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An Analysis of Cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, and the Future

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Cryptocurrency, an encrypted, peer-to-peer network for facilitating digital barter, is a technology developed eight years ago. Bitcoin, the first and most popular cryptocurrency, is paving the way as a disruptive technology to long standing and unchanged financial payment systems that have been in place for many decades. While cryptocurrencies are not likely to replace traditional fiat currency, they could change the way Internet-connected global markets interact with each other, clearing away barriers surrounding normative national currencies and exchange rates. Technology advances at a rapid rate, and the success of a given technology is almost solely dictated by the market upon which it seeks to improve. Cryptocurrencies may revolutionize digital trade markets by creating a free flowing trading system without fees. A SWOT analysis of Bitcoin is presented, which illuminates some of the recent events and movements that could influence whether Bitcoin contributes to a shift in economic paradigms.
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International Journal of Business Management and Commerce Vol. 1 No. 2; September 2016
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An Analysis of Cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, and the Future
Peter D. DeVries
Professor of MIS
University of Houston Downtown
One Main Street, FAMIS Department, B428, Houston, TX 77002
United States of America
Abstract
Cryptocurrency, an encrypted, peer-to-peer network for facilitating digital barter, is a technology
developed eight years ago. Bitcoin, the first and most popular cryptocurrency, is paving the way
as a disruptive technology to long standing and unchanged financial payment systems that have
been in place for many decades. While cryptocurrencies are not likely to replace traditional fiat
currency, they could change the way Internet-connected global markets interact with each other,
clearing away barriers surrounding normative national currencies and exchange rates.
Technology advances at a rapid rate, and the success of a given technology is almost solely
dictated by the market upon which it seeks to improve. Cryptocurrencies may revolutionize digital
trade markets by creating a free flowing trading system without fees. A SWOT analysis of Bitcoin
is presented, which illuminates some of the recent events and movements that could influence
whether Bitcoin contributes to a shift in economic paradigms.
Key Words: Cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, Encrypted, Currency, Bitpay, Exchange Rates
1. Introduction
Bitcoin, the world‟s most common and well known cryptocurrency, has been increasing in popularity. It has the
same basic structure as it did when created in 2008, but repeat instances of the world market changing has created
a new demand for cryptocurrencies much greater than its initial showing. By using a cryptocurrency, users are
able to exchange value digitally without third party oversight. Cryptocurrency works on the theory of solving
encryption algorithms to create unique hashes that are finite in number. Combined with a network of computers
verifying transactions, users are able to exchange hashes as if exchanging physical currency. There is a finite
number of bitcoin that will ever be generated, preventing an overabundance and ensuring its rarity. Water, despite
its requirement as a life giving material, is generally accepted as being free or of little cost because it is so
abundant. If water was rare, it would be more valuable than diamonds. Value exists for bitcoin because its users
have trust that if they accept it as payment, they would could use it elsewhere to purchase something they want or
need (Kelly, 2014). As long as the users maintain this faith, the valued object can be anything. Bitcoin‟s value
exists in its ecosystem much in the same way that wampum, a seashell, was the currency of the land for Native
Americans (Kelly, 2014). Bitcoin does not have intrinsic value like gold in that it cannot be used to make physical
objects like jewelry that have value. Nevertheless, value continues to exist due to trust and acceptance.
Current legal and financial structures are not designed with a technology like this in mind. Financial institutions
are built off of much older forms of currency. In some ways, it is comparative to the computing industry. The
baseline of computing still relies on transmitting and processing 1‟s and 0‟s, providing only two dimensions of
input. Yet all of our current technology uses this technologically archaic system due to adoption, cultivation, and
lack of need for newer systems. If cryptocurrencies became the global norm for transactions, long standing
systems for trade would need to be completely reformed to deal with this type of competition. For this reason,
cryptocurrencies could possibly be the single most disruptive technology to global financial and economic
systems.
BitPay, the largest bitcoin processor in the world, has recently seen transaction rate grow 110% in the past 12
months (Team, 2016).
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Transaction increase is an indicator of user acceptance growing. The conditions for Bitcoin‟s widespread adoption
could be described as a “fire triangle”. Where fire needs fuel, oxygen, and heat to exist; Bitcoin needs user
acceptance, vendor acceptance, and innovation to ignite. Without all three aspects, bitcoin may not truly become a
legitimized mainstream currency. Bitcoin is currently experiencing an increase in user acceptance and use, which
is driving the other two aspects of the “fire triangle”. Cryptocurrency‟s adoption will be an important subject to
watch in the future, as it could be a truly transformative technology that alters the way money is exchanged
worldwide. Bitcoin‟s increased adoption has been integrally tied to global market shifts. The current Internet-
fueled global market is very much entangled. If one regional market begins to plummet, it can easily drag the
others with it. Bitcoin, like the Euro, can freely move across many national borders, creating an environment that
promotes global trade, mutual prosperity, and even peace.
