Article

Green brand benefits and their influence on brand loyalty

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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the formation of green brand image through customers’ perceptions of the functional and emotional benefits associated with green brands and the influence of green brand image on purchase behavioural response. Additionally, the influence of a moderating variable (green perceived risk) on this formation process is examined. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using an online survey administered to a consumer panel in China. Structural equation modelling was used to test the conceptual model. Findings The results demonstrate that the provision of utilitarian benefits and self-expressive benefits directly enhance the brand’s green image. Also, utilitarian benefits and green brand image have direct influences on green brand loyalty. Green perceived risk negatively moderates the relationship between utilitarian benefits and green brand image. Research limitations/implications This study extends previous research by examining the development of green brand image and investigating the moderating role of green perceived risk in this process. Also, this study enriches research on green brand and corporate branding by investigating the relationship between green brand image and brand loyalty. Originality/value Although previous research has examined how perceived benefits influence the development of corporate brand image, the issue has not been investigated from a green branding perspective. Moreover, the moderating role of green perceived risk in the formation of green brand image has not been explored, despite the concerns relating to greenwash which have been raised in several green brand studies. Finally, green brand image was found to be a strong antecedent of brand loyalty, besides the predominant elements of green trust and green satisfaction.

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... Thus, we recommend that brands eliminate the detrimental greenwash practice and increase the transparency of their environmental performance, and that governments and environmental organizations enhance consumer education to prevent moral decoupling. Keywords greenwash; green branding; green marketing; moral decoupling; brand loyalty; corporate environmental responsibility; organizational ethics Green marketing has grown rapidly in the past decade, and brands now often make claims about their environmental performance to promote their brand image and to seize green marketing opportunities (Lin et al., 2017). Unfortunately, as many brands overstate their environmental performance without fulfilling their responsibilities (Gatti et al., 2019;Lyon & Montgomery, 2015), the phenomenon of greenwash has become an important source leading to a marketing crisis. ...
... Chen & Chang, 2013;Nguyen et al., 2019). Consumers also choose green brands in pursuit of a combination of emotional and functional benefits, which compensate for the products' higher price (Lin et al., 2017). When consumers find out that the green benefits do not exist, they feel disappointed with the quality and value for money of the products (Chekalina et al., 2018;Fernandes & Moreira, 2019). ...
... On the one hand, consumers at higher (vs. lower) levels of moral decoupling are more capable of dissociating the brand's performance from greenwash and evaluating objectively the product quality and functionality (Fehr et al., 2019), which brings about less dissatisfaction (Lee & Kwak, 2016;Lin et al., 2017). They may even argue that because not all brands have enough resources to develop green products, the trend of green marketing forces them to greenwash, which allows them to invest limited resources in improving the product quality (de Freitas Netto et al., 2020;Lyon & Montgomery, 2015). ...
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Along with the prevalence of green marketing, greenwash has also grown in the past decade. We investigated whether greenwash undermines consumers’ brand loyalty, and how moral decoupling moderates this effect. Data were collected from a survey of 427 consumers, and the hypotheses were tested by regression analysis. The empirical results show that greenwash had a negative effect on consumers’ brand loyalty, the effect of which was stronger at lower levels of moral decoupling. Thus, we recommend that brands eliminate the detrimental greenwash practice and increase the transparency of their environmental performance, and that governments and environmental organizations enhance consumer education to prevent moral decoupling.
... Consistently, researchers and a practitioner in the field of marketing must comprehend the impact of eco-branding on consumer's buying decisions. A green brand identity is defined by explicit brand components as well as benefits connected to plummeting environmental harm (Lin et al., 2017). An appropriately executed green brand identity ought to afford paybacks to ecologically cognisant customers. ...
... Conversely, other studies have established that green branding strategies are faced with drawbacks with regards to consumers' understanding which tends to be incongruent to green performances by firms (Danciu, 2015). Thus, while genuinely green firms exist, these do not get to optimally reap rewards from their green efforts due to the prominent practise of greenwashing which dissuades customers from patronising genuinely green firms (Lin et al., 2017). Thus, hypothesis 1 proposes that there is a positive nexus between eco-branding and firm performance. ...
... The primary aim of the green advertisement is to inspire consumers' purchase activities towards products that ensure no or less harm to the environment thereby and redirecting their alertness of the progressive contribution of their purchase behaviour (Rahbar & Abdul Wahid, 2011). However, the phenomenon of greenwashing is also a prevalent force negatively affecting the attitude of consumers towards green advertising (Lin et al., 2017). As businesses pursue environmentally cognisant buyers, their environmental claims within their advertisements are subjected to severe scrutiny (Leonidou et al., 2011;Schumack et al., 2018). ...
... A brand's benefits refer to the consumers' perceptions of a brand based on what they can attain for the product attributes (Lin et al., 2017a). Functional brand benefits are usually correlated with consumers' functional needs to easily develop positive brand attitude for consumers (Lin et al., 2017a). ...
... A brand's benefits refer to the consumers' perceptions of a brand based on what they can attain for the product attributes (Lin et al., 2017a). Functional brand benefits are usually correlated with consumers' functional needs to easily develop positive brand attitude for consumers (Lin et al., 2017a). For instance, customers are comforted by the tendency to jointly protect the environment for sustainable development and convey positive information. ...
... For instance, customers are comforted by the tendency to jointly protect the environment for sustainable development and convey positive information. In this case, individuals are more likely to have a high level of self-expressive benefits and provide a positive attitude toward high-signaling products or services labeled in "green, " "eco, " or "sustainability" (Lin et al., 2017a;Hwang et al., 2019). Aaker (1999) noted that as individuals act differently in varying situations, the empirical support of self-expressive research should be based on context. ...
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In the context of climate change, this study uncovers the role of green airlines’ social responsibility in conjunction with the consumers’ switching behavior while considering the effects of latent variables, including green psychology, airline corporate image, green experimental behavior, green service fairness, green alternative attractiveness and switching intention, were examined in the study. In a highly competitive service environment, an organization needs to understand how passengers perceive its corporate image, satisfaction, fairness attractiveness, and behavior of switching intention. The predicted relationship was based on partial least squares structural equation modeling of a convenience sample of 615 valid datasets collected from individuals who used green airline services in China. The findings show that the psychological benefit of greenness, only warm glow, is the main driver of airline corporate image. Furthermore, airline corporate image, green service fairness, and green alternative attractiveness support passengers’ green experiential satisfaction. The evidence demonstrates that green experiential satisfaction and green alternative attractiveness have significantly positive effects on switching intention. However, green service fairness has no significant effect on green switching intention. This study contributes to the literature by understanding airline customers’ perception of the complex relationship in the green constructs. This finding can help marketers facilitate and develop their external communication and craft their image to retain their existing or potential customers.
... In the last decade, the concept of green marketing has emerged globally as a result of awareness among the general public (J. Lin et al., 2017;Mostafa, 2007). Contemporary consumers have shown their readiness to pay extra for green products/services (J. ...
... Contemporary consumers have shown their readiness to pay extra for green products/services (J. Lin et al., 2017). As observed by Leonidou and Skarmeas (2015), there was a 400% increase in the global market value of green products/services between 2011 and 2015. ...
... Due to such rapid change, the green brand image has become a differential strategy for many trade markets (Delgado-Ballester & Munuera-Aleman, 2005), and the hospitality market is one of them (J. Lin et al., 2017). In the hospitality market, "green hotel" is used as a brand label by many hotels to attract their customers and achieve sustainable competitive advantage (M. ...
