Article

Music strengthens prosocial effects of interpersonal synchronization – If you move in time with the beat

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Abstract

In many of our daily social interactions, we need to coordinate and to synchronize movements. Various studies have demonstrated that interpersonal movement synchronization has positive effects on cooperation and affiliation. Here, we investigated whether music as compared to a metronome can further strengthen these prosocial effects. We used a within-subjects design in which participants watched videos of two figures walking side by side – without being engaged in a motor task themselves. The participants' task was to imagine that they are one of these figures and that the other figure represents an unknown person. Manipulated factors were acoustic accompaniment (music, metronome, and silence) and synchrony (both in phase with the beat, other-figure out / self-figure in phase, and other-figure in / self-figure out of phase). Participants rated the closeness of the two figures, the likability of the other-figure, and how well they felt as the self-figure. All three ratings were higher with music compared to the metronome. Additionally, with music but not with the metronome, the likability of the other-figure was significantly lower when the other-figure was walking out of phase and the self-figure in phase, as compared to the other way around (other-figure in phase and self-figure out of phase). In conclusion, music can strengthen the prosocial effects of interpersonal movement synchronization, provided that one interacts with a person who moves in time with the beat.

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... Moving, tapping, or playing music in synchrony with others encourages group cohesion (Vicaria & Dickens, 2016) and prosocial behaviour (Mogan et al., 2017;Rennung & Göritz, 2016), even at an early age when motor coordination abilities have yet to develop (Cirelli et al., 2014;Trainor & Cirelli, 2015). A few examples of the positive social outcomes of interpersonal synchronisation in adult and children's joint musical and non-musical actions are increased cooperation (Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009), feelings of closeness (Stupacher et al., 2017), enhanced affiliation (Hove & Risen, 2009), and increased perceived similarity (Rabinowitch & Knafo-Noam, 2015). Interpersonal synchronisation may also have the capacity to bridge intergroup boundaries (Miles et al., 2011;Reddish et al., 2016), contributing to interventions aimed at mitigating intergroup biases (Tunçgenç & Cohen, 2018). ...
... Another suggested exploratory avenue involves the investigation of observed or imagined synchronisation, that is, watching or imagining a synchronized interaction without producing any movements. Stupacher et al. (2017) demonstrated that merely watching two stick figures walking in synchrony with the music and imagining being one of them can have a positive impact on feelings of closeness and affiliation toward the other stick figure. In line with these findings, participants in a non-musical study (Atherton & Cross, 2020) who imagined walking in synchrony with outgroup members exhibited increased subjective empathy and reduced negative attitudes towards these members. ...
... In line with these findings, participants in a non-musical study (Atherton & Cross, 2020) who imagined walking in synchrony with outgroup members exhibited increased subjective empathy and reduced negative attitudes towards these members. This evidence indicates that the processes of perceiving and actively attempting to achieve synchrony may be served by a common underlying mechanism (Prinz, 1997;Stupacher et al., 2017). Since empathy may arise even when the emotions of another person are only imagined (Stietz et al., 2019), future research could compare findings from produced and observed synchronisation, investigating how dispositional and situational empathy mediate the perception of synchronisation, as well as the affiliation-evoking effects stemming from an observed or produced synchronized interaction. ...
Article
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The positive prosocial outcomes deriving from interpersonal synchronisation, as well as the contribution of social skills in attaining synchronisation with others in musical group interactions, are commonly explored independently, overlooking the possibility of a simultaneous bidirectional relationship between musical and social behaviour. This article focuses on the relationship between empathy and interpersonal synchronisation, critically reviewing each directionality of this intriguing link, namely, how empathy contributes to the socio-cognitive skills required to achieve synchronisation with others, and how this synchronised interaction lays the groundwork for the development of empathy. Following this review and building upon relevant research in music and social psychology, a theoretical framework is proposed, arguing that during a musical group interaction, empathy and interpersonal synchronisation create a positive feedback loop, enhancing one another in a reciprocal and simultaneous manner. The circumstances that encourage or obstruct this feedback loop, as well as its significant implications, are discussed. Finally, the present work highlights the importance of switching the research focus from unilateral to bidirectional relationships in order to gain a deeper understanding of the interrelation between musical and social behaviour.
... In musical activities, we express attitudes, elicit emotions, imitate behavior, and synchronize movements, creating a feeling of togetherness (Cross et al., 2012). The social nature of musical stimuli explains why empathy is important for understanding emotions in music (Eerola et al., 2016;Egermann & McAdams, 2013;Wöllner, 2012) and why moving synchronously with music can increase prosocial behavior, interpersonal closeness, and cooperation (Cirelli et al., 2014;Kirschner & Tomasello, 2010;Stupacher, Maes, et al., 2017;Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009). ...
... We investigated whether individuals with high empathy experience stronger interpersonal closeness in movement interactions that feature music compared to individuals with low empathy. We tested this hypothesis in two studies that used a social entrainment video paradigm (Stupacher et al., 2020;Stupacher, Maes, et al., 2017) in which participants with individual differences in empathic responsiveness rated the interpersonal closeness toward a virtual partner moving temporally aligned or misaligned with the beat of music or a metronome. In Study 1 (N = 146), the musical stimulus consisted of one excerpt from a jazz trio piece ("Elevation of Love" by Esbjörn Svensson Trio). ...
... Participants. We analyzed data of 146 participants (mean age = 27.8 years, SD = 8.6; 88 female, 57 male, 1 other) based on sample sizes of previous experiments using similar paradigms (Stupacher et al., 2020;Stupacher, Maes, et al., 2017). Eighty-eight participants were Danish; the other 58 participants had 30 different nationalities. ...
Article
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Empathy—understanding and sharing the feelings and experiences of others—is one of our most important social capacities. Music is a social stimulus in that it involves communication of mental states, imitation of behavior, and synchronization of movements. As empathy and music are so closely linked, we investigated whether higher empathy is associated with stronger social bonding in interpersonal interactions that feature music. In two studies, participants watched videos in which we manipulated interpersonal synchrony between the movements of a virtual self and a virtual other person during walking with instrumental music or a metronome. In both studies, temporally aligned movements increased social bonding with the virtual other and higher empathy was associated with increased social bonding in movement interactions that featured music. Additionally, in Study 1, participants with lower empathy felt more connected when interacting with a metronome compared to music. In Study 2, higher trait empathy was associated with strong increases of social bonding when interacting with a temporally aligned virtual other, but only weak increases of social bonding with a temporally misaligned virtual other. These findings suggest that empathy plays a multifaceted role in how we enjoy, interpret, and use music in social situations.
... In fact, a vast majority of the work in this area has focused almost entirely on completely synchronised physical motor interaction between partners (e.g. Kokal, Engel, Kirschner, & Keysers, 2011;Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009), imagined as one of the figures in the scene (Stupacher, Maes, Witte, & Wood, 2017), interacting with a virtual partner (Launay, Dean, & Bailes, 2013, 2014Tarr, Slater, & Cohen, 2018), or in a passively observing context (Lakens, 2010;Miles, Nind, & Macrae, 2009). Yet music and dance rarely involve complete synchrony, and a recent study (von Zimmermann, Vicary, Sperling, Orgs, & Richardson, 2018) suggests that distributed coordination of group movement has more influence on pro-social behaviour than synchrony itself. ...
... and n.s. > .05. Stupacher et al., 2017) and level of formidability (e.g. Fessler & Holbrook, 2016;Hagen & Bryant, 2003). ...
... Our design is therefore limited in drawing a direct link with the real example of musical interaction, and future experiments could use musical stimuli to examine the interplay between music and movement to provide stronger empirical evidence on the broad question of music and dance and their functions. In a recent finding, Stupacher et al. (2017) showed that musical groove (comparable to coordinated movement), but not a metronome (comparable to unison movement), strengthens the felt pro-social behaviour when moving in synchrony. This provides preliminary indication that musical beat or harmonic complexity may have an influence on how a group bonds when moving to music. ...
Article
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Previous studies have suggested that the prosocial effects which arise following synchrony during music and dance may serve as a mechanism for people to bond socially. However, other research has proposed that synchrony could be a mechanism for signalling coalition to demonstrate fitness, which is expressed by a group's ability to effectively cooperate. In the present studies, we compared these theories by showing participants realistic virtual avatars engaged in different forms of group dance and then examining their perceived social closeness and formidability of the dance groups. We conducted two studies to assess the perceptual influence of movement type (unison vs. coordinated) and movement quality (temporally aligned vs. temporally misaligned). We predicted that the difference in the ratings of closeness and formidability would only emerge when the groups align movements, and this was supported. We also hypothesised that unison movement would better signal formidability while coordinated movement would better signal a group's social closeness. However, unison movement yielded higher ratings than coordinated movement for both formidability and social closeness, suggesting that a group should move in complete synchrony to maximally indicate their fitness and social bonds.
... Moving together in synchrony promotes interpersonal affiliation and cooperation (Hove & Risen, 2009;Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009). Two recent studies have shown that these prosocial effects are strengthened when moving together with music (Stupacher, Maes, Witte, & Wood, 2017;. Lucas, Clayton, and Leante (2011) showed that in an Afro-Brazilian Congado performance (a ritual with different types of musical ensembles), groups of the same community are more likely to entrain than groups of different communities. ...
... Here, we used a recently introduced experimental paradigm (Stupacher, Maes, et al., 2017) to investigate whether the sociocultural background of an individual affects his/her social evaluations in interpersonal entrainment with culturally typical and atypical musical patterns. ...
... Based on the experimental design of Stupacher, Maes, et al. (2017), participants watched videos of two walking stickfigures with a duration of 20 seconds. One figure represented the participants themselves and the other figure represented an unknown person ( Figure 1). ...
Conference Paper
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When people come together to interact with music, they might not only synchronize their movements (temporal social entrainment), but also harmonize their emotional states (affective social entrainment). Here, we investigate how culturally typical and atypical music influences affective social entrainment. Sixty-one participants with a Western cultural background watched videos of two walking stick-figures. One figure represented the participants themselves and the other figure represented an unknown person. Two variables were manipulated: Musical pattern (Western vs. Indian, three pieces of instrumental music each) and synchrony (both figures in phase with the music vs. self-figure in phase and other-figure out of phase). Participants rated how connected they felt with the other person and how much they enjoyed the different types of music. Connectedness with the other person was higher with Western compared to Indian musical patterns. Additionally, a difference of connectedness with the other person between participants with higher vs. lower enjoyment of Indian musical patterns was found when the two stick-figures were walking in synchrony with Indian music, but no significant difference was found when the other-figure was walking out of phase. Similar effects were found for videos with Western musical patterns. In general, music with Western patterns was enjoyed more than music with Indian patterns. The findings suggest that high familiarity with and enjoyment of the music one interacts with lead to a higher predictability of movements and a stronger presence of social norms that would be fulfilled when moving in interpersonal synchrony, or violated when another person moves asynchronously. Additionally, the higher enjoyment of Western musical patterns might have led to a more positive mood, which, in turn, might have positively influenced social connectedness.
... Our study is the first, to our knowledge, to document the social effects of synchrony in people meeting through video conferencing. There are some distantly related studies that found that synchronous movements between avatars (stick figures) can lead to greater perceived closeness and sympathy ratings (Stupacher et al., 2017a(Stupacher et al., ,b, 2020(Stupacher et al., , 2021. If indeed such results rely on similar synchrony-to-social processes as operating between humans, as is sometimes tacitly assumed, then this lends credence to the idea that social effects of synchrony are not restricted to humans meeting in person. ...