2. Strengths
Bitcoin has strength by design to make it a viable currency that has elevated it in status over the years, more
notably the fixed limit of bitcoin that will exist. Bitcoin will be mined with diminishing returns every four years
until the maximum number of bitcoins are reached: a total of 21 million (King, 2013). This aspect of Bitcoin is
important for its value. Due to the limited amount of bitcoins, it will never become inflated from an
overabundance of bitcoins. Also, bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies are generally regarded as being protected
from inflation originating from national government changes or restrictions (Magro, 2016). This creates a “safe
haven” for investors to put their wealth into, as it generally does not lose value based on inflation. Bitcoin is
quickly showing its strength as a refuge against inflating national currencies. However, as is the case with most
commodities, the price can fluctuate wildly based on many other external factors. The combination of demand for
a safe haven option and its price volatility helped Bitcoin to become the best performing currency of 2015 using
the US Dollar Index (Desjardins, 2016). This means that Bitcoin was the highest valued currency in the entire
world at the end of last year. This is no small feat in a global economy with powerhouses like China and the
United States running the landscape.
Figure 1: The Best Performing Currency of 2015
Source: Desjardins, J. (2016, January 5)
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South America has seen a huge increase in bitcoin transactions, increasing 510% from 2014 to 2015 (Bitcoin: A
New Global Economy, 2015). Argentina is a hotbed for increased cryptocurrency usage due to its extremely high
inflation rate and high population of unbanked citizens (Magro, 2016). In the past, Argentinians would convert
their currency into US dollars to preserve their value. However, Argentina has recently put restrictions on how
many US dollars its citizens can convert. As a result, both a black market for purchasing USD at a higher price
and increased bitcoin adoption has arisen (Magro, 2016). The demand for Argentinians to keep their currency
value has made itself very apparent, and cryptocurrencies are prominent legal vehicles to meet that demand.
Figure 2: Bitcoin Transaction Volume Growth
Source: Bitcoin: A New Global Economy (2015)
Argentina‟s situation is not an isolated case. Over and over again, investors have seen global markets crash
(generally for political reasons), and crypto currencies increase in value and usage. The United Kingdom has
recently voted to leave the European Union, popularized by the term “Brexit”. Before the vote, the price of bitcoin
dropped almost 15% (Bovaird, 2016). After the UK voted to leave, the price skyrocketed from $550 to $650 a day
later. Inversely, the world‟s globally traded markets saw a significant drop in value as investors lost confidence in
what the Brexit vote would mean financially. Cryptocurrency is strong in this situation as being the only currency
that can be purchased and sold expeditiously, and still be used worldwide. Other fiat currencies can be exchanged,
but that activity requires visiting a money exchange in person, and that money cannot be spent unless it is
accepted locally. For example, an American could not quickly exchange USD for Japanese Yen, then use that
currency to make a purchase. They would have to visit a currency exchange, which may require driving to the
nearest international airport. Secondly, once they‟ve obtained the currency, they would have no way to use the
Yen because it is not a locally trusted and recognized currency. This situation is not the case for Bitcoin (or any
other cryptocurrency). To purchase bitcoin, one only needs to set up an online account with an online exchange,
make their request, and the transaction is usually completed in minutes. Once the bitcoin is in their digital wallet,
they would be able to make purchases from thousands of vendors worldwide. In this example, Bitcoin is the more
viable solution as quick entry and exit for a currency that can quickly gain value. Other fiat currencies may
become stronger and be more desired, but they cannot compete with cryptocurrencies agility. Cryptocurrency is
the disruptive technology that could be pushed into acceptance by investors who simply want a refuge from
sinking global markets.
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An increase in Bitcoin flow will motivate vendor acceptance to accommodate customer needs. Theoretically, this
would be a cyclical effect. As more vendors adopt cryptocurrency technology, more users will use it to capitalize
on its benefits.
