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Allium vegetables are highly nutritional, its dietary use improves digestion and mental health and lower down cholesterol level. Use of onions, garlic, scallions, chives and leeks show therapeutic efficacy against cardiovascular disease, hyperglycemia, and stomach cancer, Onions contain allylsulfides and flavonoids particularly quercetin that is an important anti-oxidative and reduces hepatocytes apoptosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Steroid saponins and sapogenins present in garlic bulbs are used to prepare soft soaps. β-chlorogenin is a characteristic steroid sapogenin from garlic that is used for skin ointment and as a shiner. Both garlic paste and soft garlic preparations are used for flavoring the food items. Garlic products that contain the most safe, effective, stable, and odorless components are the most valuable as dietary supplements. Garlic also contains non sulfur compounds such as steroid saponins. Alliums showed antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antitumor, anti-hyperlipidaemic, antiarthritic, anti-hyperglycemic anticarcinogenic potential. Allium vegetables contain organosulfur compounds, including DATS, diallyl disulfide (DADS), ajoene, and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), have been found to induce cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Alliums have great ethnomedicinal importance as these are used as native remedies against wide spectrum of diseases including diabetes. Allium origin natural products are of great therapeutic and dietary use. These are most preferred items used by nutritionists, physicians, food technologists, food chemists. Green allium vegetables are good source of natural pharmaceutics which are good for health and act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases. Their possible inclusion in diets could explore new therapeutic avenues to enhance immunity against diseases.
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18 Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics, 2017, 6, 18-37
E-ISSN: 1929-5634/17 © 2017 Lifescience Global
Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables
Ravi Kant Upadhyay*
Department of Zoology, D D U Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P., India
Abstract: Allium vegetables are highly nutritional, its dietary use improves digestion and mental health and lower dow n
cholesterol level. Use of onions, garlic, scallions, chives and leeks show therapeutic efficacy against cardiovascular
disease, hyper glycemia, and stomach cance r, Onions contain allylsulfides and flavonoids particularly quercetin that is an
important anti-oxidative and reduc es hepatocytes ap optosis in str eptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Steroid saponins and
sapogenins present in garlic bulbs are used to prepare soft soaps. β-chlorogenin is a characteristic steroid sapogenin
from garlic that is used for skin ointment and as a shiner. Both garlic paste and soft garlic preparations are used for
flavoring the food items. Garlic products that contain the most safe, effective, stable, and odorless components are the
most valuabl e as dietary supplements. Garlic also contains non su lfur compounds such as steroid saponins. Al liums
showed antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antitumor, anti-hyperli pidaemic, antiarthritic, anti-hyperglycemic anticarcinogenic
potential. Allium vegetables conta in organosulfur compounds, including DATS, diallyl disulfide (DADS), ajoene, and S-
allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), have been found to induc e cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Alliums have great
ethnomed icinal importance as these are use d as nat ive r emedi es a gainst wide spectrum of diseases includ ing diabetes.
Allium origin natural products are of great therapeutic and dietary use. These are most preferred items us ed by
nutritionists, physicians, food technologists, food chemists. Green allium vegetables are good source of natural
pharmace utics w hich are good for health and act against nutritionally induced acute and chron ic diseases. Their possible
inclusion in diets could explore new therapeutic avenues to enhance immunity against diseases.
Keywords: Allium vegetables, antioxidant, cytotoxic, polyphenols, allicin, quercetin.
INTRODUCTION
The Allium genus includes approximately 500
species. Garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, chives,
scallions are most commonly used Allium vegetables
throughout the globe in different delicacies (Table 1).
Some Allium vegetables have been employed for
millenia in the traditional medical practice to treat
cardiovascular diseases [1]. All plants in the Allium
family are herbaceous, cool season, biennial herbs
which are grown as annuals. Root systems are fibrous
and shallow as all roots arising from single basal plate.
All plants contain fleshy basal leaves that can be
tubular or slightly flattened. Bulbs form from enlarged
silvery light weight. Allium vegetables and herbs bear
wide array of sulfur compounds with characteristic
taste, smell, and tear-inducing pungency and show
strong antioxidant properties. Green garlic and fresh
green, spring onions are mostly preferred by
consumers. For vegetable use leaves, flowers, and
bulbs are edible. Consumption of these vegetables
provides best nutraceuticals which are protective
against important life style diseases including
cardiovascular, cancer and lipid storage diseases.
Allium vegetables contain allylsulfides, polyphenols
mainly flavonoids such as quercitin and many of the
sulfur compounds have important anti-inflammatory
and anti-carcinogenic potential [1]. These also cut
*Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Zoo logy, D D U
Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P., India; Tel: 0551-2205616;
Fax: (0551) 2349655; E-mail: rkupadhya@yahoo.com
down levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, blood
pressure, and give anti-clotting benefits. Allium
vegetables are good nutraceutical that are used for
cancer prevention and other life style diseases [1].
They are also known to possess antimicrobial,
antithrombotic, antitumor, hypolipidaemic, anti-arthritic
and hypoglycemic potential.
GARLIC
Allium sativum, belongs to family Alliaceae and
plant order liliales [2]. It is commonly known as lahsun
in Hindi (Garlic in English). Garlic had its use since long
past prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Garlic (L.)
is important aromatic that contains sulfur compounds
[3]. (Figure 1). It is a main singular and combined
foodstuff which is used in traditional medicine of India.
It was also used for culinary and medicinal purposes by
many cultures for centuries [4]. Due to richness of
organosulfur compounds, its flavor and aroma is
unique and its essential oil and volatiles have potential
health benefits [5]. Plant contains wide array of bio-
organic components which hold antioxidant,
immunomodulating, antimutagenic and antiproliferative
properties [6]. Garlic (A. sativum) holds unique
therapeutic potential and work against group of
pathogens [7]. It shows health promoting properties
due to presence of sulfur containing metabolites i.e.,
allicin and its derivatives [7]. The main active
component in garlic is alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide)
which is a potent antioxidant and show cardioprotective
and neuroprotective activity. It significantly, cut down
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Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables Journal of Nutritional Therapeu tics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 19
serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and uric
acid. It also decrease sinsulin resistance, and reduce
cytokine levels [9]. Garlic products act on several
signaling pathways, including the inflammatory and
apoptotic ones, and strongly target cancer [10].
Crushing or chopping of garlic releases an enzyme
called alliinase that catalyzes the formation of allicin.
Organosulfur compounds from garlic effectively inhibit
growth of transplanted as well as spontaneous cancers
without any adverse side effects [8]. Organosulfide
diallyl trisulfide (DATS) inhibits estrogen receptor-α
(ER-α) activity in human breast cancer cells. S-
allylcysteine (SAC) is a water-soluble garlic derivative
which acts on human ovarian cancer cells in vitro [11].
SAC treatment significantly reduced the migration of
A2780 cells and decreases the protein expression of
Wnt5a, p-AKT and c-Jun proteins which are involved in
proliferation and metastasis [12]. DATS inhibit matrix
metalloproteinase activities and tightening tight
junctions [13] and is highly cytotoxic to prostate cancer
cells [13]. It inhibits invasion of human bladder
carcinoma. DATS, diallyl disulfide (DADS), ajoene, and
S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) have been found to
induce cell cycle arrest when added to cancer cells in
cell culture experiments. Garlic supplementation
inhibits platelet aggregation and help in protect against
gastric, colorectal cancer (CRC) and relieve from
hepatocarcinogenesis [14]. In present review article
various uses of Allium vegetables have been explained
in detail with its nutraceutical and therepauetic uses.
This article also emphasizes multiple biological activity
of Allium vegetables against parasites, pathogens,
metabolic and life style diseases.
Uses of Garlic
Culinary Uses
Both green garlic leaves and bulbs or head spathe
are highly edible and are used for various purposes in
vegetables. These are used while immature and tender
stage (Figure 1). These contain milder flavor than the
bulbs. Green garlic is highly used in most dishes to
provide spiciness in different regions of the world i.e.
Table 1: Important Allium Vegetables with their Common Names, Ranges, Characteristics and Uses
Allium species
Common name
Extent of occurrence
Attribute/s
Uses
Allium sativum
Garlic Cultivated
Asia and Eurpoe
Strong flavor
Culinary
Allium longicuspis
Wild garlic
Central and southwestern Asia.
Culinary
Allium ursinum
Wild garlic
naturaliz ed
Britain
Mild fl avor
Culinary
Allium vineale
Cow garlic
Europe
Strong garlic taste
Culinary
Allium oleraceum
Field garlic
Britain
Culinary
Allium canadense
Meadow garlic
Eastern North America
Garden culinary
herb
Culinary
Allium ampeloprasum
Elephant garlic
America and Europe
Broadleaf, tepals
white, pink or red
strongest flavor
Used as a substitute
for onions
Allium sativum var.
ophioscorodon (Link) Döll
Hard necked garlic
Mediterranean region
Purple stripe
garlic
Food flavoring
A. sativum var. sativum
Soft-necked garlic or
West Asia
Silver skin garlic
Strong flavor
Allium ascalonium
Shallots
European countries, Israel
Bulbs grow in
clusters
Flavoring
Allium ampeloprasum var.
porrum
Leeks
Southern Europe to western
Asia, easter n North America.