... One component may be musical material itself. Indeed, studies on social affiliation show that presenting music, as opposed to a simple metronome or silence, leads to greater closeness and likeability, and that this is true regardless of synchrony (Stupacher et al., 2017a). Perhaps a similar knock-on effect would hold for empathy, namely that regardless of synchrony, music would boost empathic accuracy. ...
Article
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Moving together in time affects human social affiliation and cognition. However, it is unclear whether these effects hold for on-line video meetings and whether they extend to empathy (understanding or sharing others' emotions) and theory of mind (ToM; attribution of mental states to others). 126 young adult participants met through online video in unacquainted pairs. Participants either performed 3 min of synchronous arm movements paced by sounds ( n = 40), asynchronous movements ( n = 46) or a small talk condition ( n = 40). In a subsequent empathy task, participants engaged in a conversation. A video recording of this conversation was played back, and each participant rated, at predetermined time points, how they felt and how they thought their partner felt. From this we calculated empathic accuracy (accuracy of the estimation of the other's emotions) and emotional congruence (emotion sharing). ToM was measured by showing videos of geometrical shapes interacting and asking the participants to describe what happened, measuring the amount of intentionality. We found that participants in the synchrony condition rated feeling greater closeness and similarity to their partners relative to the asynchronous condition. Further, participants in the synchrony group tended to ascribe more intentionality to the abstract shapes than participants in asynchrony condition, suggesting greater ToM. Synchrony and asynchrony groups did not reliably differ in empathic accuracy nor emotional congruence. These results suggest that moving in synchrony has effects on social affiliation measures even in online encounters. These effects extend to ToM tendencies but not empathic accuracy or emotion sharing. These results highlight the potential of synchronous movement in online encounters to affect a subset of social cognition and affiliation measures.
... However, online musicians' forums and blogs reveal that latency issues, often prompted by distances between the users (and server), networking efficiency, and quality of the routing services, cause feelings of frustration, and often make it difficult for more than two musicians to actually play in synchrony (e.g., Dolister, 2020;Marraccini, 2020). The importance of synchronization in successful musical interaction, and its ability to foster feelings of social connectedness specifically, have been demonstrated in a number of previous studies (see, e.g., Hove and Risen, 2009;Marsh et al., 2009;Wiltermuth and Heath, 2009;Valdesolo and Desteno, 2011;Demos et al., 2012;Leman, 2016;Stupacher et al., 2017). Furthermore, latency and the disruption of synchronizing abilities might interfere with a successful sharing of intentionality in the musical interaction; a concept related to social behavior (Tomasello et al., 2005;Reddish et al., 2013;Harris and Küssner, 2020). ...
... Although scores of overall capability of platform use to facilitate feelings of pleasantness and social connectedness were above average, scores of aptitude to support synchronization were below average. This is rather surprising since previous research proposed a link between synchronization and experienced feelings of social connectedness (e.g., Hove and Risen, 2009;Marsh et al., 2009;Wiltermuth and Heath, 2009;Valdesolo and Desteno, 2011;Demos et al., 2012;Leman, 2016;Stupacher et al., 2017). To some extent, higher appraisals of pleasantness and social connectedness might be explained by the unprecedented context of social deprivation prompted by the lockdown, during which any means of (musical) interaction, albeit unsatisfactory, could have promoted social connectedness simply because it provided a shared experience. ...
Article
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A wide range of countries decided to go into lockdown to contain the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020, a setting separating people and restricting their movements. We investigated how musicians dealt with this sudden restriction in mobility. Responses of 234 people was collected. The majority of respondents (95%) resided in Belgium or The Netherlands. Results indicated a decrease of 79% of live music making in social settings during lockdown compared to before lockdown. In contrast, an increase of 264% was demonstrated for online joint music making. However, results showed that most respondents were largely or even completely unaccustomed with specialized platforms for online joint music making (e.g., JamKazam, Jamulus). Respondents reported to mostly use well known video conferencing platforms such as Zoom and Skype when playing together virtually. However, when such general video conferencing platforms were used, they were often not employed for synchronized playing and were generally reported to insufficiently deal with latency issues. Furthermore, respondents depending on music making as their main source of income explored online methods significantly more than those relying on other income sources. Results also demonstrated an increase of 93% in the use of alternative remote joint music making methods (e.g., recording parts separately and subsequently circulating these digital recordings). All in all, results of this study provide a more in-depth view on joint music making during the first weeks of lockdown induced by the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020, and demonstrate users’ perception of performance and usability of online platforms as well as alternative methods for musical interaction.
... However, as explained in Section 1, this approach implicitly assumes that a not small number of users are connecting simultaneously and thus has limited applicability. In addition, considering that a person moving off the beat is perceived negatively by people moving in synchrony with music [55], such a naive mirroring can be ineffective due to the delay caused by the latency of the network. ...
... In live streaming, copying other users' movement is not recommended despite its effectiveness because the delay in the movements caused by the network latency potentially degrades the user's participation experience [55], unless low-latency access to the Internet, such as 5G networks, becomes widespread. In addition, it is also difficult to retrieve the information about the song to be played next, which is required by the machine-learning-based synthesis to calculate the global structure features. ...
Conference Paper
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While participating in live concerts is a promising application of virtual reality (VR), it falls short of our participation experience in the real world. In particular, to increase the engagement of participants, previous studies emphasized the importance of social experience among audience members, such as the sense of co-presence elicited by sharing physical reactions or body movements synchronized with music. In this respect, a common strategy in existing platforms is to present avatars of remote human participants in a VR venue and make every avatar imitate movements of the corresponding participant. However, this strategy implicitly assumes that a not small number of users connect simultaneously to watch the same content and thus is not applicable when only a few users gather or a user is watching alone. Therefore, with the aim of providing better experience to a user who participates in live concerts as one of the audience, we examine computational approaches to enhancing the sense of co-presence through virtual audience avatars. We propose four methods of presenting avatar movements: copying the user's own movements, copying other users' movements, repeating beat-synchronous movements, and synthesizing machine-learning-based movements. We compare their effectiveness in a user experiment and discuss application scenarios and design implications that open up new ways of active media consumption in VR environments.
... However, detailed information about how an individual's familiarity with and enjoyment of specific types of music are related to social entrainment is scarce. Figure 1 provides an overview of the design of Studies 1-3, which used a social entrainment video paradigm similar to Stupacher and colleagues 14 . In the videos, two figures were walking side by side. ...
... The fixed effects of the full models were synchrony (synchronous and asynchronous movement), musical pattern (familiar/North American and unfamiliar/Indian), enjoyment of the music, and the interaction between synchrony and enjoyment of the music. Based on previous research with a similar design demonstrating the strength of the effect of movement synchrony on affiliation 14 , synchrony was tested as first fixed effect. The random effect, noted as (1 | participant), accounted for individual differences by allowing a random intercept per participant. ...
Article
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Social bonds are essential for our health and well-being. Music provides a unique and implicit context for social bonding by introducing temporal and affective frameworks, which facilitate movement synchronization and increase affiliation. How these frameworks are modulated by cultural familiarity and individual musical preferences remain open questions. In three experiments, we operationalized the affective aspects of social interactions as ratings of interpersonal closeness between two walking stick-figures in a video. These figures represented a virtual self and a virtual other person. The temporal aspects of social interactions were manipulated by movement synchrony: while the virtual self always moved in time with the beat of instrumental music, the virtual other moved either synchronously or asynchronously. When the context-providing music was more enjoyed, social closeness increased strongly with a synchronized virtual other, but only weakly with an asynchronized virtual other. When the music was more familiar, social closeness was higher independent of movement synchrony. We conclude that the social context provided by music can strengthen interpersonal closeness by increasing temporal and affective self-other overlaps. Individual musical preferences might be more relevant for the influence of movement synchrony on social bonding than musical familiarity.
... Consider, for example, how humans tend to synchronize their gait when walking together (van Ulzen, Lamoth, Daffertshofer, Semin, & Beek, 2008), or how non-human animals can also coordinate with each other synchronically to produce periodic signaling (Patel, 2008, p. 408). Acting in synchrony with another person can increase cohesion and social affiliation among members of a group (Hove & Risen, 2009, Stupacher, Maes, Witte, & Wood, 2017, also inducing a sense of compassion and trust (Launay, Dean, & Bailes, 2013;Valdesolo, Ouyang, & Desteno, 2010). The tendency exhibited by listeners to move together at the same time with a musical beat is considered a human universal, and shared musical experiences can enhance prosocial skills in both children and adults (Kirchner & Tomasello, 2010). ...
... These comprised an initial section on the background and preferences in music listening of participants, followed by a series of Likert-scale items dedicated to assess the felt quality of their learning experience. The questionnaire for duos also featured the 7-point single-item ''Inclusion of Other in the Self'' (IOS) scale, originally developed by Aron and colleagues (1992), and since then adopted to measure how close respondents feel to another individual or social group (e.g., Himberg et al., 2018;Stupacher et al., 2017). A representation of the experimental procedure is depicted in Figure 5. ...
Article
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In an experimental study, we investigated how well novices can learn from each other in situations of technology-aided musical skill acquisition, comparing joint and solo learning, and learning through imitation, synchronization, and turn-taking. Fifty-four participants became familiar, either solo or in pairs, with three short musical melodies and then individually performed each from memory. Each melody was learned in a different way: participants from the solo group were asked via an instructional video to: 1) play in synchrony with the video, 2) take turns with the video, or 3) imitate the video. Participants from the duo group engaged in the same learning trials, but with a partner. Novices in both groups performed more accurately in pitch and time when learning in synchrony and turn-taking than in imitation. No differences were found between solo and joint learning. These results suggest that musical learning benefits from a shared, in-the-moment, musical experience, where responsibilities and cognitive resources are distributed between biological (i.e., peers) and hybrid (i.e., participant(s) and computer) assemblies.
... The social effects of experiencing music with other people have been studied to a greater extent than the effects of experiencing a live performance (Freeman, 2000;Egermann et al., 2011;Rennung and Goritz, 2016;Stupacher et al., 2017). Here we examined the effects of live performance while controlling for the social setting. ...
... We used head movement responses as our main measure of audience experience for several reasons. Moving to the beat during music listening is culturally ubiquitous, with collective movement a hallmark of the contemporary concert experience (Zatorre et al., 2007;Madison et al., 2011;Janata et al., 2012;Davies et al., 2013;Madison and Sioros, 2014;Stupacher et al., 2017). Individuals use a range of movements when listening to music, from foot tapping to head nodding, to whole body movement (Leman and Godøy, 2010). ...
Article
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A live music concert is a pleasurable social event that is among the most visceral and memorable forms of musical engagement. But what inspires listeners to attend concerts, sometimes at great expense, when they could listen to recordings at home? An iconic aspect of popular concerts is engaging with other audience members through moving to the music. Head movements, in particular, reflect emotion and have social consequences when experienced with others. Previous studies have explored the affiliative social engagement experienced among people moving together to music. But live concerts have other features that might also be important, such as that during a live performance the music unfolds in a unique and not predetermined way, potentially increasing anticipation and feelings of involvement for the audience. Being in the same space as the musicians might also be exciting. Here we controlled for simply being in an audience to examine whether factors inherent to live performance contribute to the concert experience. We used motion capture to compare head movement responses at a live album release concert featuring Canadian rock star Ian Fletcher Thornley, and at a concert without the performers where the same songs were played from the recorded album. We also examined effects of a prior connection with the performers by comparing fans and neutral-listeners, while controlling for familiarity with the songs, as the album had not yet been released. Head movements were faster during the live concert than the album-playback concert. Self-reported fans moved faster and exhibited greater levels of rhythmic entrainment than neutral-listeners. These results indicate that live music engages listeners to a greater extent than pre-recorded music and that a pre-existing admiration for the performers also leads to higher engagement.