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This study develops a test model that can conceptually contribute to the formation of a green brand image for the hospitality market. A conceptual model highlighting the mediating role of green brand image based on two antecedent constructs (consumer’s perceived functional and emotional benefits of green hotels) and four outcome constructs (green brand preferences, trust, loyalty, and corporate image) was tested using 347 Malaysian lodging consumers. The findings indicate that the increase in consumer’s perceived functional and emotional benefits will initially increase their green brand image, and eventually increase their green brand preferences, trust, loyalty, and corporate image. Moreover, the role of green brand image as a mediator exists between consumers’ perceived benefits and their green brand preferences, trust, loyalty, and corporate image. Based on these findings, the managers can devise green branding strategies for their hotels, and show how green campaigns can highlight ecological concerns among green hotel consumers.
... In the face of the uncertainty and suspicion of customers regarding the arguments made by green goods and companies, former researchers suggest a structure recognized as a green perceived risk (Lin, Lobo, & Leckie, 2017a). The green perceived risk is characterized as an interpretation related to the probable impact on environmental efficiency of an incorrect decision. ...
... Such activities have been shown to intensify customer suspicion regarding green goods or services (Huang & Li, 2015). Greenwash can therefore raise consumers' perception of risk at the expense of the green market as a whole (Lin et al., 2017a). Customers can also be fooled into going green, because green products invoke optimistic feelings and certain customers feel happier when they hear that green goods are used (Hartmann & Ibanez, 2006). ...
... When customers question a green brand's claims regarding its utilitarian value, their conceptions of its functional benefits would be unfavorable (Chang & Chen, 2014). As a result, they are far less willing than they are to believe the environmental reputation of the company and less happy with the environmental impact of the green product (Lin et al., 2017a). Chen and Chang (2013b) found that greenwash impacts adversely consumer confusion and perceived risk in a survey of Taiwanese electronic consumer, decreasing the consumer's "green trust" in green claims. ...
... In the face of the uncertainty and suspicion of customers regarding the arguments made by green goods and companies, former researchers suggest a structure recognized as a green perceived risk (Lin, Lobo, & Leckie, 2017a). The green perceived risk is characterized as an interpretation related to the probable impact on environmental efficiency of an incorrect decision. ...
... Such activities have been shown to intensify customer suspicion regarding green goods or services (Huang & Li, 2015). Greenwash can therefore raise consumers' perception of risk at the expense of the green market as a whole (Lin et al., 2017a). Customers can also be fooled into going green, because green products invoke optimistic feelings and certain customers feel happier when they hear that green goods are used (Hartmann & Ibanez, 2006). ...
... When customers question a green brand's claims regarding its utilitarian value, their conceptions of its functional benefits would be unfavorable (Chang & Chen, 2014). As a result, they are far less willing than they are to believe the environmental reputation of the company and less happy with the environmental impact of the green product (Lin et al., 2017a). Chen and Chang (2013b) found that greenwash impacts adversely consumer confusion and perceived risk in a survey of Taiwanese electronic consumer, decreasing the consumer's "green trust" in green claims. ...
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The study discusses the influence of greenwash on green purchase intention and explores the mediation roles of green confusion, green perceived risk and green trust. The research object of this study focuses in Jordanian food and beverage corporations. This research utilizes structural equation modeling to undertake an empirical study. The results indicate that greenwash positively effects green confusion and green perceived risk. Besides, this study demonstrates that green confusion and green perceived risk mediate the negative relationship between greenwash and green purchase intention. It means that greenwash does not only have a directly negative effect on green purchase intention, but also have an indirectly negative effect on it via green confusion and green perceived risk. Finally, green trust does not influence green purchase intention and does not mediate the greenwash and green purchase intention relationship. Thus, this study suggests that companies should decrease their greenwash behaviors and should not only claim their "greenness" but also show the proof of their green products. These policies would reduce customer confusion and risk. It will raise the likelihood of green practices and claims by businesses, and contribute to improved green food and beverage purchasing intention.
... Although previous research has reached an agreement on brand positioning from both the strategic and analytical perspectives, there still exists an argument on the precise definition of "green brand positioning" (Hauser and Koppelman, 1979;Chaturvedi et al., 1998;Ries and Trout, 1986). Positioning a brand as a "green brand" comprises active communication about the brand's unique green value originating from its environmentally friendly attributes with target customers (Hartmann et al., 2005;Lin et al., 2017). Most researchers agree that green branding cannot achieve commercial benefit if the brand's positioning strategy cannot clearly convey a brand's green attributes; therefore, green brand positioning strategies are regarded as an essential component of successful green branding strategies (Grove et al., 1996;Kumar, 2016). ...
... Prior research suggests that green branding cannot achieve commercial success if the unique environmental utility of green brands is not effectively communicated (de Chernatony, 1999). However, exclusive functional positioning strategies are not sufficient for consumers to generate positive brand attitudes and purchase intention (Ng et al., 2014;Lin et al., 2017). This is because consumers also value the additional emotional benefits of green brands when considering purchasing environmentfriendly products (Griskevicius et al., 2010). ...
... Green emotional positioning reflects a brand's symbolic benefit, especially a brand's social utility for consumers (Sirgy, 1982;Giebelhausen et al., 2016). Lin et al. (2017) state that a combination of green functional attributes and green emotional benefits delivered from positioning strategies can not only evoke a green halo effect but can also build a positive green brand association with consumers. Consequently, the use of complementary green positioning strategies can enhance a consumer's cognitive and emotional perception of a green brand (Hartmann et al., 2005;Papista et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose-This study aims to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework to investigate how green brand positioning strategies positively impact consumer response. It focusses on uncovering the causal mechanism in which such effect is mediated by brand stereotypes. Additionally, it outlines the moderating role of construal level in this formation process. Design/methodology/approach-Three experimental studies were conducted to examine the hypotheses. Study 1 tests the positive influence of green brand positioning on consumer response. Study 2 tests the dual mediating effect of warmth and competence in the relationship between green brand positioning and consumer response. Study 3 further examines the moderating role of construal level in the effects of green brand positioning on brand stereotypes. Findings-The findings reveal that green emotional positioning strategies are predominantly stereotyped as warm while green functional positioning strategies are predominantly stereotyped as competent. Both warm and competent mediate the effects of green brand positioning on consumer response. Furthermore, a congruency between green emotional positioning and high-level construal, as well as the match between green functional positioning and low-level construal, leads to more warmth and competence perception. Originality/value-This study contributes to green brand management literature by proposing a brand stereotype-based mechanism to explain how green brand positioning strategies trigger consumers' stereotyping process, leading to positive consumer response. This study also identifies the construal level as a moderating variable that impacts consumers' warmth and competence perceptions towards two kinds of green brand positioning strategies. Managerially, the findings of this study provide managerial ideas for developing green branding strategies.
... The brand image is recognized as an important precursor to loyalty [18]. To date, many studies have reported the impact of brand image on loyalty [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26]. Alternatively, the brand image has been treated as a role in mediating the influence of measures such as promotion and satisfaction on loyalty [27][28]. ...
... 6-7), response device, and items from questions (4)-(7) (Nos. [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. As there were many variables, a stepwise method was adopted to select the variables. ...
... However, the focus has been on the specific features of the product, such as performance and design [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. From the brand's viewpoint, the brand image has been explored many times [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30], while the brand concept has not. The results of this study show that consumers who are attracted to the brand image do not tend to have high loyalty, while the consumers who are attracted to the brand concept have significantly high loyalty. ...
Chapter
The brand concept is the starting point of value creation and represents the essence of a product. However, research on loyalty factors has dealt with specific product features, such as performance and design, or brand image. Although the importance of the brand concept has long been debated in theory, it has been neglected in the practice of brand management. Therefore, this study tests the following hypothesis for Japanese personal computers and smartphones: “Consumers who recall the brand concept in terms of product attraction are more likely to have repurchase intention than consumers who recall the brand image.” Based on the results of an online survey in which users of the target products were asked about repurchase intention and the attractiveness of the products, the property score was applied; as a result, the hypothesis was supported. There are two possible reasons for this finding. First, the brand image is not monopolized by one brand, as expressed by general adjectives. On the other hand, the brand concept is unique and irreplaceable for a strong brand. Second, the brand image is the perception of superficial results from the experience of the product, while the brand concept refers to the essence of the product. Thus, the psychological barrier of the brand concept is higher than that of the brand image. To win consumer loyalty, it is important to establish a clear brand concept and promote it consistently.
