68 Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation, 26, 68–79 (2017)
Cirrhilabrus efatensis, a new species of wrasse (Teleostei: Labridae)
from Vanuatu, South Pacic Ocean
P.O. Box 389, Kuranda, Queensland 4881, Australia
Sydney University Village, 90 Carillon Ave, Newtown NSW 2042, Australia
University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
Jinguh Clinic, 2-2-79 Jinguh, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 880, Japan
The new labrid species, Cirrhilabrus efatensis, is described from six specimens, 42.7–69.4 mm SL, collected from
Éfaté Island in Vanuatu in the South Pacic Ocean. The new species, along with C. bathyphilus and C. nahackyi,
form a small complex of allopatric closely related species in the southeastern Pacic Ocean, distinguished by a
combination of features of the color pattern of terminal-phase males: black anteriormost dorsal-n spines and
membranes, a relatively uniform red-to-orange body color, a yellow anal n with a blue-violet outer margin, and a
dusky nape. The new species differs from C. bathyphilus and C. nahackyi in having a bright-red head and anterior
body delimited abruptly from the orange posterior body. The mtDNA barcode COI sequence for C. efatensis is
the same as that of C. bathyphilus and C. nahackyi, not surprising in view of the prevalence of shared haplotypes
among some members of species complexes in Cirrhilabrus and Paracheilinus. The new species is apparently
endemic to Vanuatu, adjacent to the range of C. bathyphilus in the Coral Sea, but not overlapping, and is likely
another example of microendemism for the genus.
Key words: taxonomy, ichthyology, systematics, coral-reef shes, fairy wrasse, DNA barcoding, endemism.
Citation: Walsh, F., Tea, Y.K. & Tanaka, H. (2017) Cirrhilabrus efatensis, a new species of wrasse (Teleostei:
Labridae) from Vanuatu, South Pacic Ocean. Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation, 26, 68–79.
Date of publication of this version of record: 2 May 2017
The labrid genus Cirrhilabrus Temminck & Schlegel, 1845 comprises a large set of small, brightly colored,
sexually dimorphic coral-reef shes spanning the tropical Indo-Pacic region. Prior to 1974, only six species had
been described: Cirrhilabrus cyanopleura (Bleeker, 1851); C. solorensis Bleeker, 1853; C. temminckii Bleeker,
1853; C. jordani Snyder, 1904; C. ryukyuensis Ishigawa, 1904; and C. exquisitus Smith, 1957. In a recent paper
describing C. marinda from Indonesia, Allen, Erdmann & Dailami (2015) listed 51 known species for the genus.
Since then, several new species have been described: C. isosceles by Tea, Senou & Greene (2016); C. hygroxerus
by Allen & Hammer (2016); and C. rubeus and C. africanus by Victor (2016), bringing the total species count
to 55. These discoveries have resulted in Cirrhilabrus containing a species number second only to Halichoeres
Rüppell, 1835 amongst the wrasses of the family Labridae. Recent molecular studies have, however, suggested
that Halichoeres is likely polyphyletic, and should be extensively subdivided (Barber & Bellwood 2005), which
would make Cirrhilabrus unequivocally the most speciose wrasse genus.
Some nominal species of Cirrhilabrus with widespread distributions exhibit considerable variation in color
patterns throughout their range, e.g. Randall & Kuiter (1989) for C. punctatus and Kuiter (2010) for C. exquisitus.
In many cases, closer examination reveals concordance in genetic divergences and color patterns, leading to
splitting the nominal species into complexes of allopatric species, e.g. the C. rubriventralis complex (Victor
2016). Some members of species complexes do not diverge in mtDNA sequences, presumably a result of recent
speciation and/or continuing gene ow between populations, e.g. in the C. marinda complex (Allen, Erdmann &
Dailami 2015) and the C. humanni complex (Allen & Hammer 2016). The same phenomenon has been reported
among the related labrids of Paracheilinus (Allen, Erdmann & Yusmalinda 2016).
Randall & Nagareda (2002) described C. bathyphilus, from the Coral Sea, as the 41st member of the genus.
More recently, Walsh & Tanaka (2012) described C. nahackyi as the second member of the C. bathyphilus complex,
from Fiji and Tonga. In the description of C. nahackyi, the authors included a photograph of a terminal-phase male
(TP male) from Vanuatu which showed a considerable color-pattern difference from type-location C. bathyphilus
and hinted at a future paper resolving the taxonomic status of the sh. Recently, additional specimens have been
made available, allowing for the description herein of the 56th member of the genus.