... We reasoned that if participants in our hypothetical scenario study showed the same distinct pattern of positive and null expectations as participants in the original study showed after actually experiencing synchrony or asynchrony, then participant expectancy is likely to play a role in the original experimental findings. To isolate participant expectancy from the effects of firstperson mental simulation of synchrony (see Atherton et al., 2019;Stupacher et al., 2017), we asked participants to make predictions about other people, not themselves; and minimized vivid imagery by keeping vignettes brief and not prompting participants to take any additional time elaborating on what they read (as done in Atherton et al., 2019). We note that while such measures do not preclude the possibility of all mental simulation, it is likely that participants in our study engaged in minimal mental simulation as a result of these aspects of the study design. ...
Article
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Many studies argue that synchronized movement increases prosocial attitudes and behavior. We reviewed meta-analytic evidence that reported effects of synchrony may be driven by experimenter expectancy, leading to experimenter bias; and participant expectancy, otherwise known as placebo effects. We found that a majority of published studies do not adequately control for experimenter bias and that multiple independent replication attempts with added controls have failed to find the original effects. In a preregistered experiment, we measured participant expectancy directly, asking whether participants have a priori expectations about synchrony and prosociality that match the findings in published literature. Expectations about the effects of synchrony on prosocial attitudes directly mirrored previous experimental findings (including both positive and null effects)—despite the participants not actually engaging in synchrony. On the basis of this evidence, we propose an alternative account of the reported bottom-up effects of synchrony on prosociality: the effects of synchrony on prosociality may be explicable as the result of top-down expectations invoked by placebo and experimenter effects.
... Fitch argues that "if we want to understand the rhythmic origins of a musical style, it behooves us to know how contemporaries would have moved to that music" (2016, p.6). Dance is also an intrinsically social activity that encourages social bonding (Tarr et al., 2014(Tarr et al., , 2015Launay et al., 2016). Indeed, compared to synchronizing movements in silence or with a metronome, music can increase social closeness with another person (Stupacher et al., 2017(Stupacher et al., , 2021. Furthermore, the number of people who can easily converse together is usually limited to four (Robertson et al., 2017), but much larger groups regularly form when people dance together. ...
Article
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Groove—defined as the pleasurable urge to move to a rhythm—depends on a fine-tuned interplay between predictability arising from repetitive rhythmic patterns, and surprise arising from rhythmic deviations, for example in the form of syncopation. The perfect balance between predictability and surprise is commonly found in rhythmic patterns with a moderate level of rhythmic complexity and represents the sweet spot of the groove experience. In contrast, rhythms with low or high complexity are usually associated with a weaker experience of groove because they are too boring to be engaging or too complex to be interpreted, respectively. Consequently, the relationship between rhythmic complexity and groove experience can be described by an inverted U-shaped function. We interpret this inverted U shape in light of the theory of predictive processing and provide perspectives on how rhythmic complexity and groove can help us to understand the underlying neural mechanisms linking temporal predictions, movement, and reward. A better understanding of these mechanisms can guide future approaches to improve treatments for patients with motor impairments, such as Parkinson’s disease, and to investigate prosocial aspects of interpersonal interactions that feature music, such as dancing. Finally, we present some open questions and ideas for future research.
... The role of music was directly explored by comparing to a metronome when participants were asking to watch videos of two figures walking side by side. Participants rated higher closeness between self and other, likability of the other with music compared to the metronome (Stupacher et al., 2017). Second, shared intentionality plays an important role in promoting cooperation from group synchrony. ...
Article
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Interpersonal synchrony, the time-matching behaviors, is pervasive in human interactions. This resonation of movements or other forms was generally considered as one of critical survival skills for humans, as the important consequences of synchronizing with other persons in review of the empirical data in this article. These include positive affects towards and between interacting partners, but also include complex effects on the individual level. The intrapersonal effects of interpersonal synchrony are varied with positive or negative ones, including cognitive style, attitude bias, mood state, self-regulatory ability, and academic performance. At the interpersonal level, synchronized movement consistently affects the interaction with the partner and his/her affiliations, but they can be eliminated or magnified by several moderators, such as physiological arousal, shared intentionality, group bias, and musical rhythm. Finally, the research discussed the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of interpersonal synchrony in psychological and biological aspects.
... Development of such experiences has been directly connected to group music-making (e.g., Hallam, 2015;Savage et al., 2020), through the process of sound cocreation and collective aesthetic experiences, also known as "sonic bonding" (Turino, 2008), as well as through synchronic movement. Interpersonal synchrony research suggests when individuals move in sync, they get on better, even in challenging contexts (Erfer and Ziv, 2006), are more likely to perform prosocial behaviors toward each other (Kokal et al., 2011;Stupacher et al., 2017), and have greater perceptions of social bonding with them (Tarr et al., 2016). Similar effects have been observed in adolescents and children (e.g., Kirschner and Tomasello, 2010). ...
Article
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We know little about the psychological experiences of children and young people who have participated in virtual group music-making during the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Adopting a mixed-methods design, we worked across three music education hubs in the UK, with a total 13 virtual music groups. These included a range of mainstream ensembles, inclusive ensembles targeting young people with special educational needs and/or disabilities, and inclusive music production spaces, targeting young people from lower socio-economic backgrounds. Reported progress in intra- and inter-personal psychological outcomes was investigated using quantitative and qualitative staff session reports, which were collected since before the pandemic (n1 for in-person sessions = 87, n2 for virtual sessions = 68), and surveys distributed to tutors, young people, and their parents during the first and second United Kingdom (UK) national lockdowns (n3 for qualitative responses = 240, n4 for quantitative responses = 96). Satisfaction of three basic psychological needs of self-determination theory and their relation to joint music-making in virtual spaces was also observed in real time by the researchers performing quantitative checklist observations on 16 separate occasions. Findings indicated that virtual music groups represented a meaningful psychological resource for the participating children and young people, especially considering the lack of opportunities offered by their schools and other extra-curricular activities. Through their participation with virtual group music-making activities, young people used music as a tool for self-expression and emotion management, restored lost musical identities and confidence, and preserved treasured social connections. Virtual alternatives to group music-making appear to indirectly nurture the sense of belongingness, mediated by supportive staff behaviors, but their direct connection, which has been widely reported for in-person group music-making experiences, has not been observed in virtual music groups.
... Humans have used dance for purposes of expression [1], social bonding [2,3], and spiritual-emotional healing since prehistoric times [4,5]. In recent decades, researchers have begun to study these effects empirically [6]. ...
Article
Background Meta-analyses suggest that dance has potential to decrease psychological distress, increase trait mindfulness, and enhance quality of life. Conscious dance can be defined as unchoreographed, intentionally nonevaluative mindful movement commonly practiced in a group setting for purposes of authentic self-expression, self-discovery, interpersonal connectedness, and personal healing or growth. Objective To assess perceived effects of conscious dance practice (e.g., Ecstatic Dance, 5Rhythms) and examine associations between frequency/duration of practice and psychological well-being among participants. Methods Self-identifying adult conscious dancers completed a survey (N = 1003; mean age = 47 years; 52% from the U.S; 78% White; 73% female). Results Conscious dancers with ≥5 years of practice had significantly higher trait mindfulness and life satisfaction compared to newer practitioners. More frequent practice (≥once per week) was associated with higher trait mindfulness. A strong majority of participants endorsed experiences consistent with mindfulness (i.e., feeling “more present in my body”; 99% of the sample) and psychological flow (“I felt like I was ‘in the zone’ or ‘in the flow’ of things”; 93% of the sample) during conscious dance. Among participants endorsing any of five stress-related health conditions, the majority reported therapeutic effects (i.e., that conscious dance “helped them cope” with the condition). Therapeutic effects were most consistently reported by individuals with depression or anxiety (96% endorsement), followed by those with a trauma history (95%), chronic pain (89%), and history of substance abuse or addiction (88%). For all conditions except addiction, therapeutic effects were associated with greater experiences of psychological flow during dance, and the magnitude of these effects was large (Cohen's ds range: 1.0–2.3). Conclusion Individuals who engage in conscious dance report that these practices help them to cope with stress-related health conditions. Participants reporting longer duration or greater frequency of practice scored higher on measures of psychological well-being. The feasibility and efficacy of conscious dance for improving well-being among individuals naïve to these approaches will be important to determine in future research.
... Recent research that explores these complex forms of interpersonal activity typically makes use of the empirical and theoretical tools of social psychology (see e.g., Hargreaves & North, 1997), and embodied cognitive science (see e.g., Lesaffre et al., 2017;Moran, 2014), among other domains. Much work in the field investigates various aspects of real-time interaction between participants, including sensorimotor synchronization (Repp, 2005), coordination (Zamm et al., 2015), prediction (Heggli et al., 2019;Vuust & Witek, 2014), and the ways in which synchrony increases pro-social behavior (Stupacher et al., 2017). Different methodologies and theories have been advanced to cross-classify the dynamics and main properties that characterize musical participation. ...
Article
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In this paper we argue that our comprehension of musical participation-the complex network of interactive dynamics involved in collaborative musical experience-can benefit from an analysis inspired by the existing frameworks of dynamical systems theory and coordination dynamics. These approaches can offer novel theoretical tools to help music researchers describe a number of central aspects of joint musical experience in greater detail, such as prediction, adaptivity, social cohesion, reciprocity, and reward. While most musicians involved in collective forms of musicking already have some familiarity with these terms and their associated experiences, we currently lack an analytical vocabulary to approach them in a more targeted way. To fill this gap, we adopt insights from these frameworks to suggest that musical participation may be advantageously characterized as an open, non-equilibrium, dynamical system. In particular, we suggest that research informed by dynamical systems theory might stimulate new interdisciplinary scholarship at the crossroads of musicology, psychology, philosophy, and cognitive (neuro)science, pointing toward new understandings of the core features of musical participation.
... Music has the power to bolster emotional health, provide a sense of interpersonal connection, and is used as a therapeutic modality (Huron, 2001;Stupacher et al., 2017). Musical performances on balconies and live-streams became prominent beacons of unity during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. ...
Article
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This cross-sectional survey investigated the transition of Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) services from in-person (pre-COVID-19) to telehealth (since COVID-19) to 1) determine whether the use of an NMT paradigm contributes to the successful transition of therapy services to telehealth, 2) identify which NMT domains and techniques are transferable from in-person to telehealth, 3) identify whether there are differences in the transition of NMT services across different employment settings, and 4) evaluate the potential benefits and challenges of telehealth NMT. An online survey comprised of forty-nine closed and open-ended questions were distributed by the Academy of Neurologic Music Therapy to 2778 NMT affiliates worldwide. The survey sought information on demographics, telehealth perceptions, technology, assessment, clinical practice, safety, and caregiver involvement. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were applied. Eighty-one participants answered the survey and the sixty-nine who completed the survey in its entirety were included in the analysis. Results indicated that the frequency of NMT technique usage had no impact on the overall number of clinical hours retained over telehealth. Correlation analysis revealed an association between more frequent NMT usage and perceived likelihood of using telehealth in the future (i.e., once COVID-19 is no longer a major threat), as well as with fewer group sessions lost over telehealth. All NMT domains transferred to telehealth, although within the sensorimotor domain, fewer therapists implemented rhythmic auditory stimulation for telehealth sessions compared to in-person. Overall, NMTs experienced less hours for telehealth compared to in-person regardless of employment setting. Technological challenges were notable drawbacks, while major benefits included the ability to continue providing NMT when in-person sessions were not possible, increased accessibility for remote clients, and positive outcomes related to increased caregiver involvement. Based on the results, our recommendations for implementing telehealth in Neurologic Music Therapy include integrating telehealth into routine care, mitigating safety concerns, identifying those who could benefit most from remote delivery, involving caregivers, and developing/sharing resources for telehealth NMT.