3. Weaknesses
Bitcoin has quite a few internal weaknesses that are part of its design and cannot easily be modified. The public
ledger, or block chain, means that every user can see every transaction. There is semi-anonymity, in that the
owners of bitcoin wallets cannot be identified outright, but it is slightly nerve-wracking for some potential
adopters. The public block chain is shared with all users, which means that it is susceptible to attacks due to easy
access (King, 2013). So far, the Bitcoin network has been subjected to multiple “stress tests” that were essentially
DDoS attacks (Hileman, 2016). These tests were launched by exchanges and miners to attempt to prove a point
about Bitcoin‟s design: that the network cannot handle a high load transaction rates. The mere fact that the
participants of Bitcoin‟s operation can bring the network down to prove a point is an unfortunate design feature of
the code. These two aspects of Bitcoin‟s design are integral to operation, and cannot be changed. Adoption by
reluctant users must be in spite of these attributes.
Bitcoin has developed a questionable reputation through recent events. Stories like Silk Road can portray a
negative image of digital currency in general, not just Bitcoin. Silk Road was an online marketplace buried in the
dark-net, which allowed thousands of drug dealers and nearly a million customers to make illegal drug deals.
Bitcoin was their primary means of transaction, due to the lack of government tracking and semi-anonymity. It
ran from 2011 to 2013, and racked up nearly one billion USD in sales (Bearman, 2015). People want criminals to
have justice meted against them, so the semi-anonymity attribute of bitcoin seems negative to law abiding
citizens. Without positive marketing towards the value of semi-anonymity for normal users, the general user base
will think that cryptocurrencies are only used by criminals.
Cryptocurrencies have also developed a reputation of having questionable security. Mt Gox, short for Magic the
Gathering Online Exchange, was the world‟s primary bitcoin exchange until it went bankrupt after it was robbed
by hackers in 2011 of approximately 460 million USD (McMillan, 2014). The CEO and main programmer, Mark
Karpeles, was not using version control for new code. He also would allow bug and security fixes to languish for
weeks (McMillan, 2014). These security flaws and oversights allowed hackers to skim bitcoin from the exchange.
This breach severely dropped Bitcoins value when users sold their bitcoin for fear of it getting stolen. Etherium,
another form of digital currency, just recently suffered a similar form of theft to the tune of a 50 million USD
hack (Price, 2016). These hacks are generally targeted at large holders of cryptocurrency that do not keep their
security standards up to date. They are the main reason that the value of these currencies plummet, and do the
most damage to the image of cryptocurrency. Until future organizations who exchange cryptocurrency understand
how security flaws can lead to these attacks, these events will continue to hinder adoption.
Investors are beginning to realize that the bitcoin network has begun to stabilize, and immediate returns on
investment are not guaranteed. The source code makes solving the algorithm more difficult starting in June 2016,
increasing the cost of bitcoin mining. This is called a “halving event”, and it cuts the number of bitcoin returned
to miners by half. This could effectively push out 25% of the bitcoin network that is running older computer
hardware, as it would cost more to operate the machines than would be earned from mining (Kar, 2016). This
shift in the mining community could make the network less secure and more vulnerable to attack. It also makes it
less likely for new miners to enter the network due to the higher overhead required and limited returns on mining.
s the halving events continue, only the largest miners will exist until all of the bitcoin has been mined.
Cryptocurrencies ability to be traded like a commodity can also be a weakness. Commodity based markets show
a huge fluctuation in value from various events in the marketplace. This value fluctuation ultimately limits
investor trust in the commodities. An unforeseen event could cause an investor to lose huge portions of money,
decreasing investor trust. Also, determinates of bitcoin price have not truly been meted out, which creates an
uncertain trading environment. Commodities are also prone to being traded by investors with a “buy low, sell
high” mentality, which has overreaching effects to those who are using bitcoin for currency and create value
fluctuations. Price volatility generates risk, which discourages both merchants and consumers from holding
cryptocurrency for any significant length of time (PwC, 2015). Too much risk in lower‟s consumer trust, which
limits validation of legitimacy. Bitcoin‟s price is also at risk from being in a shallow market, even though it has
the highest capacity of all cryptocurrencies.
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An individual who desires to purchase a large amount of bitcoin would not be unable to without affecting the
current price (Kasiyanto, 2016). This is exponentially greater for other cryptocurrencies, who have a much smaller
capacity. Cryptocurrencies do not seem to be a mature form of currency in its current market and state. Further
growth in capacity and adoption would theoretically alleviate this problem.
4. Opportunities
Cryptocurrency is in a unique position as a forerunner in a possibly transformative technology to long standing
financial systems. By its very nature, it is able to fill gaps in current financial technologies and be able to help
solve traditional banking problems by being a peer-to-peer system. Napster, another peer-to-peer system,
transformed the music industry by cutting out the middle man (Kelly, 2014). Transformative technologies start by
solving a specific problem in an industry. For instance, cryptocurrencies are poised to help remediate the
problems related to unbanked consumers. Significant portions of the population in developing countries are
unbanked. In Latin America, 60% of 600 million inhabitants have no access to bank accounts (Magro, 2016).