... Customer loyalty promotes religiosity (Sarkar and Sarkar, 2017) in relation to brand purchase, sales increase and profit, which leverages the brand relationship (Sarigiannidis and Thalassinos, 2011;Yi, 1990) and drives competition (Wang and Tzeng, 2012). Several studies over the years have affirmed how brand loyalty contributes positively Firm ethicality and brand loyalty to brand effect through positive word of mouth, premium price predisposition and increased repurchase intention (Chaudhuri and Holbrook, 2001;Wang and Tzeng, 2012;Lin et al., 2017). Therefore, brand loyalty ultimately promotes high-profit margins (Aaker, 1991;Lin et al., 2017). ...
... Several studies over the years have affirmed how brand loyalty contributes positively Firm ethicality and brand loyalty to brand effect through positive word of mouth, premium price predisposition and increased repurchase intention (Chaudhuri and Holbrook, 2001;Wang and Tzeng, 2012;Lin et al., 2017). Therefore, brand loyalty ultimately promotes high-profit margins (Aaker, 1991;Lin et al., 2017). ...
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Purpose This study aims to establish the link between business ethics and brand loyalty and to investigate the mediating role of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) such as green marketing. Design/methodology/approach Using the purposive sampling technique, data were obtained from 622 middle-income city dwellers who shop at leading retail malls. Data were analyzed with partial least square–structural equation model. Findings The study found a positive and significant relationship between business ethics, CSR, green marketing and business loyalty. Both CSR and green marketing mediate between perceived firm ethicality and brand loyalty. Research limitations/implications This research was done based on general knowledge of business ethics, CSR and green marketing from the consumers’ perspective. Future studies can avoid this limitation. Practical implications By ensuring ethical codes, CSR and green marketing, firms can contribute to promoting the SDGs, and at the same time, achieving customer loyalty. Brand loyalty is further enhanced if customers see a firm to be practicing CSR. Social implications The SDGs of sustainable production patterns, climate change and its impacts, and sustainably using water resources must become the focus of companies as they ultimately yield loyalty. Policymakers and society can design a policy to facilitate adoption of better ethical behavior and green marketing by firms as a way of promoting SDGs. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to test the mediation effect of green marketing and CSR on how ethical behavior leads to brand loyalty. It is also one of the few papers to examine how SDGs can be promoted by businesses as stakeholders.
... This can create brand preference and help consumers to have confi dence in the company as well as in the quality of its products, and help the fi rm achieving better performance (Ko et al., 2013). There is a considerable increase in the number of products promoted as green products and the sales growth enjoyed by green brands (Borin et al., 2013;Chen, 2010;Lin et al., 2017). Therefore, academics and practitioners alike shifted their focus to the concept of green brands (Chan et al., 2018;Dellarmelin et al., 2018;Hartmann et al., 2005;Lin et al., 2017;Wang, 2017). ...
... There is a considerable increase in the number of products promoted as green products and the sales growth enjoyed by green brands (Borin et al., 2013;Chen, 2010;Lin et al., 2017). Therefore, academics and practitioners alike shifted their focus to the concept of green brands (Chan et al., 2018;Dellarmelin et al., 2018;Hartmann et al., 2005;Lin et al., 2017;Wang, 2017). ...
Article
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Purpose: This study aims to examine the roles of green internal branding and green inter-functional coordination in the relationship between green brand orientation and brand performance in selected Egyptian firms. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual model linking the study variables is developed. To test the model, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from a sample of 131 firms. Then, PLS-SEM was used to test proposed hypotheses of the study. Originality/value: This study addresses the research gap in green branding literature regarding the roles of green internal branding and green inter-functional coordination in enhancing financial and brand performance. The results suggest that green brand orientation can contribute to financial and brand performance through green internal branding. Research limitations/implications: The limitation of this study is the fact that the sample consisted of only Egyptian firms. Hence, it is difficult to generalize the results to other countries. The implication for firms is recognizing the importance of using green internal branding as a mean of achieving green brand objectives. Thus, the study may assist firms to make progress towards becoming green brand-oriented.
... One third focused on the perceived importance of marketing. They discussed the relationship between greenwashing and a variety of specific topics as green confidence, brand image, eco-labels, green brand loyalty, green scepticism and green word-of-mouth (Ulusoy & Barretta, 2016;Lin et al., 2017;Zhang et al., 2018;Nguyen et al., 2019). Public policies and environmental Table 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 management were the second major topic. ...
... One possible problem is that eco-labels can be susceptible to fraud by dishonest manufacturers (Hamilton & Zilberman, 2006;Stephenson et al., 2012;Chan, 2013;Nguyen et al., 2019). Therefore, under certain conditions, the environmental authorisations of companies can take the form of greenwashing (Kirchhoff, 2000;Brécard, 2017;Lin et al., 2017;De Freitas Netto et al., 2020). ...
Article
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This study used the systematic review methodology to examine peer-reviewed journal articles published in the Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer and Emerald Insight during the 2000–2020 period to analyse greenwashing. In an open market, the behaviours of state-owned enterprises (SOEs), private firms and multinational corporations (MNCs) pose an implicit greenwashing threat. Our focal point is to analyse corporate greenwashing in MNCs in host emerging markets, particularly in Asia, for two reasons. First, reports of greenwashing have increased around the world since Volkswagen was revealed to have falsified automobile emissions data. Second, MNCs play an important role in expanding market size and their behaviour is increasingly unpredictable. The analysis shows that MNCs tend to engage in greenwashing immediately after doing business in host emerging markets characterised by restricted regulations, clear market opportunities and low competitive pressure. When greenwashing occurs, it will harm the interests of not only consumers, but also society as a whole, despite offering significant benefits to existing stakeholders. In this case, the authorities should implement regulations to confront MNCs before attracting them, which should be enforced in practice.
... The lack of specific details and information asymmetry leads consumers to perceive the advertised products as green, whereas in reality, they might be dangerous to the environment. Lin et al. (2017) claim that consumers associate the purchase of products with vague descriptions as risky as they are unable to evaluate the product's quality. Therefore, firms that sell green products must understand that ambiguous and vague communication is not an effective strategy in gaining consumer trust and loyalty (Chen & Chang, 2013). ...
... It is evident in the literature on the 'sin of vagueness' that some of the firms resort to meaningless and vague communications to mislead consumers. In addition, it is apparent that consumers associate the purchase of products with vague descriptions as risky as they are unable to evaluate the product's positive attributes (Lin et al., 2017;Spaulding, 2009). The findings from the study justify this aspect of literature on the 'seven sins of greenwashing' in the context of the UAE and indicate that consumers feel that existing green initiatives of fast fashion firms in the UAE are 'ambiguous' and 'vague' and need to be more transparent. ...
Article
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The practice of ‘greenwashing’ may be characterized as the fabrication of green claims by organizations to portray a positive image. Greenwashing has not been examined in the United Arab Emirates, and the fashion sector is considered the second largest consumer of harmful chemicals, excessive water use, and non-compliant waste management practices behind the oil and gas sector. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews with fast fashion consumers in the UAE, an exploratory qualitative inquiry was conducted with a focus on the ‘seven sins of greenwashing’ and ‘competitive altruism’ theories and the consumer perceptions of green claims made by major apparel manufacturing and retail firms in the UAE were investigated. A conceptual framework was developed to better understand the nature of corporate altruistic behavior and perceived advantages of green initiatives. The exploratory qualitative inquiry used for this study provided a great opportunity for gathering detailed information on consumer perceptions of greenwashing practices in the UAE. Future research and statistical representation are needed to cross reference the data and test the framework suggested here.
