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The Information Age : Economy, Society and Culture : End of Millenium / M. Castells.

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... Castells' analysis of the breakdown of Soviet statism is one of the chapters of the Information Age trilogy (Castells, 2000) that is possibly more relevant now than when it was written. In the original context, it served mainly as a relatively isolated study of a systemic breakdown due to a failed transition towards a new paradigm, informationalism, with limited impact on the overall development of the network society that had already emerged in its basic form. ...
... These are a constitutive feature of neoliberal globalization (Laval & Dardot, 2014), as is the porosity of the walls separating the official and the criminal economy, which are connected by money laundering by major financial institutions, by illegal dumping of waste from seemingly regulated industries and by many more systemic linkages. They provide what Castells (2000) called the "perverse connection" in the informational economy. ...
... 1. If only page numbers are used as references, they refer to Castells (2000). 2. Complexity is here understood in the sense of system science. ...
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Castells’ analysis of the breakdown of Soviet statism is possibly more relevant now than when it was written. By identifying systemic blockages to necessary societal transformation—then from industrialism to informationalism—he offers a framework to analyze the contemporary crisis of liberal democracy. Then and now, the challenges are caused by the system’s inability to organize the complexity created by itself which creates more and more internal contradictions. Two current challenges threatening the stability of the liberal democracy are rising social inequality and the crossing of geophysical boundaries of the earth as an ecological system. The inability to address these challenges is related to systemic blockages within liberal democracies. Parallels to the late Soviet Union are drawn without predicting outcomes.
... In The information age: Economy, society, and culture -Volume III: End of millennium, Castells (2010) analyzes the contemporary societies organized in a global information network. For Castells (2010, p. 2), the current era is that of information, marked by "informationalization, globalization, networking, identity-building, the crisis of patriarchalism, and of the nation-state". ...
... For Castells (2010, p. 2), the current era is that of information, marked by "informationalization, globalization, networking, identity-building, the crisis of patriarchalism, and of the nation-state". Castells (2010) explores some of these macro transformations considering the interaction between processes of the information age. The trends do constitute a new historical landscape, whose dynamics are likely to have lasting effects on our lives (CASTELLS, 2010, p. 2). ...
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We live today in a new virtual and global space. Computers and electronic devices (smartphones) make us stay online, immersed in the cyberspace, in a network connected in an all-to-all system. An increasingly hyperreal world implies how our perception depends on simulations. The whole system is swamped by indeterminacy and reality is absorbed by the hyperreality of the simulation, says Baudrillard. Hyperreality and simulation replace and seem more real than reality itself. We must reflect on what the virtual is and what are its effects or consequences, since each new electronic medium or digital device brings new procedures, behaviors, and ways of being. Following a theoretical and conceptual approach, the aims of this study are: a) to understand the implications of the virtual and its effects, and b) to problematize the ordinary experiences of hyperreality that reshape and restructure patterns of culture and social interaction. The virtual is not just what Baudrillard defines as illusion. The virtual thinks for us. In the recent past, it was the opposite. We conclude that technology has accustomed us to virtual mediatization and now we perceive it as real without distinction, preferring the unlimited power of the illusory with its effects to the limitations of the real.
... The transformation of our social worlds caused by digital technologies is by now a welldocumented and -analysed phenomenon (Castells, 1998Franklin, 2015;Lupton, 2015). Far from being a mainly technological phenomenon, digitalization has fundamentally reshaped all social processes , constituting a new material and cultural reality (Hassan, 2020). ...
... (Harrison & Dourish, 1996, p. 72) In other words, they emphasize the importance of the aspect of social constructedness as well as the need to take into account the physical and technological framing of this space for a proper understanding of the construction processes. Digital media and technologies, especially the mobile ones, have transformed social life and everyday social interactions in a profound and irrevocable way (Berezan et al., 2018;Castells, 1998Schnell & Dunger, 2019). Mobile communication devices act as a "tether to the network through increasingly complex and automatic protocols" (Hassan, 2020, p. 77), thus embedding our physical self and actions within the immediate space of places into a larger, digitally mediated virtual space (de Souza e Silva, 2006;Droege, 1997), a space of flows (Castells, 1996. ...
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Professional social work contexts are increasingly characterized by hybrid administrative work environments and social space settings blending physical and virtual arenas of interaction. Modern social work management education therefore requires students to gain new critical digital competencies and opportunities for students to acquire these critical skills as part of their academic training in a systematic fashion. This chapter first discusses the new work environments social workers encounter as a result of the transformation of typical social spaces and administrative challenges based on the increased digitalization, informationalization, and hybridization of social work contexts. Next, the paper highlights the respective new professional digital competencies required of social workers as part of their professional toolkit allowing them to (re)gain agency in these transformed social and administrative environments. The chapter then shares experiences from a research methodology module (BA and MA level) offered both in traditional campus/face-to-face and online formats, offering insights and best practices how students can acquire and discover critical digital literacies in a safe learning space. These include the design of learning environments as experiential experience spaces and respective assessment formats that further enhance the learning of students.
... The development of digital technologies in the second half of the 20th century, and especially at the beginning of the new millennium, has dramatically influenced the traditional way of life, work and thinking of both individual citizens and societies in general (Castells, 1998). Within just a few decades, humanity has entered the digital age, changing businesses, industries and jobs (Berger, 2016) at an unprecedented rate and scale by positioning the new economy in brand new dimensions -those of knowledge, putting the potential of the human intelligence and creativity at the forefront (Toffler, 1980). ...
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One of the challenges to the digitalisation and preservation of the cultural heritage is the need for expert human labour and specialized hardware/software. With the advent of sophisticated personal smart mobile devices and applications, we expect that soon every citizen will be able to participate and contribute to this process.
... No atual universo global e virtual pessoas estabelecem diversos tipos de relações, influenciam umas às outras, por meio de opinião e informação, pois já não há barreiras geográficas nem geracionais para partilhar experiências e conhecimentos [19]. Partimos do pressuposto que as mídias são centrais para a experiência humana, operando de forma substantiva nos fluxos de significados das sociedades e, como tal, nos formatos de (re) construção de sentido dos agentes sociais [20] [21] [22]. ...