... Prosocial effects of interaction in musical contexts are enhanced if the movement is in synchrony with the musical beat (Stupacher, Maes, Witte, & Wood, 2017). When playing a game involving the choice between cooperation and competition, participants will cooperate more with those with whom they moved in synchrony (Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009), and a dyad is more likely to be perceived as forming a social unit if it is moving in synchrony (Lakens, 2010). ...
Article
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The regularity of musical beat makes it a powerful stimulus promoting movement synchrony among people. Synchrony can increase interpersonal trust, affiliation and cooperation. Musical pieces can be classified according to the quality of groove; the higher the groove, the more it induces the desire to move. We investigated questions related to collective music-listening among 33 participants in an experiment conducted in a naturalistic yet acoustically controlled setting of a research concert hall with motion tracking. First, does higher groove music induce (i) movement with more energy and (ii) higher interpersonal movement coordination? Second, does visual social information manipulated by having eyes open or eyes closed also affect energy and coordination? Participants listened to pieces from four categories formed by crossing groove (high, low) with tempo (higher, lower). Their upper body movement was recorded via head markers. Self-reported ratings of grooviness, emotional valence, emotional intensity and familiarity were collected after each song. A biomechanically-motivated measure of movement energy increased with high-groove songs and was positively correlated with grooviness ratings, confirming the theoretically implied but less tested motor response to groove. Participants’ ratings of emotional valence and emotional intensity correlated positively with movement energy, suggesting that movement energy relates to emotional engagement with music. Movement energy was higher in eyes-open trials, suggesting that seeing each other enhanced participants’ responses, consistent with social facilitation or contagion. Furthermore, interpersonal coordination was higher both for the high-groove and eyes-open conditions, indicating that the social situation of collective music listening affects how music is experienced.
... Several studies thus far concern mutual adaptation in musical contexts (Loehr & Palmer, 2011;Zamm et al., 2015), but, again, these emphasize the temporal, rather than the spatial side. Finally, interpersonal synchrony established by tapping or drumming increases the feeling of affiliation in both musicians and non-musicians, and in both children and adults (Kirschner & Tomasello, 2009;Hove & Risen, 2009, see also Stupacher et al., 2017). In particular, interpersonal entrainment, which is definable as the spatiotemporal coordination between two or more individuals, often in response to a rhythmic signal (Phillips-Silver & Keller, 2012;Clayton, 2012), plays a central role in rituals and public happenings; it tends to promote joint actions and social bonding (Kokal et al., 2011;Cross, 2014). ...
Article
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Researchers have widely studied peripersonal space (the space within reach) in the last 20 years with a focus on its plasticity following the use of tools and, more recently, social interactions. Ensemble music is a sophisticated joint action that is typically explored in its temporal rather than spatial dimensions, even within embodied approaches. We, therefore, devised a new paradigm in which two musicians could perform a jazz standard either in a cooperative (correct harmony) or uncooperative (incorrect harmony) condition, under the hypothesis that their peripersonal spaces are modulated by the interaction. We exploited a well-established audio-tactile integration task as a proxy for such a space. After the performances, we measured reaction times to tactile stimuli on the subjects’ right hand and auditory stimuli delivered at two different distances, (next to the subject and next to the partner). Considering previous literature’s evidence that integration of two different stimuli (e.g. a tactile and an auditory stimulus) is faster in near space compared to far space, we predicted that a cooperative interaction would have extended the peripersonal space of the musicians towards their partner, facilitating reaction times to bimodal stimuli in both spaces. Surprisingly, we obtained complementary results in terms of an increase of reaction times to tactile-auditory near stimuli, but only following the uncooperative condition. We interpret this finding as a suppression of the subject’s peripersonal space or as a withdrawal from the uncooperative partner. Subjective reports and correlations between these reports and reaction times comply with that interpretation. Finally, we determined an overall better multisensory integration competence in musicians compared to non-musicians tested in the same task.
... To probe prosocial attitudes, participants are typically asked to fill out questionnaires assessing the degree of trust, closeness, connectedness and/or similarity they experience in relation to their partner Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009). As a more implicit measure, participants are sometimes asked to indicate the amount of overlap they perceive between themselves and their partner using the Inclusion of the Other in Self (IOS) scale (Aron, Aron, & Smollan, 1992;Stupacher, Maes, Witte, & Wood, 2017). Typically, these are used as secondary measures in order to test hypotheses about the mechanisms underpinning the effects of coordination on prosocial behavior Lang et al., 2017). ...
Article
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A wealth of research in recent decades has investigated the effects of various forms of coordination upon prosocial attitudes and behavior. To structure and constrain this research, we provide a framework within which to distinguish and interrelate different hypotheses about the psychological mechanisms underpinning various prosocial effects of various forms of coordination. To this end, we introduce a set of definitions and distinctions that can be used to tease apart various forms of prosociality and coordination. We then identify a range of psychological mechanisms that may underpin the effects of coordination upon prosociality. We show that different hypotheses about the underlying psychological mechanisms motivate different predictions about the effects of various forms of coordination in different circumstances.
... Interpersonal synchronization affects not only how we interact but also how we perceive and relate to other people (Hove and Risen, 2009;Cirelli et al., 2014;Stupacher et al., 2017a,b). This type of synchronization can emerge spontaneously, such as in the tendency for synchronized behaviour in walking, joke telling and general body movements, or with intention, such as in musical performance or dance (Richardson et al., 2007;van Ulzen et al., 2008;Schmidt et al., 2014;Stupacher et al., 2017a). In recent work, we have shown how interpersonal dynamics in synchronization tasks can be modelled using a network of coupled oscillators (Heggli et al., 2019a). ...
Article
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Interpersonal coordination is a core part of human interaction, and its underlying mechanisms have been extensively studied using social paradigms such as joint finger tapping. Here, individual and dyadic differences have been found to yield a range of dyadic synchronization strategies, such as mutual adaptation, leading-leading, and leading-following behaviour, but the brain mechanisms that underlie these strategies remain poorly understood. To identify individual brain mechanisms underlying emergence of these minimal social interaction strategies, we contrasted EEG-recorded brain activity in two groups of musicians exhibiting the mutual adaptation and leading-leading strategies. We found that the individuals coordinating via mutual adaptation exhibited a more frequent occurrence of phase-locked activity within a transient action-perception related brain network in the alpha range, as compared to the leading-leading group. Furthermore, we identified parietal and temporal brain regions that changed significantly in the directionality of their within-network information flow. Our results suggest that the stronger weight on extrinsic coupling observed in computational models of mutual adaptation as compared to leading-leading might be facilitated by a higher degree of action-perception network coupling in the brain.
... Because EDM is among the most bass-heavy genres and is played at high volumes (Burton, Murphy, & Brereton, 2017;Dayal & Ferrigno, 2014), such bass drops are likely felt in the body. Adding tactile stimulation to auditory rhythms could boost movement induction, and therewith improve the efficacy of rhythmic stimulation in applications such as rehabilitation (Hove & Keller, 2015;MacDonald et al., 2013), exercise (Karageorghis et al., 2012), and increasing social cohesion (Keller et al., 2014;Rennung & Göritz, 2016;Stupacher, Maes, Witte, & Wood, 2017). This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. ...
Article
Music is both heard and felt-tactile sensation is especially pronounced for bass frequencies. Although bass frequencies have been associated with enhanced bodily movement, time perception, and groove (the musical quality that compels movement), the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In 2 experiments, we presented high-groove music to auditory and tactile senses and examined whether tactile sensation affected body movement and ratings of enjoyment and groove. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 22) sat in a parked car and listened to music clips over sound-isolating earphones (auditory-only condition), and over earphones plus a subwoofer that stimulated the body (auditory-tactile condition). Experiment 2 (N = 18) also presented music in auditory-only and auditory-tactile conditions, but used a vibrotactile backpack to stimulate the body and included 2 loudness levels. Participants tapped their finger with each clip, rated each clip, and, in Experiment 1, we additionally video recorded spontaneous body movement. Results showed that the auditory-tactile condition yielded more forceful tapping, more spontaneous body movement, and higher ratings of groove and enjoyment. Loudness had a small, but significant, effect on ratings. In sum, findings suggest that bass felt in the body produces a multimodal auditory-tactile percept that promotes movement through the close connection between tactile and motor systems. We discuss links to embodied aesthetics and applications of tactile stimulation to boost rhythmic movement and reduce hearing damage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... These effects appear early in ontogenetic development, as evidenced by the finding that 14-month old infants, if moved in synchrony with another individual by an experimenter, are subsequently more likely to engage in cooperative helping behavior with that individual 19,25 . Even the mere observation of synchronous group behavior can augment perceived social cohesion 26,27 . ...
Article
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Coordinated behavior promotes collaboration among humans. To shed light upon this relationship, we investigated whether and how interpersonal coordination is promoted by empathic perspective taking (EPT). In a joint music-making task, pairs of participants rotated electronic music-boxes, producing two streams of musical sounds that were meant to be played synchronously. Participants – who were not musically trained – were assigned to high and low EPT groups based on pre-experimental assessments using a standardized personality questionnaire. Results indicated that high EPT pairs were generally more accurate in synchronizing their actions. When instructed to lead the interaction, high and low EPT leaders were equally cooperative with followers, making their performance tempo more regular, presumably in order to increase their predictability and help followers to synchronize. Crucially, however, high EPT followers were better able to use this information to predict leaders’ behavior and thus improve interpersonal synchronization. Thus, empathic perspective taking promotes interpersonal coordination by enhancing accuracy in predicting others’ behavior while leaving the aptitude for cooperation unaltered. We argue that such predictive capacity relies on a sensorimotor mechanism responsible for simulating others’ actions in an anticipatory manner, leading to behavioral advantages that may impact social cognition on a broad scale.
... It is theorized that synchronous movement rhythms and the subjective experience of togetherness and belonging mutually reinforce each other. In other words, perceived or experienced social unity is in a close connection with movement synchrony (Hove & Risen, 2009;Lakens & Stel, 2011;Launay et al., 2014;Lumsden et al., 2012;Lumsden et al., 2014;Stupacher, J., Maes, Witte & Wood, 2017). Human infants are born with the primary aptitude to achieve synchrony with competent social partners (Gratier & Magnier, 2012). ...
Book
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From the perspective of music and wellbeing in people with severe disabilities, this is a valuable and interesting textbook. The author L. Tiszai has integrated well-established traditional approaches to infant research and innate human musicality with new work in the expanding fields of music and wellbeing and embodied music interaction. The book is intended for learners who may have little or no experience reading professional international journals, but would benefit from a substantial research base in understanding how these emerging areas can contribute to working with nonverbal children and adults with severe disabilities. The book is organized into eight chapters. The first half of the book focuses on the theoretical background; the second half is dedicated to practice. The subject matter is accurate and has an appropriate reading level for the students who will be using the material. The book has been written in a style that will hold the student’s attention; the end-of-chapter questions will be interesting for the learners. To conclude her textbook on musical interventions for nonverbal children and adults with severe disabilities, L. Tiszai pleads for a fair and unbiased treatment of various groups in society. In doing so she motivates learners to acknowledge the importance of inclusive communities, where the needs and talents of the most vulnerable members of society are taken in consideration.