Materials and Methods
Type specimens are deposited at the Queensland Museum, Australia (QM), Australian Museum, Sydney
(AMS), Zoological Reference Collection of the Lee Kong Chian Natural History Museum at the National
University of Singapore (ZRC), National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. (USNM), and University
of Miyazaki, Japan (MUFS).
All measurements were made point to point with digital calipers, recorded to the nearest 0.1 mm. Lengths
given for specimens are standard length (SL), the straight-line distance from the median anterior point of the upper
lip to the base of the caudal n (posterior end of the hypural plate). Head length is measured from the median
anterior point of the upper lip to the posterior end of the opercular membrane; snout length is from the same
anterior point to the eshy edge of the orbit. Body depth is the greatest depth measured to the base of the dorsal-
n spines, and body width is the greatest width just posterior to the opercular ap. Orbit diameter is the greatest
eshy diameter and the interorbital width is least bony width. Caudal peduncle length is measured horizontally
from the rear of the anal n to the base of the caudal n and caudal peduncle depth is the least depth. Predorsal,
pre-anal and prepelvic lengths are taken from the upper lip to the anterior origin of the respective n. Lengths of
each n spine and rays are taken from the base of each element.
Pectoral-n ray counts include the short rudimentary upper ray. The lateral line scale counts are given in two
parts, the anterior count from the upper end of the opecular ap to below the soft portion of the dorsal n. The
second or posterior lateral line count is from the midlateral pedunclar portion to the base of the caudal n (a single
scale usually located posterior to the base of the caudal n is included). Gill raker counts include rudiments and
only a total count is given, as it is difcult to determine which gill raker is at the angle.The vertebral count was
determined using an x-radiograph of the holotype.
Cirrhilabrus efatensis, n. sp.
Figures 1–4, 7A1, 7A2 & 9A; Table 1.
Holotype. QM I.40671, male, 69.4 mm SL, Vanuatu, Éfaté Island, storm damaged rubble slope, 30–50 m,
hand-net, L. Sharon, March 2005.
Paratypes. USNM 387559, male, 60.0 mm SL, same data as holotype; QM I.38235, female, 43.9 mm SL,
same data as holotype; MUFS 23366, female, 42.7 mm SL, same data as holotype, ZRC 55599, male, 43.4 mm
SL, Vanuatu, Éfaté Island, 45 m, rubble slopes, C. Dumaran, 6 June 2016; AMS I.47280-001, male, 48.9 mm SL,
Vanuatu, Éfaté Island, 45 m, rubble slope, C. Dumaran, 6 June 2016.
Diagnosis. Dorsal-n rays XI,9; anal-n rays III,9; pectoral-n rays 15; lateral-line scales 15–17+5–6; median
predorsal scales 5; horizontal scale rows on cheek below eye 2; gill rakers 14 (14–16); body depth 2.9–3.7 in
SL; body width 1.95–2.6 in body depth; head length 2.5–3.2 in SL; snout length 3.7–4.1 in HL; pelvic n short,
not reaching origin of anal n, 4.55–6.1 in SL; caudal n truncate to rounded in females to doubly emarginate in
males; eye large, orbit diameter 3.25–3.85 in HL; abdomen pale yellow, head and anterior portion of body red,
posterior body orange-yellow (color in alcohol pale), males with black submarginal band in caudal n and soft
portion of dorsal n and rst membrane of spinous dorsal-n black. Largest specimen 69.4 mm SL.
Description. Dorsal-n rays XI,9; anal-n rays III,9 (last soft ray missing in holotype); dorsal- and anal-n
soft rays branched except rst ray unbranched; last dorsal- and anal-n ray branched to base; pectoral-n rays 15,
upper two unbranched; pelvic-n rays I,5; principal caudal-n rays 13 (upper and lowermost unbranched), upper
and lower procurrent caudal-n rays 5–6, posteriormost segmented; lateral line interrupted, with dorsoanterior
series of pored scales 17 (15–17) and midlateral posterior peduncular series 5 (5–6); scales above lateral line to
origin of dorsal n 2; scales below lateral line to origin of anal n 6; median predorsal scales 5; median preprelvic
scales 6; horizontal rows of scales on cheek 2; circumpeduncular scales 16; gill rakers 14 (14–16); branchiostegal
rays 5; vertebrae 9 + 16.