... Alguns autores, como Jordi Borja e o já citado Castells, preferi-ram denominá-las "Megacidades" -as aglomerações com mais de 10 milhões de habitantes que, polarizando a dinâmica tecnológica, social e cultural dos seus países, estão ligadas a uma escala global (Castells e Borja, 2004). Efetivamente, para Castells toda a cidade é algo global, ainda que em proporções diferentes, pois se, por um lado, as suas funções direcionais são globais, por outro, a grande maioria da sua população vive um quotidiano de relações próximas, sendo por isso ao mesmo tempo também muito local (Castells, 2000). Ainda assim, é nessas Cidades Globais, em cujas áreas metropolitanas se concentram as funções com maior potencial de criação de valor no âmbito das atividades produtivas globalizadas, que vive a cada vez maior concorrência entre cidades, fruto da procura de se posicionarem como os nós ou fluxos que configuram mais ou melhores conexões globalizadas. ...
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Kevin Lynch referred to the city as a temporal work of art, i.e., as an artificial compound shaped by time. Leonardo Benevolo defined the city in two grounds, the first one indicating the concentrated and integrated organization of a community, and the second one denoting it as a physical scenario of society, which persists beyond that society. In between them, Aldo Rossi added the existential definition of “human thing” and argued that the city reinforces its representation in the “real transformation of nature”. It is in this perspective, shared by the three authors – that the city bases its genesis on the different time layers that are added – that we intend to reflect. Analyzing the contemporary city, we advocate that there are, within our urban spaces, two cities that collide and only tangentially touch each other: the first one we named ‘representative city’ and the second ‘everyday city’. The comprehensive urban space, as a conceptual intermediary of the different dimensions of the city, presents itself as the research matrix of the different urban visions discussed, allowing it to become a tool in the disciplinary scope of contemporary architecture and urbanism.
... One should first define the post bureaucratic age and clarify the distinctive characteristics of this age while comparing with the old age. Johnson et al. (2009:38) describe the post-bureaucratic age as 'a new, unstable historical configuration, where the processes of production, distribution, exchange and consumption have accelerated and become increasingly diverse, specialized and temporary: a destabilized capitalism (Bluestone and Harrison, 1988;Rifkind, 2000) characterized by 'globalization and relativization' (Robertson, 1992), 'intensified risk and reflexivity' (Beck, 1992(Beck, , 1997(Beck, , 2000a(Beck, , 2000b, 'heterogenization' (Daudi, 1990) and 'time-space compression' (Castells, 2000a(Castells, , 2000b(Castells, , 2004Harvey, 1989). ...
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Стаття присвячена вивченню впливу сучасного рівня демократичних трансформацій на перспективи реформи публічного управління. У межах дослідження з’ясовано, що Європейський Союз є своєрідним політичним утворенням: з одного боку, це договірний союз держав-членів, а з іншого ‒ транснаціональна організація, яка виходить за рамки держав-членів. Ця двовимірність також визначає адміністративні та організаційні механізми в структурі та процедурах ЄС. Водночас адміністративний порядок ЄС є вирішальним не лише для розвитку правового регулювання, публічного управління і соціальної політики, а й для реалізації економічної політики: що б інвесторам, які виходять на ринок, було простіше і швидше починати підприємницьку діяльність. Аргументовано, що функціонування ЄС в низці випадків відрізняється від державного управління держав-членів. Основна відмінність полягає у тому, що організаційну систему ЄС не можна віднести до будь-якої організації державного управління. Однак це не означає, що в ЄС немає державного управління. В ЄС є щось інше, а саме те, що ЄС заснований на договірних відносинах і не має Конституції. Обумовлено, що існує ряд відмінностей при застосуванні правил адміністративного процесу в державах-членах. Європейські держави використовують різні моделі регулювання, а саме: в першій моделі законом встановлені особливі процесуальні правила для деяких адміністративних справ, але не для всіх процесуальних етапів, а тільки для одного з них; у другій моделі для деяких адміністративних справ законом встановлені докладні і конкретні процесуальні правила, які охоплюють кілька або всі етапи процесу; відповідно до третьої моделі, в деяких групах справ застосовуються особливі процесуальні правила щодо етапів процесу; в четвертій моделі країни, дотримуються загальних процесуальних правил, застосовують рішення, відповідно до яких встановлюються і застосовуються загальні процесуальні правила, які застосовують щодо всіх адміністративних справ і на всіх етапах процесу.
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The increase in cybercrime and the importance of cyberspace for the preparatory stage of crimes led to the redefinition of operational and exploratory activities. It has become desirable to move away from the concept of targeted surveillance and towards prevention systems used on a massive scale. This trend is manifested in using technological achievements like hacking software for legal purposes. The goal of this article is to define the concept of state-run on-line remote search of information systems, including the use of breakthrough security software like spyware, in the context of procedural- and pre-trial guarantees, the presumption of innocence and protection of privacy. The article attempts to verify the following research hypothesis: that the creation of new appropriate guarantees (institutional, substantive and procedural) for the digital environment is required since the existing safeguards appropriate to the actions in the real world cannot be applied by analogy in the digital environment without influencing the effectiveness of the measures. The legal framework for operational activities in the digital world must take into account the requirement of subsidiarity and necessity of maintaining a balance between effective criminal law and respect for privacy.
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Her geçen yıl internetin ve ona bağlı mobil araçların yaygınlaşması, dijital sosyal ağlara erişebilirliğin zaman ve mekandan bağımsız doğası, gündelik yaşamın rutin/akışını da değiştirmektedir. İnternet teknolojilerinin gelişimi sonucunda yaşanan kültürel ve toplumsal değişim Manuel Castells’e göre, “ağ toplumu”nu yaratmıştır. Gerçek ile sanalın birbirine karıştığı ağ toplumlarında yaşama ilişkin algı da dönüşmüştür. Baudrillard’a göre bu hipergerçeklik çağında gerçeklikten söz edilemeyeceği için taklit de yerini benzeşime bırakmıştır. Bireylerin benlikleri de katılımcısı oldukları sosyal medya platformunun habitusuna göre şekillenmektedir. Arkadaşlık kurma, mesajlaşma, albüm oluşturma ya da profesyonel bir iş ağına katılım amacıyla bu çevrimiçi sosyal ağların ortak unsuru profillere yansıyan “kusursuz” imajlardır. Burada bireyler, ister öz-sergileme isterse de bilgi paylaşımı amacıyla onlardan beklenildiği gibi kusursuz bir performans sahnelenmektedir. Kusursuzluğun kültürel olarak ivme kazanması gündelik yaşam pratiklerini de değişime uğratmaktadır. Sosyal ağlar yoluyla gerçekliğin, benliğin ve kültürel değişimin araştırıldığı bu çalışmada kusursuzluk fenomenine odaklanılmıştır. Sosyal medya kullanımında dünya liderliğine aday Türkiye’de, gündelik yaşama dair araştırmaların doygunluğu da düşünülerek, yeni bir sorunsal olarak “kusursuzluk fenomeninin” çevrimiçi örüntüler üzerinden araştırılmasının iletişim antropolojisi alanındaki çalışmalara da katkı sağlanacağı öngörülmektedir. Araştırmada alanyazını taraması sonucu elde edilen bilgiler sonuç bölümünde eleştirel bir perspektifle yorumlanmıştır.