... This adaptive process allows a perceiver to abstract the beat from, and synchronize with, various signals including isochronous (evenly-spaced) metronomes, tempo-varying metronomes (Large, Fink, & Kelso, 2002), simple and complex rhythms (Nozaradan, Peretz, & Mouraux, 2012), dynamic speech (Schultz et al., 2016) and rich musical sequences (Large, 2000). Moreover, there is evidence that humans spontaneously move to the beat of music and in synchrony with others, suggesting that synchronizing with music and with co-performers may play a role in social cohesion (Bolt, Poncelet, Schultz, & Loehr, 2016;Demos, Chaffin, Begosh, Daniels, & Marsh, 2012;Hove & Risen, 2009;Janata, Tomic, & Haberman, 2012;Stupacher, Maes, Witte, & Wood, 2017). This phenomenon is called spontaneous synchronization and can occur either intentionally (e.g., Bolt et al., 2016) or unintentionally (e.g., Demos et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Auditory feedback of actions provides additional information about the timing of one’s own actions and those of others. However, little is known about how musicians and nonmusicians integrate auditory feedback from multiple sources to regulate their own timing or to (intentionally or unintentionally) coordinate with a partner. We examined how musical expertise modulates the role of auditory feedback in a two-person synchronization–continuation tapping task. Pairs of individuals were instructed to tap at a rate indicated by an initial metronome cue in all four auditory feedback conditions: no feedback, self-feedback (cannot hear their partner), other feedback (cannot hear themselves), or full feedback (both self and other). Participants within a pair were either both musically trained (musicians), both untrained (nonmusicians), or one musically trained and one untrained (mixed). Results demonstrated that all three pair types spontaneously synchronized with their partner when receiving other or full feedback. Moreover, all pair types were better at maintaining the metronome rate with self-feedback than with no feedback. Musician pairs better maintained the metronome rate when receiving other feedback than when receiving no feedback; in contrast, nonmusician pairs were worse when receiving other or full feedback compared to no feedback. Both members of mixed pairs maintained the metronome rate better in the other and full feedback conditions than in the no feedback condition, similar to musician pairs. Overall, nonmusicians benefited from musicians’ expertise without negatively influencing musicians’ ability to maintain the tapping rate. One implication is that nonmusicians may improve their beat-keeping abilities by performing tasks with musically skilled individuals.
... There is still much to understand, notably concerning the mechanisms at play and the higher cognitive processes linked to behavioral synchronization at an interspecific level between dogs and humans. In humans, nonconscious behavioral synchronization is thought to be a prerequisite for empathy and prosociality (Asendorpf, Warkentin, & Baudonnière, 1996;Kirschner & Tomasello, 2010;Mogan, Fischer, & Bulbulia, 2017;Stupacher, Maes, Witte, & Wood, 2017;Valdesolo, Ouyang, & DeSteno, 2010;Xavier, Tilmont, & Bonnot, 2013), but is the same true for synchronization between dogs and humans? If dogs exhibit behavioral synchronization with us, will they also exhibit prosociality and empathy toward us? ...
Article
Behavioral synchronization is evolutionary adaptive, fostering social cohesion. In humans, affiliation between partners is associated with a high level of behavioral synchronization; people show increased affiliation towards people who synchronize with them. Surprisingly, until recently, little was known about these phenomena at an interspecific level, which is, however, essential to better understand the respective roles of evolution and ontogeny. After presenting why dog–human dyads are a relevant biological model to study this field of social cognition, we review the recent findings about dog–human behavioral synchronization. We summarize recently published findings on behavioral synchronization and affiliation between dogs and humans. We also review results showing that genetic selection modulates behavioral synchronization propensity in dogs, emphasizing the role of genetic selection on dog’s social behaviors towards humans. Finally, we discuss the possible evolutionary influences and proximate mechanisms of this phenomenon. We conclude that, as in humans, behavioral synchronization acts as a social glue between dogs and humans. After dogs’ ability to use human-directional cues or to produce referential cues towards humans, we evidenced a new human-like social process in the dog, at the interspecfic level with humans.
... There is a large body of literature indirectly supporting the first process: Acting in synchrony together with others leads to social bonding, (generalized) pro-sociality, and cooperation (Fischer, Callander, Reddish, & Bulbulia, 2013a;Good & Russo, 2016;McNeill, 1995;Reddish, Tong, Jong, Lanman, & Whitehouse, 2016a;Valdesolo & Desteno, 2011;Wiltermuth & Heath, 2009, and music can reinforce these effects, see Stupacher, Maes, Witte, & Wood, 2017). Strict forms of synchrony, when movements are exactly matched in time and expression can strengthen togetherness among actors. ...
Article
Based on the interactive model of identity formation (Postmes, Haslam, & Swaab, 2005) we investigate whether displays of coordinated actions foster feelings of solidarity. Participants were randomly assigned to roles of actors and observers in two experiments (N = 191 and 276). Actors performed in an “airband” in which all played air-guitar (enacting mechanical solidarity) or each member played different air-instruments (enacting organic solidarity). In the control condition actors imagined playing (Study 1) or performed individually (Study 2). As predicted, displays of solidarity led to elevated levels of experienced solidarity among actors and observers. As predicted, experiences of organic solidarity were mediated by having a sense of personal value to the group, whereas experiences of mechanical solidarity were not. Interestingly, exploratory evidence suggests that groups who enacted organic solidarity, remained more active throughout a subsequent behavioural task relative to other conditions. This research shows that performing arts are more than just entertainment; performing arts can bring individuals together and shape social structure.
Article
The present study aimed to observe the relationships between music preference, pro-sociability, and personality, considering the mediating role of music preference. A total of 236 Brazilians participated in the study (59.7% female, Mage=20.11, SD=4.74). The results showed that the music preference factors (Energetic-Rhythmic, Reflexive-Complex, Popular Music, and Conventional Music) correlated positively with pro-sociability, especially the preference for popular music, which encompasses some of the most heard genres in the Brazilian context (r=.42, p<.01). Regarding personality, the relationships between openness and reflexive-complex music (r=.28, p<.01), and between extroversion (r=.22, p<.01) and agreeableness (r=.13, p<.05) and popular music stand out. Finally, a statistically significant explanatory model (goodness-of-fit index=0.99, comparative fit index=0.99, root-mean-square error of approximation=0.01, 90% CI=[0.00, 0.01], root-meansquare of residual=0.01) indicated that the preference for popular music mediated indirect effects of extroversion (λ=0.06, 95% CI=[0.02, 0.11], p<.01) and agreeableness (λ=0.05, 95% CI=[0.01,0.11], p<.05) in pro-sociability.
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Listening to groovy music is an enjoyable experience and a common human behavior in some cultures. Specifically, many listeners agree that songs they find to be more familiar and pleasurable are more likely to induce the experience of musical groove. While the pleasurable and dance-inducing effects of musical groove are omnipresent, we know less about how subjective feelings toward music, individual musical or dance experiences, or more objective musical perception abilities are correlated with the way we experience groove. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate how musical and dance sophistication relates to musical groove perception. One-hundred 24 participants completed an online study during which they rated 20 songs, considered high- or low-groove, and completed the Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index, the Goldsmiths Dance Sophistication Index, the Beat and Meter Sensitivity Task, and a modified short version of the Profile for Music Perception Skills. Our results reveal that measures of perceptual abilities, musical training, and social dancing predicted the difference in groove rating between high- and low-groove music. Overall, these findings support the notion that listeners’ individual experiences and predispositions may shape their perception of musical groove, although other causal directions are also possible. This research helps elucidate the correlates and possible causes of musical groove perception in a wide range of listeners.
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Synchronization of movement enhances cooperation and trust between people. However, the degree to which individuals can synchronize with each other depends on their ability to perceive the timing of others’ actions and produce movements accordingly. Here, we introduce an assistive device—a multi-person adaptive metronome—to facilitate synchronization abilities. The adaptive metronome is implemented on Arduino Uno circuit boards, allowing for negligible temporal latency between tapper input and adaptive sonic output. Across five experiments—two single-tapper, and three group (four tapper) experiments, we analyzed the effects of metronome adaptivity (percent correction based on the immediately preceding tap-metronome asynchrony) and auditory feedback on tapping performance and subjective ratings. In all experiments, tapper synchronization with the metronome was significantly enhanced with 25–50% adaptivity, compared to no adaptation. In group experiments with auditory feedback, synchrony remained enhanced even at 70–100% adaptivity; without feedback, synchrony at these high adaptivity levels returned to near baseline. Subjective ratings of being in the groove, in synchrony with the metronome, in synchrony with others, liking the task, and difficulty all reduced to one latent factor, which we termed enjoyment. This same factor structure replicated across all experiments. In predicting enjoyment, we found an interaction between auditory feedback and metronome adaptivity, with increased enjoyment at optimal levels of adaptivity only with auditory feedback and a severe decrease in enjoyment at higher levels of adaptivity, especially without feedback. Exploratory analyses relating person-level variables to tapping performance showed that musical sophistication and trait sadness contributed to the degree to which an individual differed in tapping stability from the group. Nonetheless, individuals and groups benefitted from adaptivity, regardless of their musical sophistication. Further, individuals who tapped less variably than the group (which only occurred ∼25% of the time) were more likely to feel “in the groove.” Overall, this work replicates previous single person adaptive metronome studies and extends them to group contexts, thereby contributing to our understanding of the temporal, auditory, psychological, and personal factors underlying interpersonal synchrony and subjective enjoyment during sensorimotor interaction. Further, it provides an open-source tool for studying such factors in a controlled way.
Article
Prosociality improves with interpersonal synchronization—the temporal coordination of movement across individuals. We tested whether the benefits of interpersonal synchronization extend to temporary circumstances of induced frustration, where negative changes in prosociality are expected as a result. Participants performed two joint tasks—synchronization versus non-synchronization. Each task was performed twice, with high versus low induced frustration. After each joint task, prosociality was measured both with explicit tests, in which participants were aware of the test goal, and implicit ones, where they were less aware. Frustration levels per task were also reported. Results showed that increase in frustration led to decrease in implicit prosociality after the non-synchronization task, but not after synchronization, suggesting that interpersonal synchronization attenuates the antisocial outcomes of frustration. In addition, our study highlights the advantages of implicit measures of prosociality, among which the test we created (Interpersonal Trust Test) may stand as a useful resource in future experimental research.