Bitcoin‟s technology allows for individuals to exchange currency without needing a third trusted party, like a
bank, to oversee the transaction. All that is needed to use Bitcoin is a mobile phone, which 70% of Latin
Americans do have access to (Magro, 2016). Due to bitcoin‟s ad-hoc networking capability, two users can trade
bitcoin with each other by scanning QR codes displayed on their phones printed out by the application. This is a
truly unique solution to a problem that has existed for many years for some people. This would invariably
increase as the user base grows, so the demand for better cryptocurrency network and applications will come to
the forefront. There is an enormous market for potential developers to create these applications, as this technology
could affect any industry that relies on a trusted third-party clearing system (PwC, 2015). Any developers who
increase usability through application and GUI improvements to bitcoin would be very successful. Bitcoin‟s
progression into becoming a transformative technology is driven by its ability to solve long standing problems,
combined with a supportive and growing community of developers and users.
Businesses are beginning to see the value in using cryptocurrencies for international transactions, especially when
transactions need to occur quickly in response to an emergency. Cryptocurrencies are solely positioned to solve
this problem thanks to the speed and ease of transaction in the peer-to-peer system. Money can be wired
internationally, but typically arriving days after being sent and not for the full amount (Team, 2016). The
transaction can be hit with any number of unexplained fees as it crosses borders, making it difficult to send the
correct amount to another business. A good example of this type of emergency need is an online company who is
suffering from a denial-of-service attack and is looking to get immediate protection from a network security
company (Team, 2016). In this scenario, speed is of transaction is of the essence, for every minute that the
company‟s website is down, profits are being lost. Cryptocurrency has a major advantage over traditional
currencies thanks to its agility in making fast peer-to-peer transactions, especially in international business-to-
business scenarios.
Internet marketplaces have been thriving and are true contenders to traditional brick-and-mortar stores.
Amazon.com has grown to a degree that seems almost unexpected. They have even begun to hire “on-demand”
delivery drivers, who use their own personally owned vehicle to deliver standard packages (Saito, 2016). This
type of growth shows an attempt to further tighten control of the company‟s logistics costs, which expand
exponentially with increased business. Ebay.com already uses a paying system that is similar to Bitcoin called
PayPal, and has been very successful in using it to facilitate all purchases made on its site. Silk Road was another
example of a thriving online market, albeit it‟s very illegal nature. It connected buyers and sellers who mostly
used bitcoin to complete transactions. This marketplace showed how a digital currency can connect buyers and
sellers without much interference by presiding governments and still succeed. Online shopping is thriving, and
bitcoin is poised to extend its reach with efficient and easy payments for both vendors and customers. General
purpose online shopping for individuals accounted for nearly 23 percent of transactions processed by Bitpay in
the second quarter of 2015 (Kasiyanto, 2016). Cryptocurrency has the advantage over traditional card-based for
the vendor in that it eliminates those fees.
International laws regarding taxation have been passed recently, creating validity for cryptocurrency as a
mainstream device. Laws regarding the taxation of cryptocurrencies are required before digital currency could be
considered a truly valid form of transactions. Towards the end of 2015, the European Court of Justice announced
that it viewed bitcoin transactions as exempt from value-added tax (Hileman, 2016). Steps like this will
significantly increase cryptocurrency flow.
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Some users would refuse to use currency without knowing how it would affect their tax statements, regardless of
what positive light in which they are viewed.
One of Bitcoin‟s largest opportunities is that it can also act as a sort of commodity, similar to gold. The value of
gold can spike considerably whenever an event threatens the balance of the global market, as we have seen with
the Brexit vote. The precious metal saw an increase in value to a two-year high as investors became uncertain as
to how the markets would react to the vote, using it as a safe haven (Reuters, 2016). The commodity market is a
widely accepted form of trade worldwide, and cryptocurrency has seemingly begun to mimic the characteristics of
gold. Gold has been a long standing holder of value, and that is based on the universal acceptance and trust of its
value. Cryptocurrencies could potentially become a big player in the commodity market. They have a unique
attribute of being purchased through a direct online mechanism, which creates easy entry for buyers. If bitcoin
continues to be a valid refuge for inflating currencies, it will gain validity to investors and push deeper into
becoming more mainstream.
