Conference PaperPDF Available

Advances technologies of dyeing and fonctionnalisation in textile.

Conference title:
Advances technologies of dyeing and
functionalization in textile.
Plenary conference 8
09H00 09H30
Professor of textile Engineering
Higher Institute of fashion of Monastir
Dyeing Process,
Functionalization Process.
-Create new effects,
-Reduce the consommation of water,
-Reduce the consommation of energie,
-Reduce the pollution.
Advances cover the following components:
-Finishing (functionalization) process,
-Wastewater treatments.
Dyes :
Some advances in dyes:
-Chromic materials,
-Functional dyes (UV-absorbent, anti-microbial and
water-repellent dyes).
Dyes :
Chromic materials:
-Are obtained by the application of dyes:Their colors
change with temperature (thermochromic), light
(photochromic), pressure (piezochromic), etc.
-These dyes are microencapsulate, applied to fabric
like apigment in aresin binder.
Dyes :
Dyes :
Functional dyes :
- UV- absorbent,
-Water-repellent dyes,
Dyeing process :
1. Advanced DENIM concept,
2. Supercritical fluid dyeing (SFD) ,
3. Ultrasound technology,
4. Ultraviolet technology,
5. Ozone technology
Dyeing process :
1. Advanced DENIM concept:
Traditional dyeing with indigo : Denim,
-Requires chemical auxiliaries (not eco-friendly),
-Uses a lot of water,
-Uses a lot of energy,
-Generates a lot of waste cotton.
Dyeing process :
-ADVANCED DENIM, compared to aconventional
denim dyeing process, allows savings in water, in
cotton waste and in energy (Denim-OX,Pad/Sizing-Ox).
Dyeing process :
2. Supercritical fluid dyeing (SFD) :
This technology uses carbon dioxide (CO2)as a dyeing
medium that can be collected and recycled.It also does
not require drying, which is expected to contribute to the
reduction of energy use.
Dyeing process :
-Asubstance is dissolved in the supercritical fluid, the
solution flowed past asolid substrate, and is deposited on
or dissolves in the substrate.
-Carbon dioxide also dissolves in many polymers,
considerably swelling and plasticising them and further
accelerating the diffusion process.
Dyeing process :
-No damage of the fibre,
-Shortened process and dyeing time,
-Low dye and chemicals consumption,
-No water consumption,
-No drying process,
-Energy saving (short process, low heat, etc).
Dyeing process :
3. Ultrasound technology:
This technology will allow accelerating processes and
obtaining the same results as existing techniques but with
alower temperature, low dye and chemical
Dyeing process :
Dyeing process :
Three main phenomenons:
Dispersion:breaking up of micelles and high molecular
weight aggregates into uniform dispersions in the dye
Degassing:expulsion of dissolved or entrapped gas or air
molecules from fiber into liquid and removal by cavitation,
thus facilitating dye-fiber contact,
Diffusion:accelerating the rate of dye diffusion inside
the fiber by piercing the insulating layer covering the fiber
and accelerating the interaction or chemical reaction,
Dyeing process :
Some of the benefits of using of ultrasonics in dyeing can
be listed as below:
Energy savings by dyeing at lower temperatures and
reduced processing times,
Environmental improvements by reduced consumption
of auxiliary chemicals,
Lower overall processing costs (due to less energy and
chemical consumption).
Dyeing process :
4. Ultraviolet technology:
UVA:Long-wavelength:covers the range 315-400 nm.
90%of UVA reaching the earth’s surface (UVA-I: 340nm - 400
nm, UVA-II:315nm - 340nm),
UVB:Medium-wavelength:covers the range 280-315 nm.
Approximately 10%of UV radiation reaching the Earth’s
UVC:Short-wavelength UVC covers the range 100-280 nm.
They are the most dangerous (completely absorbed by the
ozone layer).20
Dyeing process :
of the surface fibers, by UV treatment,
can allow :
• More dye to become fixed, producing deeper shades,
• More rapid fixation of dyes,
• Dye fixation under less severe conditions (lower
Dyeing process :
5. Ozone technology:
Ozone is avery powerful oxidizing agent, which is able to
participate in agreat number of reactions with organic and
inorganic compounds.
Dyeing process :
Increase in dyeability caused by ozonation
process depends on the following parameters:
-pH: at pH<4 direct ozonation, pH>9 the indirect pathway
dominates. The pH influences the generation of hydroxyl
-Temperature: ozone becomes less soluble (ozonation
efficiency, temperature rise increases the reaction rate),
-Ozone dose: ozonation efficiency increases,
-Water content of the fiber: 23
Dyeing process :
The beneficial effects of this treatment are:
-Increasing on dyeability, on color parameters, light
fastness characteristics, and the standard affinity.