Thesis
Dans les interventions musicales réalisées auprès de personnes atteintes de la maladie d’Alzheimer ou de maladies apparentées, il est fréquemment demandé aux participants de bouger au rythme de la musique. La synchronisation au rythme musical, particulièrement en groupe, implique des réponses à différents niveaux (moteur, rythmique, social et émotionnel) et pourrait procurer du plaisir ainsi que renforcer les liens sociaux des patients et de leur entourage. Cependant, la synchronisation au rythme de la musique et le lien qui pourrait exister entre ces différents niveaux de la réponse à cette activité sont peu connus dans la maladie d’Alzheimer. L’objectif de cette thèse est d’examiner les différents aspects du comportement des personnes avec une maladie d’Alzheimer (ou maladies apparentées) et des participants avec un vieillissement physiologique ‘normal’ au cours d’une activité de synchronisation au rythme musical réalisée en action conjointe avec un musicien. L’approche préconisée dans ce travail se base sur une méthode pluridisciplinaire incluant les sciences du mouvement, la psychologie sociale et la neuropsychologie. En premier lieu, nous avons étudié l’effet du contexte social et de la musique (et de ses caractéristiques temporelles) sur les performances de synchronisation et sur l’engagement social, émotionnel, rythmique et moteur de personnes atteintes de la maladie d’Alzheimer dans cette activité (étude 1 chapitre 4 et 5). Les résultats ont montré que la présence physique d’une chanteuse réalisant la tâche de synchronisation avec le participant modulait différemment les performances de synchronisation et la qualité de la relation sociale et émotionnelle par comparaison à un enregistrement audio-visuel de cette chanteuse. Cet effet du contexte social était d’ailleurs plus important en réponse à la musique qu’au métronome et était modulé par le tempo et la métrique. De plus, nous avons trouvé que la musique augmentait l’engagement rythmique des participants par comparaison au métronome. Ensuite, nous avons comparé les réponses à la tâche de synchronisation dans le vieillissement pathologique et physiologique (étude 2 chapitre 6 et 7). Les résultats ont révélé que les performances de synchronisation ne différaient pas entre les deux groupes suggérant une préservation du couplage audio-moteur dans la maladie d’Alzheimer à travers cette tâche. Bien que la maladie réduisait l’engagement moteur, social et émotionnel en réponse à la musique par comparaison au vieillissement physiologique, un effet du contexte social était observé sur le comportement dans les deux groupes. Enfin, nous avons comparé les groupes de participants atteints de la maladie d’Alzheimer entre les deux études montrant que la sévérité de la maladie pouvait altérer la synchronisation et l’engagement dans l’activité (chapitre 8). En conclusion, ce travail de thèse a mis en évidence que le couplage audio-moteur est en partie préservé chez les personnes atteintes de la maladie d’Alzheimer et que l’action conjointe avec un partenaire module la qualité de la relation sociale ainsi que l’engagement à la musique. Les connaissances théoriques acquises par ce travail permettent de mieux comprendre l’évolution des comportements en réponse à la musique dans la maladie d’Alzheimer. La méthode mise au point par cette thèse offre ainsi l’opportunité d’évaluer les bénéfices thérapeutiques des interventions musicales à différents niveaux sur le comportement des personnes avec une maladie d’Alzheimer. De telles perspectives permettraient d’améliorer la prise en charge de ces personnes et de leurs aidants.
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of mimics that are congruent with the emotional states that match the pre-selected music pieces and are not compatible with the rhythm synchronization of preschool children. Participants included 96 children, 60-71 months old, in the province of Istanbul. Researcher Musical Synchronization Task (MST) has been developed to measure children's rhythm synchronization. In addition, the Heads-Toes-Knees-Shoulders Task (HTKS) was used to control the cognitive flexibility of children. According to the results, mimics that match the emotional states felt in music pieces are more effective for children to synchronize rhythmically. Secondly, the congruency affects synchronization positively, without making any difference (happy or neutral) in the mood types selected for the study. While these results accompany other synchronization studies, it also pioneers in the literature in terms of looking at the effect of music and facial expressions in synchronization measurement. The study conveys sub-dimensions of embodied cognition (emotion, perception and movement) act together, collaborative activity based on common intention is observed, and thanks to the harmony of the emotional cues of the mimic and music, the errors in the synchronization of the participants are reduced to low levels.
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The neuropeptide oxytocin has been shown to affect social interaction. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism remains highly debated. Using an interpersonal finger-tapping paradigm, we investigated whether oxytocin affects the ability to synchronise with and adapt to the behaviour of others. Dyads received either oxytocin or a non-active placebo, intranasally. We show that in conditions where one dyad-member was tapping to another unresponsive dyad-member – i.e. one was following another who was leading/self-pacing – dyads given oxytocin were more synchronised than dyads given placebo. However, there was no effect when following a regular metronome or when both tappers were mutually adapting to each other. Furthermore, relative to their self-paced tapping partners, oxytocin followers were less variable than placebo followers. Our data suggests that oxytocin improves synchronisation to an unresponsive partner’s behaviour through a reduction in tapping-variability. Hence, oxytocin may facilitate social interaction by enhancing sensorimotor predictions supporting interpersonal synchronisation. The study thus provides novel perspectives on how neurobiological processes relate to socio-psychological behaviour and contributes to the growing evidence that synchronisation and prediction are central to social cognition.
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Among the most apparent and adverse symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are disturbances in gait. These include shuffling (small amplitude steps), instability (asymmetry and variability between steps), freezing of gait (cessation of movement and difficulty with initiation), and general disfluencies in walking movements and posture (Morris et al., 1996; Bloem et al., 2004; Grabli et al., 2012). Limitations of pharmacological interventions to alleviate gait disturbances (Lord et al., 2011), have led to interest in exploring non-pharmacological means of enhancing walking in PD, to complement drugs-based approaches. Sensory cueing, in which perceptual guides for movement are presented visually, acoustically, or haptically, is one such approach. While sensory cueing, in particular rhythmic auditory cueing, is a viable and promising approach to enhancing gait in PD, it is our opinion that this approach could be expanded by developing a more action-focussed framework for understanding the information available to patients in sound (cues) and how this information influences gait.
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Interpersonal coordination, such as simultaneous rhythmic movement, is a fundamental way to form socioemotional connections. The social and emotional power of music might further strengthen such interpersonal bonds. Here, we tested if interpersonal synchronization (synchronous vs. asynchronous finger-tapping) affects sympathy and helpfulness more strongly when listening to music compared to a metronome. We tested 40 participants and used an explicit and an implicit measure to assess their social orientation toward a tapping partner (i.e., one of two experimenters). Participants directly rated the friendliness of the experimenter on a 9-point Likert scale. As a more indirect or implicit measure of social orientation, we counted the number of pencils (out of a total of eight) that the participants collected after the experimenter " accidentally " dropped them. After five seconds, the experimenter started to help the participants or collected the pencils herself. Results of the pencil test showed that participants were more helpful toward an experimenter who tapped synchronously compared to asynchronously. Importantly, this result was completely driven by the effect of interpersonal synchrony during listening to music. When listening to music, participants collected 38 pencils (M = 3.80, SD = 3.29) after tapping in interpersonal synchrony compared to only 13 pencils (M = 1.30, SD = 2.67) after tapping asynchronously. No such effect was found for the metronome. The results of explicit ratings of the experimenter's friendliness, however, did not confirm these effects. The direct ratings might have been more strongly influenced by social desirability or related motivational distortions. Since music is a product of social interactions and might even be the result of evolutionary adaptation, we conclude that especially during listening to music, interpersonal synchrony or asynchrony can fulfill or violate hard-wired social expectations. Additionally, we could show that implicit or indirect measures can help elucidate how music, movement and prosocial behavior are connected.
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Human interaction often requires simultaneous precision and flexibility in the coordination of rhythmic behaviour between individuals engaged in joint activity, for example, playing a musical duet or dancing with a partner. This review article addresses the psychological processes and brain mechanisms that enable such rhythmic interpersonal coordination. First, an overview is given of research on the cognitive-motor processes that enable individuals to represent joint action goals and to anticipate, attend and adapt to other's actions in real time. Second, the neurophysiological mechanisms that underpin rhythmic interpersonal coordination are sought in studies of sensorimotor and cognitive processes that play a role in the representation and integration of self- and other-related actions within and between individuals' brains. Finally, relationships between social-psychological factors and rhythmic interpersonal coordination are considered from two perspectives, one concerning how social-cognitive tendencies (e.g. empathy) affect coordination, and the other concerning how coordination affects interpersonal affiliation, trust and prosocial behaviour. Our review highlights musical ensemble performance as an ecologically valid yet readily controlled domain for investigating rhythm in joint action.
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It has been suggested that a key function of music during its development and spread amongst human populations was its capacity to create and strengthen social bonds amongst interacting group members. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been fully discussed. In this paper we review evidence supporting two thus far independently investigated mechanisms for this social bonding effect: self-other merging as a consequence of inter-personal synchrony, and the release of endorphins during exertive rhythmic activities including musical interaction. In general, self-other merging has been experimentally investigated using dyads, which provide limited insight into large-scale musical activities. Given that music can provide an external rhythmic framework that facilitates synchrony, explanations of social bonding during group musical activities should include reference to endorphins, which are released during synchronized exertive movements. Endorphins (and the endogenous opioid system (EOS) in general) are involved in social bonding across primate species, and are associated with a number of human social behaviors (e.g., laughter, synchronized sports), as well as musical activities (e.g., singing and dancing). Furthermore, passively listening to music engages the EOS, so here we suggest that both self-other merging and the EOS are important in the social bonding effects of music. In order to investigate possible interactions between these two mechanisms, future experiments should recreate ecologically valid examples of musical activities.
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Paralleling behaviours in other species, synchronized movement is central to institutionalized collective human activities thought to enhance cooperation, and experiments demonstrate that synchrony has this effect. The influence of synchrony on cooperation may derive from an evolutionary history wherein such actions served to signal coalitional strength to both participants and observers-including adversaries. If so, then synchronous movement should diminish individuals' estimations of a foe's formidability. Envisioned physical size and strength constitute the dimensions of a representation that summarizes relative fighting capacity. Experiencing synchrony should therefore lead individuals to conceptualize an antagonist as smaller and weaker. We found that men who walked synchronously with a male confederate indeed envisioned a purported criminal as less physically formidable than did men who engaged in this task without synchronizing.
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The present study introduces the German version of the Gold-MSI inventory, a tool for evaluating self-reported musical abilities and musical expertise. The Gold-MSI is based around the multidimensional construct of Musical Sophistication and builds on the idea that musical expertise cannot only be developed through musical training on an instrument but also through active engagement with music in its many facets. The questionnaire was developed with a very large English sample (Müllensiefen et al., 2014) and comprises musical expertise with five factors as well as the general factor Musical Sophistication. The English Gold-MSI questionnaire was translated into German and evaluated with a German sample (N = 641). Using confirmative factor analysis the underlying factor structure was confirmed. Furthermore, the results show high reliabilities of the five sub-factors as well as the general factor Musical Sophistication (Cronbach’s alpha between .72 and .91.). Additionally, relationships between variables of the socio-economic status and the sub-factors of the Gold-MSI of the German sample are investigated using a structural equation model. The statistical model reveals positive relationships between income and professional status on the one hand and musical training, perceptual abilities and emotional engagement with music on the other hand. The inventory is freely available and is designed to contribute to the refined investigation of musical sophistication and expertise in German speaking countries.
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Traditionally, audio-motor timing processes have been understood as motor output from an internal clock that is set by heard sound pulses. However, in this paper a more ecological approach is adopted, arguing that audio-motor processes are better characterized as performed actions on the perceived structure of auditory events. This position is explored in the context of auditory sensorimotor synchronization and continuation. Empirical research shows that the structure of sounds as auditory events can lead to marked differences in movement timing performance. The nature of these effects is discussed in the context of perceived action-relevance of auditory event structure. It is proposed that different forms of sound invite or support different patterns of sensorimotor timing. Directions of ongoing research and implications for auditory guides in motor performance enhancement are also described.
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The evolutionary story can be read as indicating that a version of Brown’s (2000a) musilanguage may have emerged with H. ergaster, perhaps restricted to the exchange of social information, with a further development of a capacity for more general reference with H. heidelbergensis. It seems likely that the divergence between music and language arose first in modern humans, with language emerging to fulfil communicative, ostensive and propositional functions with immediate efficacy.Music, operating over longer timescales, emerged to sustain (and perhaps also to foster) the capacity to manage social interactions, while providing a matrix for the integration of information across domains of human experience.We propose that music and language enabled the emergence of modern human social and individual cognitive flexibility (Cross 1999).We regard both music and language as subcomponents of the human communicative toolkit—as two complementary mechanisms for the achievement of productivity in human interaction though working over different timescales and in different ways.