5. Threats
Bitcoin has quite a few hurdles to clear for user acceptance to become widespread. The value fluctuations that
plague cryptocurrencies puts doubt in users, as well as investors. Ultimately a limiting factor in cryptocurrency is
general acceptance. [PWC]. Value fluctuations reduce trust that a consumer‟s value would be retained on a day to
day basis, limiting faith in the currencies overall worth. In a survey performed by PwC, 83% of those surveyed
had little to no familiarity of bitcoin (PwC, 2015). The lack of central ownership of cryptocurrencies means that
any attempt to remediate this marketing problem using advertisements could theoretically help the investing
company‟s competition. This is not an ideal situation for a marketing plan. Cryptocurrencies have also seen fraud
and theft, generally due to faulty system setups by exchange companies. These hacks generally make the news,
and can easily convince the layman that they are unsafe locations to put their money. There is also a large gap in
laws that cover the use of cryptocurrency. As long as cryptocurrencies remain in an area not generally covered by
law, user acceptance will be limited. User‟s need to trust that any transactions using cryptocurrencies are legal and
binding. Markets and governments are slow to react to the new technology. Ultimately, all of these factors limit
consumer‟s trust in bitcoin and cryptocurrency.
This lack of trust leads to issues with investors as well. The dead pool of failed startups has increased to 24,
mostly citing „security‟ as the main reason for closure (Hileman, 2016). This metric could be considered a
watermark for future investors to consider before investing in bitcoin. The Mt Gox and DAO hack shows how
inattentive organization can not only lose millions of dollars‟ worth of digital currency, but can drop the value
significantly. New startups now know that a haphazard and unplanned launch is ill-advised at best, and new
market entry will be limited. This could ultimately hurt bitcoin, as development of better software is important to
improve security and user acceptance. As obvious of a concern as it may seem, security implementation and fixes
are both generally slow to adapt for any new technology. Even the DAO hack exploit was documented as a
potential problem weeks before the attack (Price, 2016). One of the issues with security is that the decentralized
nature prevents a unified effort to completely secure every server that runs the code. A unified front in the realm
of cryptocurrency may need to rise before the peer-to-peer network would become truly secured. A standards
committee similar to ANSI, the American National Standards Institute, may need to be appointed for
cryptocurrencies to develop security standards beyond the bitcoin application requirements. This type of
regulation could only be implemented at the cost of the freedom of peer-to-peer networks, and may cause
independent miners to exit the market.
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Figure 3: Bitcoin ‘Deadpool’ Grows to 26 Startups
Source: Hileman, G. (2016)
There are also competitors to cryptocurrency that are attempting to provide an alternative to digital currency.
Apple is one of the main competitors with their product ApplePay. They are levering their infrastructure and
hardware to give users the ability to charge their debit or credit cards associated to their iTunes account with their
phones. Traditional credit card companies like Visa and MasterCard are happily joining ApplePay‟s infrastructure
as are allowed to keep their fees (Gerber, 2015). Bitcoin will always have a difficult time competing with these
household names. PayPal has been very successful as the eBay exchanging system, and could potentially be
moved into mobile payment. Companies like Apple, Google, and Amazon have entire marketing budgets with a
foothold in the mobile application market, giving them a huge advantage over Bitcoin‟s comparatively small time
players. Mobile consumers want to be able to buy things with phones directly, and bitcoin would have a hard time
rallying together as a community to beat out competitors.
Another serious threat to cryptocurrency is the maze of US regulations that would need to be traversed before
mainstream user acceptance. The US government has yet to even classify what type of asset bitcoin is, which will
prevent most market participants from adopting cryptocurrency-based business models (PwC, 2015).
Cryptocurrency could be labeled as either a security, capital asset, commodity, or a currency, and each would
have a different effect on how bitcoin is adopted. International views of bitcoin vary by country, but seems to be
viewed positively based on Bitpay‟s assessment of transactions. In Europe, transactions have reached an all-time
high at 102,221 per quarter (Patterson, 2015), which may be the cause regulations being passed regarding bitcoin
and cryptocurrency. Bitcoin transaction have become exempt from value added tax by the European Court of
Justice, effectively recognizing it as a legitimate means of payment in Europe (Perez, 2015). This simply means
that bitcoin transaction will not be taxed in Europe. While great news for European bitcoin users, other major
markets are still missing crucial legislation regarding bitcoin taxation. Legislation in the United States could
negatively affect how bitcoin transactions are processed, delivering a severe blow to legitimacy as a currency.
6. Conclusions
Cryptocurrency seems to have move past the early adoption phase that new technologies experience. Even motor
vehicles experienced this phenomenon. Bitcoin has begun to carve itself a niche market, which could help
advance cryptocurrencies further into becoming mainstream; or be the main cause of it failing. Cryptocurrencies
are still in their infancy, and it is difficult to see if they will ever find true mainstream presence in world markets.