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This introductory chapter gives on the one hand an overview of the survey on which the book is based. This includes self-critical comments on the response rate and that not all those who took part in the survey wanted to answer all the questions or could not answer all of them. On the other hand, the research questions addressed by the individual chapters of the book and their main findings are briefly outlined. This allows readers to get a quick overview of the book’s content.KeywordsLocal state-society relationsLocal governance in EuropePerceptions of network members about their influence
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In June 2020, the Vienna Declaration shed light on the viability of artistic research with an identity of its own. In its introduction, it explicitly states the need to “guarantee and incorporate post-graduate studies based on practice, in higher arts education in all European countries, in order to further develop artistic research...”. For the time being, there is no culture of initial training in the theoretical and practical bases of artistic research in Spain. This leads to a lack of initial training in artistic education that is not made up for by the more specialized Master’s studies. This monograph aims to bring the reader closer to international research linked to artistic research and scientific research articles within the artistic field of a transdisciplinary nature. It is the result of the contributions of international researchers to the 1st International Conference: Intersection of Art, Society and Technology in Musical Innovation, held from the 3rd to the 5th of September 2021 and organised by the University of Valladolid and the Katarina Gurska Institute for Artistic Research (IKG), the latter being a body dependent on the Katarina Gurska Foundation for Education and Culture. The event brought together leading researchers from the field of avant-garde artistic research, and musical research, inspiring minds of the 21st century who produce knowledge through researchers that focus on music as a transversal and interdisciplinary axis: art, space, perception, performance, health, education, and society, among others. The book, in monograph format, brings us closer to different lines of research linked to the field of musical culture, connects with environments of the digital era, always from a transdisciplinary perspective, innovates in emerging pedagogies within the artistic field, and all this from the hand of prestigious professors, scientists, researchers and professionals from the world of music, who, with their relevant vision, enrich this book. Based on these assumptions, the coordinators of this monograph thought of bringing together the most relevant researchers who participated in the International Congress and the result is as follows: In the first chapter, “Soundwalking: Between Art and Non-Art”, Marcel Cobussen presents an essay focusing on soundwalking as an art form that has developed for decades on the fringes of the academic art world. He addresses the resolution to the question “are there art forms in which both social and artistic-aesthetic requirements can be fulfilled?” The manuscript glimpses a strong focus on the artistic and aesthetic aspects of a product or process that may converge well with an equally strong focus on knowledge production and social relevance through Soundwalking. In the second chapter, “Towards a New Paradigm for Music Research: Evidence from a Research Assemblage”, Pamela Burnard sets the focus on a new paradigm within music research, recognising the importance of exploring different creative processes within the musical field, undertaking new interdisciplinary research more in line with 21st century society and its needs, and encouraging a rethinking and reformulation of emerging processes of music research and innovation. In the third chapter, “Exploring innovations within music Education Research”, Ana Lucía Frega and Julia Brook advocate the need to rethink the knowledge of different ways of developing various methods to contribute to the improvement of music education. They suggest how to promote innovation not always from the creation of new resources, but from the reassessment of all those elements we have in order to be able to address systematic, organisational and pedagogical changes within music education. In the fourth chapter, “Narratives on the Musical Instrument. Musical Practice Between Action Theory and Media Theory”, Elena Ungeheuer analyses the academic-theoretical considerations on the use of musical instruments and the media-theoretical considerations on media transformations and how they affect the instruments. In the field of media education, she approaches the concept of metaverse linked to musical environments with unlimited connectivity. In the fifth chapter, “Hypermusic: New Musical Practices at the Crooroads of Music, Art and Thought”, Paulo de Assis approaches the concept of hypermusic as a tool for the generation of new musical practices and the connected deepening between art, philosophy and music. The importance of the article lies in understanding the potential of the concept of hypermusic as a challenge related to the role and function of musical creativity in our contemporary society. It theorises interpretative practices that will combine different modes of research, focusing especially on the emerging mode of practice-based research, which will contribute to the application of mixed methodologies within an artistic, aesthetic, and academic field of operations, and will enhance innovative approaches to performance and musical composition solidly anchored in research and critical thinking. In the sixth chapter, “In search for Art’s Relevance for Itself: Artistic Research and the Aesthetic Regime of Art”, by Lucia D’Errico, we find anessay that focuses on the relationship with art, questioning whether art today is relevant for art itself. The article is based on three axes: the first refers to the analysis of the social, political, and technological conditions of the aesthetic regime, the second focuses on the individualisation and critique of current ways of being artists, and the third is linked to the proposal of artistic research as a reaction to neoliberal logics and as an advance towards a new understanding of the relevance of art itself. In the seventh chapter, “Listener-Centred Sonification Practice As Transdisciplinary Experimental Artistic Engagement”, Jorge Boehringer, Marcin Pietruszewski, John M. Bowers, Bennet Hogg, Joseph Newbold, Gerriet K. Sharma, Tim Shaw, and Paul Vickers present the Radical project, which is based on the research and practice of sonification as a transdisciplinary, listener-centred activity. The authors analyse sonification from the perspective of artistic and musical practice. Emphasis is placed on spatial listening, embodied experience and interaction with the environment and communication, resulting in a questioning of the methodology, objects andfoundations often assumed for sonification. The reader is invited to apply an ethnographic ear to a roundtable presentation that investigates new sound and music practices that converge in a rethinking of sonification as an engaged aesthetic activity that produces and entails new technical and epistemic knowledge. The monograph closes with the chapter “The Sciences and the Arts in Search of the New” by Hans-Jörg Rheinberger. It aims to show that the sciences and the arts, including music and sound research, operate on a common ground. The sciences represent logic, while the arts embody intuition. In order to break this dichotomy, the article endeavours to challenge this one-sided image of the sciences from within and, in doing so, to show that each of the two fields, the sciences and the arts, have a part in the other. There is an element of the artistic in the sciences, as well as vice versa: there is also an irreducible element of the epistemic on the part of the arts. The proposal presented in this monograph, made up of eight chapters, aims to bring the reader closer to new trends in artistic research as well as applied research and to make them reflect on music in different formats and contexts.