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Previous research has shown that the matching of rhythmic behaviour between individuals (synchrony) increases cooperation. Such synchrony is most noticeable in music, dance and collective rituals. As well as the matching of behaviour, such collective performances typically involve shared intentionality: performers actively collaborate to produce joint actions. Over three experiments we examined the importance of shared intentionality in promoting cooperation from group synchrony. Experiment 1 compared a condition in which group synchrony was produced through shared intentionality to conditions in which synchrony or asynchrony were created as a by-product of hearing the same or different rhythmic beats. We found that synchrony combined with shared intentionality produced the greatest level of cooperation. To examinef the importance of synchrony when shared intentionality is present, Experiment 2 compared a condition in which participants deliberately worked together to produce synchrony with a condition in which participants deliberately worked together to produce asynchrony. We found that synchrony combined with shared intentionality produced the greatest level of cooperation. Experiment 3 manipulated both the presence of synchrony and shared intentionality and found significantly greater cooperation with synchrony and shared intentionality combined. Path analysis supported a reinforcement of cooperation model according to which perceiving synchrony when there is a shared goal to produce synchrony provides immediate feedback for successful cooperation so reinforcing the group's cooperative tendencies. The reinforcement of cooperation model helps to explain the evolutionary conservation of traditional music and dance performances, and furthermore suggests that the collectivist values of such cultures may be an essential part of the mechanisms by which synchrony galvanises cooperative behaviours.
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As prominently highlighted by Charles Darwin, music is one of the most mysterious aspects of human nature. Despite its ubiquitous presence across cultures and throughout recorded history, the reason humans respond emotionally to music remains unknown. Although many scientists and philosophers have offered hypotheses, there is little direct empirical evidence for any perspective. Here we address this issue, providing data which support the idea that music evolved in service of group living. Using 7 studies, we demonstrate that people's emotional responses to music are intricately tied to the other core social phenomena that bind us together into groups. In sum, this work establishes human musicality as a special form of social cognition and provides the first direct support for the hypothesis that music evolved as a tool of social living. In addition, the findings provide a reason for the intense psychological pull of music in modern life, suggesting that the pleasure we derive from listening to music results from its innate connection to the basic social drives that create our interconnected world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Several studies indicate that mood can influence the likelihood of an individual demonstrating instances of helping behavior, and one previous laboratory study has indicated that music can be used to bring about manipulations of mood to such an end. To investigate this in a naturalistic setting, 646 users of a university gym were played either uplifting or annoying music while theyworked out. Upon completion of theirworkout, they were asked to either sign a petition in support of a fictitious sporting charity (i.e., a low-cost task) or to distribute leaflets on their behalf (i.e., a high-cost task). Responses to the petition-signing measure indicated a ceiling effect with almost all participants offering to help. However, consistent with previous research on mood and helping behavior, uplifting music led to participants offering to help more on the high-cost, leaflet-distributing task than did annoying music.
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In recent years the relation of music to human evolution has begun to be explored from many different perspectives. In large part, these explorations are motivated by the sense that an evolutionary perspective may be the best way to integrate an understanding of music as a biological phenomenon with an understanding of music as a component of culture. This paper is intended to identify the nature and the sources of the evidence in which explorations of the relations between music and evolution must be rooted in order adequately to address the concerns of musicology, anthropology, archaeology and cognitive science. The principal sources of evidence fall into six categories: functional, phylogenetic, developmental, physiological, ethnographic and archaeological. The first, functional, deals with the social and individu al roles of 'music' across cultures, and provides the fundamental delimitation of what can legitimately be construed as 'musical'. The second, phylogenetic, is required to assess the degree of homology between human musical behaviours and 'musical' compet ences in other species. The third, developmental, provides indications as to the genetic component of sets of behaviours, while the fourth, physiological, sets the boundaries for the possession and exercise of 'musical' capacities and behaviours. The fifth, ethnographic, examines the roles and possible forms and artefacts of music in current lifeways and environments that are similar to ancient lifeways and environments, while the sixth, archaeological, is concerned with the 'hard' evidence of ancient artefacts and their find contexts. The evolutionary perspective on music needs to be examined and its evidentiary bases need to be made explicit in order to elucidate the relation of culture to biology and situate music within that relation as well as, criti cally, to delimit the implications of an evolutionary view.
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People often coordinate their movement with visual and auditory environmental rhythms. Previous research showed better performances when coordinating with auditory compared to visual stimuli, and with bimodal compared to unimodal stimuli. However, these results have been demonstrated with discrete rhythms and it is possible that such effects depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms (i.e., whether they are discrete or continuous). The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of the continuity of visual and auditory rhythms on sensorimotor coordination. We examined the dynamics of synchronized oscillations of a wrist pendulum with auditory and visual rhythms at different frequencies, which were either unimodal or bimodal and discrete or continuous. Specifically, the stimuli used were a light flash, a fading light, a short tone and a frequency-modulated tone. The results demonstrate that the continuity of the stimulus rhythms strongly influences visual and auditory motor coordination. Participants' movement led continuous stimuli and followed discrete stimuli. Asymmetries between the half-cycles of the movement in term of duration and nonlinearity of the trajectory occurred with slower discrete rhythms. Furthermore, the results show that the differences of performance between visual and auditory modalities depend on the continuity of the stimulus rhythms as indicated by movements closer to the instructed coordination for the auditory modality when coordinating with discrete stimuli. The results also indicate that visual and auditory rhythms are integrated together in order to better coordinate irrespective of their continuity, as indicated by less variable coordination closer to the instructed pattern. Generally, the findings have important implications for understanding how we coordinate our movements with visual and auditory environmental rhythms in everyday life.
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This chapter reviews the basic arguments related to evolutionary claims for music. In particular, it describes the theory of evolution by natural selection. Before entertaining some possible evolutionary views of music's origins, first it considers two pertinent complicating points of views. One view is that music is a form of nonadaptive pleasure seeking (NAPS). A second view is that music is an evolutionary vestige. It then measures the adaptive value of music. Of the various proposals concerning a possible evolutionary origin for music, eight broad theories can be identified: mate selection, social cohesion, group effort, perceptual development, motor skill development, conflict reduction, safe time passing and transgenerational communication. There are four types of evidence considered in presenting a case for the evolutionary origins of music. Next, it reports some of the archaeological, anthropological, and ethological facts. Moreover, it explores some of the evolutionary arguments that have been advanced to account for the origins of language. The evidence on music and social bonding is shown. Furthermore, a discussion on music and social function, social bonding and hormones, oxytocin and the biology of social bonding, and mood regulation is provided.
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When people play music and dance together, they engage in forms of musical joint action that are often characterized by a shared sense of rhythmic timing and affective state (i.e., temporal and affective entrainment). In order to understand the origins of musical joint action, we propose a model in which entrainment is linked to dual mechanisms (motor resonance and action simulation), which in turn support musical behavior (imitation and complementary joint action). To illustrate this model, we consider two generic forms of joint musical behavior: chorusing and turn-taking. We explore how these common behaviors can be founded on entrainment capacities established early in human development, specifically during musical interactions between infants and their caregivers. If the roots of entrainment are found in early musical interactions which are practiced from childhood into adulthood, then we propose that the rehearsal of advanced musical ensemble skills can be considered to be a refined, mimetic form of temporal and affective entrainment whose evolution begins in infancy.
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Why does chanting, drumming or dancing together make people feel united? Here we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying interpersonal synchrony and its subsequent effects on prosocial behavior among synchronized individuals. We hypothesized that areas of the brain associated with the processing of reward would be active when individuals experience synchrony during drumming, and that these reward signals would increase prosocial behavior toward this synchronous drum partner. 18 female non-musicians were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they drummed a rhythm, in alternating blocks, with two different experimenters: one drumming in-synchrony and the other out-of-synchrony relative to the participant. In the last scanning part, which served as the experimental manipulation for the following prosocial behavioral test, one of the experimenters drummed with one half of the participants in-synchrony and with the other out-of-synchrony. After scanning, this experimenter "accidentally" dropped eight pencils, and the number of pencils collected by the participants was used as a measure of prosocial commitment. Results revealed that participants who mastered the novel rhythm easily before scanning showed increased activity in the caudate during synchronous drumming. The same area also responded to monetary reward in a localizer task with the same participants. The activity in the caudate during experiencing synchronous drumming also predicted the number of pencils the participants later collected to help the synchronous experimenter of the manipulation run. In addition, participants collected more pencils to help the experimenter when she had drummed in-synchrony than out-of-synchrony during the manipulation run. By showing an overlap in activated areas during synchronized drumming and monetary reward, our findings suggest that interpersonal synchrony is related to the brain's reward system.
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Understanding how the timing of motor output is coupled to sensory temporal information is largely based on synchronisation of movements through small motion gaps (finger taps) to mostly empty sensory intervals (discrete beats). This study investigated synchronisation of movements between target barriers over larger motion gaps when closing time gaps of intervals were presented as either continuous, dynamic sounds, or discrete beats. Results showed that although synchronisation errors were smaller for discrete sounds, the variability of errors was lower for continuous sounds. Furthermore, finger movement between targets was found to be more sinusoidal when continuous sensory information was presented during intervals compared to discrete. When movements were made over larger amplitudes, synchronisation errors tended to be more positive and movements between barriers more sinusoidal, than for movements over shorter amplitudes. These results show that the temporal control of movement is not independent from the form of the sensory information that specifies time gaps or the magnitude of the movement required for synchronisation.
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People move to music and coordinate their movements with others spontaneously. Does music enhance spontaneous coordination? We compared the influence of visual information (seeing or not seeing another person) and auditory information (hearing movement or music or hearing no sound) on spontaneous coordination. Pairs of participants were seated side by side in rocking chairs, told a cover story, and asked to rock at a comfortable rate. Both seeing and hearing the other person rock elicited spontaneous coordination, and effects of hearing amplified those of seeing. Coupling with the music was weaker than with the partner, and the music competed with the partner's influence, reducing coordination. Music did, however, function as a kind of social glue: participants who synchronized more with the music felt more connected.
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Although evidence has suggested that synchronized movement can foster cooperation, the ability of synchrony to increase costly altruism and to operate as a function of emotional mechanisms remains unexplored. We predicted that synchrony, due to an ability to elicit low-level appraisals of similarity, would enhance a basic compassionate response toward victims of moral transgressions and thereby increase subsequent costly helping behavior on their behalf. Using a manipulation of rhythmic synchrony, we show that synchronous others are not only perceived to be more similar to oneself but also evoke more compassion and altruistic behavior than asynchronous others experiencing the same plight. These findings both support the view that a primary function of synchrony is to mark others as similar to the self and provide the first empirical demonstration that synchrony-induced affiliation modulates emotional responding and altruism.
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The tendency to mimic and synchronize with others is well established. Although mimicry has been shown to lead to affiliation between co-actors, the effect of interpersonal synchrony on affiliation remains an open question. The authors investigated the relationship by having participants match finger movements with a visual moving metronome. In Experiment 1, affiliation ratings were examined based on the extent to which participants tapped in synchrony with the experimenter. In Experiment 2, synchrony was manipulated. Affiliation ratings were compared for an experimenter who either (a) tapped to a metronome that was synchronous to the participant's metronome, (b) tapped to a metronome that was asynchronous, or (c) did not tap. As hypothesized, in both studies, the degree of synchrony predicted subsequent affiliation ratings. Experiment 3 found that the affiliative effects were unique to interpersonal synchrony.