... Thus, "if companies create brand awareness among environmental conscious customers through brand equity and green advertising campaigns, customers will then get familiar with these brands and it will have influence on their purchasing decision". Also, the choice of a green positioning increases the ecological knowledge of consumers which, in turn, influences the purchase intention regarding green products and brands (Lin, et al., 2017). ...
Article
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The increase in the number of consumers who choose to focus on sustainable consumption has led companies to develop a series of solutions to match their needs and desires. Developing a brand that integrates the green philosophy of the organization can result in a heightened attachment to the brand from receptive consumers to the ecological principles. In this context, the concept of green brand has begun to attract the attention of many brand management practitioners and academics. However, at the organizational level, the decision to associate a series of green values with a brand is not a sufficient measure to classify the brand as a green brand. For this reason, it is necessary to define the concept of green brand, starting from the opinions expressed by the specialists in the field. Therefore, this paper follows an exploratory approach in terms of defining the green brand and highlighting its specific features. Additionally, the dimensions of brand equity will be customized for a green brand. At the practical level, companies have the possibility to create a new green brand or they can resort to a brand extension. These alternatives are presented in the paper.
... But a corporate image or product brand with a reputation for being environmentally-friendly is highly recognized by consumers (Follows & Jobber, 2000). Along with the proliferation of "green" brands in almost every consumer goods category in the past few decades, the positive effect of a green image on brand purchase is a persuasive argument (Huang, Yang, & Wang, 2014;Lin, Lobo, & Leckie, 2017;Namkung & Jang, 2013). The preference for green products among a growing number of consumers prompts small firms to act in environmentally responsible ways (Frank, 1996). ...
Article
In this study, we identify two typical donation strategies, i.e., the fire-suppressing approach and the proactive approach, for window-dressing environmental misconduct. For a sample of 2582 small Chinese companies, we find that pollution fines are positively associated with corporate charitable donations, implying that firms use charitable donations as a fire-suppressing method to address the negative impact of environmental misconduct. We also found a positive relationship between pollutant emissions and corporate charitable donations, which supports the hypothesis that firms use a proactive approach (i.e., more consistent charitable donations) to reduce the negative impact of environmental misconduct. The relationship between pollution fines and corporate charitable donations is positively moderated by advertising expenses, suggesting that small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) with higher branding expenses are more likely to take a fire-suppressing approach. Politically connected SMEs are more likely to take a proactive approach whereas SMEs without political connections are more likely to take a fire-suppressing approach.
... Research in the previous year conducted by Lin et al. (2017) also showed that providing practical and self-expressive benefits directly enhances the image from the brand's green. Also, valuable services and image brand's green have a direct influence on loyalty brand's green. ...
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p>Global warming is a central issue, so it needs strategic steps for organizations or companies to find solutions because it threatens the future. This article aims to provide an overview of the importance of research on the role of green marketing and customer retention in improving business performance, using the factor of tacit entrepreneurial knowledge as a moderating variable. This research is qualitative, using a library research approach. The results obtained six preparations: First, the more effective the implementation of green marketing by the organization, the more it will improve customer retention patterns. The second proposition, the more effective green marketing is, the more business performance will be—the third proposition, the stronger the customer retention, the stronger the effect on improving organizational performance. The fourth proposition, the higher tacit knowledge about entrepreneurship possessed by organizations and individuals followed up intensively through interaction with customers, the customer resistance will increase, and the higher tacit knowledge owned by organizations and individuals in it, the more effective it will be. Green marketing. The fifth proposition, the higher the organization's tacit knowledge and the individuals in it, the higher the organizational performance will be.</p
... Sustainability has become one of the important criteria driving customer choices and stakeholder attitudes towards brands (Sheth and Sinha, 2015;Vesal et al., 2020;Lin et al., 2017). Similar with business-to-consumer (B2C) markets, sustainability can differentiate brands competing in B2B markets. ...
Article
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Brands are steadily seen as offering a critical point of differentiation and a sustainable figure of competitive advantage for business to business marketers. However, brand management in Business to Business (B2B) industries is still at its starting point. Companies can use their brands to promote their sustainabilities to their industrial customers. Social Media may provide a visibility that emphasize the firm's sustainability practices and their impact on stakeholders. Therefore, this study aims to explore how shipping companies position themselves in relation to sustainability strategies. In the first stage of the study, the key drivers of sustainability have been discovered by longitudinal content analysis, afterward the social media analytics has been performed for the Ocean Carrier companies in which are positioning their brands through their sustainabilities. The research findings will be useful for both academics and managers who are interested in understanding and further developing the business use of participatory Social Media analytics to achieve the sustainability. Hence, this may be considered as a distinct way of attaining sustainability.
... Furthermore, Table 6 also explains that the higher the brand image, the higher the brand loyalty would be. However, it is not in accordance with the research results by (Alkhawaldeh and Eneizan, 2018); (Espinosa et al., 2018); (Kim et al., 2018); (Lee et al., 2017); (Lin et al., 2017); and (Liu et al., 2019); (Semadi and Ariyanti, 2018). An increasing or decreasing brand image had no direct impact on brand loyalty. ...
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Abstract: The aim of this research is to examine the positive influence of brand awareness, brand image, and brand trust on brand loyalty. The coffee shop business in big cities in Indonesia is growing rapidly. Each coffee shop strives to show its uniqueness. This competition has resulted in them competing to increase competitiveness by using logos, symbols, unique names – or what is usually called a brand to become a differentiator among the competitors. This study was done in a quantitative manner. The data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed using a survey method. Using a snowball sampling, a total of 436 samples were used and analyzed statistically using the partial least square – structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach using SmartPls 3.0 program. The results show that brand awareness and brand trust had a positive effect on brand loyalty. However, the brand image did not have a positive effect on brand loyalty. This study is expected to provide input to the coffee shop management on how to increase their brand loyalty which can be done by increasing their brand awareness, brand image, and brand trust.
... Prior studies have commonly suggested the following three subdimensions of PBs in green research: (1) WG, (2) SEBs, and (3) NEs (e.g. [13,14,16,32,33]). ...
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This study analyzed the psychological benefits of environmentally friendly edible insect restaurants, by proposing that three subdimensions of psychological benefits positively affect attitude. Attitude was hypothesized to play an important role in the formation of desire and two subdimensions of behavioral intentions: intentions to use and willingness to pay more. A research model was verified using responses from 419 respondents collected in Korea. Data analysis indicated that (1) warm glow, (2) self-expressive benefits, and (3) nature experiences form attitude and that attitude helps to increase desire, which in turn positively enhances behavioral intentions. The data analysis results supported the importance of the psychological benefits of environmentally friendly edible insect restaurants.
... Rambalak and Govind (2017) found that eco-friendly activities have a significant influence on the corporate image of an organization, which then leads to a significant positive impact on the consumer's intention to buy from such organizations, and organizational prosperity depends on customer satisfaction (Shokouhyar et al., 2018). If companies are able to effectively meet their customer's green needs, they can earn their trust to be more loyal (Lin et al., 2017). Therefore, companies will considerably influence the mindsets that customers espouse if they advertise and introduce themselves over different media channels in accordance with the mental images conjured by such consumers. ...
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As people become more aware of environmental problems, companies experience considerable pressure from customers to go green. Such a pressure has consequently driven companies to project environmental friendliness as an important part of their identity and create a green image of themselves in customers' minds. From this situation arises the issue of separation between the identity that companies want to convey to the public and the image perceived by public. To address this issue, this study analyzes the world 10 top automakers in 2018 regarding their greenness. The tweets posted from the official Twitter accounts of the study companies and those users' tweets posted about them are subjected to text mining. The results for 70% of companies show that there is a significant gap between their claims about their own green identity and how the public perceives such an image. Co-occurrence analysis of words contained in the tweets clarify that the company's approach to address green issues always differs from that of an individual. Finally, this study demonstrated an innovative application of the most commonly used text mining techniques to compare company and consumer perceptions. The findings can also serve as a basis for creating a dictionary of green issues.
