well as composition steps is to administer an
attractive panoramic image.
IV. EXPLANATION OF FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES
In field of image processing various feature extraction
techniques are used some are given as below
(i) Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)
(ii) Speeded up Robust Feature (SURF)
(iii) Harris Corner Detection
(i) Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT): This feature
extraction technique was developed by D.G. Lowe in 2004.
SIFT multi-scale feature relies on the Gaussian function to
scale the image transformation into a single multi-scale image
space, on which stable feature points can be extracted [7].The
below given equation is used in determining the scale space of
an image,
 (7)
Where, σ represents the scale space factor.
Represent applied input image.
Represent 2D Gaussian convolutional cord.
The value of  is as given,

 
(8)
For efficiently detecting the key points in scale space,
difference of Gaussian (DOG) of scale space is calculated as,
 (9)
This also can be written as,
(10)
Figure 10. Local Maximum Detection in DoG Scale Space
Scale Invariant Feature Transform can be given
diagrammatically hence it is shown as below.
Input Image
Construction of Scale Space
DoG Estimation
Local Strong Feature
Assign Key Points
Make Key Point Descriptors
Matching/Blending
Output Image
Figure 11. Flow Chart for SIFT
In SIFT, Key points are first extracted by searching over all
scales and image locations, then the descriptors defined on the
key point neighborhood are computed, through to compare the
Euclidean distance of their descriptors to extract the initial
feature points pair, then eliminate spurious feature points pair
by applying RANSAC, finally transform the input image with
the correct mapping model for image fusion and complete
image stitching [8].
Shivangi Pandey et al.
Volume: 02, Issue: 05, May 2017
ISBN: 978-0-9957075-6-6
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DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0205/01
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(ii) Speeded up Robust Feature (SURF): In the list of feature
extraction techniques, Speeded up Robust Feature (SURF) is
one of them. It is very famous algorithm. It was given by
Herbert Bay et. al. in 2006. It can be used in various tasks like
object recognition or 3D reconstruction. As SURF algorithm
provides better result than SIFT and it is several times faster
than SIFT. For detection of interest points, SURF uses an
integer approximation of determinant of Hessian Blob
Detector. Square shaped filter are used as an approximation.
If we are using the integral image, then square shaped filters
provides the best result.
  

 (11)
The SURF detector is based on the determinant of the
Hessian matrix [9]. Let we have a point  in an
image I, then Hassian matrix  at scale σ in X can be
calculated as,
 
  (12)
Where,  is the convolution of the Gaussian second
order derivative
 with image I in point X, and
similarly for and . Speeded up Robust
Feature can also be shown diagrammatically in form of flow
chart which is given as below,
Input Image
Computation of Integral Image
Feature Point
Local Descriptor‟s Construction
Image Matching
Image Blending
Output Image
Figure 12. Flow chart of SURF
SURF algorithm has great advantages in the feature point
extraction, main direction identification as well as feature
vector alignment [10].
(iii) Harris Corner Detection: The Harris Corner Detection is a
point feature extracting algorithm. This algorithm was
provided by Chris Harris and MJ Stephens since 1988. The
main reason for developing Harris Corner detector was to
build up a local detecting corner feature in image. As this
algorithm demands for high computation, apart from this it is
broadly adopted. The algorithm for Harris Corner Detector is
as given below.
1. Compute x and y derivaties of image
,
(12)
2. Compute products of derivatives at every pixel
 ,  ,  (13)
3. Compute the sums of the products of derivatives at each
pixel.
  ,   ,   (14)
4. Define at each pixel (x, y) the matrix,
 