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The Bitcoin community is striving to push into the mainstream through innovation and solving old problems.
Other forms of cryptocurrency have already emerged and have gained followings of their own, and each slightly
different from Bitcoin and arguably as valid. Some nations like Iceland have even begun to start their own
national cryptocurrencies (Hofman, 2014). It possible that the future holds a place for cryptocurrency as a major
currency solution, and Bitcoin will be instrumental in paving the way for those currencies to flourish. The
European and Latin America markets are exploding with Bitcoin transactions, signifying true validity. Further
topics to explore regarding Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are quite numerous. Extensive studies should be
performed on the economic effects of Bitcoin‟s effect on long standing fiat currency performance, and compare
the results to countries that are beginning to adopt state-sponsored cryptocurrencies. The ability for
cryptocurrency to perform micro transactions may allow it to bridge an economic gap that traditional state
sponsored currencies would not be able to solve, but requires a much deeper market and economic analysis to
determine. Also, the block chain technology that acts as Bitcoin‟s backbone has potential uses in other ways, such
as smart contracts (Hileman, 2016). These contracts are programmed payments that occur when a set condition
occurs. Predetermined payment contracts are normally carried out by an entire accounting department of a
company, making this an extremely interesting topic of further transformation. Lastly, cryptocurrency is a product
of using cryptography to create a digital property. The frontier of digital property was popularized by the music
industry‟s shift to a cloud-based infrastructure. This frontier is still fairly new and unexplored, mainly populated
by different types of media. Other forms of digital property may become as popular as music and cryptocurrency.
Eight years ago, digital money was completely unheard of, and the creator of Bitcoin single handedly changed
that. Cryptology, the root science beneath bitcoin and all cryptocurrencies, may be the mechanism behind the
frontier for new and exciting digital inventions.
7. References
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https://www.wired.com/2015/04/silk-road-1/
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Retrieved June 2016, from CoinDesk Website: http://www.coindesk.com/bitcoin-brexit-ether-price-
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McMillan, R. (2014, March 3). The Inside Story of Mt. Gox, Bitcoin‟s $460 Million Disaster. Retrieved from
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of-millions-allegedly-stolen-2016-6
PwC. (2015, August). Money is no object: Understanding the evolving cryptocurrency market. Retrieved from
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Fortune.com Website: http://fortune.com/2016/07/06/brexit-gold-prices/
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... It is largely supposed as a further accessible substitute to the conventional and conservative banking system. Third, it is economical, affordable, faster and more convenient for international transfers and this makes it acceptable and attractive to numerous end users [14] (Team, 2016). ...
... Baur and Dimpfl [16] observed that in spite of the high unpredictability and risk associated with the cryptocurrency, it is still a good store of value due to its decentralized and deflationary nature. Furthermore, DeVries [14] emphasized some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of the cryptocurrency. One remarkable strength is that bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies are not impacted by the rise in price level (inflation). ...
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Due to the global debate on the acceptability of the emerging currency called the crypto, economists all over the world have been faced with the dilemma of rejecting or accepting the cryptocurrency. Nigeria as a developing economy is also faced with this dilemma because, some financial transactions in Nigeria are now done using the cryptocurrency and this in turn has caused some disequilibrium in the capturing and management of liquidity by the monetary authority in the economy. Based on the underlying issues, this paper seeks to investigate liquidity management and cryptocurrency in Nigeria using the vector autoregressive lag model (ARDL). The variables employed in the model were bitcoin which was used as a proxy for a cryptocurrency, while interbank rate (IBR), monetary policy rate (MPR), open buyback (OBB), and maximum lending rate (MLR) were used as proxy for liquidity management, respectively. This study covers the period January 2017 to June 2021. The result of the bounds test of the autoregressive distributive lag model reveals that there is a long run co-integration among the variables. The long-run autoregressive distributive lag model also shows that only maximum lending rate has a significant impact on bitcoin, though negative. The post estimation test demonstrates that the model is significant and robustly fit. Based on the findings, policy recommendations suggest that the monetary authority in Nigeria should maintain its regulatory stance against accepting cryptocurrency as a legal tender and be more proactive in controlling the activities of shadow organisations that are engaged in the business of converting cryptocurrencies to naira and vice versa.
... However, a blockchain must include light nodes [3], which may just be interested in confirming a few specific transactions, for better scalability. In the original Bitcoin protocol [4], which is a public database of financial transactions, the blockchain is used to keep track of coins [5]. The ledger network is also known as a decentralized peer-to-peer network [2]. ...