... Empirical research has consistently proposed that psychological benefits of using eco-friendly services are composed of the following three sub-dimensions: (1) warm glow, (2) self-expressive benefits, and (3) nature experiences (e.g. Hartmann & Apaolaza-Ibáñez, 2008Hwang & Choi, 2018;Lin, Lobo, & Leckie, 2017). First, warm glow refers to "satisfaction that goes beyond the benefits derived from aggregate provision of a public good through pro-environmental behavior" (Clark, Kotchen, & Moore, 2003, p. 239). ...
... Academically and practically, the green marketing concept has been accepted to attain customers' needs and anticipation towards products and services in a beneficial and sustainable approach (Lin et al. 2017). The dynamic conception of Green marketing has covered different areas and activities inside and outside the domain of marketing. ...
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Article History This study attempts to explore the effect of green marketing on students' selection of private universities in Jordan. More companies are using green marketing as a sustainable competitive advantage, including private universities. This article is a pioneer attempt to explore the effect of green marketing on students' selection of private universities in Jordan. A questionnaire was used to measure the influence of environmental knowledge, university reputation, physical environment, and education quality on students' selection of private universities. Regarding data collection, about 650 usable questionnaires were collected from three private universities. Factor analysis, multiple and simple regression used to analyze the data. Results show that all variables have a significant effect on student's selection of private universities, while among the four, education quality emerged as the highest effect on students' selection. The findings show that universities can be successful in attaining their market objectives by initiating and adopting green marketing-oriented activities.
... Nowadays, organizations of all sizes have become increasingly interested in cultivating their brand with environmental efforts (Chen, 2010;Lin et al., 2017;Zameer et al., 2020) and accordingly ingraining their service employees with green behaviors (Babu et al., 2019;Chen et al., 2015;Chaudhary, 2019). However, certain employees still engage in environmentally irresponsible behaviors in service encounters (such as polluting, wasting resources, using environmentally unfriendly products and harming the ecosystem), depending on their personality (Dilchert, 2018;Pletzer et al., 2020), perceived workplace ostracism from peers (Yang and Treadway, 2018), lack of control over the work environment (Henle, 2005) or instrumental climate within organizations (Peterson, 2002). ...
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Purpose Drawing on the branded service encounters perspective, the purpose of this study is to investigate how frontline service employees’ environmentally irresponsible behaviors affect customers’ brand evaluations. Design/methodology/approach The research conducted two experiments. The first experiment explored the effect of frontline service employees’ environmentally irresponsible behaviors on customers’ brand evaluations via corporate hypocrisy. The second experiment explored the moderation effect of employees’ prototypicality and the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) among customers. Findings Experiment 1 indicates that for firms with a green brand image, frontline employees’ environmentally irresponsible behaviors result in customers’ perception that the firm is hypocritical, thus reducing their brand evaluations. Experiment 2 shows that employee prototypicality and CSR importance to the customer enhance the negative impact of frontline employees’ environmentally irresponsible behaviors on customers’ brand evaluations through customers’ perception of corporate hypocrisy. Research limitations/implications This study is one of the first efforts to explore how frontline service employees’ environmentally irresponsible behaviors affect customers’ responses. It helps understand the impact of frontline employees’ counter-productive sustainable behaviors on customers’ brand perception, as well as the relationship between CSR and employees. Practical implications This study suggests that firms’ green brand image does not always lead to positive customer response. When frontline employees’ behaviors are inconsistent with firms’ green brand image, it can trigger customers’ perceptions of corporate hypocrisy and thus influence their brand evaluations. Therefore, firms should train frontline service employees to make their behaviors align with the firms’ green brand image. Originality/value This study is one of the first efforts to explore how frontline service employees’ environmentally irresponsible behaviors affect customers’ responses. It helps understand the impact of frontline employees’ counter-productive sustainable behaviors on customers’ brand perception, as well as the relationship between CSR and employee.
... They use the expression from Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice: not all that glitters is gold. From a marketing perspective, Lin, Lobo and Leckie, (2017) consider greenwashing as the association of a firm to a non-existing green functionality of the products they offer. These authors highlight the negative consequences of this practice on the green market, prompting a skeptical attitude of consumers. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to study what are the characteristics that make firms less or more prone to greenwashing. We collect data from sustainability disclosures of the S&P top 100 companies, to investigate the determinants of greenwashing. We use content analysis to measure the level of reporting of the companies. We define the “greenwashing” variable as the difference between what the company says it does in terms of commitment to sustainability, and what the company actually does as evaluated by external parties (Bloomberg ESG scores). Our results show that companies in environmentally sensitive industries greenwash less than their counterparts in other industries, as well as companies following the GRI guidelines. Companies that issue a sustainability report and assure it greenwash less than those that do not do it. Contrary to our intuition, companies in industries with close proximity and high visibility greenwash more than their counterparts. A limitation of the paper is the inclusion in the sample of data from one country. Our findings have implications for policy-makers, particularly in Europe, where some European states have already regulated on green issues reporting and lately on blue issues. It might be interesting to consider both the industry effect and the relevance of reporting mechanisms when developing regulation and policies in order to improve the quality of sustainability reporting. We contribute to literature by proposing a new quantitative measure to assess greenwashing practices, to better understand the effect of industry and reporting mechanisms on greenwashing.
... Brands that do not align their corporate values with the values adopted by society will fall out of favor, losing their reputation and brand equity over time. Because green brand strategy has a positive effect on brand image, it affects perceived value and purchase intention (Bekk et al., 2015;Chin et al., 2019;Hartmann & Apaolaza-Ibanez, 2012;Khanifah et al., 2020;Lin et al., 2017a;Mahmoud et al., 2017;Ng et al., 2014;Pechyiam & Jaroenwanit, 2014;Wanninayake & Randiwela, 2008;Weisstein et al., 2014;) leading to competitive advantage (Bulsara & Priya, 2014;Ferreira et al., 2018;Wang, 2017;Zameer et al., 2020). Today, achieving competitive advantage is the prime determinant of decisions for most businesses. ...
Chapter
This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the functioning of green marketing practices in emerging economies. It has become imperative for companies in emerging economies to make their business processes environment friendly. However, some companies face a lot of distrust and scepticism from the consumers for their green practices. attribution theory and cognitive dissonance theory are the base for understanding consumer scepticism towards green marketing. One of the chapter’s critical insights is that there is a wide gap between consumers’ intentions to go green and their actual behaviour in emerging economies. Lastly, the chapter attempts to provide a comprehensive framework that can be operationalised to reduce consumer scepticism towards green marketing.
... Thus far, however, many other factors of brand loyalty have been applied. These include brand attachment (Tsai, 2011), brand love (Unal and Aydin, 2013;Biçakcioglu et al., 2018), brand passion (Albert et al., 2009), brand image (Lin et al., 2017;Chang, 2020), brand personality (Chung and Park, 2017), brand reputation (Selnes, 1993;Han et al., 2021), brand trust (Lau and Lee, 1999;Chaudhuri and Holbrook, 2001), and brand benefits (Huang et al., 2016). In other words, the relationship between brand loyalty and brand concept is overwhelmingly lacking in research. ...