Figure 1. Cirrhilabrus efatensis, TP male holotype, QM I.40671, 69.4 mm SL, Éfaté Island, Vanuatu (F. Walsh).
Body depth 3.05 (2.9–3.7) in SL; body compressed, width 2.2 (1.95–2.6) in body depth; head length 3.0 (2.5–
3.2) in SL; dorsal prole of head convex; snout moderately pointed, length 3.85 (3.7–4.1) in HL; orbit diameter
3.85 (3.25–3.85) in HL; interorbital space convex, least bony width 3.95 (3.75–4.7) in HL; caudal-peduncle depth
2.2 (2.1–2.5) in HL; caudal-peduncle length 2.1 (1.9–2.45) in HL.
Mouth terminal and oblique, forming angle of approx. 25° to horizontal axis of body; mouth small, maxilla
extending just posterior to a vertical through anterior nostril, upper-jaw length 3.85 (4.0–4.7) in HL; dentition
typical of genus, three pairs of canine teeth anteriorly at side of upper jaw, anterior pair forward projecting, next
two pairs increasing in length and more recurved and laterally projecting; upper jaw with closely set, small, conical
teeth (15 in holotype posterior to third canine); lower jaw with single pair of forward and laterally projecting
canines and closely set, small, conical teeth (20 in holotype). Tongue short and rounded. Gill rakers short, longest
on rst gill arch less than one-half length of longest gill laments.
Posterior margin of preopercle with 38 small serrae (33–42, rst 3 paratypes); edge of preopercle free
from behind center of eye to below anterior edge of pupil; lower margin of the preopercle rounded, thin, and
Posterior nostril subtriangular with a short rim, located just below upper-eye level and just anterior to front
edge of eye; anterior nostril a very short membranous tube, slightly higher posteriorly, located anteroventral to
posterior nostril, diameter about equal to sensory pores of cephalic lateralis system. Suborbital pores from middle
of eye to below front edge of eye 12 (10–12); pores along free edge of preopercle 8; pores on mandible to front
of chin 4.
Scales cycloid; head scaled except interorbital space, snout, and chin; opercle covered by 7 large scales; cheek
with two horizontal rows of scales below eye; naked lower ange of preopercle thin, greatest width at angle about
2.5 in orbit diameter in holotype; base of dorsal and anal ns with a single row of large elongated scales, one per
membrane; last pored scale on lateral line at base of caudal n enlarged and pointed; terminal scale on midline
just posterior to last pored scale very enlarged and pointed; no scales on paired ns; pelvic ns with a median
ventral process of two elongate scales about three-fourths length of pelvic-n spine, thin axillary scale of each
pelvic n about three-fourths the length of pelvic-n spine.
Origin of dorsal n above third lateral-line scale; predorsal distance 3.3 (2.65–3.2) in SL; rst dorsal-n spine
short 3.85 (3.4–4.45) in head length; other dorsal-n spines subequal, the longest 2.3 (2.2–2.75) in head length;
interspinous membranes of dorsal n extending well above spine tips in males; rst soft dorsal-n ray longest
1.9 (2.0–2.6) in head length; origin of anal n vertically below last dorsal-n spine; preanal length 1.6 (1.6–1.7)
Figure 2. Cirrhilabrus efatensis, fresh TP male paratype, ZRC 55599, 43.4 mm SL, Éfaté Island, Vanuatu (Y.K. Tea).
in SL; rst anal-n spine 4.2 (4.45–5.45) in HL; second anal-n spine 3.55 (3.3–4.05) in HL; third anal-n spine
2.8 (2.8–3.45) in HL; seventh or eighth anal soft rays longest, 2.0 (2.15–2.85) in H:; caudal n 3.55 (3.2–4.0)
in SL, rounded in females; caudal n of males strongly double emarginate, caudal n slightly concave in males
19.0 (8.5–10.45) in head length; third pectoral-n ray 1.4 (1.4–1.65); pelvic n short, extending just beyond anus,
longer in males than females, second ray longest 1.6 (1.5–2.25) in HL, 4.75 (4.55–6.1) in SL.