Article
Este trabalho procura investigar as definições de constitucionalismo brasileiro, constitucionalização do Direito e mutação constitucional. O caráter inovador reside na análise dos impactos da Constituição de 1988, comportamento da jurisprudência nesses trinta anos e, por último, futuro do Direito Constitucional no Brasil.
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It is no longer possible to avoid the current digital transformation. This opinion seems to be shared by the majority of scholars and practitioners, when considering the recent attention paid to the challenges and opportunities related to this growing and diffused phenomenon. In addition, the industry 4.0 is depicted and considered as providing benefits for employees, for the environment, and for the processes as well as it creates new business venues (Müller et al. 2018).KeywordsDigital transformationTechnologiesWorkforce transformation
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Yeni medya teknolojisi sayesinde enformasyon alış verişi ülke sınırlarını tanımadan dünya üzerinde serbestçe dolaşırken, bu dolaşım sürecinde enformasyon ve insan etkinliği neredeyse kusursuz bir şekilde gözlemlenip, ölçümlenebilirken, bu teknoloji sayesinde medya kullanıcıları tarafından paylaşılan mesajlarla küresel ortak değerler yaratılabilirken akıllara şu soru gelmektedir: Yeni medya inovasyonu tarihin sonu mudur? Üç bölümden oluşan araştırmanın birinci bölümünde enformasyon toplumu kavramı incelenirken emeğin, değerin ve aracın yeniden icat edilmesini sağlayan süreçler incelenecektir. Toplumsal düzenin ne olduğu, teknoloji sayesinde yeni bir dünya düzeninin nasıl kurulduğu araştırılacaktır. Bu bağlamda sanayi toplumundan enformasyon toplumuna geçişi gerçekleştiren dinamikler irdelenecektir. Araştırmanın ikinci bölümünde yeni medya kapsamında gerçekleşen inovasyon aktörler, politika ve kurumsal ihtiyaçlar kapsamında incelenecektir. Özellikle İkinci Dünya Savaşı sırasında ivme kazanan ve 1960’larda sıçrama yapan, 1980’lerde yeni medya olarak anılmaya başlanan 1)iletişim teknolojisi inovasyonlarının arakasında yatan temel ihtiyaçlar, 2) inovasyonları yapan paydaşların politik ve ekonomik ihtiyaçları ve 3) inovasyonlar kapsamında yapılan araştırmalar incelenecektir. Bu kapsamda Enigma, Berlin Blokajı, Sibernetik ve ARPANET araştırılacaktır. Böylece teknoloji, toplum ve birey yeniden icat edilirken sosyal değişimin kim tarafından, nasıl gerçekleştiği ve amacı anlaşılmaya çalışılacaktır. Üçüncü bölümde geliştirilen tekniklerin mülkiyetinin süreç içerisinde devlet politikaları ile nasıl korunduğu ve yenilikler yayılma evresine geçtiğinde neler yapıldığı incelenirken tüm bu süreçlerin politik, sosyal ve ekonomik yansımaları incelenecektir. Araştırmanın enformasyon toplumu ve yeni medya kavramlarının görünen tanımlarının ötesine geçerek özgürleşme süreci olarak sunulan enformasyon toplumunun ve aracı yeni medyanın yeni nesil bir kontrol ve denetim sistemi mi olduğu tartışılacaktır. Literatür taraması ile toplanacak araştırma verileri tarihselliklerine göre analiz edilecektir. 21. Yüzyılda yapılan tanımlarla sürecin oluşumundaki olgular kıyaslanarak enformasyon toplumu ve yeni medya kavramları için güncel bir değerlendirme yapılacaktır. Araştırma kapsamında Joseph Schumpeter’in inovasyon ve yaratıcı yıkım kavramlarına, Edibe Sözen’in, Peter L. Berger ve Thomas Luckmann’ın toplumsal modellere ilişkin görüşlerine, Alan Turing, Norbert Wiener, Claude Shannon, Warren Weaver, Murray Turoff, Douglas Engelbart, JCR Licklider, Paul Baran gibi iletişim teknolojilerinin gelişmesinde önemli katkısı olan araştırmacıların çalışmalarına, George Stein, Ronald E. Rice, Jacques Valle, Howard Rheingold gibi yeni medya araştırmacılarının görüşlerine, NFS, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment , United States Congress House Judiciary Committee ve benzeri raporlara danışılacaktır.