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Purpose: Design and UX are effective means of embodying value, but if marketers couple these with an ambiguous concept, the product/service loses its uniqueness. Starbucks exhibits strength in creating value based on concepts. Various studies report factors that contribute to brand loyalty, but the underlying idea remains unexplored. This study comprehensively verifies the contribution of four factors to Starbucks’ loyalty in Japan: concept, product, place, and staff. Methodology: Using an online survey, a question was framed about the brand image to identify loyalty-related factors, since consumers form brand image through brand experience. To avoid bias, the responses were based purely on recall. The contribution of each derived factor to loyalty was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Findings: When asked about the Starbucks brand image, respondents mostly recalled its products (related words), but the brand concept was the most effective factor for loyalty. In addition, places were more significant than products. However, product superiority was confirmed in terms of both frequency and contribution compared to place. Implications: Companies should reaffirm the importance of brand concepts. Thus, emphasis should be placed on the index of concept recall in brand management.
... Alternatively, the factors related to a brand have been applied instead of the brand concept, brand attachment (Tsai, 2011), brand love (Bıçakcıo glu et al., 2018Trivedi & Sama, 2020;Unal & Aydın, 2013), brand passion (Albert et al., 2009), brand image (Chang, 2020;Lin et al., 2017), brand personality (Chung & Park, 2017;Villagra et al., 2021), brand reputation (Han et al., 2021;Selnes, 1993), and brand trust (Chaudhuri & Holbrook, 2001;Lau & Lee, 1999). Thus, despite a concept being the origin of the product/ service, the relationship between brand loyalty and brand concept is overwhelmingly lacking in the discussion. ...
Article
With industries becoming technologically advanced, the source of competitiveness has shifted from a functional value, such as performance and durability, to an emotional value, such as design and comfort. To create an emotional value, the concept of a brand should be consistently embodied in a product or service to enhance its appeal. In the brand management of products and services, although performance and design are surveyed as factors of the repurchase or recommendation intention, the concept remains unused. This study hypothesized that “considering reasons behind the repurchase intention of products/services, consumers who recall the concept of the product are more likely to repurchase than consumers who recall the specific characteristics, such as design and performance.” The target products included Apple MacBook Pro, Dyson Canister Vacuum Cleaner, and Nintendo Switch, and services included Facebook, Starbucks, and Disney. The multiple regression results show that concept contributed more than design, comfort, performance, price, and word of mouth. Therefore, the proposed hypothesis was supported. As a practical implication, a new index known as concept recall can be adopted as a factor of brand loyalty in brand management. Although the index is simple, few studies have claimed the effectiveness of the indicator based on scientific grounds. Empathy, along with the concept, is paramount in acquiring consumer brand loyalty; design/UX is merely a means to embody the concept. The proposed index should be the basis of decision‐making and should not turn into “a means to an end.”
... In addition, while research emphasizes the potential of brand loyalty for the evaluation of brand extensions, our study's data questions how influential brand loyalty is in the case of corporations with a poor environmental reputation (Vahdat et al. 2020). In principle, loyalty to the brand plays a role in the success of green brand extensions (Lin et al. 2017). However, most participants in our focus groups and interviews were not loyal to FMCG giant brands; hence, we could not confirm that loyalty strengthens the success of green brand extensions, except for a small number of participants who noted that their brand loyalty is built on abilities and quality. ...
Article
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We aim for a deeper understanding of how the theory of green brand extension is effectively used in brand management practice. Therefore, we conducted three consecutive studies to unfold corporate activities as well as consumer perceptions. (1) Employing a qualitative content analysis, we explore and explicate characteristics of 37 green brand extensions. (2) We discuss green brand extensions in four focus groups and categorize facets of consumer skepticism. (3) To deepen and triangulate the findings, we conduct 50 interviews with consumers with a wide range of environmental involvement. Our theoretical sampling offers rich insights into perspectives of consumers, however, limited to personal reflections on a subset of brands in the German FMCG market. First, we unveil three characteristics of green brand extensions, based on their benefits and beneficiaries. Moreover, we emphasize that in contrast to the original brand extension theory, the main image transfer is intended to focus on reverse greening effects. Second, we note that consumer responses reflect various categories of skepticism around FMCG giants as originators of such extensions as well as their underlying intentions. In addition, we interpret different effects of ecolabeling linked to its sender. Third, we empirically demonstrate that consumers with a higher environmental involvement can be expected to scrutinize green brand extensions more critically. Moreover, we describe consumer perceptions and evaluations linked to brand loyalty and brand knowledge.
... H3 we assumed that GRL is influenced by GRB, and our study found that the direct correlation was statistically significant (T-Statistics =3.886; p = 0.000). Our study thus confirms previous knowledge (Lin et al., 2017). H4, GRS proved to be statistically significant with GRL (T-Statistics =4.869; p = 0.000). ...
Article
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Millennials are considered fighters against climate change to reduce waste and promote environmentally friendly products worldwide. This study examines the relative importance of green awareness among millennials and green brand image impact on green word of mouth millennials. Complementing previous research, we propose an integrated model that includes variables such as Green Brand (GRB), Green Satisfaction (GRS), Green Loyalty (GRL), and Green Word of mouth (GRW). We find a significant relationship between these variables using structural equation modeling. Our research is the first to explicitly examine variables in branding and relationship marketing.
... Brands that do not align their corporate values with the values adopted by society will fall out of favor, losing their reputation and brand equity over time. Because green brand strategy has a positive effect on brand image, it affects perceived value and purchase intention (Bekk et al., 2015;Chin et al., 2019;Hartmann & Apaolaza-Ibanez, 2012;Khanifah et al., 2020;Lin et al., 2017a;Mahmoud et al., 2017;Ng et al., 2014;Pechyiam & Jaroenwanit, 2014;Wanninayake & Randiwela, 2008;Weisstein et al., 2014;) leading to competitive advantage (Bulsara & Priya, 2014;Ferreira et al., 2018;Wang, 2017;Zameer et al., 2020). Today, achieving competitive advantage is the prime determinant of decisions for most businesses. ...
Chapter
Consumer preference for green brands is driven by confidence in a company’s pro-environmental activities in emerging markets. Environmental claims and communication efforts are insufficient if a company cannot demonstrate that it can deliver on its promises. This study adopted desk research to examine the drivers of green brand equity and green purchase intention in emerging markets. The findings suggest that consumers must be able to perceive a firm’s sincerity and reliability in its environmental actions, which are more important as consumers are conscious and also sceptical of green brands. Brand image and brand knowledge are determinants of buyers’ purchase intention in emerging markets. To maximise benefits, companies operating in emerging markets must consider consumer environmental values and attitudes as also important to influencing green brand equity. Apart from investing in positive brand equity, it is also important to inform consumers about environmental issues and persuade them to change their attitudes towards ensuring sustainable systems.
... This forces organisations to have green marketing as part and parcel of their overall corporate strategy and adopt corporate environmentalism by turning (Banerjee, Iyer, & Kashyap, 2003;Menon & Menon, 1997 Further, for a company to be effective at green marketing, it is important to identify how consumers perceive the products' cost and benefits, and then the company should focus on stressing product advantages (Fernando et al., 2016;Lin et al., 2017;Zontangos & Anderson, 2004). Green product offerings must also perform competitively regarding non-environmental attributes (Young et al., 2010). ...
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The purpose of this paper is to examine and compares perceptions, initiatives, and challenges perceived by manufacturing industries in India in respect of green marketing. The data were collected from a sample of 700 manufacturing industries employing a random sampling method. The present study results found that there is a high degree of acceptance of green marketing in the Indian industry, irrespective of the sector. The exploratory factor analysis extracted four factors that show green marketing practices: environmental concern, green promotional initiatives, green customer trust, and green marketing challenges. The findings suggested that all sample industries are concerned for the environment and believe that green marketing is significant for sustainable development. The study suggests that businesses should view protection of the environment as a market opportunity rather than solely as a means of complying with mounting environmental challenges and regulations. Green marketing should become the norm rather than the exception in a developing country like India. It can save the globe from environmental degradation and contribute to the long-term growth of industries.