France, Belgium, and the
Netherlands
Flashy leaves
Use in inulinase
production by
Rhodotorula glutinis as
an alternative c arbon
source
Allium schoenoprasum
Chives
European countries
Insect-repelling
properti es
Contains 4 times
higher contents of
vitamin C
Allium fistulosum
Chives hardy
perennial, onion
Chinese chives or Oriental
chives
Mild substitute for
garlic. Bear
pleasant onion
flavor
Used to flavor
vinegars.
For Author's Personal Use
20 Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 Ravi Kant Upadhyay
For Author's Personal Use
Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables Journal of Nutritional Therapeu tics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 21
(Figure 1). Continued.
Figure 1: Showing various chemical compounds isolated from Allium species.
Asia, South Asia, Middle East, Northern Africa, Europe
and parts of south and Central America. Green garlic is
chopped and stir-fried or cooked in soup or hotpot in
Southeast Asian mainly in China for preparing cookery.
Immature flower stalks are also used in s tir-fries.
Before using mature garlic bulbs papery, protective
layers are removed off before most culinary uses.
Garlic flavor varies in intensity and aroma with the
ageing of bulbs and different cooking methods. Garlic
is used with onion, tomato, or ginger for making dishes
and fries. Garlic is a common flavor in foods; it is also
used as an additive to prevent food poisoning. Both
chopping and processing cause enzymes to break
down the compound alliin, found in the cloves, to form
allicin. Allicin is the major compound that contributes to
chopped garlic’s aroma. It too is broken down into a
range of sulfur-containing organic compounds, several
of which contribute to the “garlic breath” effect. During
garlic processing and chopping allicin rapidly breaks
down to form a variety of organosulfur compounds.
Moreover, cooking inactivate alliinase, therefore, garlic
should stand for 10 min after chopping or crushing
before cooking it. Several garlic supplements/products
of household or commercial use are available
commercially in the market, and each type provides a
different profile of organosulfur compounds depending
on how it was processed. Garlic essential oil based
additives, mouth washers, and fumigants and
digestives are sold in different brands [15]. There are
single products such as garlic essential oil, garlic oil
macerate, garlic powder, and garlic extract sold as
single herb category (Table 1). The manufacturing
process is an important consideration when choosing a
garlic supplement for household or commercial use.
Steroid saponins and sapogenins present in garlic
bulbs are used to prepare soft soaps. β-chlorogenin is
a characteristic steroid sapogenin from garlic that is
used for skin ointment and as a shiner. Both garlic
paste and soft garlic preparations are used for flavoring
the food items. Garlic products that contain the most
safe, effective, stable, and odorless components are
the most valuable as dietary supplements. Garlic also
contains non sulfur compounds such as steroid
saponins. These have characteristic properties,
including the production of stable foam when shaken
with water, hemolytic activity, and a bitter taste. Garlic
preparations differ in their ingredients, effects, toxicities
and trade name. Garlic natural products of therapeutic
and dietary use are most preferred items used by
nutritionists, physicians, food technologists, food
chemists. Raw garlic or half processed garlic pastes
are used as pharmaceuticals for maintaining health and
act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic
diseases.
Therapeutic Uses
Garlic shows very high therapeutic potential against
various diseases such as hyperlipedemia and
atherosclerosis related vascular changes. Fresh garlic
juice, aged, garlic extract or volatile oil are used to cut
down cholesterol and plasma lipids. Dietary use of
garlic restores cardiovascular functions of heart and
blood transport system. It effectively cut down the
development of atherosclerosis and reduces blood
pressure, removes hardening of the arteries. It also cut
down high cholesterol level, and thereby reduces the
risk of coronary heart diseases and even provide safety
from heart attack. Garlic and its derivatives also reduce
the risk of various types of human cancer [12]. Locals
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22 Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 Ravi Kant Upadhyay
use garlic products to prevent colon cancer, rectal
cancer, cancer, breast, prostate cancer, and lung
cancer. The overall activity of garlic is mainly due to the
presence of sulfur compound such as alliin, allicin,
ajeone and others. Garlic and its flavor volatiles/active
compounds found effective in reducing cardiovascular
and metabolic risk by normalizing abnormal plasma
lipids, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDLs),
abnormal platelet aggregation, high blood pressure,
and cardiac injury. Garlic has the potential to protect
the heart against myocardial infarc tion; garlic essential
oil shows anti-atherosclerotic effect [16]. It also
decreases the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity,
arrhythmia, hypertrophy, and ischemia-reperfusion
injury. Garlic contains many functional groups that may
act as cardiac endogenous antioxidants and lower
down the lipid peroxidation. Other mechanisms, such
as regulating ion channels, modulating Akt signaling
pathways, histone deacetylase inhibition, and
cytochrome P450 inhibition, could be responsible for
the cardioprotective effect of garlic. Garlic showed
positive effects on an enlarged prostate benign
prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), diabetes, osteoarthritis,
hay fever (allergic rhinitis), traveler’s diarrhea, high
blood pressure late in pregnancy (pre-eclampsia), cold
and flu. It is also used for toning up immune system,
preventing tick bites, and preventing and treating
bacterial and fungal infections (Table 2).
Garlic shows beneficial effects against a wide
spectrum of diseases, including cancer and diabetes. It
provides relief from microbial infections, as well as
immunological and cardiovascular disorders. It is
actively used for the treatment of fever, coughs,
headache, stomach ache, sinus congestion,
rheumatism, hemorrhoids, asthma, and gout, shortnes s
of breath, bronchitis, low blood pressure and blood
sugar, high blood sugar and snakebites. It is also used
for fighting stress and fatigue, and treatment of cancer
and liver related diseases [14, 17]. Garlic oil is used for
the treatment of skin fungal infections, warts, and
corns. Garlic ointment is topically used for control of
fungal infections like ringworm, jock itch, and athlete’s
foot. The smelly secondary metabolites from garlic
serve two important functions serve as defense against
predators, parasites and diseases.
DATS is a major organosulfur compound isolated
from garlic (A. sativum L.). It inhibits cell proliferation by
triggering either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis [18].
DATS shows pro-apoptotic activity which is regulated
by a caspase-dependent cascade through the
activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling
pathways. These are mediated through the blocking of
PI3K/Akt and the activation of the JNK pathway [18].
There is a lot of variation among garlic products sold
for medicinal purposes. Garlic’s distinc tive odor,
depends on the method of preparation. But amount of
allicin provides it commercial value as it is unstable,
and changes into a different chemical rather quickly.
Some manufacturers take advantage of this by aging
garlic to make it odorless. Some odorless garlic
preparations and products may contain very little, or no
allicin it depends on garlic processing. Amount of allicin
and its effectiveness of the product are two important
parameters of herbal care products. In dietary methods
crushing the fresh clove release more allicin, hence
delayed processing remove out burning taste. Some
products have a coating (enteric coating) to protect
them agains t attack by stomach acids (Table 1).
Pharmaceutical Uses
Garlic is used as herbal supplements in cooked
foods available throughout the world and has many
many health benefits. Garlic contains four major
compounds i.e., DADS, allyl methyl sulfide, allyl
mercaptan, and allyl methyl disulfide. Among which
allyl methyl sulfide is the compound that takes longest
for the body to break down. It is absorbed in the
gastrointestinal tract and passes into the bloodstream,
then passes on to other organs in the body for
excretion, specifically the skin, kidneys and lungs. Due
to presence of functionally active organosulfur
compounds such as allin, DADS, SAMC, and S-trityl-l-
cysteine garlic has received great attention from a large
number of pharmaceutical companies because of its
broad spectrum disease curing potential. Garlic derived
organosulfur compounds are able to prevent
development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological,
and liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis [19].
Dietary garlic shows protective effects [19, 20] and is a
well known herbal remedy for removing nephrotoxicity
lipid lowering, platelet, fibrinolytic and vascular effects
[21]. Green garlic is strong antidiabetic and
cardiovascular agent that restores the insulin level and
cut down extra concentration of lipids from the body.
