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Factores asociados al conflicto humano-carnívoro en un Área Natural Protegida en el centro de México

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  • Gold Resource Corporation

Abstract and Figures

Los confictos con carnívoros como el puma y el jaguar ocurren con personas dedicadas a las actividades productivas cercanas o dentro de áreas protegidas, lo que ocurre en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra Gorda, una de las áreas protegidas de la región central de México. Se aplicó un cuestionario para comprender los factores que intervienen en la relación humano-carnívoro en la región y aumentar el conocimiento de los conflictos humano-vida silvestre. Los resultados muestran que la edad y la escolaridad son factores importantes en la relación, se tiene carencia de métodos de control de depredadores; las enfermedades y la sequía son las causas más comunes de pérdida de ganado, lo que supera las pérdidas por depredación. El puma y el jaguar son consideradas como especies nocivas en la región y los pobladores no consideran importante su presencia. La importancia o actitud positiva de la presencia del puma y el jaguar en la región se relaciona con el nivel de educación y la edad, siendo los más jóvenes quienes tienen una mejor actitud ante la presencia de estas especies. Se sugiere considerar la importancia de los factores sociales para una mejor toma de decisiones sobre prácticas productivas y de conservación de carnívoros.
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... Las fuentes de ingreso más importantes son las remesas, los programas sociales, la agricultura y la ganadería, siendo esta última, la principal actividad complementaria (Díaz, 2010;Anaya et al., 2017). Además, se realizan extracciones de madera y se practica la pesca (UNESCO, 2012). ...
... De acuerdo con Anaya y colaboradores (2017), el tipo de ganado es bovino (63%), ovino (7.6%) y caprino (1.4%). El 62% de los habitantes lo practican como fuente de ahorro, el 27% para venta, 9% por costumbre y 2% para autoconsumo (Anaya et al., 2017). ...
... Unidos (Anaya et al., 2017;Gallardo & Pérez, 2018). ...
Thesis
Los pastores forman parte de sociedades que han manejado los recursos naturales desde hace miles de años. En consecuencia, cultura y ecosistemas, han evolucionado en conjunto. Hoy en día, la conservación biológica es una necesidad imperante y ante la generación de diversos instrumentos que permiten la preservación de especies y ecosistemas, surgen procesos de competencia por los recursos naturales, entre la conservación y el aprovechamiento. El objetivo general de esta tesina es describir los conflictos ambientales derivados de las prácticas de pastoreo al interior de Reservas de la Biosfera en el mundo. El texto se divide en tres capítulos que comprenden: (1) la definición de los conceptos básicos y el marco teórico, (2) seis estudios de caso de conflictos ambientales por el pastoreo al interior de Reservas de la Biosfera en África, América Latina y Asia y, (3) la discusión de los resultados y una serie de recomendaciones. Los estudios de caso muestran que el principal factor para el surgimiento de los conflictos ambientales es la falta de reconocimiento de las comunidades locales al instaurar las Reservas de la Biosfera. Las recomendaciones remarcan la importancia de involucrar a todos los actores involucrados en las reservas para la toma de decisiones, además de generar estrategias que favorezcan el respeto a los derechos humanos.
... y fácil de cazar(Rosas-Rosas et al. 2008;Anaya-Zamora et al. 2017); sin embargo, el consumo de ganado será menor si existen otras fuentes de alimento disponible, como suplemento alimenticio y presas silvestres(Fuller y Sievert 2001;Meriggi et al. 2011;Khorozyan et al. 2015;Wolf y Ripple 2016). ...
Thesis
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The reintroduction efforts of the Mexican wolf have fostered the existence of a small wildlife population in Mexico. This is an opportunity to research aspects of potential conflicts with the livestock producers, the main mortality factor at this time. Understanding the subspecies food habits will allow is to recommend better management strategies within the recovery program. Our objective was to analyze the wildlife diet composition of the Mexican wolf, assessing the differences in ratio consumption between cattle and wild species diversity, including seasonality, sex and individuals in northwestern Chihuahua. In 2018 we collected 139 scats of Mexican wolf; using superficial epithelial cells we did a microsatellite analysis to identify individuals and their sex. We separated undigested components for their identification. We estimated occurrence prey frequency and percentage as well as relative consumed biomass. We evaluated differences in consumed prey diversity between sex and seasonality with modified t-student tests. We built generalized linear models to identify relations between cattle occurrence and prey richness, for environmental and individual factors. We identified nine wolves which consumed 14 prey species. White-tailed deer and food supplement (domestic pig) were the most frequent and had the greatest contribution to biomass. We didn’t find differences in diet between sex and seasonality. Diversity in diet and availability of food supplement decrease cattle consumption. This indicates that the diet of wolves is sufficiently plastic to preclude conflicts with livestock producers which facilitates coexistence. Overall simultaneous strategies are needed to increase wild prey consumption, to maintain the food supplement and to encourage rehabilitation strategies as well as to decrease aversion and a better livestock management.