... of all published studies. Likewise, Table 2 shows that descriptive analysis (N = 9) was the second most popular data analysis technique, fol- As a result, future studies should look at whether consumers who are strongly driven to dispose of e-waste are more likely to be loyal to green producers (Lin et al., 2017) and purchase green products (Felix et al., 2021;Wang et al., 2021). Similarly, future research will benefit from looking into the relationship between customers' ewaste disposal behaviour and their willingness to pay a premium for environmentally friendly products (Katt & Meixner, 2020;Kautish et al., 2019). ...
Article
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E-waste is the world's fastest-growing waste stream, and it contains toxic chemicals that are harmful to human health. Research has shown that the vast majority of consumers are unwilling to dispose of e-waste, preferring to keep obsolete products at home rather than returning them to manufacturers for recycling. Despite the evident importance of this area of research, there is yet to be a systematic assessment of e-waste disposal behaviour that summarises the relationships among constructs in the forms of antecedents, decisions, and consequences from the perspective of consumer behaviour. With this knowledge gap in mind, the current paper's goal is to provide a comprehensive examination of available studies on consumer e-waste disposal behaviour. In particular, the purpose is to promote e-waste disposal behaviour by looking at how such behaviour has been utilised as a construct in the literature and what theories, contexts, characteristics, and methodological approaches have been used to strengthen this behaviour. Towards this aim, we used VOSviewer to examine N = 43 research publications on e-waste disposal behaviour published in Scopus-indexed journals between 2000 and 2021, noting discrepancies, identifying major research gaps, and developing comprehensive research agendas (provided in the form of testable propositions).
Article
The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive model and investigate the relationship between identified factors of green marketing strategies and green consumer behavior, such as green brand positioning (GBP), green brand knowledge (GBK), attitude toward green brands (ATGB), willingness to pay (WTP) a premium, and green purchase intention (GPI). A questionnaire survey was deployed to collect data from the young consumers, from 600 students studying at nine state universities of India by employing stratified random sampling method. The results of the study suggest that a firm's green marketing strategies had an impact on green consumer behavior. The study found that GBP and GBK affect consumers green brand attitudes separately. Similarly, consumers green brand attitudes influence GPI. Meanwhile, WTP premium significantly moderates relationship between attitude toward green brand and GPI. The findings of this study suggest that marketing managers should consider a firm's GBP strategy as an important component in developing promotional messages that generate positive customer responses to the firm's green initiatives. A well‐implemented GBP strategy can lead to a more favorable GBK among consumers. As a result, it would assist in the development and promotion of green brands for businesses.
Article
Purpose This study aims to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework to investigate how green brand positioning strategies positively impact consumer response. It focusses on uncovering the causal mechanism in which such effect is mediated by brand stereotypes. Additionally, it outlines the moderating role of construal level in this formation process. Design/methodology/approach Three experimental studies were conducted to examine the hypotheses. Study 1 tests the positive influence of green brand positioning on consumer response. Study 2 tests the dual mediating effect of warmth and competence in the relationship between green brand positioning and consumer response. Study 3 further examines the moderating role of construal level in the effects of green brand positioning on brand stereotypes. Findings The findings reveal that green emotional positioning strategies are predominantly stereotyped as warm while green functional positioning strategies are predominantly stereotyped as competent. Both warm and competent mediate the effects of green brand positioning on consumer response. Furthermore, a congruency between green emotional positioning and high-level construal, as well as the match between green functional positioning and low-level construal, leads to more warmth and competence perception. Originality/value This study contributes to green brand management literature by proposing a brand stereotype-based mechanism to explain how green brand positioning strategies trigger consumers’ stereotyping process, leading to positive consumer response. This study also identifies the construal level as a moderating variable that impacts consumers’ warmth and competence perceptions towards two kinds of green brand positioning strategies. Managerially, the findings of this study provide managerial ideas for developing green branding strategies.
Chapter
This study examines the effects of green branding and green brand communication on organisational performance in emerging economies by building on Aaker’s pioneering conceptualisation of brand equity. Adopting a communication perspective, this chapter examines the contributions of green brand awareness, green brand associations, perceived green brand quality and green brand loyalty to green brand equity, using Ghana as a reference country. Secondary data on green brand communication and brand equity were collected from peer-reviewed journal articles and publications through Google Scholar and academic search engines. Findings from the study point to the applicability of Aaker’s brand equity constructs to green branding and its communication in Ghana, an emerging economy. Green brand equity outcomes identified include brand trust, increased consumer preference and patronage, premium pricing, enhanced brand imagery and overall competitive advantage. Although a great deal of research has focused on the critical issues of brand satisfaction, brand trust, brand affect, brand loyalty, and brand equity, to date, not much has been done from the perspective of green marketing, particularly as it relates to its communication in developing economies. Therefore, this study contributes to the literature on green brand equity in developing economies by situating Aaker’s tried and tested constructs in that fledgling terrain. It also offers implications for green brand communication policy and practice.
Chapter
Green marketing functions encompass branding, packaging, and communication of the benefits of green products to attract and retain green consumers. It is also aimed at achieving sustainability goals. With the growing consumer market and awareness of the impact and benefits of green products, organisations must channel their resources towards developing a green product that appeals to the need of the consumers in their environment. Apart from product development, which is crucial, green offerings will undoubtedly influence consumer purchase behaviour, particularly when the right brand image is established. This chapter introduces the core discussions in the book and provides the platform for evaluating and considering how organisations can effectively communicate and brand their products to achieve business, societal, and sustainability goals.
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Turkey accords great importance to green branding strategies because of the European Union’s cohesion policy on the depletion of energy resources. In response to pressures from government and non-governmental organisations, and consumer demands, companies now allocate budgets for the implementation of green branding and reconstruction of marketing mix strategies. The question of how these brands implement green branding strategies is addressed in the chapter to extend and contribute to the existing body of knowledge on green brand implementation. Brands known as hard-discount-low-cost brands in the textile industry are considered in the chapter. LC Waikiki is the market leader, followed by DeFacto, with Koton ranked number three. The reason for choosing these brands is to determine how low-cost hard discount brands can save money and remain low cost by adopting strategies of green branding.
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Consumers’ interest is accelerating toward environmentally sustainable products, which are commonly known as green products. Companies use greenwash to attract environmentally conscious consumers. The effects of greenwash have been studied on green purchase behavior of consumers along with green brand image, green brand love, and green brand loyalty as mediating variables. Consumers having experience of using any of the green products have been targeted for data collection. This empirical study has been tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). It has been proved that greenwash negatively affects the green purchase behavior of consumers. Furthermore, green brand image, green brand love, and green brand loyalty positively affect green purchase behavior, whereas they are negatively influenced by greenwash. Greenwash directly as well as indirectly negatively affects green purchase behavior. Firms must obtain consumers’ trust by diminishing greenwash and promoting green brand image, green brand love, and green brand loyalty, which can lead the consumers toward their green purchase behavior. This study can be potential in making firms competitive in the era of growing consumers' concerns about environmentally sustainable products.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate how green brand positioning facilitated by utilitarian environmental benefits and nature connectedness may influence green brand image, as mediated by green perceived value (GPV) and brand innovativeness and how brand type moderates these relationships. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected using an online survey method, and structural equation modeling was employed to test the research hypotheses with a sample of 826 Chinese respondents. Findings The results demonstrate that utilitarian environmental benefits directly enhance green brand image. Both utilitarian environmental benefits and nature connectedness indirectly influence green brand image through GPV and brand innovativeness. Subsequently, green brand innovativeness positively affects GPV. The moderating effects of brand type on the relationships in the model are also established. Practical implications Organisations should enhance green value and brand innovativeness when adopting green brand positioning tools to strengthen green brand image and implement diverse green branding strategies between brands of physical goods and services. Originality/value Although previous studies have investigated how perceived benefits affect the development of brand image, the issue has not been examined based on the human associative memory framework from a green branding perspective. No empirical study has simultaneously included both green brand innovativeness and GPV in this formation process. Additionally, the moderating role of brand type in the model has not been explored previously.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to use utilitarian benefits, hedonic benefits and corporate social responsibility to influence the consumer’s sense of brand identity and brand trust in social enterprise products and, thus, favourably affect repurchase intention. Design/methodology/approach This study dispatched 430 questionnaires in Taiwan. The top six social enterprises in the organic food industry in Taiwan that accounted for 84.0% of total green organic stores and they were selected for field investigation. This study used structural equation modelling. Findings The main path indicates that corporate social responsibility has a largely positive effect going through brand identity and brand trust, and then affecting the decision to repurchase. Therefore, the image of` corporate social responsibility was the greatest driving force. The secondary path indicated that utilitarian benefits positively affected brand identity and brand trust, which, in turn, positively affected repurchase intention. Therefore, utilitarian benefits were the secondary driving force of repurchasing social enterprise products. Practical implications This study indicates that social enterprises need to carry out effective corporate social responsibility to create a sense of strong brand trust in consumers’ minds. Empirical results can benefit social marketers for their product launches and promotions. Social enterprises can realize consumer differentiation preferences. With the effective grasp the information of consumer perception, the social marketers can turn passive into active and catch the marketing opportunities by the brand identity and trust to the content of the marketing programs design. Originality/value The novelty of this study is to propose an identity-repurchase intention (IRI) model, based on consumer information processing lens and self-congruency theory, to investigate the social enterprise perspective.