Allium vegetables reduce the risk of prostate cancer
[22] but its higher intake is harmful [23]. Garlic contains
allicin that shows antimicrobial and anticancer activity
[24]. Organosulfur compounds from garlic are used to
prevent and treat chronic diseases, such as cancer and
cardiovascular disease. Green garlic is
hepatoprotective, and shows immunomodulation and
anti-inflammatory effects. It inhibits proliferation of
For Author's Personal Use
Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables Journal of Nutritional Therapeu tics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 23
Table 2: Therapeutic Use of Various Plant Parts Allium cepa and Allium sativum Against Different Diseases
Plant part of
Allium cepa
Treatment
Garlic (Allium
sativum
Preparation/
Ailment
Treatment
Leaves
Diarrhea, gastroenteritis
problems
Leaves
Hot
concoction
Reduce serum total cholesterol
and triglyceride levels
Leaves
Reduce serum total cholesterol
and triglyceride levels
Leaves
Tea
Reduce platelet aggregation,
hyperlipidemia
Bulbs green
Reduce platelet aggregation,
hyperlipidemia
Bulbs green
Crushed
paste
Blood-thinning
Leaves
Blood-thinning
Leaves
Oil
Adhesive in mending glass and
porcelain
Bulb
Adhesive in mending glass and
porcelain
Bulb
Sticky juice
Nematicide and insecticide for
cabbage root fly and red mite in
poultry, used to deter animals
such as birds, insects and worms
from herbivory
Bulb
Anti-parasitic and show
repellent effects against flies
and mosq uitoes.
Bulb
Solvent
extract (w /v)
Relieving pain, defense against
malaria, flu, cold and sneezing
Folk medicine
Relieving pain, defense against
malaria , flu, col d
Folk medicine
Crushed
bulbs an d
dry stem
Expectorant for coughs, sneezing
deterrin g animals such as birds,
insects, and worms from eating
the plant.
Leaves
Used as expectorant for coughs
and constipatio n
Cherokee
Hot syrup
Antiseptic and prevent gangrene
Bulb
Antiseptic to prevent gangrene
Bulb
Luke war m
paste
Fish and meat and preservative,
and antimicrobial
Onion + mint
Fish and meat pr eservative, and
antimicrobial
Garlic +
cinnamon
Bulb and
bark
Both good and evil
Spiritual and
religious
Use for keep away bad air,
demons and evils
Total plant
Spiritual and
religious
White magic
Europe
Lighten the balance of the b lood
Bulbs
Europe
Powerful ward against demons,
werewolves and vampires
Central
European
Pay their rent with onions, and
even giv e them as gifts
Total garlic
plant could be
worn, hung in
windows, or
rubbed on
chimneys and
keyholes
Central
European
Good for prayer
Muslims
Good for prayer
Green and raw
garlic
Most of the
West Asian
countries
Metabo lic stimula nt
Hinduism
Prescribe to facilitate bowel
movements and erections, and
to relieve headaches, coughs,
snakebite and hair loss
Green and raw
garlic
India,
Pakistan,
Cambodia,
Bangladesh
Religion avoids eating garlic and
onion on a daily basis.
Jain
Religion avoid eating onions
Green and raw
garlic
All Asia and
Europe
Increase drives to the detriment of
meditat ion practice
Buddhist
traditions
Increase drives to the detriment
of meditat ion prac tice.
Salads
Buddhist
To make syrups, form poultices
and in the preparation of dyes
cancer cell. Garlic exhibits hypolipidemic, anti-platelet,
and procirculatory effects. It prevents cold and flu
symptoms through immune enhancement. Dietary
consumption of garlic mainly aged garlic gives
therapeutic potency [25] (AGE) because it attributes
wide variety of biological activities. AGE also has
hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, and antioxidative
activities, whereas other preparations may stimulate
oxidation [26]. Important biological effects of garlic may
be due to conversion of compounds that are formed
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24 Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 Ravi Kant Upadhyay
during AGE’s long-term extraction process (Table 2).
Dietary use of garlic restores immune function and
prevents cancer. Garlic and its components possess
following pharmaceutical activities.
Antidiabetic and Cardiovascular
Garlic is highly beneficial for diabetic patients [27,
28] as it contains fructo-oligosaccharides which
replaces normal sugar [29] Homemade green garlic
preparations are good protective ailments which
prevent cardiovascular diseases [30] Garlic shows
multiple protective effects and improves functioning of
cardiovascular system [31-33]. It removes off
atherosclerosis and does reduction of serum lipids [30].
It shows inhibition of platelet aggregation and
enhancement of fibrinolysis. Wild garlic (Allium
ursinum) has been reported to contain similar amounts
of sulfur-containing compounds [34] (thiosulfinates and
ajoenes) which exert similar effects on
cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase, angiotensin
converting enzyme, and platelet aggregation [34, 35].
Effect of DADS on insulin-like growth factor signaling
molecules involved in cell survival and proliferation of
human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in silico
approach through docking analysis [36].
Lipid-lowering Effects
Garlic products showed positive effects on lipid
metabolism [37] and cut down lipid contents in
experimental animals [38-40]. Possibly it may occur via
inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase
or other enzymes [41-44]. More specifically, garlic-
derived organosulfur diallyl di- and trisulphide
compounds inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis in primary
rat hepatocyte cultures [45, 46]. Moreover, garlic
ingredients increase loss of bile salts in feces and
mobilization of tissue lipids into circulation [47]. Garlic
does lowering of blood lipids, blood sugar, and
fibrinogen and induces fibrinolytic activ ity in patients
with coronary artery diseases. Garlic essential oil
shows profound effect on post-prandial hyperlipidemia
and does prevention of atherosclerosis [48].
Phytochemistry
Garlic (A. sativum) bulbs contain large amount of
carbohydrates, glycosides and proteins. These also
contain alkaloids, saponins, reducing sugars, oils and
steroids in medium concentrations. Both green garlic
and raw dry garlic contains flavonoids and acidic
compounds in low amounts. Both green and aged
garlic contains many sulfur-containing compounds
which provide it a characteristic flavor. These sulphur-
containing compounds are diallyl sulphate, alliin,
ajoene, allicin. From garlic two categories of
compounds oil- and water-soluble are isolated. Oil-
soluble compounds are sulfides, such as DAS, DADS,
DATS and allyl methyl trisulfide, dithiins, and ajoene.
Few water-soluble cysteine derivatives are S-allyl
cysteine (SAC), SAMC and S-methyl cysteine, and
gamma-glutamyl cysteine [10] (Figure 2). Oil-soluble
sulfur compounds possess characteristic odor,
whereas water-soluble compounds are odorless.
Moreover, water-soluble compounds are more stable
and safer than oil-soluble compounds [49]. DADS, the
major organosulfur component of processed garlic is
very effective in chemoprevention of several types of
cancers [50] Table 3.
Garlic essential oil contains important sulfur
compounds such as DAS, DADS, DATS, methylallyl
disulfide, methylallyl trisulfide, 2-vinyl-4H-1, 3-dithiin, 3-
vinyl-4H-1, 2-dithiin, and (E,Z)-ajoenes (Figure 2).
DAS, DADS, and DATS are major volatile components
of garlic oil [50, 115]. Some other chemical constituents
like allylmethyl (37%), and dimethyl (6%) mono- to
hexasulfides allyl 1-propenyl and methyl 1-propenyl di-,
tri-, and tetrasulfides found in trace amounts in garlic.
DAS and vinyldithiins are the major organosulfur
components of garlic oil and oil-macerate preparations.
Vinyldithiins, especially 2-vinyl-4H-1, 3-dithiin, are rich
in the oil macerate of raw garlic [49]. Garlic contains
ajoene a much potent antithrombotic agent [50].
Garlic also contains non sulfur compounds such as
steroid saponins and sapogeneins which work as
reliable chemical markers for the identification of garlic
and garlic preparations, except for garlic oil. Another
ajoene-type organosulfur compound, E-4,5,9-
tritriadeca-1,7-diene-9-oxide, is also isolated from oil-
macerated garlic extract [51] Table 3. β-chlorogenin is
a characteristic steroid sapogenin of garlic. Two
categories of saponins i.e., triterpenoid saponins and
steroid saponins, based on the molecular structure of
aglycone [52]. Important steroid saponins isolated from
the garlic bulb are eruboside-B, proto-eruboside-B [53].
Other steroid saponins are furostanol saponins and
spirostanol saponins. Garlic contains allixin and
organo-selenium compounds which show synergistic
action better that organosulfur compounds. Garlic
supplement products are very popular among
consumers are available in the market [54]. Many of
them are the most popular herbal supplement included
in the single herb category. There are dozens of brands
of garlic products on store shelves that provide a
convenient way to obtain the health benefits of garlic.