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The authors of the study aim to formulate the problem of the correlation of two innovative trends in the development of the modern economy that form its human capital—“behavioral” and “digital”; this is carried out within the framework of the methodology of interdisciplinary socio-humanitarian research. The first trend is considered as a theory, the provisions of which are related to the humanitarian factor of a significant form of human capital in economic culture in all the variety of its manifestations. The digital economy is interpreted not as a new type of economy, but as its total computerization in order to provide informational support for economic development; the formality of digitalization is emphasized, which has the potential to devalue the humanitarian component of economic development, deforming its human capital. The authors come to the conclusion that the trends considered are not antagonistic: “behavioral” with its economic culture emphasizes the socio-humanitarian content of economic activity, and “digital” marks the informational formality of a person’s economic life in society; in their dialectical unity, they characterize the formation of a new quality of human capital, the originality of its author’s consideration.KeywordsEconomyCapitalBehaviorDigitalizationPersonCultureInterdisciplinarityJEL ClassificationA12A13B41B52D13D83D91O15O30
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La rivoluzione digitale ha portato alla nascita di un nuovo modello economico in cui i dati e la conoscenza in generale si attestano come la più promettente risorsa dell’era postindustriale. Nel concetto di conoscenza è insito un conflitto di fondo. Da un lato, l’interesse privato a capitalizzarne il valore, che rende strategica la pro- prietà intellettuale come forma di controllo del sapere. Dall’altro, l’interesse gene- rale a riservare al pubblico dominio – ovvero alla libera fruizione collettiva – una parte sostanziale del capitale intellettuale e semantico e del patrimonio culturale. L’economia di rete, fondata sulla condivisione di conoscenza, soffre oggi un gap di contenuti di pubblico dominio. Appena il 10% del patrimonio culturale europeo è digitalizzato e meno della metà è accessibile in rete e disponibile per il riutilizzo.A risponderne è in primo luogo il diritto che stenta a riconoscere tutela alle istanze diaccesso aperto ai beni comuni. La presente monografia guida il lettore attraverso le varie aree del diritto che contribuiscono a restringere il perimetro del pubblico dominio. Il volume spazia dal diritto d’autore, al regolamento a tutela dei dati personali, dal codice dei beni culturali, alla recente proposta di Data Governance Act. Conclude, infine, che nell’equo bilanciamento tra gli interessi in conflitto, ogni con- sociato dovrebbe vantare un diritto soggettivo alla libera utilizzazione dei beni immateriali che compongono il pubblico dominio: un “diritto al pubblico dominio”
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En los principios de la antropología como disciplina en el siglo XIX, el evolucionismo y el difusionismo proporcionaron visiones o perspectivas «globales» a los antropólogos, quienes siempre han trabajado con nociones cosmopolitas supuestamente universales, tales como humanidad y cultura. Así, muchos se han dedicado a explicar el mundo en su conjunto, y la manera en la que los seres humanos se han desarrollado en distintos momentos históricos. En los años 1990, cuando la nueva etiqueta «globalización» generó un campo definido de interés académico, los antropólogos comenzaron a contribuir a este creciente corpus de materiales. Sus contribuciones más valiosas se relacionan con las tensiones entre las fuerzas locales y globales, entre las fuerzas de la heterogeneidad y la homogeneidad, así como con el uso de la etnografía como herramienta metodológica. Los antropólogos se han valido de ideas de disciplinas hermanas, como la sociología, la historia y la geografía. Este artículo ubica a la producción antropológica sobre «lo global» al interior de esta historia diversa de préstamos, debates al interior de la disciplina, y coyunturas históricas más amplias.
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The objective of the study is to comprehensively analyze the methods of intercultural mapping of communities as a tool for the municipal management of a multiethnic urban community and, thus, determine their effectiveness for the active construction of intercultural practices and reformatting of the urban culture space. The Intercultural Mapping Methodology, developed by the Council of Europe’s Intercultural Cities Programme, includes tools such as the Intercultural Cities Index and the Intercultural Citizenship Test, as well as sociological and focus group studies, which further involve a wide range of active residents that identify tangible cultural and intangible values in cities. The use of this technique by the intercultural community of the Ukrainian city of Melitopol has proven its effectiveness as a mechanism to involve representatives of ethnic groups in cooperation with the municipal authorities for the joint development of the city’s cultural policy. It is concluded that a comprehensive analysis of the results of the study allowed to determine the priorities and strategies of its development, cultural and creative resources of the territorial community, creating conditions and new opportunities for a dynamic, inclusive and democratic intercultural society.
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Student persistence in the first year of studies is a crucial concern in online higher education. Recent accelerated growth in online programs due to the COVID pandemic has increased concerns over higher dropout rates, which are often connected to students’ time challenges—time poverty, juggling multiple commitments, and fitting studies into busy lives. However, research seldom focuses on students’ perceptions of time issues related to persistence. This study addresses this gap by exploring how 20 second-year students retrospectively viewed their experiences of time challenges and how they impacted their persistence in their first year at an online open university. Content analysis of in-depth interviews demonstrated that time pressure and time-conflicts were crucial barriers for success in the foundational semester; the main barrier was juggling study with multiple priorities. Most persisters had good time management and high levels of intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, and self-determination. However, even procrastinators with heavy work-family duties managed to persevere due to their resilience and personal motivation. Lastly, recommendations and strategies for effective student-based interventions to foster persistence are suggested.
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This chapter examines the relationship between teaching and research activities performed by academics in Argentine state universities on the basis of the results gathered in the Academic Profession in the Knowledge-Based Society (APIKS) international study, which is being conducted in around 30 countries worldwide.The present study puts forward three hypotheses which challenge how academic research activities, type of research conducted, number and kind of contributions made, research location, and source of funding are associated with material and subjective factors. More specifically, the study addresses the ways in which the type of contract (position and dedication), chosen discipline, generation of belonging, doctoral education, gender, and preference for teaching and/or research influence the distribution of research activities among Argentine academia.The APIKS results show a double shift: on the one hand, an increase in the number of hours dedicated to research—even when contracts are structured around teaching tasks—and, on the other hand, a weakened persistence of a statistical association between different factors of the Argentine academic profession and the performance of research activities, foreseeing, perhaps, a generalization of research, independent of teaching contracts.To conclude, the relevance of symbolic factors is foregrounded to explain the development of research activities conducted in addition to the teaching activities the academics are hired for, even when this could suggest a donation of their work. Beyond material resources, the system allocates symbolic capital among those conducting research activities, which leads to beneficial conditions for the development of the academic career.KeywordsAcademic professionUniversityArgentinaTeachingResearch
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Through detailed explorations of ‘augmented realities’, this chapter provides a broad overview of not only the ways that those augmented realities matter but also the complex and often duplicitous manner that code and content can congeal in experiences of augmented places. Specifically, it demonstrates there are four key ways in which power is manifested in augmented realities: two performed largely by social actors – distributed power and communication power – and two enacted primarily via software – code power and timeless power. All spatial representations are both the products and producers of specific configurations of power relations, and thus a key question is whether the ways power in augmented reality is constructed and exercised is novel. The chapter concludes by calling for redoubled attention to both the layering of content and the duplicity and ephemerality of code in shaping the uneven and power‐laden practices of representations and the experiences of place augmentations in urban places.