Functionalization process :
1. Plasma technology,
2. Gamma irradiation technology,
3. E-beam irradiation technology,
4. Ion implantation technology.
Functionalization process :
1. Plasma technology:
The plasma is referred to as the fourth state of matter (in
addition to solid, liquid, gaseous)
Functionalization process :
Functionalization process :
Functionalization process :
2. Gamma irradiation technology:
Gamma rays: frequencies above 10 exahertz (or >1019 Hz),
energies above 100 keV and wavelengths less than 10
picometers (less than the diameter of an atom).
Gamma rays are ionizing radiations that interact with the
material by colliding with the electrons in the shells of
atoms.They lose their energy slowly in material being able
to travel through significant distances before stopping.
Functionalization process :
The free radicals formed are extremely reactive, and they
will combine with the material in their vicinity. The
irradiated modified fabrics can allow:
-More dye or pigment to be fixed, producing deeper
-More rapid fixation of dyes at low temperature.
Functionalization process :
3. Electron-beam irradiation technology:
E-beam processing is interesting as it offers the possibility to
treat the materials without solvent,at normal temperature
and pressure.
Energy of the electrons in gas plasma is in the range of 1-10
eV, E-beam accelerators generate electrons with energy (300
keV to 12 MeV).
These electrons are used to modify polymer materials
through direct electron-to-electron interactions.These
interactions can create active species such as radicals.
Functionalization process :
Industrial e-beam accelerators with energies in the 150-
300 keV range are in use in applications where low
penetration is needed, such as curing of surface coatings.
Accelerators operating in the 1.5 MeV range are used
where more penetration is needed.
E- beam machines have high-dose rate and therefore
short processing times. While they have limited
penetration compared with gamma irradiation.
Functionalization process :
Functionalization process :
4. Ion implantation technology:
Ion implantation is an innovative production technique with
which the surface properties of inert materials can be
changed easily.
Ion implantation can be used to induce both surface
modifications and bulk property.
Functionalization process :
Ion implantation consists of basically two steps:
-Form plasma of the desired material,
-Extract the positive ions from the plasma and accelerate
them toward the target,
Functionalization process :
Potential microcapsules based finishes for
Flame retardants,
UV absorbers,
Chromic materials,
Antimicrobial finishes,
Thermoregulatory finishes,
Functionalization process :
Ionized fabric for health:
Functionalization process :
Ionized fabric to help women sleep better :
Functionalization process :
Thank you
LGTex, University of monastir
Functionalization process :
- Use of New Technologies in Dyeing of
Proteinous Fibers,
Functionalization process :
Plasma only reacts with the fabric surface and does not
affect the internal structure of the fibers. It can modify the
surface properties of textile materials, deposit chemical
materials (plasma polymerization) to add functionality, or
remove substances (plasma etching) from the textile
Functionalization process :
The coloring and decoloring modes are controlled by aggregation and
separarion leuco dye and a long-chain type developer by heating, as
Functionalization process :
The use of Nanotechnology (NT) in producing hydrophobic, super-
hydrophobic and antimicrobial finishes is dealt with alongside coating and
lamination techniques. The NT at the molecular level can be used to develop
desired textile characteristics, such as high tensile strength, unique surface
structure, soft hand, durability, water repellency, fire retardancy, antimicrobial
properties, and the like. Indeed, advances in NT have created enormous
opportunities and challenges for the textile industry, including the cotton
Functionalization process :
Wastewater treatments
Also, many wastewater treatment processes are developed in recent years,
because now, water is the most important element in textile finishing. Today, it
constitutes an increasingly expensive medium. The most recent processes are:
The membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a highly promising technique
for industrial wastewater purification. Therefore MBR effluents can be of a
quality suitable for direct recycling or after further purification by additional
post-treatment steps.
Functionalization process :
Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) are characterized by production of OH•
radicals and selectivity of attack which is a useful attribute for an oxidant. The
versatility of AOP is also enhanced by the fact that they offer different possible
ways for OH• radicals. Generation of HO· is commonly accelerated by
combining O3, H2O2, TiO2, UV radiation, electron-beam irradiation and
ultrasound. Of these, O3/H2O2, O3/UV and H2O2/UV hold the greatest
promise to oxidize textile wastewater.
Ozone application can be generalized into two; a powerful disinfection and a
strong oxidant to remove color and odor, eliminating trace toxic synthetic
organic. O3 and UV radiation could complete the oxidation reaction by
supplement the reaction with it. UV lamp must have a maximum radiation
output 254 nm for an efficient ozone photolysis. The O3/UV process is more
effective when the compounds of interest can be degraded through the
absorption of the UV irradiation as well as through the reaction with hydroxyl
radicals. 45
Functionalization process :
Different ionizations of plasma gas for textile treatment:
Glow Discharge:It is the oldest type of plasma.The
methodology applies direct electric current, low frequency
over apair of electrodes.
Corona Discharge:It is formed at atmospheric pressure
by applying alow frequency .The corona consists of a
series of small lightning-type discharges.
Dielectric-Barrier Discharge:DBD is produced by
applying apulsed voltage over an electrode pair of which
at least one is covered by adielectric material.
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