Color in life. (Figs. 1–4, 7A1, 7A2 & 9A) TP males with head and body bright red dorsoanteriorly, extending
ventrally to about three-quarters of body depth and just below eye; pale yellow ventrally; nape dusky; posterior
body yellow-orange, anterior abruptly red mid-dorsally, scales along posterior dorsum with a single red spot
centrally, a thin red stripe along the lateral line; iris bright red; dorsal n red with an irregular broad, black, outer
margin, more pronounced on soft portion, a narrow translucent-to-violet outer margin, a few small violet blue
blotches centrally on spinous-n membrane, rst and second dorsal-n spines and interspinous membranes black;
caudal n red, with faint violet-blue blotches, outer margin black with a blue submarginal band; anal n yellow,
outer margin blue, bordered on inner edge with a narrow, red, submarginal line; pelvic ns translucent yellow;
pectoral ns transparent. Females yellowish orange, pale yellow ventrally; body with a series of 4 or 5 thin stripes
dorsally, usually threaded with small white spots; nape with a series of ne white lines; dorsal n translucent red,
rst and second dorsal-n spines and interspinous membrane black; caudal n translucent red; anal n translucent
yellow; pelvic ns translucent; pectoral ns transparent.
Color in alcohol. Black markings on nape and ns remain; red and orange color becomes pale yellowish to
tan; yellow color becomes paler yellowish.
Etymology. The specic epithet refers to Éfaté Island in central Vanuatu, the type location of the species. The
vernacular name of “Hooded Fairy Wrasse” is suggested for its unique “hooded” appearance, brought upon by the
strongly contrasting head and body coloration.
Distribution and habitat. Cirrhilabrus efatensis is currently known only from Éfaté Island and Espiritu
Santo in central and northern Vanuatu. The new species is found in depths between 30–60 m, above gently sloping
bottoms with scattered low outcrops of rocks and rubble.
Figure 3. Cirrhilabrus efatensis, fresh TP male, Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu (specimen not retained)(B.D. Greene).
Proportional measurements of selected type specimens of Cirrhilabrus efatensis, n. sp.
as percentages of the standard length
Sex male male female female male male
Standard length (mm) 69.4 60.0 43.9 42.7 43.4 48.9
Body depth 32.6 30.8 32.8 34.2 27.2 29.4
Body width 14.7 14.7 12.8 13.1 13.6 15.1
Head length 33.1 32.7 35.1 39.8 31.3 32.1
Snout length 8.6 8.0 9.1 9.8 8.5 8.4
Orbit diameter 8.6 8.5 10.0 10.3 9.7 9.2
Interorbital width 8.4 8.7 8.2 8.4 7.1 7.2
Upper-jaw length 8.6 8.2 8.7 8.4 7.8 7.6
Caudal-peduncle depth 15.0 15.0 14.8 15.9 13.8 15.1
Caudal-peduncle length 15.9 15.0 14.6 16.4 16.4 14.1
Predorsal length 30.3 31.3 34.2 37.5 33.9 31.3
Preanal length 62.7 60.0 62.9 62.8 59.9 59.3
Prepelvic length 36.0 34.3 35.3 37.0 35.9 36.2
Dorsal-n base 61.1 60.0 55.6 58.1 57.8 60.5
First dorsal-n spine 8.6 8.8 9.1 8.9 9.2 7.6
Longest dorsal-n spine 14.4 14.8 14.6 14.5 13.6 12.7
Longest dorsal-n ray 17.4 16.2 13.7 15.5 14.7 14.7
Anal-n base damaged 26.0 25.1 26.7 26.3 27.8
First anal-n spine 7.9 6.0 7.7 8.9 6.7 6.1
Second anal-n spine 9.4 8.7 9.1 9.8 9.4 8.4
Third anal-n spine 11.8 11.7 11.2 11.5 9.7 9.6
Longest anal-n ray 16.6 15.2 14.6 15.5 11.1 13.7
Caudal-n length 28.2 26.7 30.1 31.4 28.6 25.2
Caudal-n concavity 1.7 - - - 3.7 3.1
Pectoral-n length 23.9 23.3 22.8 25.3 19.1 19.8
Pelvic-n spine length 11.5 11.7 11.8 12.2 11.5 11.2
Pelvic-n length 21.0 22.0 16.4 17.8 20.3 19.4
Figure 4. Cirrhilabrus efatensis, TP male and female, approx. 90 mm and 60 mm TL respectively, aquarium specimens from
Éfaté Island, Vanuatu (image reversed, specimens not retained)(K. Kohen).
Comparisons. Cirrhilabrus efatensis is, at present, one of three species forming a closely related species
complex with allopatric distributions centered largely within northeastern Australia and Melanesia (Fig. 5). The
complex comprises C. bathyphilus (Fig. 6) from the Coral Sea, Great Barrier Reef, New Caledonia and southern
Vanuatu; and C. nahackyi (Fig. 7C1) from Fiji and Tonga. Despite the close proximity of C. efatensis and C.