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Актуальность статьи обусловлена необходимостью изучения очагов ксенофобии и экстремизма в Интернете. В условиях эпохи Web 2.0. индивид получает возможность транслировать свои взгляды и представления на огромную аудиторию, являясь администратором или даже простым подписчиком сетевых объединений. Относительная анонимность и дистанционная коммуникация, несомненно, придают пользователю ощущение безопасности и, следовательно, он менее стеснен в выражении своих суждений, эмоций, в проявлении деструктивного поведения. Риск возникновения очагов экстремистских и ксенофобских воззрений в этнических сообществах обусловлен конфронтационной природой этничности. Целью исследования является изучение проявлений ксенофобии и экстремизма в одних из самых многочисленных этнических сообществ в социальной сети «ВКонтакте» - «ВЕЛИКАЯ РУСЬ! Русские не сдаются!» и «ЯР» (Я русский). Методологическую базу работы составили подходы и инструменты для обработки и анализа больших объемов данных («big data»), а также дискурс- и контент-анализы. Результатом исследования стало выявление причин возникновения ксенофобии и экстремизма и их направленности, рассмотрение новых форм проявления деструктивного поведения, используемых приемов манипуляций. Статья предназначена для исследователей, занимающихся изучением ксенофобии, экстремизма, этничности и сетевых сообществ. The relevance of the article is due to the need to study xenophobia and extremism on the Internet. In the era of Web 2.0. an individual gets the opportunity to broadcast his views and ideas to a huge audience, being an administrator or even a simple subscriber of network community. Relative anonymity and remote communication undoubtedly give the user a sense of security and, therefore, he is less constrained in expressing his judgments, emotions, manifestations of destructive behavior. The risk of extremist and xenophobic attitudes in ethnic communities is caused by the confrontational nature of ethnicity. The aim of the study is to examine the manifestations of xenophobia and extremism in one of the largest ethnic communities in the social network «VKontakte» - «GREAT RUSSIA! The Russians don't give up!» and «IR» (I am Russian). The methodological basis of the work is approaches and tools for processing and analyzing big data, as well as discourse and content analyzes. The result of the study is the identification of the causes of xenophobia and extremism and their orientation, the consideration of new forms of manifestation of destructive behavior, the methods of manipulation used. The article is intended for researchers who study xenophobia, extremism, ethnicity and online communities.
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This study explores the relationship between social media usage, the use of public libraries, and reading habits. The data were collected using a questionnaire that evaluates the profile of public library users, the use of social media platforms, and reading habits. A total of 222 valid answers were obtained. The results show that only 33.5% of the respondents are regular users of public libraries. The findings suggest that using social media negatively influences being a public library user who spends more time in social media at the expense of reading and using libraries. Since the number of users is a performance indicator for libraries, increased social media use could threaten their survival. However, social media can be an opportunity to reach current users to stimulate non-users to visit and change reading habits.
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In contemporary societies, forms of communication have become, in many ways, predominantly online. The rise of social media has reshaped the culture of communication and created new virtual environments offering multiple opportunities for individuals to create profiles on different platforms, to communicate both personally and professionally. Although there is research on the phenomenon of Branding in social media, it is observed that the people-related perspective presents gaps in conceptual alignment and scientific depth and therefore holds immense room for progression. Thus, the objective of this article is, through a theoretical revision, to investigate and discuss the influence of communication practices and dynamics in the process of Personal Brand Management in social media, in order to contribute to overcome some of the gaps in scientific knowledge and enable the use of this knowledge by society in general.
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The various existing social media platforms aim at interaction and connectivity between users within online communities through the production and sharing of content. Like sports, social media allows users to obtain experiences that often stirs emotion. This empirical study combines football with social media through a multiple linear regression analysis involving the social networks, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter, of the three biggest Portuguese clubs—SL Benfica, FC Porto, and Sporting CP. This research reviews the literature of sports fanaticism, the structure, and content of posts, combined with a bibliometric analysis of social media, which allows the understanding of this vast theme in four components: social media engagement, user-generated content, online communities, and content marketing. Through the testing of the hypotheses written for this research, assertive conclusions were obtained about the performance of social media posts in the sports field, such as the relevance of visual posts, compared to textual posts; the effectiveness of posts that refer to the nostalgia of the supporter; and the determination of the social network most suitable for the accompaniment of a live football match.KeywordsSocial mediaSports marketingMultiple linear regression
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This Critical Discourse Moment (CDM) traces some of the most important conceptual uses of transparency during the middle of the twentieth century. By taking advantage of the epistemic crises of post-positivism, the demands of counter-cultural movements, and the aesthetics of postmodernism, neoliberal discourses offered a powerful alternative to earlier forms of communist transparency—a spontaneously emerging order instead of collective regulation, individual liberty instead of social equality, and a dispersed network of market mediation instead of traditional institutional hierarchies. Attempts to legitimise such an alternative were able to intensify certain incipient shifts in the meaning of transparency. While some uses of transparency sought to challenge claims to universal truth, others sought to legitimise their epistemic positions through self-awareness and “style”. In this process, earlier modernist appeals to absolute clarity and total immediacy gave way to ambiguous formulations that produced selective combinations of visibility and opacity. The 1960s witnessed an intensification of previous ideological discourses and the rise of new technical means, some which were combined to produce broader discursive trends with significant and long-lasting cultural implications. As uses of transparency began to fully exploit the term’s conceptual ambiguity, transparency became a crucial strategic device with the power to give cohesion and legitimation to internally variegated and sometimes highly contrasting discourses. Transparency became increasingly associated to the idea of accessing information, existing social boundaries were challenged, and new oscillations emerged between the spheres of publicity and privacy. Through its dual conceptual core and broad semantic scope, transparency would both accommodate the desires of counter-cultural movements and the discourses of free market apologists, marking a new stage in the rise of the neoliberal mindscape.
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Talent is a key resource in a knowledge economy. It plays a critical role in national economic growth and technological innovation. China’s technological power is rising, and its ambitious push for talent is supported by central and local government. Through the lens of Shenzhen, China’s Silicon Valley, this article examines the Shenzhen Talent Policy and its effectiveness in attracting both domestic talent and overseas returnees. Document analysis is combined with in-depth interviews with returnee entrepreneurs, university professors, and Shenzhen local government officials to examine talent migration and the effectiveness of talent policy. This study findings reveal that the welcoming and tolerant culture of Shenzhen is key to the city’s attractiveness to its existing and potential talent. Entrepreneurial scientists and engineers are likely to return to Shenzhen from abroad for business opportunities in applied innovation and technology commercialization. Academics report an average or dissatisfying attitude towards the scientific environment and professional development. State-led talent policy puts emphasis on technical human capital to meet its urgent developmental needs. The reform of higher education system in Shenzhen is needed to fully realize its technological ambition. In addition, this study shows that younger generation Chinese cares about their personal wellbeing, individual happiness, and career opportunities compared to older generation’s emphasis on economic benefits. This article concludes with policy implications on worldwide talent attraction and talent migration in a new geopolitical era.