... N=2 n and N-1 transactions are an odd number of transactions. if n=4, then 2 4 = 16transactions and in case 2, it is N-1 and here 15 transactions.[1,3,5,7,9,11,…] these number of transactions need duplication in the first level itself to find the pair to concatenate. ...
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A Merkle tree is an information construction that is used in Blockchain to verify data or transactions in a large content pool in a safe manner. The role of the Merkle tree is crucial in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies in a Blockchain network. In this paper, we propose a bright and enhanced verification method, Merkle Trim Tree-based Blockchain Authentication (MTTBA) for the hash node traversal to reach the Merkle Root in a minimum time. MTTBA is a unique mechanism for verifying the Merkle Tree's accumulated transactions specifically for an odd number of transactions. The future impact of cryptocurrency is going to be massive and MTTBA proves its efficacy in transaction speed and eliminating node duplication. Our method enables any block to validate transactions' full availability without duplicating hash nodes. Performance has been evaluated in different parameters and the results show marked improvement in throughput(1680ms), processing time(29700kbps), memory usage(140MB), and security(99.30%). The energy consumption factor is crucial in the scenario, and MTTBA has achieved the lowest of 240 joules.
... Therefore, these lead to involvement in illegal activities as one of the main drawbacks [15]. For instance, the famous story of the Silk Road website portrayed a negative image of Bitcoin, which was a dark web black market for trading illegal substances [31]. It is worth mentioning that illicit internet activities are not only limited to cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologies. ...
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The total capital in cryptocurrency markets is around two trillion dollars in 2022, which is almost the same as Apple’s market capitalisation at the same time. Increasingly, cryptocurrencies have become established in financial markets with an enormous number of transactions and trades happening every day. Similar to other financial systems, price prediction is one of the main challenges in cryptocurrency trading. Therefore, the application of artificial intelligence, as one of the tools of prediction, has emerged as a recently popular subject of investigation in the cryptocurrency domain. Since machine learning models, as opposed to traditional financial models, demonstrate satisfactory performance in quantitative finance, they seem ideal for coping with the price prediction problem in the complex and volatile cryptocurrency market. There have been several studies that have focused on applying machine learning for price and movement prediction and portfolio management in cryptocurrency markets, though these methods and models are in their early stages. This survey paper aims to review the current research trends in applications of supervised and reinforcement learning models in cryptocurrency price prediction. This study also highlights potential research gaps and possible areas for improvement. In addition, it emphasises potential challenges and research directions that will be of interest in the artificial intelligence and machine learning communities focusing on cryptocurrencies.
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Cryptocurrency is the top trend of the current era. It gained popularity quickly because of its advantages, such as cost-effectiveness, convenience, and secure medium of exchange. However, it suffers from the problem of money laundering, the mining process, and the outflow of the dollar. The current study aims to find cryptocurrency’s impact on the traditional financial system. For this purpose, the current research conducted interviews with ten different persons that know the use of cryptocurrency. After making different themes from transcribed data, NVivo software is used to analyze with the help of Word Tag Cloud, Word Tree Map, and Hierarchy Chart of the Word Tree. This study finds that cryptocurrency can be beneficial for the traditional financial system in case of its centralization under proper legislation to avoid money laundering and outflow of the dollar because it is more convenient, cost-effective, and secure than a traditional transaction system. Keywords: Cryptocurrency, medium of exchange, family food environment, family mealtimes, thematic analysis, Covid-19 pandemic, Pakistan
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Virtual teams, as a group of people who perform work interdependently with the division of responsibilities in the outcomes of work tasks, significantly rely on technology that supports their communication and everyday work. The topic of this paper is the research on the connection between trust factors (individual, institutional and cognitive) and knowledge sharing in a team in the context of the efficiency of virtual teams. For this purpose, a correlation-regression study was conducted on a non-random sample of 132 respondents consisting of employees from teams that function exclusively as virtual, multicultural and multinational. Also, the mediator effect of knowledge sharing factors concerning trust, and efficiency of virtual teams were examined. The obtained results confirmed that all dimensions of trust - individual and institutional and cognitive trust are important for the efficient functioning of virtual teams. Contrary to the created hypotheses, it was shown that the factor of knowledge sharing in virtual teams is not a predictor of trust or efficiency of virtual teams.