Figure 5. Distribution map showing locality records for members of the Cirrhilabrus bathyphilus species complex.
Figure 6. Cirrhilabrus bathyphilus, TP male holotype, AMS I.41103-001, 48.7 mm SL, Coral Sea, Holmes Reef (F. Walsh).
bathyphilus in Vanuatu, the two species have not been documented to occur together at any one location, with
C. bathyphilus replacing C. efatensis in the southernmost portion of the archipelago. Examples of allopatric
species of Cirrhilabrus with a similar pattern of marginally close distribution ranges have been demonstrated
in C. morrisoni, C. humanni, and C. hygroxerus (Allen & Hammer 2016), as well as C. marinda and C. condei
(Allen, Erdmann & Dailami 2015), some referred to by Victor (2016) as microendemics.
Another species, Cirrhilabrus marjorie Allen, Randall & Carlson, 2003, has been proposed to be part of
this species complex. In the original description of C. bathyphilus, Randall & Nagarada (2002) discussed an
undescribed Cirrhilabrus species from Vanua Levu, Fiji and suggested that it was probably closely related to C.
bathyphilus based on color patterns and caudal-n shape. Allen, Randall & Carlson (2003) noted some signicant
differences between C. marjorie and C. bathyphilus, e.g. in gill-raker count (18–19 for C. marjorie vs. 13–15 for
C. bathyphilus), caudal-n shape, dorsal- and caudal-n color patterns, as well as habitat and depth preferences.
As a result, they proposed C. marjorie may be a member of the C. exquisitus species complex, particularly on the
basis of its double-emarginate caudal n. However, Tea, Senou & Greene (2016) demonstrated the unreliability
of caudal-n shapes for inferring taxonomic relationships in Cirrhilabrus, noting unrelated species that share
shapes and closely related species that differ greatly in caudal-n shape. While no comparative morphological or
genetic studies have been conducted for C. marjorie at present, we believe it is more likely allied instead to C.
walindi Allen & Randall, 1996 from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and C. cenderawasih Allen &
Erdmann, 2006 from Indonesia.
The TP males of the C. bathyphilus species complex share a set of characteristic markings (Fig. 7), in particular,
having black anteriormost dorsal-n spines and membranes. TP males often have fuliginous napes, and, with the
exception of C. nahackyi, possess very strong, double-emarginate caudal ns, edged in black. In C. nahackyi, the
rst and second dorsal-n spines are elongated, forming a short pennant; this feature is absent in C. efatensis and
C. bathyphilus. Cirrhilabrus efatensis can be readily separated from C. bathyphilus by color pattern. In the rather
variable C. bathyphilus, the red anterior body fades gradually into the posterior orange body, either as a gradual
suffusion, or as a linear streak (Fig. 8). This suffusion is absent in C. efatensis; instead, C. efatensis has the two
color tones delimited abruptly mid-dorsally.
Figure 7. Live color patterns in Cirrhilabrus species (TP males in A1-C1, initial phase in A2-C2) A: C. efatensis (A1=
paratype, USNM 387559, male, 60.0 mm SL; A2 = paratype, QM I.38235, female, 43.9 mm SL) B: C. bathyphilus (B1=
QM I.38236, male, 67.5 mm SL; B2 = aquarium specimen, Tanna Island, Vanuatu) C: C. nahackyi (C1 = paratype, QM.
I.38241, male, 65.0 mm SL, Tongatapu, Tonga; C2 = paratype, QM. I.38242, female, 31.8 mm SL, Bega Lagoon, Fiji)(A1,
A2, B1, C2 by F. Walsh; B2 by P. Schmeidel; C1 by H. Tanaka).
All three species possess a black dorsal-n band in TP males. In C. nahackyi, this band is restricted to the
anterior soft portion of the n; in C. efatensis and C. bathyphilus, the black dorsal-n band appears highly variable,
ranging from almost completely absent to a prominent broad band, extending the full length of the n (Fig. 8).
The three species in this complex also share similarities in the coloration during nuptial displays, specically,
the lightening and iridescence of the dorsum, turning bright lilac at the height of excitation. In C. efatensis, this is
restricted to only the posterior body, while the dorsal and caudal ns intensify to deep red with a bright magenta
wash (Fig. 9A). The lilac shading during the nuptial display is present in C. bathyphilus along the entire dorsum
(Fig. 9B), though less extensive in its intensity as compared to C. efatensis. The lilac display coloration is most
extensive, but also less vibrant, in C. nahackyi, obscuring nearly the entire body except the head (Fig. 9C).