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Una de las funciones de Twitter es el etiquetado digital denominado: hashtag. A través de las etiquetas, ordena y clasifica los mensajes de esta plataforma de redes sociales. El objetivo de esta investigación es estudiar el fenómeno del etiquetado social conocido como hashtag activism (activismo de etiquetas) como impulsores de la participación cívica, respondiendo la pregunta: ¿cómo entender la participación cívica online a través del etiquetado social en redes socio digitales? Nuestra metodología hace un análisis cualitativo de 33 casos representativos de las etiquetas #Ladies y #Lords utilizadas en México que realizan un escrutinio social desde el 2011. Concluimos que el etiquetado digital impacta en la participación cívica y la comunicación en la sociedad de la información.
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This chapter discusses the organic links of public professionals with the class interests leading the historic transformations of the Chilean state since the 1930s. The autonomy of the Chilean state has been built upon specialised knowledge and the universities that have produced the public professionals of the state. As in the theoretical discussion from the previous chapter, a progressive separation with respect to the traditional bureaucracy (and the legal profession) took place with the advance of the developmental state and the incorporation of modern professions: engineers, economists, sociologists, and so on. In turn, the imposition of the neoliberal state since the 1980s elevated the technocratic administration into incontestable centre of state power. With the massification of professional work in the state since the 1990s, aligned to higher education expansion and the incorporation of new democratic demands, subaltern identities attain representation within the public administration and might also challenge the neoliberal direction of state power from within.
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In a time of profound cultural change, Catholic Religious Education (CRE) is challenged to find new ways of engaging with young people. Whilst theoretical reflection is important, it is critical to disseminate good practice in didactics and in preparing textbooks for students. These two go together alongside as an effective work with didactic material entails a good teachers’ preparation. The aim of this book is to present the significance of good religious education in the creation of new social references in the global dimension. The community-building capital of the interactive media is potential that should be made use of in religious education in schools. After all, digital culture is an important “theological place” (locus theologicus). Thus, both the didactics of religious education and broadly understood theological thinking are necessarily confronted with the global culture flows that despite their ambivalence are an opportunity to make theology as well as its transmission in schools more universal, that is catholic, to a larger degree. This “new catholicity” that is achieved thanks to digital communication can effectively lead to the updating of the theological vision of the Church as well as the initiation of new forms of intercultural and interreligious dialogue. This work is analytical-synthetic in nature. The first chapter consists of a general description of the cultural and social changes brought about by technological discoveries in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. This analysis strives to search for an answer to the question about the causes of the change of surrounding in which pupils who are subject to new educational contexts grow up. Meanwhile, the second chapter presents selected elements of digital culture that generate the need for new CRE didactics. The new didactics must be multisensory and intermedial, that is, it must combine various means of expression, such as dance theater, performance, happening, or the use of Internet folklore (netlore) artifacts, especially Internet memes and artmemes on various religious issues, that are created and remixed by the students. The use of such methods in didactic work leads to the translation of the code of religious (theological) language to a more comprehensible and easily assimilated linguistic code of digital culture. The theory of the active search for information by the pupil directed by the teacher that has been elaborated by Richard E. Mayer is the recurring thought in the reflections on didactics. Finally, the last chapter contains a discussion on the adequate model of the textbook: digital or analog. An example of the creation of a religion textbook for a representative of digital culture is the pilot project of the Krakow group of authors of CRE textbooks. It can be called an open source expert model. This consists of a group of experienced teachers (catechists) writing the essential contents of the textbooks. Next, these contents are verified by selected pupils and parents. Only later are the contents proofread, analyzed with respect to their theological accuracy, and, finally, reviewed by valuers of CRE textbooks of the Commission for Catholic Education of the Polish Episcopal Conference. The involvement of students who verify the language used in textbooks and assess the activities and tasks proposed in various exercises, that should take into account multisource and multisensory approach, is an essential element of the new way of developing CRE textbooks. This book is to serve as a forum for discussion on determining topics related to the future of religious education amidst digital culture surroundings and undertaking further research on means of transitioning from the theory of the CRE didactics to living practice in the classroom.
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The article is about human rights freedom of expression, the right to privacy, and ethics. Technological development (internet and social networks) emphasizes the issue of dialectics and poses many challenges. It makes the theoretical review, the history of human rights through and reference documents, an analysis of the concepts of freedom, privacy, and ethics. The internet and social networks pose many problems: digital data, people's tracks, the surveillance of citizens, the social engineering of power, online social networks, e-commerce, spaces of trust, and conflict.
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This article seeks to trace the growing dissension over the logic of European cohesion policy. Two perspectives are fighting for dominance, the European and the national. Only the European Commission and the European Parliament are actively promoting the European logic, which has gained ground over time through the overarching strategization (or Lisbonization) of European policies. In contrast, the memberstates subscribe to a national logic concerning European cohesion policy. This outlook is particularly notable among the ‘friends of cohesion policy’, a group that includes the southern, central, and eastern European countries. The funding allocated through the EU is applied in individual national markets, not in the single European market. In this regard, the concept of European cohesion policy to adjust national markets towards the European level has been sidelined by the national logic. This contribution attempts to reconstruct the dispute over the purpose of European cohesion policy since the reform of structural funds in 1988, focusing primarily on the latest rounds of negotiations over the multiannual financial framework (in which cohesion policy funds are a central issue) and the emerging conflict between the core and the periphery in the political economy of the European Union. If the European logic regarding the single European market’s construction does not prevail, European integration will stagnate or even reverse, and national compartmentalization of cohesion policy may become the dominant spatial model in Europe.
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As the research domain of digital government continues to develop itself as an important body of scholarly research, and it continues to grow in terms of researchers, publications, research funding, and other related indicators, it is important to understand the core theoretical and philosophical basis of the discipline. However, there is currently a lack of critical discussion about the concrete role of research philosophy for digital government research; which is one of the biggest current criticisms against the domain. This paper makes a first step in addressing this criticism by presenting arguments and discussion in favor of the importance of an interpretivist research philosophy for the domain of digital government. The paper provides a comprehensive overview of an interpretivist ontology and epistemology for digital government, discusses relevant theories and methods, and concludes with an overview of what is essential for conducting and carrying out interpretivist digital government research. This paper’s contribution represents one of the first concentrated efforts to lay out some initial foundations for the role of interpretivism, and research philosophy more generally, for the field.