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, kripto para piyasasının piyasa değeri cinsinden öne çıkan ve incelenen dönemde verisine erişilebilen 6 büyük kripto para arasındaki ilişkinin tespit edilmesidir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda 01.01.2020-31.12.2021 tarihleri arasında Bitcoin, Ethereum, Dogecoin, Binance Coin, Ripple ve Cardano’ya ait günlük kapanış verileri Toda-Yamamoto nedensellik analizi ile incelenmiştir. Toda-Yamamoto nedensellik analizi sonuçlarına göre birkaç istisnai durum dışında kripto para birimlerinin büyük çoğunluğunun birbirleriyle ilişkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Yatırımcı açısından bu durum, benzer yönlü hareket eden kripto paralardan bir portföy oluşturulduğunda maruz kalınacak riski arttırmaktadır. Kripto para birimlerine dayalı bir portföy oluşturmak, bu varlıkların birbirleri arasındaki ilişki göz önünde bulundurulduğunda maruz kalınacak riski arttırabilmekte, geleneksel araçlara kıyasla kripto varlıklarla gerçekleştirilen bir çeşitlendirme, riskten korunmaya yönelik işlevsiz bir tercih olabilmektedir.
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Covid-19 or also known as SARS-CoV-2 pandemic as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) took the world by surprise. Covid-19 affects global currency usage whether it be fiat or cryptocurrency as people are adapting to new norms. The crisis created by Covid-19 provided an opportunity to investigate the trend of cryptocurrency before and during a global crisis. The circumstances that come with Covid-19 jeopardise steady jobs and income. Certain people would face loss of income through job terminations or pay cuts. Thus, affecting their financial and purchasing power which then changed the trend with the cryptocurrency market. The main purpose of this research is to study the demand of cryptocurrency through a trend analysis right before the start as well as during the Covid-19 pandemic. Trend analysis is the practice of extracting data and attempting to spot a pattern based on the data taken according to a time series. Trend analysis of price and market capitalization charts between December 2019 to December 2020. The analysis can be used to predict future events based on historical data. The cryptocurrencies analysed are Bitcoin, Ethereum, Tether and Dash. Cryptocurrency trading saw surge of trading volume during Covid-19 pandemic. In general prices would increase as volume increase during global scale crisis such as Covid-19. This paper concludes that cryptocurrency prices can be expected to rise during crises as a direct result of increase trading volume and decreased demand for fiat money.
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Gerçekleşen bütün ekonomik faaliyetlerin temelinde tarafların en çok üzerinde durdukları konu güven faktörüdür. Ekonomik faaliyetlerde iki kişi ya da kurumun karşılıklı yüz yüze yaptıkları nakit mübadeleler haricinde genel anlamda bu faaliyetlerin güvenirliğini sağlamak için üçüncü taraflara ihtiyaç durulmuştur. Bu üçüncü taraf bankalar olabildiği gibi, borsa işlemlerinde aracı kurumlar ya da tarafların mülkiyet hakkını korumak üzere konulmuş yasaları yapan devlet de olabilmektedir. Bu süreçte ekonomik faaliyetlere ortak olan üçüncü taraflar işlemlerin kayıt altına alınması, belirsizliğin azaltılması ve mübadele işleminde denetimin ve güvenirliğin sağlanması görevini yürütürler. Bu sayede ekonomik işlemlere ait hesapların korunabilmesi, kredilerin sağ- lanması, ödeme işlemlerinin kolaylaştırılması ve bu süreçlerin sürdürülebil- mesi gibi faaliyetler de dolaylı olarak gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bu sürecin güve- nilir şekilde devam etmesi, kontrol mekanizmalarının etkin şekilde kullanıl- masıyla mümkün olmakta ve sonucunda da piyasaların daha etkin şekilde işlemesini sağlamaktadır.
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This study aims to determine the effect of global price movements for energy sector commodities, especially Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices, on cryptocurrency price movements. This study focuses more on the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. This study uses quantitative methods, and the data collection used is secondary data with weekly data and the period from January 1, 2020–July 31, 2021. The number of observations used in this study amounted to 79 observations. Secondary data sources are obtained through the website finance.yahoo.com. The data processing technique will be carried out using Stata and SPSS software, the Multiple Linear Regression method, and the Classical Assumption Test. The results of this study show that global prices for energy sector commodities, especially Crude Oil, Natural Gas, have a positive effect on Bitcoin price movements. These results indicate a link between energy and Bitcoin caused by Bitcoin miners who are mining Bitcoin using energy so that when the price of Bitcoin rises, the price of energy will also increase.
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This paper reviews the possibility of bringing Bitcoin into the mainstream. In so doing, it elaborates the potential and obstacles to the Bitcoin system and what it would take for it to go mainstream. A cross-cutting discussion provides a helicopter view and encompasses the technical, economic, and social, as well as legal, issues at play. The paper focuses particularly on payment systems, and in reviewing the possibility of bringing Bitcoin into the mainstream it takes into consideration lessons that can be learned from existing payment systems.
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