For Author's Personal Use
Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables Journal of Nutritional Therapeu tics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 25
Table 3: Nutritional Value of Chemical Components Garlic Allium cepa and Allium sativum
Allium raw
Nutritional value per 100 g
(3.5 oz) (Onino)
Nutritional value per 100 g
(3.5 oz) (Garlic)
Metabolic fu nctions
Nutrient
Types
Energy provider
Carbohydrates
9.34 g
33.06 g
Play key roles in the immune system, fertilization,
preventing pathogenes is, blood clotting and
development
Sugars
4.24gm
1gm
Sugar good for human health
Dietary fiber
1.7 gm
2.1 gm
production of healthful compounds, increase bulk,
soften stool, and shorten transit time through the
intestina l tract
Fat
0.1 gm
0.5 gm
Membra ne synthes is, t issue
Protein
1.1 gm
6.36 gm
Build body tissues
Vitamins
Thiamine B1
4% (0.046 mg)
17% (0.2 mg)
Synthesis of acetylcholine, carbohydrate
metabo lsim
Riboflavin (B2)
(2%) (0.027mg)
(9%) (0.11gm)
Forms the coenzyme FAD
Niacin (B3)
1% (0.116mg)
5% (0.7gm)
Forms the coenzyme NAD
Pantothenic acid (B5)
2% (0.123 mg)
12% (0.596)
Forms conezymes involved in amino acid
metabolism
Vitamin B6
9% (0.12 mg)
96% (1.235 mg)
Coenzyme in many chemical reactions
Folate (B9)
5% (19 µ g)
1% (3 µg)
Induce DNA synthesis
Vitamin C
38% (31.2 mg)
38% (31.2 mg)
Promotes protein synthesis
Trace metals
Calcium
2% (23 mg)
18% (181 mg)
Mtrix component of bone tissue, cofactors of
coagulation enzyme
Iron
2% (0.21 mg)
13% (1.7 mg)
Constituent of hemoglobin
Magnesium
3% (10mg)
7% (25mg)
Activates ATPase
Manganese
6% (1.29mg)
80% (1.672)
Cofactor of kinases and isocitric decarboxylase
Phosphorus
4% (29mg)
22% (153mg)
Contituent of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, sugar
phosphat es
Sodium
3% (146 mg)
1% (17mg)
Membra ne transporter
Zinc
2% (0.17 mg)
12% (1.16 mg)
Co-factor of enzyme
Selenium
89.11
14.2 µg
Cofactor of glutathione peroxidase
Sulfur
1.1 µg
16%
Antimicrobial
µg = micrograms, mg = milligrams, IU = International units, Percentages are roughly approximated, **Garlic bulbs contain approximately 84.09% water, 13.38%
organic matter, and 1.53% inorganic matter, while th e leaves are 87.14% w ater, 11.27% organic ma tter, and 1.59% inorga nic matter.
Few important products are garlic essential oil, garlic oil
macerate, garlic powder, and garlic extract (Table 2).
Garlic essential oil is available in the form of additive,
mouthwashner, and fumigant and digestive. The
manufacturing process is an important consideration
when choosing a garlic supplement for household or
commercial use. Steroid saponins and sapogenins
present in garlic bulbs are mixed in soft soaps. β-
chlorogenin is a characteristic steroid sapogenin from
garlic that is used for skin ointment and as a shiner.
Both garlic paste and soft garlic preparations are used
for flavoring the food items. The various forms also
differ in their ingredients, effects, and toxicities. Garlic
products that contain the most safe, effective, stable,
and odorless components are the most valuable as
dietary supplements [55]. Garlic also contains non
sulfur compounds such as steroid saponins. These
have characteristic properties, including the production
of stable foam when shaken with water, hemolytic
activity, and a bitter taste (Table 3).
Intact garlic contains water-soluble organosulfur
compounds such as γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteines and
S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxides (alliin) as major sulfur
For Author's Personal Use
26 Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 Ravi Kant Upadhyay
containing compounds. Both found in higher
concentration. In aged garlic extract both S-Allyl-L-
cysteine and trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine in ample
amount while S-methyl-L-cysteine found in small
amount [51]. Alliin is the primary odorless, sulfur-
containing amino acid, a known precursor of allicin [52],
methiin, (+)-S-(trans-1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide,
and cycloalliin [51]. Transformation of cysteine
sulfoxides to sulfenic acid (Figure 1) takes place in
presence of alliinase. This enzyme acts at pH optimum
of 6.5 by using S-methyl-L-cysteine as substrate
molecule [53]. After its formation sulfenic acids
spontaneously react with each other to form unstable
compounds called thiosulfinates. This reaction occurs
in cytoplasm in the presence of enzyme alliinase inside
vacuole, via sulfur-substituted sulfenic acids (Figure 1).
Other thiosulfinates, such as allylmethyl-,
methylallyl-, and trans-1-propenyl-thiosulfinate, are also
formed during garlic homogenization. These are also
unstable like allicin [54, 55]. In addition, pyridoxal
phosphate acts as a cofactor that stimulates alliinase
activity [56]. Thiosulfinates are formed during
processing or chopping or crushing of garlic very
rapidly within 10-60 s but these are not formed below
pH 3.6, which is the usual pH range in the stomach [57]
(Table 3).
Garlic root bulbs are rich in sulfur compounds such
as allicin that breaks down in vitro to form a variety of
fat-soluble organosulfur compounds (Figure 1). Allicin
is highly temperature sensitive and decompose in to
DATS, DADS, and DAS sulfur dioxide if it is kept at
20°C for 20 h [58]. This decomposition also takes place
in the presence of oil or organic solvents. Alliin is a
water soluble compound which is absorbed inside the
body but never converted to allicin in the body and
metabolized to various organosulfur compounds such
as DADS by liver enzymes [59]. Allicin easily reacts
with amino acids and proteins, creating a -SH group,
and cannot circulate in the blood stream [60] that is
why it is not detected in the blood sample after the
ingesting raw garlic or pure allicin (Table 3) [61]. Allicin
is an irritating, acidic, and oxidizing compounds being
used as a therapeutic agent. Garlic also contains a
variety of components, including nonsulfur compounds,
work synergistically to provide various health benefits
(Table 4). Processed garlic contains a wider variety of
organo-sulfur volatiles than the intact garlic clove.
Garlic also contains water soluble compounds such
as SAC. These are formed from gamma-
glutamylcysteines during long-term incubation of
crushed garlic in aqueous solutions, as in the
manufacture of aged garlic extracts. Few nonvolatile
sulfur containing precursors also found in intact garlic.
These are γ-Glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteines which are
converted into S-allyl-cysteines (SAC) through an
enzymatic transformation with γ-glutamyltrans-
peptidase when garlic is extracted with an aqueous
solution [62]. SAC, a major transformed product from γ-
glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine, is a well known chemical
marker which is scientifically reasonable and well
justified. Moreover, sulfides having an allyl group
provide characteristic smell and taste after ingesting
garlic. These are detected in the blood samples in
orally administered experimental animals (Table 3).
Onion: Allium cepa
Nutraceutical and Dietary Uses
Onions are multipurpose foods which possess high
nutraceutical value. Onion ingredients are used to
prepare various hearty warm dishes, salads, soup or
chutney or used in pickles for flavor. Green onions are
used in vegetables, while dried are baked, boiled,
braised, grilled, fried, roasted, sautéed or eaten raw in
salads [63]. Onions are used as a thickening agent for
curries and gravies. These are used as material in
Indian cuisine and dip in vinegar to eat as snack.
Green onions are sliced, chopped, battered and deep
fried in oil to prepare many dishes, pubs and fish fries
[64]. Yellow and red onions are considered best for
preparing soup because of its sweet flavor. Spring
onions are most likely used in making vegetable flavor
and of a different taste. Pink and red onions are
preserved in vinegar as a long-lasting relish. Eating of
green raw onions is quite beneficial because cooked
onions in vegetable may loss many active ingredients
[64]. White onions are the traditional onions that are
used in classic Mexican cuisine. These give rise golden
color and a sweet flavor after being cooked [64].
Alliums contain ecologically favoring
phytochemicals which are suitable for health and
hygiene. Onions are nutritionally rich and contain good
percentage of water, sugar, protein, fibre, vitamins and
fats. Most onion cultivars are about 89% water, 4%
sugar, 1% protein, 2% fibre and 0.1% fat. Onions are
best source of vitamin C, B6 K, folic acid and numerous
other nutrients in small amounts. These are low in fats
and in sodium, possess an energy value of 166kJ (40
kcal) per 100 g (3.5 oz) serving. Regular dietary use of
raw alliums lower down toxigenicity of oils [65], and
reduce the risk of gastric cancer [66]. Allium cepa L.
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Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables Journal of Nutritional Therapeu tics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 27
Table 4: Biological Activity of Phytochemicals Isolated from Plants of Allium Family
Onion components
Characteristics/attributes
Biological activity
Acetal (bulb)
No activities reported.
Acetic acid (bulb)
Major contribut ors to the
characteristic odor of onion,
chemo-preventive
Biological activities include: acidulant, antibacterial, antiotitic, antisalmonella,
antivagin itic, expecto rant, fungicide, keratitigenic, mucolytic, os teolyti c,
perfumery, protisticide, spermicide, ulcerogenic and verrucolytic. Allium cepa
is number eighteen on the plant species with the highest amount of t his
constituent.