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Entrainment, broadly defined, is a phenomenon in which two or more independent rhythmic processes synchronize with each other. To illuminate the significance of entrainment for various directions of music research and promote a nuanced understanding of the concept among ethnomusicologists, this publication opens with an exposition of entrainment research in various disciplines, from physics to linguistics and psychology, while systematically introducing basic concepts that are directly relevant to musical entrainment. Topics covered include consideration of self-synchrony and interpersonal synchrony in musical performance, humans’ innate propensities to entrain, the influence of cultural and personal factors on entrainment, the numerous functions of musical entrainment in individual health, socialization, and cultural identification, and a presentation of methodologies and analytical techniques. Finally, some case studies illustrating one methodological strand, that of chronometric analysis, exemplify how the application of the entrainment concept might lead to an understanding of music making and music perception as an integrated, embodied and interactive process.
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Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.
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The vast majority of studies into visual processing are conducted using computer display technology. The current paper describes a new free suite of software tools designed to make this task easier, using the latest advances in hardware and software. PsychoPy is a platform-independent experimental control system written in the Python interpreted language using entirely free libraries. PsychoPy scripts are designed to be extremely easy to read and write, while retaining complete power for the user to customize the stimuli and environment. Tools are provided within the package to allow everything from stimulus presentation and response collection (from a wide range of devices) to simple data analysis such as psychometric function fitting. Most importantly, PsychoPy is highly extensible and the whole system can evolve via user contributions. If a user wants to add support for a particular stimulus, analysis or hardware device they can look at the code for existing examples, modify them and submit the modifications back into the package so that the whole community benefits.
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Moving in synchrony leads to cooperative behaviour and feelings of social closeness, and dance (involving synchronisation to others and music) may cause social bonding, possibly as a consequence of released endorphins. This study uses an experimental paradigm to determine which aspects of synchrony in dance are associated with changes in pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin release) and social bonding between strangers. Those who danced in synchrony experienced elevated pain thresholds, whereas those in the partial and asynchrony conditions experienced no analgesic effects. Similarly, those in the synchrony condition reported being more socially bonded, although they did not perform more cooperatively in an economic game. This experiment suggests that dance encourages social bonding amongst co-actors by stimulating the production of endorphins, but may not make people more altruistic. We conclude that dance may have been an important human behaviour evolved to encourage social closeness between strangers.
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Current theoretical models and empirical research suggest that sensorimotor control and feedback processes may guide time perception and production. In the current study, we investigated the role of motor control and auditory feedback in an interval-production task performed under heightened cognitive load. We hypothesized that general associative learning mechanisms enable the calibration of time against patterns of dynamic change in motor control processes and auditory feedback information. In Experiment 1, we applied a dual-task interference paradigm consisting of a finger-tapping (continuation) task in combination with a working memory task. Participants (nonmusicians) had to either perform or avoid arm movements between successive key presses (continuous vs. discrete). Auditory feedback from a key press (a piano tone) filled either the complete duration of the target interval or only a small part (long vs. short). Results suggested that both continuous movement control and long piano feedback tones contributed to regular timing production. In Experiment 2, we gradually adjusted the duration of the long auditory feedback tones throughout the duration of a trial. The results showed that a gradual shortening of tones throughout time increased the rate at which participants performed tone onsets. Overall, our findings suggest that the human perceptual-motor system may be important in guiding temporal behavior under cognitive load. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Humans are innately social creatures, but cognitive neuroscience, that has traditionally focused on individual brains, is only now beginning to investigate social cognition through realistic interpersonal interaction. Music provides an ideal domain for doing so because it offers a promising solution for balancing the trade-off between ecological validity and experimental control when testing cognitive and brain functions. Musical ensembles constitute a microcosm that provides a platform for parametrically modeling the complexity of human social interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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One year after publishing "False-Positive Psychology," we propose a simple implementation of disclosure that requires but 21 words to achieve full transparency. This article is written in a casual tone. It includes phone-taken pictures of milk-jars and references to ice-cream and sardines.
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Music is regarded in biological terms as originating in the brain, so that most explanations concentrate on the ways in which brains process information. Recent studies of the nonlinear dynamics of the primary sensory cortices have shown that the patterns that are constructed by chaotic nonlinear dynamics in cortical neuropil replace stimulus driven activity. This finding supports the concept that knowledge in brains is entirely constructed within them without direct transfer of information from outside. As knowledge increases by learning, brains of individuals grow progressively apart. The separation results from the uniqueness of the knowledge that is constructed within each brain. The resulting condition of isolation is known among philosophers as epistemologic al solipsism. This view is reinforced by the tenets of aesthetics, which emphasize the deeply personal experiences of individuals, not as active listeners but as passive recipients of beauty in music and other arts. Neither conventional neuroscience nor aesthetics can explain the deep emotional power of music to move humans to action. An alternative view is presented, in which human brains are seen to have evolved primarily in response to environmental pressures to bridge the solipsistic gulf between individuals, and to form integrated societies. An evolutionary origin is found in the neurohumoral mechanisms of parental bonding to altricial infants. A case is made that music together with dance have co-evolved biologically and culturally to serve as a technology of social bonding. Findings of anthropologis ts and psychiatrists are reviewed to show how the rhythmic behavioral activities that are induced by drum beats and music can lead to altered states of consciousness , through which mutual trust among members of societies is engendered. "All arts, we must remember, are phases of the social mind. We are so much in the habit of thinking of them in terms of art products that we forget that the arts themselves are groups of ideas and acquisitions of skill that exist only in the minds, muscles, and nerves of living men. " Giddings (1932):
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Although evidence has suggested that coordinated action enhances rapport and fosters cooperation, the possibility that it might also influence the ability to pursue joint goals has yet to be demonstrated. We show that rocking in synchrony enhanced individuals’ perceptual sensitivity to the motion of other entities and thereby increased their success in a subsequent joint-action task that required the ability to dynamically detect and respond appropriately to a partner’s movements. These findings support the view that in addition to fostering social cohesion, synchrony hones the abilities that allow individuals to functionally direct their cooperative motives.
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Music is used to regulate mood and arousal in everyday life and to promote physical and psychological health and well-being in clinical settings. However, scientific inquiry into the neurochemical effects of music is still in its infancy. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that music improves health and well-being through the engagement of neurochemical systems for (i) reward, motivation, and pleasure; (ii) stress and arousal; (iii) immunity; and (iv) social affiliation. We discuss the limitations of these studies and outline novel approaches for integration of conceptual and technological advances from the fields of music cognition and social neuroscience into studies of the neurochemistry of music.
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In 2 studies, the Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) Scale, a single-item, pictorial measure of closeness, demonstrated alternate-form and test–retest reliability; convergent validity with the Relationship Closeness Inventory (E. Berscheid et al, 1989), the R. J. Sternberg (1988) Intimacy Scale, and other measures; discriminant validity; minimal social desirability correlations; and predictive validity for whether romantic relationships were intact 3 mo later. Also identified and cross-validated were (1) a 2-factor closeness model (Feeling Close and Behaving Close) and (2) longevity–closeness correlations that were small for women vs moderately positive for men. Five supplementary studies showed convergent and construct validity with marital satisfaction and commitment and with a reaction-time (RT)-based cognitive measure of closeness in married couples; and with intimacy and attraction measures in stranger dyads following laboratory closeness-generating tasks. In 3 final studies most Ss interpreted IOS Scale diagrams as depicting interconnectedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We seem able to define the biological foundations for our musicality within a clear and unitary framework, yet music itself does not appear so clearly definable. Music is different things and does different things in different cultures; the bundles of elements and functions that are music for any given culture may overlap minimally with those of another culture, even for those cultures where “music” constitutes a discrete and identifiable category of human activity in its own right. The dynamics of culture, of music as cultural praxis, are neither necessarily reducible, nor easily relatable, to the dynamics of our biologies. Yet music appears to be a universal human competence. Recent evolutionary theory, however, affords a means for exploring things biological and cultural within a framework in which they are at least commensurable. The adoption of this perspective shifts the focus of the search for the foundations of music away from the mature and particular expression of music within a specific culture or situation and on to the human capacity for musicality. This paper will survey recent research that examines that capacity and its evolutionary origins in the light of a definition of music that embraces music's multifariousness. It will be suggested that music, like speech, is a product of both our biologies and our social interactions; that music is a necessary and integral dimension of human development; and that music may have played a central role in the evolution of the modern human mind.
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The pull to coordinate with other individuals is fundamental, serving as the basis for our social connectedness to others. Discussed is a dynamical and ecological perspective to joint action, an approach that embeds the individual’s mind in a body and the body in a niche, a physical and social environment. Research on uninstructed coordination of simple incidental rhythmic movement, along with research on goal-directed, embodied cooperation, is reviewed. Finally, recent research is discussed that extends the coordination and cooperation studies, examining how synchronizing with another, and how emergent social units of perceiving and acting are reflected in people’s feelings of connection to others.
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The last decade has witnessed enormous growth in the neuroscience of empathy. Here, we survey research in this domain with an eye toward evaluating its strengths and weaknesses. First, we take stock of the notable progress made by early research in characterizing the neural systems supporting two empathic sub-processes: sharing others' internal states and explicitly considering those states. Second, we describe methodological and conceptual pitfalls into which this work has sometimes fallen, which can limit its validity. These include the use of relatively artificial stimuli that differ qualitatively from the social cues people typically encounter and a lack of focus on the relationship between brain activity and social behavior. Finally, we describe current research trends that are overcoming these pitfalls through simple but important adjustments in focus, and the future promise of empathy research if these trends continue and expand.
Article
Music is capable of evoking exceptionally strong emotions and of reliably affecting the mood of individuals. Functional neuroimaging and lesion studies show that music-evoked emotions can modulate activity in virtually all limbic and paralimbic brain structures. These structures are crucially involved in the initiation, generation, detection, maintenance, regulation and termination of emotions that have survival value for the individual and the species. Therefore, at least some music-evoked emotions involve the very core of evolutionarily adaptive neuroaffective mechanisms. Because dysfunctions in these structures are related to emotional disorders, a better understanding of music-evoked emotions and their neural correlates can lead to a more systematic and effective use of music in therapy.
Article
A new framework for the understanding of functional relationships between perception and action is discussed. According to this framework, perceived events and planned actions share a common representational domain (common-coding approach). Supporting evidence from two classes of experimental paradigms is presented: induction paradigms and interference paradigms. Induction paradigms study how certain stimuli induce certain actions by virtue of similarity. Evidence from two types of induction tasks is reviewed: sensorimotor synchronisation and spatial compatibility tasks. Interference paradigms study the mutual interference between the perception of ongoing events and the preparation and control of ongoing action. Again, evidence from two types of such tasks is reviewed, implying interference in either direction. It is concluded that the evidence available supports the common coding principle. A further general principle emerging from these studies is the action effect principle that is, the principle that cognitive representations of action effects play a critical role in the planning and control of these actions.
Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) v1.0: Technical report and documentation
  • D Müllensiefen
  • B Gingras
  • L Stewart
  • J Musil
Müllensiefen, D., Gingras, B., Stewart, L., & Musil, J. (2013). Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication Index (Gold-MSI) v1.0: Technical report and documentation. Revision 0.3. London: Goldsmiths, University of London.
  • J Stupacher
J. Stupacher et al. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 72 (2017) 39-44
A 21 word solution. SPSP Dialogue: The Official Newsletter of the Society for
  • J P Simmons
  • L D Nelson
  • U Simonsohn
Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2012). A 21 word solution. SPSP Dialogue: The Official Newsletter of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 4-7.