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The article addresses human rights, in particular freedom of expression and the right to privacy, including on the Internet, proposing to emphasize the issue of their dialectics in the context of contemporary digital society that, in the face of the digitization of modern life, face many challenges. It becomes necessary in this way, understand, through a theoretical review, the history of fundamental humanrights, through historical reference documents; a psychosocial analysis of the concepts of Freedom and Privacy; the normative framework in which they fall; the Internet as a platform for exercising rights and freedoms; and the problems associated with it; digital data, people's movements; citizen surveillance; social engineering of power; online social networks and e-commerce, spaces of trust and conflict.
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This article is a reflection on Information Policy and Ethics. The issue of information ethics remains problematic. Should it be considered apractical example of interdisciplinarity between information sciences and political sciences? The interdisciplinarity of information and ethics have been discussed, especially in relation to the aspects of truth that are produced in science and technology. What does the production of knowledge and the exchange of interdisciplinary knowledge of information mean for information sciences and political sciences? Although this issue has already been addressed, there are elements of its research that can bring relevant contributions. The concepts of learning and communicative freedom may have a broad interest for an intercultural ethics of information. KEYWORDS: Ethics of information. Ethics of political discourse, Interdisciplinarity andtra
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This paper describes how particular normative dimensions have become embedded in public space. It identifies four periods of urban history, starting with that of the liberal city which introduces a heterogeneous set of liberal and democratic values. The sanitary city of the nineteenth century came to depict public space as a system of flows that needed to managed. The twentieth century rational city endorsed functionality and efficiency as key values, as manifested in modernist architecture and neo-liberal policies. Recently the experimental city emerged, in which digital technologies give rise to ‘smart’ systems, but also to new forms of civic engagement. It is argued that the experimental city needs to accommodate the normative dimensions of public space developed in preceding historical periods, which necessitates that conflicts between these dimensions need to subjected to democratic trade-off processes.
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This paper introduces and summarizes the articles in this Special Issue of the Journal of Educational Change on “Identity Grafting: Teacher and School Development in Chinese School Systems.” (Lee, Managing Chineseness: Identity and ethnic management in Singapore, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2017). It begins with Fengqiao Yan’s key thoughts and alternative views on the modernization of China’s academic system. Next, it surveys Fei Yan et al.’s study, which examines Beijing teachers’ and students’ responses toward the recent history textbook reforms in mainland China to instill the Core Socialist Values of the Chinese Communist Party. Third, it examines Wing On Lee and Ji Qi’s study, which maps the identity journeys of migrant Chinese communities in Beijing. Fourth, it summarizes Koon Lin Wong et al.’s study, which revisits the dilemma Hong Kong teachers face because of the obligation to implement the national education agenda. Fifth, it extends insights from Maxwell Ho and Daphnee Lee’s study of student behaviors in financial literacy education to understand the underpinning identity influences of the recent waves of student protests in Hong Kong. Sixth, the paper introduces Daphnee Lee’s study of the group dynamics of Singaporean Chinese teachers who engage in professional learning communities to achieve change, and the cultural identity processes that explain why some teams of teachers resist educational change, while other teams of teachers can come to embrace it.
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The article introduces a new category of ‘communication regime’ into discourse, and examines the features of formation and development of country communication regimes. The authors describe some aspects of the methodology of communication regimes research (the need for ‘ideal type’ modeling for comparative analysis). The article contains the results of a study of communication regimes, initiated and first conducted by the National Research Institute for Communications Development (Russia).
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Order this new book now directly at Springer: https://www.springer.com/de/book/9783319517025 --------------------------- see https://www.ahamer.com/ --------------------------------- Abstract • This chapter provides additional material pertaining to Part III (lessons learned) in its entirety. The sequence of paradigms in geography is traced from early history to the present, with a focus on economic and developmental theories, concepts of space-time and human geography. Geographic history suggests seeing geography as a “science of structures” that has recently opened up to more than one notion of “space”. The historic review has additionally encouraged this book’s own development of a new spatial paradigm, definition and metric: This book chooses to see relationship, interaction and communication as more fundamental than elements and facts. • Self-referential systems (as studied by geography) are beyond the scope of classical physics and classical science; they call for second-order science and tend to produce their own spaces in co-evolution. Perceiving space as the separation of possibilities for communication enables the intrinsic speeding up of evolutionary time through the over-exponentially increasing options for communication to be hypothesised. • Thus, it seems a worthy aim to develop a methodology to map spatio-temporal dynamics – and to attempt to diagnose patterns in worldwide techno-socio-economic evolution without inappropriate limitations imposed by “precognitive understanding” that may be fuelled by whatever ideologies. The GCDB method might contribute to this task by depicting dynamic patterns and might provide evidence to meta-theories such as evolutionary “spiral dynamics” or the co-evolutive generation of “values” as evolutionary targets. • Given the unlikeliness of finding suitable “theories of everything” at this stage of futurology, for practical life the future may best be defined as “what we make out of it”.
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This article aims at understanding the process of Chinese catching-up from a developmentalist theoretical approach. For this purpose, it takes as its starting point the work of some classical authors who inaugurated the debate on the nature of economic development during the 1940s and 1950s—Arthur Lewis, Alexander Gerschenkron, Albert Hirschman, and Raul Prebisch—as a theoretical background aimed at analyzing some key features of China’s multifaceted Chinese catching-up process. The main issues tackled in this article are as follows: structural economic duality and the inter-sectoral transference of labor, the role of the State as the main financing agent and development investor, and unbalanced growth and its linkages effects the challenge of governing and harmonizing the center-periphery relationship.
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Political Leadership is an expression as popular as it is inaccurate, capable of vulgarizing, confusing and weakening its own real understanding and harming its meaning. The aim of this article is to contribute to its best definition, initiating reflection and debate about it, thus constituting a field of study. Intheform, the basic andindispensable virtues for the political leader are found in Aristotle, besides resorting to Max Weber ando his concept of charismatic domination,, as an essential characteristic of political leadership. Finally, the construction of a new typology of Political Leadership is rehearsed.
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