Allicin (bulb)
A sulfur-containing compound
found in allium generates hot
sensation. Organosulfur
compound
Allergenic, anthelmin tic, an tiatherosclerotic, antibacterial, antibiotic,
anticholi nesterase, antidiabetic, antiflu, antiglaucom ic, ant ihypertensi ve,
antiinflammatory, antioxidant, ant iplatelet, anticeptic, antitriglyc eride,
antitumor, antiviral, candidicide, fungici de, hypoglycemic, a nd
immunostimulant, cancer -preventive, antiseptic. Growth inhibitors of cancer
cells, Strong odor a stinking rose, repellent action
Allyl propyl-disulfide (bul b).
A sulfur-containing compound
Biological activities are hypoglycemic, insulin-sparing and occuloirritant.
There are 2 species listed with this constituent. Allium cepa is second after
garlic
Catechol (bulb)
Isomeric benzenediols
Chemopreventive
Proteins, minerals,
saponins, flavonoids,
enzymes, B vitamins
Non sulfur compounds
Anticarcinogenic
Allyl methyl sulfide
After food intake onion strong-
smelling sulfur compounds are
metabo lized, forming allyl
methyl s ulfide.
Abundant sulfur compounds in garlic responsible for turning garlic green or
blue during pickling and cooking. Act as mosquito repellent.
Cyanidin-diglycoside
(bulb)
No activities reported
Diallyl sulfide
A onion derived organosulfur
compound
Prevents tumor progression and promotes apoptosis in ectopic glioblastoma
xenograft, prevent growth of pancreatic cancer cells
Dillyl-disulphide
A onion derived organosulfur
compound
AntiHIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor cancer-preventive, fungicide,
hypocholesterol emic, hypoglycemic , immunostimulant among others
Dimethyl-disulfide (bulb)
A onion derived organosulfur
compound
Antithyroid and perfumery activities
Diallyl trisulfide (DATS),
Cytotoxic to prostate cancer
cells
Highly cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells, inhibits cell proliferation by triggering
either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis, shows pr o-apoptotic activity regulated by
a caspase-dependent cascade through the activatio n of both intrinsic and
extrinsic signa ling pa thways, or m ediate d through the blocking of PI3K/Akt
and the activation of the JNK pathway
Diallylpolysulfides
organosulfur compound
diallylpo lysulfides induce growth arrest and apoptosis in cells
diallyltetrasulfide (DATTS)
organosulfur compound
Induce mitotic arrest to apoptosis
gamma-glut amylcysteines ,
Allylcysteine sulfoxide
(alliin)
organosulfur compound
Generate hot odor
Allyl sulfides
organosulfur compound
Inhibit cell growth of skin cancer cells through induction of DNA dama ge
mediat ed G2/M arrest and a poptos is.
S-allylcysteine
organosulfur compound
acts on human ov arian cancer cells in
S-allylmercaptoc ysteine
organosulfur compound
induce cell cycle arrest and r educe the risk of var ious types o f human cancer.
S-alkenylmercaptocysteine
organosulfur compound
Induce apoptosis in pancreatic cells
Garlicnins B(1), C(1), and
D
Sulfur containing compounds
Highly toxic to cancer cells
S-allylmercaptoc ysteine
active or ganosulfur
compounds
Highly toxic to cancer cells
S-allylcysteine,
active or ganosulfur
compounds
Suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer
cells in vitro. reduc ed the migration of A2780 cells and decreases t he protein
expressi on of Wnt5a, p-AKT and c-Jun proteins which are involved in
prolifera tion and metastasis
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28 Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 Ravi Kant Upadhyay
(Table 4). Continued.
Onion components
Characteristics/attributes
Biological activity
Polysulfanes
Sulfur containing compounds
Possess antimicrobial, chemopreventive and anticancer properties.
Glycolic ac id (bulb)
Chemopreventive
Cholesterolic, diuretic, hepatonic and irritant
Kaempferol (bulb)
Chemopreventive
Antiaggregant, antiallergic, antibacterial, anticancer, antihistaminic,
antigingivitic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, ant iplaqu e, antiulcer, antiviral,
hepatoprotective and vasodilator
Methyl-pro penyl-
trisulphide (plant), Methyl-
propyl-disulfide (bulb),
Methyl propyl-trisulfide
(bulb)
No action
No activities reported.
Oleanoic acid (bulb)
Chemopreventive
AntiHIV, antiallergic, antiatherosclerotioc, antibacterial, antigingivitic,
antiinflammatory, antioxidant, ant iviral, antitumor an d cardioprotectiv
Potassium (bulb)
Active ion
Antiarrhythmic, antidepressant, antifatigue, antihypertensive, antispasmodic,
diuretic and vasodilator
Pyrocatechol (bulb)
Chemopreventive
Anticancer (breast), antihepatotoxic, antioxidant, antiseptic, CNS-stimulant,
cardiovascular, dermatitigenic, dye, insectifuge, nematicide and quinone-
reductase-reducer
Pyruvic acid (fruit)
Flavor activity
Dietary functions
Quercitin (bulb)
Chemopreventive
Analgesic, antiCrohn’’ s, antiGTF, antiHIV, antiPMS, antiaggregant,
antiaging, antiallergic, anti alzheimeran, antiarthritic, antiasthmatic,
antiatherosclerotic, antibacterial, anticataract, anticystitic, antidepressant,
antidermatic, antiflu, antigastric, antihistaminic, antiinfla mmatory, antimalarial,
antioxida nt, antipancreatic, antipl aque, antipolio, antispas modic, antitumor,
antiulcer
Quercetin-3-beta-D-
glucoside (bulb)
Chemopreventive
Antiinflammatory and cancer-preventive.
Riboflavin
Chemopreventive
Anticataract and antimigraine
S-methyl-cysteine-
sulfoxide (bulb)
Chemopreventive
antidiabetic and antihypercholesterolemic activities
Succinic acid (bulb)
Chemopreventive
Allium cepa is number eight on the plant species list with the highest amount
of this constituent.
Vanillic acid
Chemopreventive
Anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticancer, antifatigue, antiinflammatory,
antiseptic, antitumor, cancer-preventive and laxative
Allium ascalonium
Di-2-propenyl trisulfide
(31.8%), diallyl disulfide
(28.4%), and dipropyl trisulfide
(8.4%)
anticanc er, antifatigue, antiinflammatory, antis eptic
Allium ampeloprasum var.
porrum
by dipropyl trisulfide (15.01%),
methyl propyl dis ulfide
(4.48%), 1-prope nyl propyl
disulfide (3.75%) and methy l
propyl tr isulfide (3.19%).
antiseptic sulfur oil as their onion cous ins.
Allium schoenoprasum
Isopropyl dis ulfide, methyl
pentyl disulphi de,
penthanethiol, penthyl-
hydrosulf ide and cis/trans-3,5-
diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane.
Chives is a good source of vitamin C and strong anti-oxidant.
shows inhibitory effects on proliferation of cancer cells
and adipocytes via inhibiting fatty acid synthase [67]. In
hot summer use of onions check fast dehydration of
body and assist in release of excessive heat [68]. It is
used as a white vegetable known as a forgotten source
of nutrients [69, 70]. It contains minerals and trace
elements (zink) of high nutritive value and considered
to be a healthy meal [70]. Its daily use in diet restore
zinc deficiency [71]. It contains polyphenol content [72]
which lower down effect of UV radiation on shoot tissue
pigment in Allium fistulosum L. cultigens [73. Onion
peel extracts ameliorate hyperglycemia and insulin
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Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables Journal of Nutritional Therapeu tics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 29
resistance in high fat diet/streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats [74].
Onions traditionally are used in Indian spices mainly
for adding flavour to savoury dishes [75, 76]. Use of
onions in salads reduces plasma LDL cholesterol level
because it contains flavonols, flavones and isoflavones
[77]. Dietary intake of white vegetables mainly Alliums
reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery [78],
glycemia and satiety [79]. Onions are healthy food
material that has great health significance at global
level [80]. Onion peel extracts remove out problem of
hyperglycemia [74] and kill enterotoxigenic bacteria
[81, 82]. Nutritional intake of onions increases learning
potential in students83. S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide
and dimethyl sulfone are important dietary biomarkers
of onion intake [85]. Allium vegetables show strong
antioxidants capacity [86, 87] that lost after cooking.
Both quality and nutritional values of white vegetables
could restore by using low-dose radiation [87]. Onions
are also used for vinegar production [88]. Water
solution of onion crude powder inhibits RANKL-induced
osteoclastogenesis through ERK, p38 and NF-kappaB
pathways [89]. Presence of flavonoids in onions
prevent intestinal neoplasia [90]. High selenium and
phenolic contents show varietal difference in
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cholesterol,
anticancer, anti-lipimdemic and antiproliferative
activities of onions [92]. Onion is also a good nutrition
for animals and other veterinarians. These contain
short-chain fructooligosaccharides whch display high
nutritive values [93]. Dietary intakes of flavonols,
flavones, isoflavones and quercetin intake reduce
plasma LDL cholesterol concentration [77]. Onions
contain good amount of anti-oxidants [86] which cure
respiratory and allergic diseases [94]. Yellow onions
contain good amount of dietary fibers that cut down risk
of lipid storage diseases and protects from stomach
infection [96]. [95, 96] and increase antioxidant plasma
status in humans [97]. Onion flesh and onion peel
enhances antioxidant status in aged rats [98].