... In concordance with other studies (Michalsky et al. 2006, Anaya-Zamora et al. 2017, we found evidence that pumas prefer to prey on small livestock, primarily sheep, and, secondarily, on goats and young calves. Nonetheless, we found that cattle are the livestock species most frequently involved in conflicts, perhaps because sheep and goats are much less abundant than cattle in the Americas (Appendix S2). ...
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Local opposition to large carnivores is a frequent source of conflict and a major obstacle for large carnivore conservation worldwide. The aim of our study is to understand hunters' reasons for opposing large carnivores, paying particular attention to the social dimension of the conflict. In an area where a vigorous conflict about lynx ( Lynx lynx) exists without there actually being individuals of this species resident, we conducted group discussions with hunters, a group that includes many lynx opponents. Results were interpreted using the theories of social identity and psychological reactance. We found that, despite the absence of large carnivores, hunters' perceptions and reasoning resembled those present in areas with resident large carnivores. This underlines the significance of the social dimension. Results show that the hunters' position in the lynx conflict is shaped by past experiences with pro-lynx groups (forestry and nature conservation). In this interaction, hunters see their social identity as being threatened which in turn leads to group discrimination and reactance processes - the latter possibly resulting in illegal shootings of lynx. Thus, hunters' opposition is not solely about the impacts of the lynx, but also about defending their social identity and withstanding impairment of their perceived freedoms by other interest groups. We argue that actively dealing with such group dynamics could serve as a missing link between large carnivore protection and conflict management. Future large carnivore management should focus more on shaping the quality of the interaction between the managers, advocates and opponents of large carnivores in order to overcome group-conflict and reactance processes.
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Cattle ranching is the main activity and the principal user of natural resources in Alamos, Mexico, extending in 93% of this municipality. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of livestock production on natural resources, in the municipio of Alamos, Sonora and in the "Sierra de Álamos-Río Cuchujaqui" nature reserve, which was established in 1996. Overgrazing, deforestation, botanical composition of the rangeland, soil cover and soil erosion risk were the main indicators evaluated. From 1995 to 2005 livestock herd size increased by 13%. By the year 2005, overgrazing was over 200% in all the sites evaluated, (reaching values as high as 550%), taking as a reference COTECOCA (the Mexican agency for the determination of rangeland grazing load) recommendations for animal rangeland load. Deforested area within the nature reserve remained relatively unchanged in 5,150 ha between 1996 and 2006. In the 155 sites sampled for vegetation and soil cover, on the other hand, we found a low percentage of cattle-preferred species, whereas species with low nutritional quality and less preferred by the cattle, represented 65 to 90% of the identified plants.
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Context. Compensation programs have become a common tool to mitigate conflicts between farmers and large predators; however, their effectiveness is based on a series of assumptions that should be carefully and continuously assessed within an adaptive management framework. Ex-post compensation programs were adopted in Italy as a financial incentive to aid wolf conservation since the 1970s; however, their implementation has never been monitored nor actively managed in the past 35 years, during which time a remarkable recovery of wolf population and range expansion into more human-dominated landscapes has taken place. Aims. We hereby report on wolf-damage compensation programs in Italy and discuss their conservation value. Methods. We used data on wolf-damage compensation that we compiled at the national scale for the period 1991-95. Although not recent, these were unfortunately the only available data at the national scale, and were instrumental in supporting our discussion on compensation programs, as these are increasingly becoming a politically and economically sensitive issue. Key results. From 1991 to 1995, annual compensation costs represented on average 86% of the alleged losses to farmers, and averaged (sic)1 825 440 (+/- 169 760 s.d.), or about (sic)5150 (+/- 750) per wolf per year. Compensation costs varied markedly from region to region, although local differences were hardly explainable in terms of wolf densities and their trends at the regional scale. On the contrary, they appeared largely affected by inconsistencies in rules and procedures of regional compensation schemes. Conclusions. In the light of persistently high occurrence of wolf-livestock conflict, and widespread illegal killing of wolves, we argue that compensation programs in Italy currently provide no evidence of being a functional and cost-effective conservation tool. However, lack of monitoring of compensation costs in Italy at all institutional levels, including non-government organisations (NGOs), reveals that compensation policies are not being evaluated, nor is their effectiveness being assessed. Implications. We contend this is an unwise and unsustainable strategy to reduce the conflict, especially in the light of the recent increase in wolf numbers and, most importantly, a marked change in livestock husbandry practices. By emphasising the need for a thorough revision of the compensation schemes adopted for wolf conservation in Italy, we advocate new and theoretically sound solutions to current compensation policies.