All three species in this complex share very similar meristic and morphometric data. Slight differences may
exist (but counts measurements are by different observers), i.e. C. efatensis with a gill raker count of 14–16 vs.
13–15 in C. bathyphilus and 14–15 in C. nahackyi. Snout lengths apparently differ slightly, with C. efatensis with
8.0–9.7% SL, vs. 8.7–10.3% SL in C. bathyphilus and 8.3–9.2% SL in C. nahackyi.
The mtDNA barcode marker COI is often used to assess whether populations are genetically isolated from
Figure 8. Variability in Cirrhilabrus bathyphilus TP males. Note variability in the red anterior body coloration, appearing
as either a suffused wash (A, B), or a somewhat more distinct streak (C, D), but never abruptly delimited as in C. efatensis.
Arrows highlight variability in the black markings on the dorsal-n margin (A: E. Fleishauer; B & C: F. Walsh; D: H. Tanaka).
relatives and to quantify the genetic divergence between species: among coral-reef shes, species have been found
to typically diverge more than 2% from their closest relatives (Ward, Hanner & Hebert 2009), but with many
exceptions. Very close, or even shared, mtDNA lineages occur frequently among species complexes of labrids with
particularly colorful mating displays, and may represent recent radiations where there has been insufcient time
to accumulate and x mutations among populations or where there is some hybridization preventing divergence
in mtDNA lineages (Victor 2015). The COI sequence for C. efatensis is the same as the sequence for C. nahackyi
and C. bathyphilus (GenBank accession number KX037921), making this species complex another example of
shared mtDNA haplotypes between closely related species in Cirrhilabrus.
Other material examined. Cirrhilabrus bathyphilus: AMS I.41103-001 (holotype), male, 48.7 mm SL, Holmes
Reef, Coral Sea, Australia; QM I.38236, male, 67.5 mm SL, Tanna Island, Vanuatu; QM I.38236, female, 37.8
mm SL, Tanna Island, Vanuatu; USNM 387560 male, 68.0 mm SL, Tanna Island, Vanuatu.
Cirrhilabrus nahackyi: QM I.38421 (holotype), male, 55.6 mm SL, Bega Lagoon, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands; QM
I.38242 (paratype), female, 31.8 mm SL, Bega Lagoon, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands.
We would especially like to thank Larry Sharon for providing four of the type specimens and his assistance
with collection and habitat information. Sincerest thanks are also given to Ohm Pavaphon for the preparation and
donation of two paratypes used in the description. A word of gratitude goes out to Kelvin Lim of the National
University of Singapore and the Lee Kong Chien Natural History Museum, as well as Mark McGrouther of the
Australian Museum, Jeff Johnson of the Queensland Museum, and Mark Allen of the Western Australian Museum
for curatorial assistance. Many thanks to Benjamin Victor for provision of the genetic comparison data and John
Randall and Anthony Gill for assisting us greatly with their knowledge and encouragement. Thanks also to Brian
Greene for information and the specimen image from Espiritu Santo, and Kevin Kohen and Kiyoshi Endoh for
Figure 9. Nuptial displays in Cirrhilabrus TP males A: C. efatensis, Éfaté Island, Vanuatu; B: C. bathyphilus, Coral Sea,
Australia; C: C. nahackyi, Tonga (but note the absence of the usual dorsal-n pennant here, otherwise present in TP males of
this species). (A & B: Y.K. Tea; C: K. Endoh).
providing their high-quality aquarium photographs, as well as to Christopher Buerner and Adam Mangino of
Quality Marine of Los Angeles, CA for specimens of C. nahackyi. The DNA barcoding was performed at the
Biodiversity Institute of Ontario with the support of Robert Hanner and the team at BOLD. DNA barcoding was
supported by the International Barcode of Life Project (iBOL.org) with funding from the Government of Canada
via the Canadian Centre for DNA Barcoding, as well as from the Ontario Genomics Institute (2008-OGI-ICI-03),
Genome Canada, the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation, and the Natural Sciences and
Engineering Research Council of Canada. The manuscript was reviewed by two anonymous reviewers.We would
like to dedicate this paper, in part, to Grant Norton and Christopher Dumaran for their tireless dedication in diving
the reefs of Vanuatu, and for their invaluable information for the habitat and distribution of the new species.
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