Therapeutic Uses
Therapeutically onion has multiple anti-disease
potential against number of diseases. In the past it was
traditionally used by ancient Greece athletes for lighten
the balance of the blood [99]. Use of onions has good
evidence from dead bodies preserved in Egyptian
burials [100]. Traditionally, onions were prescribed to
facilitate bowel movements and erections. These are
good to relieve headaches, coughs, gastric problems
and hair loss. The pungent juice of onions are used to
repel insects mainly moths and houseflies repellent.
These are also used to make into syrups, to form
poultices, and rubbed on the skin to prevent insect
bites. When chopped onion buds flutter certain
chemical substances which irritate the eyes and show.
They are pungent smell. Dried onion bulbs release eye
irritant during chopping. Chopping of onion bulbs
causes damage to cells which allows enzymes called
alliinases to break down amino acid sulfoxides and
generate sulfenic acids. A specific sulfenic acid, 1-
propenesulfenic acid, is rapidly acted on by a second
enzyme, the lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS), giving
syn-propanethial-S-oxide, a volatile gas known as the
onion lachrymatory factor or LF that generates fast
tears in exposed onion person 101. Onions are
traditionally used in preparation of Ayurvedic
formulations for wound healing [102] and in treating
cardiovascular diseases, hyperglycemia, and stomach
cancer. Its topical preparations have been used for
prevention of surgical scars. Clinically on average daily
doses of 50 g of fresh onion, 50 g of fresh onion juice,
or 20 g of dried onion have been suggested good for
health. Topical onion extract gels are used in scarring
and are generally applied 3 times daily. It is used for
prevention of presternal hypertrophic scar protection
[103]. Allium cepa (dry bulbs) showed antimicrobial
activity against Gram positive and Gram negative
bacteria and fungi in vitro tests [104]. Onion aqueous
extract shows antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity.
Onion (Allium cepa L.) is widely used in the food
industry for its nutritional and aromatic properties.
Onion contains active components, which possess
antioxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic properties.
Inclusion of fresh green onions in the diet can influence
the initiation and the progression of carcinogenesis, as
it acts on pathways implied in cell proliferation,
apoptosis and metastasis. Consumption of large
amounts of Allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric
[105] and prostate cancer [106]. Food-derived flavonoid
quercetin, widely distributed in onions is able to inhibit
growth of various cancer cells. It can be considered as
a good candidate for anticancer therapy. It behaves as
an antioxidant and/or prooxidant as well as modulating
different intracellular signaling cascades may all play a
certain role [107]. Combining onion and grape resulted
in a synergistic anti-proliferative effect (APE) against
MCF-7 compared with either onion or grape treatment
alone [108]. Allium cepa Linn is commonly used as
supplementary folk remedy for cancer therapy.
Polyphenols extracted from lyophilized A. cepa Linn
(PEAL) were found effective in human leukemia cells
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30 Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 Ravi Kant Upadhyay
and their mechanisms. PEAL inhibited cancer cell
growth by inducing caspase-dependent apoptosis [49,
109]. Excessive consumption of garlic is harmful as it
toxic at a certain limits; it is one of the most important
modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known
to promote cancer development are polished grain
foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general
importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity [110].
Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family
shows variety of anti-cancer activities. It shows anti-
proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of
apoptosis of cancer cells. Quercetin has also been
shown to undergo oxidation [111]. DATS a natural
product isolated from onion and garlic shows alteration
in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, cell cycle arrest,
induction of apoptotic cell death, suppression of
oncogenic signal transduction pathways, and inhibition
of neoangiogenesis [112]. Quercetin, found in onions is
associated with the down-regulation of PKC and RhoA
by blocking MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways
and NF-κB and uPA, resulting in inhibition of MMP-2
and MMP-9 signaling [112]. It shows inhibition of
migration and invasion of SAS cells. Dihydroquercetin
(taxifolin) is a potent flavonoid found in onions. It does
activation of the antioxidant response element (ARE)
and detoxifying phase II enzymes, and causes
inhibition of cytochrome P(450) and fatty acid synthase
in carcinogenesis. It increases TNF-α and NF-ĸβ
dependent transcription in hepatitis C infections. It also
shows scavenging effect of myeloperoxidase (MPO)
derived reactive nitrogen species and subsequent
effects on cholesterol biosynthesis as well as the
effects on apob/apoA-I, HMG-CoA reductase and
apoptosis and contains high therapeutic potential [113].
Ethyl acetate extract of onion (EEO) shows potent
inhibitory effects on animal fatty acid synthase (FAS),
that could induce apoptosis in FAS over-expressing
human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells [114].
Phytochemistry
Onions contain 89% water, 1.5% protein, and
vitamins B1, B2, and C, along with potassium and
selenium. Onions also possess important
polysaccharides such as fructosans, saccharose,
peptides, flavonoids (mostly quercetin) and essential
oil. Onion contains numerous sulfur compounds,
including thiosulfinates and thiosulfonates; cepaenes;
S-oxides; S,S-dioxides; mono-, di-, and tri-sulfides; and
sulfoxides. Mincing or crushing the bulb releases
cysteine sulfoxide from cellular compartments, making
contact with the enzyme alliinase from the adjacent
vacuoles. Upon hydrolysis it releases reactive
intermediate sulfenic acid compounds and then to the
various sulfur compounds. Onions contain
phytochemical compounds such as phenolics and
flavonoids that basic research shows to have potential
anti-inflammatory,anti-cholesterol, anticancer and
antioxidant properties [115]. These include quercetin
and its glycosides quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside
andquercetin-4'-glucoside [116, 117] (Table 4).
Red onions have considerable content of
anthocyanin pigments, with high percentage of
flavonoid content [118]. Onion flavonoids showed
chemopreventive effect and are used in treatment of
cardiovascular diseases and stop heartburn [119,120]
(Table 4). Allium cepa red and white varieties showed
anti-oxidant activities [121]. Quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-
glucoside isolated from Allium cepa antioxidant
activities [122]. Certain onion genotypes containing
higher contents of sulfur in the bulb showed greater
antiplatelet activity. Thiosulfinates dimethyl- and
diphenyl-thiosulfinate slow down thrombocyte
biosynthesis. Similarly, S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide
(Figure 1) isolated from onions (Allium cepa Linn)
shows antioxidant effects in alloxan diabetic rats [123].
Dietary flavonols protect diabetic human lymphocytes
against oxidative damage to DNA [124].
Other Allium species
Fresh bulb contains organic sulfur compounds
including 0.2% trans-S-(1-propenyl) cysteine sulfoxide,
alliin (S-allyl-L cysteine sulfpxide), S-methyl-cysteine
sulfoxide (Methylliin), S-propylcysteine sulfoxide
(propylalliin) which are converted to simpler unstable
sulfur compounds by the enzyme allinase present
when onion is cut or crushed. Flavor compound s- allyl
propenyl or propyl disulfides and trisulfides are major
constituents found in Allium species. Smaller amounts
of tetra sulfides, monosulfides, thiols, thiophenes are
also found in Allium. Main bio-organic constituents
found in Allium porum di are propyl disulphide and
methyl propyl sulfide. Dimethyl suphifide methyl
propyltrisulphide, 2, 5, dihydro-3,4-dimethyl-
thiophen,allyl methyl sulphide and various thiophanes
are also found. Fresh bulbs contain sapogenins,
porigenins A and B, neoporigenins, neoagigenin which
show strong biological activity. A new steroidal saponin
was isolated from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum
var. porrum which exhibit significant antiinflammatory
and antiulcerogenic properties (Table 4).
Shallot
The shallot is a type of onion, specifically a
botanical variety of of the species Allium cepa [125]. In
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Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables Journal of Nutritional Therapeu tics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 31
India shallot it is recognized by several other names i.e.
kaanda or gandana in Maharashtra, cheriya ulli in
Malyalam, ulli piaja in Odia, chinna ullipayi (Telgu). In
the Kashmiri language, shallots are called praan. In
Nepal it is known as chyapi The shallot was formerly
classified as a separate species, A. ascalonicum
Shallots (wild garlic/Osghordion) with the scientific
name of Allium hertifolium, is one of the most famous
plants from the Alliaceae family. These are used after
slicing and deep fry as condiment in Asian cuisine.