  (15)
5. Compute the response of detector at each pixel
 (16)
6. Threshold on value of R. compute non max suppression.
The Harris Corner Detection technique is proposed to extract
the corners which need not to set the threshold by manual and
is insensitive to isolated point, noise and edge [11].
V. CONCLUSION
In the field of computer vision image stitching is painstaking
to be the best research area. It deals with distinct feature
extraction algorithms. We have analyzed various algorithms
with their merits and demerits as Scale Invariant Feature
Transform (SIFT) is robust but it is not good for real time
applications and having low calculation speed, Speeded up
Robust Feature (SURF) has mediocre accuracy but it is
slowest than any other algorithms and Harris Corner Detector
algorithm is having the poor accuracy but it provides the good
computational cost. Hence in future some other measures are
to be taken into consideration for removing their demerits as
well and also the video stitching is to be done to provide the
dynamic panorama.
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DOI: 10.24032/ijeacs/0205/01
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AUTHORS PROFILE
Shivangi Pandey received her B.Tech degree in Electronics
& Communication Engineering from Uttar Pradesh Technical
University, Lucknow in 2014 and currently pursuing M.Tech
in Digital Communication Engineering from NITTTR,
Bhopal. Her area of interest includes Digital Image
Processing, Digital Signal Processing and Digital
Communication.
Dr.Anjali Potnis is Professor at Department of Electrical &
Electronics Engineering, National Institute of Technical
Teachers‟ Training & Research Bhopal. She has got a total
of 16 years of teaching experience. She has published many
research papers. Her area of interest includes Digital Image
Processing and Digital Signal Processing.
Madhuram Mishra received his B.E degree in Electronics
& Communication Engineering from Rajiv Gandhi
Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal and currently
pursuing M.Tech in Digital Communication Engineering
from NITTTR, Bhopal. His area of interest includes Digital
Image Processing and Digital Communication.
© 2017 by the author(s); licensee Empirical Research Press Ltd. United Kingdom. This is an open access article
distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license.
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... In order to improve upon the previous algorithms in the literature on retinal image mosaicing, authors in [57] proposed a featurebased technique for joint, linear estimation of higher-order image-to-mosaic transformations using an image chosen as anchor image to be a reference point. The results for this image construction algorithm were analyzed based on around 20 images from 16 distinct eyes. ...
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Image stitching (Mosaicing) is considered as an active research area in computer vision and computer graphics. Image stitching is concerned with combining two or more images of the same scene into one high resolution image which is called panoramic image. Image stitching techniques can be categorized into two general approaches: direct and feature based techniques. Direct techniques compare all the pixel intensities of the images with each other, whereas feature based techniques aim to determine a relationship between the images through distinct features extracted from the processed images. The last approach has the advantage of being more robust against scene movement, faster, and has the ability to automatically discover the overlapping relationships among an unordered set of images. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey about the feature based image stitching. The main components of image stitching will be described. A framework of a complete image stitching system based on feature based approaches will be introduced. Finally, the current challenges of image stitching will be discussed.
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Clear image stitching becomes mature now, but how to stitch blurred images with clear ones is still tough, mainly because of the ill-posed image deblurring. Existing deblurring methods assume spatial-invarint blur kernel, pixelwise constant blur kernel or planar camera motion. But these assumptions are difficult to hold in the real blurred image which is a spatial-variant blurred image by 3D camera motion. To overcome such limits for stitching blurred image, in this paper, we present a new feature based framework of stitching a clear/blurred image pair. It is inspired by recently proposed projetive warping models depicting the camera movement embedded in the capturing process of the blurred image. Our main contribution is a feature based algorithm for kernel estimation using the overlapped clear/blurred image pair. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stitching method.
Detailed Survey on Various Image Stitching Techniques
  • Jyoti Mittali
  • Rani
Mittali and Jyoti Rani, "Detailed Survey on Various Image Stitching Techniques", International Journal of Computer & IT, ISSN No. : 2320-8074.
A Technical Analysis of Image Stitching Algoritm
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Pranoti Kale and K.R. Singh, "A Technical Analysis of Image Stitching Algoritm", International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, Vol. 6 (1), 2015, 284-288, ISSN: 0975-9646.
Automatic Seamless of Image Stitching
  • Russol Abdelfatah
  • Dr. Haitham Omer
Russol Abdelfatah and Dr. Haitham Omer, "Automatic Seamless of Image Stitching", Computer Engineering and Intelligent Systems,ISSN 2222-1719,Vol.4, No.11, 2013.
A SIFT based Method for Image Mosaic
  • Meiqun Jiang
  • Jingxin Hong
Meiqun Jiang and Jingxin Hong, "A SIFT based Method for Image Mosaic", 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (ICACTE),2010.
  • Yang Zhan-Long Guo Bao-Long
Yang zhan-long Guo bao-long, "IMAGE MOSAIC BASED ON SIFT", International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing,2008 978-0-7695-3278-3/08.
Image mosaic based on SURF feature matching
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Image mosaicing using corner techniques 978-0-76954692-6/12. AUTHORS PROFILE Shivangi Pandey received her B.Tech degree in Electronics
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  • Vineet Kumar Saxena
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Deepak Kumar Jain, Gaurav Saxena and Vineet Kumar Singh, " Image mosaicing using corner techniques ", International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, 2012. 978-0-76954692-6/12. AUTHORS PROFILE Shivangi Pandey received her B.Tech degree in Electronics & Communication Engineering from Uttar Pradesh Technical University, Lucknow in 2014 and currently pursuing M.Tech in Digital Communication Engineering from NITTTR, Bhopal. Her area of interest includes Digital Image Processing, Digital Signal Processing and Digital Communication.