These are used in fresh cooking and mixed in pickle
preparation. Crispy shallot chips are also used in
southern Chinese cuisine. Shallots is also used for
scallion in few countries. French gray shallot or
grisailles (Allium oschaninii), a species referred to as
true shallot. In Iran shallots are also used to make
different types of torshi . In Nepal, shallots are used as
one of the ingredients for making momo. In Kashmir
shallots are widely used in preparation of Wazwan
Kashmiri cuisine, as they add distinct flavor and
prevent curry from getting black which is a common
problem with onions. In India it is used as a home
remedy for sore throats, mixed with jaggery or sugar.
The active ingredients of the plant could be referred to
agapentagenin, allicin, omega-3, omega-6, and
minerals such as potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron,
copper, zinc, and manganese [126]. Shallots are rich in
fatty acids and minerals with many pharmacological
effects such as its effect on the respiratory and nervous
system and blood dilution, as reflected in the modern
medicine. Shallots are traditional medicine which show
anti-warts, anti-lipoma, anti-kidney stone, and its
diuretic effects [126]. Shallots contain flavonoids and
phenols and show mild flavor and have similar taste
onions. When sliced these also release substances
which irritate eyes and induce tearing. . In addition to A.
sativum, these compounds are also present in A.
hirtifolium (shallot) and have been used to treat various
diseases [127]. Therapeutic uses and pharmacological
properties of garlic, shallot, and their biologically active
compounds [127]. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of
Allium hirtifolium (Persian shallot) on the level of liver
enzymes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.
Hepatoprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of
Allium hirtifolium (Persian shallot) in diabetic rats [128].
Antioxidant micronutrients in the extract of Persian
shallot may rehabilitate liver damages caused by free
radicals in diabetic rats. Liver-protective effects of
hydroalcoholic extract of Allium hirtifolium boiss. In
alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus rats hydroalcoholic
extract of shallot significantly decrease serum contents
of liver enzymes (ALP, AST, and ALT) in treated
groups [129]. Allium hirtifolium Boiss flowers contain six
furostanol and spirostanol saponins, alliogenin 3- O-
beta-D-glucopyranoside, gitogenin 3- O-beta-D-
glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)- O-beta-D-glucopyranoside,
and agapanthagenin 3- O-beta-D-glucopyranoside.
Shaloots also contain high amount of flavonol
glycosides kaempferol 3- O-beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl-
(1-->2)-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3- O-beta-D-
glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-
O-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-glucopyranoside in
flowers and bulbs [130]. In a meta-analysis,
consumption of high levels of Allium vegetables
reduced the risk for gastric cancer risk [131]. Garlic and
shallots are safe and rich sources of biologically active
compounds with low toxicity from Persian shallot
(Allium stipitatum) [132]. hydroalcoholic extract of
Persian shallot significantly decreased serum levels of
FBS and HbA1c in treated groups (in a dose
dependent manner) (p<0.05). Dietary intake of Allium
could be beneficial for prevention of cardiovascular
diseases. Allium species such as Allium
ampeloprasum, A. hirtifolium, A. haemanthoides, A.
vavillovi, A. atroviolaceum, A. jesdianum, A.
shelkovnikovii) using arachidonic acid (AA) and
adenosine diphosphate (ADP) were found platelet
aggregation inducers [133]. Allium hirtifolium aqueous
extract show anti-dermatophyte activities against
Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes,
Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton
schoenleinii and Trichophyton verrucosum var. album
[134]. Allium vegetables show antiinflammatory and
neurological activity and protective effect against breast
cancer [135]. Green raw Allium vegetables, particularly
garlic and leek, reduce the risk of breast cancer, while
high consumption of cooked onion may be associated
with an increased risk of breast cancer. Nutraceuticals
from Allium vegetables show strong anti-inflammatory,
anti-oxidant, anti-tumorigenic, anti-invasive, anti-
angiogenic, anti-diabetic, neuroprotective, and
cardioprotective effects [136].
Chives
Chives are the common name of Allium
schoenoprasum an edible species of the Allium genus
[137]. Chives possess insect-repelling properties and
used for controlling gardens pests. A chive is a
perennial plant found in Europe, Asia, and North
America. Chives are a commonly used herb and can
be found in grocery stores or grown in home gardens.
In culinary use, the scapes and the unopened,
immature flower buds are diced and used as an
ingredient for fish, potatoes, soups, and other dishes.
For Author's Personal Use
32 Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 Ravi Kant Upadhyay
Chives are grown for their scapes which are used for
culinary purposes as a flavoring herb, and provide a
somewhat milder flavor than those of other Allium
species. Chives have a wide variety of culinary uses,
such as in traditional dishes in many countries. The
medicinal properties of chives are similar to those of
garlic, but weaker; the faint effects in comparison with
garlic are probably the main reason for their limited use
as a medicinal herb. Containing numerous organosulfur
compounds such as allyl sulfides [138] and alkyl
sulfoxides, chives are reported to have a beneficial
effect on the circulatory system. They also have mild
stimulant, diuretic and antiseptic properties [139]. As
chives are usually served in small amounts and never
as the main dish, negative effects are rarely
encountered, although digestive problems may occur
following over consumption. Chives are also rich in
vitamin C and A contains trace amounts of sulfur, and
are rich in calcium and iron.
LEEKS
The leek is a vegetable a cultivar of Allium
ampeloprasum vegetable (Table 1). The edible portions
of the leek are the white base of the leaves light green
parts, bundle of leaf sheaths are edible. Leeks are
recognized by different names but all are cultivars of A.
ampeloprasum [140]. It’s green vegetable is crunchy
and firm with a mild, onion-like taste. Boiling turns it
soft and mild in taste. Raw leeks can be used in salads
and for adding flavor to stock [141]. Leaves in group
tied with twine and other herbs are used to form a
bouquet garni. Leeks are typically chopped into slices
5–10 mm thick. The slices have a tendency to fall
apart, due to the layered structure of the leek. The
Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup, leek and
potato soup, and vichyssoise, as well as plain leek
soup. Regular use of leaks in salads slightly increases
T3 level but the T4 serum level was declined [142].
Scallion, Green Onion, Spring Onion and Salad
Onion are various Allium species which are used as
raw or cooked as vegetable. These are characterized
by hollow green leaves but these are used while they
lack a fully developed root bulb. Scallions have a milder
taste than most onions. Diced scallions are used in
soup, noodle and seafood dishes, as well as
sandwiches, curries or as part of a stir fry. In south
USA scallions are sprinkled with salt and grilled whole
to add flavor and taste to cheese and rice. In Japan
both leaf green scallions and root green scallions are
popular and are used as additive for green vegetables.
But green portion or thick white portions of the scallion
are consumed. In Japanese cuisine, scallions are used
in abundance, as an accompaniment to tofu, noodle
dishes, hot pots, and stir fries. Welsh onion is used to
prepare dưa hành in Vietnam. In India it is eaten as an
appetizer (raw) with main meals. In north India
Coriander, Mint and Onion Chutney is made using
scallions (raw). Spring onions may be cooked or used
raw as a part of salads in many recipes.
CONCLUSION
Allium vegetables are a good source of various
nutraceuticals and are widely used in the food industry
because of its aromatic properties. Inclusion of fresh
green onions in the diet inhibits initiation and the
progression of carcinogenesis. Food-derived flavonoid
quercetin inhibits growth of various cancer cells and
considered best candidate for anticancer therapy. It
shows anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction
of apoptosis in cancer cells. Quercetin does down-
regulation of PKC and RhoA by blocking MAPK and
PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and NF-κB and uPA,
resulting in inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 signaling.
Onions contain phenolics and falvonoids that have
potential anti-inflammatory, anti-cholesterol activity,
anticancer and antioxidant properties. Dihydroquercetin
(taxifolin) is a potent flavonoid does activation of the
antioxidant response element (ARE) and detoxifying
phase II enzymes, and causes inhibition of cytochrome
P(450) and fatty acid synthase in carcinogenesis. It
increases TNF-α and NF-ĸβ dependent transcription in
hepatitis C infections. DATS is another natural product
isolated from onion and garlic shows alteration in
carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, cell cycle arrest,
induction of apoptotic cell death, suppression of
oncogenic signal transduction pathways, and inhibition
of neoangiogenesis. Allium vegetable also contain
polyphenols that stops proliferation of leukemia cells
and inhibit major signaling pathways implied in cell
proliferation, apoptosis and metastasis. Green onions
are best dietary supplements as they contain many
active components which possess broad spectrum
biological activity that can be used in therapeutics of
number of human diseases. All current researches
justified allium compounds and extracts as strong
cardioprotective, hypolipidemic, antioxidative and anti-
inflammatory agents. Allium natural compounds are
highly beneficial in atherosclerosis prevention and
treatment are strong supplementary folk remedy for
cancer therapy. These are curative and provide
longevity. But for preparation of many more allium
based formulations new combinations be needed to
have a single composite drug for various treatments. It
will need further investigation in this field.
For Author's Personal Use
Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables Journal of Nutritional Therapeu tics, 2017, Vol. 6, No. 1 33
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
DATS = Diallyl trisulphide
DADS = diallyl disulfide
SAMC = S-allylmercaptocysteine
AGE = age garlic extract
SAC = S-allylcysteine
CRC = colorectal cancer (CRC)
LDL = Low density lipoproteins
LFS = lachrymatory factor synthase
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Received on 05-01-2017 Accepted on 30-01-2017 Published on 21-04-2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-5634.2017.06.01.3
For Author's Personal Use
... 8 g/100 g), sucrose (0.6-0.7 g/100 g), fructose (0.1 g/100 g), glucose (0.04-0.05 g/100 g). Another study also showed that garlic contained 60% water, 28% carbohydrate, 8.4% protein, and 0.1% fat [11,48,49]. Compared to garlic and BG, when the garlic was prepared at 60 • C and 90% relative humidity for 45 days, the weight of the garlic reduced by 64%, the soluble solid content ( • Brix) increased by 13%, and the water activity declined slightly from 0.97 to 0.93. ...
... SAC in fresh garlic was reported between 21 to 23 µg/g FM and could be considerably higher, three to six times as much as fresh garlic, depending on the thermal treatment. Bae et al. [16] found in their study that the SAC content of BG was 124.67 µg/g DM when manufactured at 40 • C for 45 days, but the SAC content decreased to 85.46 µg/g DM in the BG when the temperature raised to 85 • C. Another study reported the higher SAC content in the BG and also noticed that when the fresh garlic was heated at 60 • C and 90% relative humidity for 45 days, the amino acids and SAC levels are enhanced three and eight times, respectively [49]. ...
... 8 g/100 g), sucrose (0.6-0.7 g/100 g), fructose (0.1 g/100 g), glucose (0.04-0.05 g/100 g). Another study also showed that garlic contained 60% water, 28% carbohydrate, 8.4% protein, and 0.1% fat [11,48,49]. Compared to garlic and BG, when the garlic was prepared at 60 • C and 90% relative humidity for 45 days, the weight of the garlic reduced by 64%, the soluble solid content ( • Brix) increased by 13%, and the water activity declined slightly from 0.97 to 0.93. ...
... SAC in fresh garlic was reported between 21 to 23 µg/g FM and could be considerably higher, three to six times as much as fresh garlic, depending on the thermal treatment. Bae et al. [16] found in their study that the SAC content of BG was 124.67 µg/g DM when manufactured at 40 • C for 45 days, but the SAC content decreased to 85.46 µg/g DM in the BG when the temperature raised to 85 • C. Another study reported the higher SAC content in the BG and also noticed that when the fresh garlic was heated at 60 • C and 90% relative humidity for 45 days, the amino acids and SAC levels are enhanced three and eight times, respectively [49]. ...
... A. cepa has carminative and expectorant effects and could improve dysmenorrhea, vertigo, fainting, migraine, wounds, scars, keloids, pain and swelling after bee sting, bruises, earache, jaundice, and pimples [29]. A. cepa also showed antitumor activity [29] and could decrease the risk of stomach carcinoma [55] and inhibit proliferation of leukemia HL60 cells [56,57]. e effect of A. cepa and its derivatives on respiratory diseases includes a relaxant effect on the tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) [58][59][60][61], a modulatory effect on the immune system [61], tracheal responsiveness and lung inflammation [17] in sensitized rats, antiasthmatic effects on a murine model of asthma [30], and antiasthmatic properties [62,63]. ...
... In a nutritional-based clinical trial on healthy adults, cruciferous vegetable diets including kaempferol 270 mg/kg, broccoli 30-72 mg/kg, and radish 38 mg/kg were administered to the individuals for 14 days. e results showed reduction of IL-6 and IL-8 indicating the immuno-regulatory effects of these compounds [56,86,109,142]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The health benefits of Allium cepa (A. cepa) have been proclaimed for centuries. Various pharmacological and therapeutic effects on respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders are shown by A. cepa and its constituents. Flavonoids such as quercetin and kaempferol, alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxides including S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide and S-propyl cysteine sulfoxide, cycloalliin, thiosulfinates, and sulfides are the main compounds of the plant. A. cepa displays broad-spectrum pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic effects. Our objective in this review is to present the effects of A. cepa and its constituents on respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders. Different online databases were searched to find articles related to the effect of A. cepa extracts and its constituents on respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders until the end of December 2020 using keywords such as onion, A. cepa, constituents of A. cepa, therapeutic effects and pharmacological effects, and respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders. Extracts and constituents of A. cepa showed tracheal smooth muscle relaxant effects, indicating possible bronchodilator activities or relieving effects on obstructive respiratory diseases. In experimental animal models of different respiratory diseases, the preventive effect of various extracts and constituents of A. cepa was induced by their antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory effects. The preventive effects of the plant and its components on lung disorders induced by exposure to noxious agents as well as lung cancer, lung infection, and allergic and immunologic disorders were also indicated in the experimental and clinical studies. Therefore, this review may be considered a scientific basis for development of therapies using this plant, to improve respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders.
... Currently, garlic's antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory traits have attracted particular attention from modern medicine [2,[8][9][10][11]. The medicinal influences of garlic have been attributed to the presence of sulfur compounds, namely allicin, diallyl disulfide, S-allyl cysteine, and diallyl trisulfide [12,13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Nowadays, the impacts of medicinal plants on immune-related diseases are one of the main pharmacological approaches. Thus, here, the modulatory potential of some Allium species on T helper cell cytokines were investigated. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of aqueous extract of the aged bulbs of five Allium species were prepared. Lymphocytes were then isolated and cultured in the presence of the bulb extracts. The amounts of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 were assessed using ELISA. Results: The results demonstrated that A. sativum bulbs extract increased IFN-γ production at all concentrations, especially at 0.0001 and 0.01 mg/mL. After treatment with all doses of A. asarense bulbs extract, IFN-γ production by lymphocytes was dropped, and this effect was remarkable at the lowest concentrations (0.0001, 0.001 and 0.005 mg/mL). The bulbs extract of A. asarense enhanced IL-4 production by the treated cells, whereas the bulbs extracts of A. sativum, A. jesdianum, and A. lenkoranicum had inhibitory effects on the production of IL-4. Treatment with the bulbs extracts of A. sativum and A. asarense caused increases in the secretion of IL-17 by the lymphocytes to some extent; however, the cytokine production decreased somewhat after incubation with A. jesdianum bulbs extracts. IFN-γ/ IL-4 ratio was raised after treatment of lymphocytes with A. stipitatum and A. sativum bulbs extracts, while incubation with A. asarense bulbs extracts decreased it. Conclusion: Since the bulbs extracts of the studied Allium species demonstrated immunomodulatory features, with further research, they would be considered as useful candidate for clinical purposes.
... Furthermore, garlic allicin can bind to free radicals, which may reduce lipid peroxidation [42]. It was also shown that onions contain allylsulfides and flavonoids including quercetin, steroid, saponins, and sapogenins which exert antioxidative activities and could reduce hepatocytes apoptosis [48]. Besides, the ethanolic extract of A. sativum extract has reduced the hepatic damage in cadmium chloride-intoxicated rats by enhancing the antioxidant system and decreasing ROS generation [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to scrutinize the possible mitigating role of leaves’ Allium triquetrum L. against the toxicity of lead acetate on liver and kidney markers of Wistar rat. Lead acetate (Pb) and leaves’ aqueous extracts (L) were orally administrated for 3 weeks. Rats were divided into the control, Pb group (500 mg/kg body weight/day), positive controls L (2g, 3g, 4g/kg BW/day), along with three combined groups of the same doses (Pb-L1, Pb-L2, Pb-L3). The levels of plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total proteins (TP), albumin (ALB), urea, creatinine (Cr), and uric acid (UA), as well as the hepatic and the renal malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were estimated. Results exhibited a significant increase in plasma AST, ALT, ALP, urea, creatinine, uric acid, and MDA levels of the Pb group compared to the control, with the exception of TP, ALB, GSH levels, and GPx activities that were significantly diminished, though the co-administration of garlic extracts (Pb-L) revealed a significant decrease in all mentioned markers, excluding the TP, ALB, GSH, and GPx levels. Likewise, Pb caused histological injuries in the hepatic and renal tissues of rats, while the co-administration of leaves’ wild garlic has reduced such effect. Thought, the Pb-L has attenuated the Pb-induced toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the aqueous extracts of A. triquetrum have the potential to alleviate Pb hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity through the modulation of most biomarkers in Wistar rat.
... In the last 10 years, several studies have reported that Allium contains several secondary metabolites in the bulbs, flowers and leaves [6,[10][11][12][13]. Secondary metabolites are rich in health benefits because they have several bioactivities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet [5,[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. Based on this, this review focused on the antioxidant activity found in the leaves of nine Allium species that have been extensively studied [27]. ...