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The planet’s sustainability and animal welfare are causes which are increasingly being supported by consumers and embraced by brands. Specifically, in the cosmetic industry, cruelty-free brands offer the consumer the possibility of using products that do not perform tests on animals in their development. This study aimed to identify the dimensions which may be related to the purchase intention of this type of products. It was possible to verify that the use of social media, favorable attitudes towards animal cruelty-free cosmetics, altruism and environmental knowledge are positively related to the purchase intention of these products. It was also discovered that financial sensitivity is not positively related to the purchase intention of cosmetics exempt of animal cruelty. Through multiple logistic regression models, it was also found that higher values in the dimensions “Attitudes towards cruelty-free products” and “Environmental knowledge” represent higher chances of intention to buy these products. The results confirm a series of previous studies and allow the possibility of elaborating suggestions on future strategies to be developed by cruelty-free brands.
Book
This book is composed by the papers written in English and accepted for presentation and discussion at The 2021 International Conference on Information Technology & Systems (ICITS 21), held at the Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena, in Libertad, Ecuador, between the 10th and the 12th of February 2021. ICITS is a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss recent findings and innovations, current trends, professional experiences and challenges of modern information technology and systems research, together with their technological development and applications. The main topics covered are information and knowledge management; organizational models and information systems; software and systems modelling; software systems, architectures, applications and tools; multimedia systems and applications; computer networks, mobility and pervasive systems; intelligent and decision support systems; big data analytics and applications; human–computer interaction; ethics, computers & security; health informatics; and information technologies in education.
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Durante los últimos años, las organizaciones, consumidores y académicos han manifestado su preocupación frente al deterioro ambiental, desarrollando propuestas para ayudar a contrarrestar este grave problema. Por el lado de las organizaciones, se han visto obligadas a reformular sus estrategias; por consiguiente, surge el marketing ecológico como un instrumento para enfocar las estrategias comerciales hacia el cuidado y protección ambiental. Dentro de ello, la construcción de marcas verdes o ecológicas ha cobrado mayor relevancia durante el siglo XXI, puesto que las organizaciones han comprendido que la preocupación por el ecosistema se puede convertir en una ventaja competitiva, permitiendo mejores niveles de rentabilidad. Para la presente investigación, se ha realizado a través de un estudio descriptivo-documental, una revisión exhaustiva sobre la construcción de marcas verdes, partiendo de aspectos generales como el marketing ecológico hasta temas específicos como el valor de marca verde y las barreras para el éxito de una marca ecoamigable. Con toda la información presentada, se ha podido concluir que la construcción de marcas verdes no es una labor sencilla, pero que es vital para toda organización que desee diferenciarse de sus competidores, manifestando su preocupación por el cuidado y protección ambiental.
Article
This research investigates the effects of different green (environmental) message types on hotel customers’ green brand image perceptions and behavioral intentions. A 2 (green message abstractness: abstract vs. concrete) x 2 (green message framing: gain vs. loss) between-subject factorial experimental design was utilized for testing the main and interaction effects of message types on green brand image. A two–way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to test whether brand image perceptions differed across the levels of green message abstractness and green message framing. PROCESS Model was employed to test the mediating effects of messages on behavioral intentions through green brand image. The findings demonstrated that green message abstractness had a significant main effect on green brand image. Abstract green message led to a stronger effect on green brand image than the concrete one. Furthermore, green message abstractness influenced behavior intention indirectly through green brand image. However, green message framing did not yield any significant results for the direct and indirect effects.
Article
This research contributes to the understanding of sustainable brands loyalty by evaluating consumers’ perceptions of different communication tools. An online consumer survey collected 441 valid responses and partial least square structural equation modeling was applied to analyze data. Results reveal that ecolabels consciousness contributes to create a sustainable brand image and to develop environmental consciousness, whereas perceived advertising spend does not. Also, loyalty to sustainable brands is influenced by consumers’ environmental consciousness but not by sustainable brands image. Our findings suggest that environmental consciousness is crucial to develop sustainable brands loyalty, reinforcing the importance of consumers’ environmental education.
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The business environment is changing, and likewise, consumer behaviours are changing. Brands are becoming aware of the consumers’ power to shape the brand through engagement. It has, therefore, become critical for brands to be aware of the contemporary issues around brand management, especially the prospects of social media, sustainable consumption and ethical practices. To manage these issues, there is a growing demand for a Chief Brand Officer (CBO), someone with the overall responsibility of managing the brand, someone who oversees the ethical collection of data about their customer base and prospective customers, a crisis manager who understands the implications of online brand mentions and many other metrics, someone who can take responsibility and think on the spot. In this chapter we discuss how these contemporary issues can be relative, depending on the brand, the market, the customer base and even the country; however, to streamline our discussion, we have identified key stakeholders and the various relationships which shape these issues.
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Natural concerns have driven shoppers to buy items and administrations that are green. This may too incorporate obtaining items from the firms that carry the method of creation with green homes. The reason of this paper is to explore the characteristics of green brands, its picture, and the benefits in regards with its significance to affect buyer discernment. Besides, the inquire about points to examine passionate and viable benefits advertised to shoppers by green brand which afterward impacts consumers’ buy eagerly. The inquire about address of this ponder is to investigate green brand benefits and its effect on the brand devotion. It incorporates investigating the effect of commonsense and passionate benefits on the green brand picture and the way green picture is related with brand devotion. In arrange to do so, inquire about has utilized quantitative approach utilizing closed-ended overview survey with a test measure of 100 people. The test measure is chosen with the non-random examining me.
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Encouraging green consumption behaviour by leveraging self-expressive benefits has increasingly attracted the attention of academics and practitioners. However, there has been limited evidence from emerging markets so far. Although spending money on green products reinforces the status of the individual, it is unclear which level of a conspicuous display of resources generates sufficient self-expressive benefits to influence the purchase decision. Drawing on Costly-Signalling Theory, this research investigated, with a sample of Brazilian consumers, how the price of green products is related to status motive and the self-expressive benefits obtained from such consumer behaviour. A 2 (high vs. low-status motives) × 2 (high price vs. low price) online experimental survey was administered to 241 participants in Brazil. The results confirmed that individuals are more inclined to buy a green product when they have a status motive. Furthermore, this process is explained by the anticipated self-expressive benefits of green purchases. As a result, when the product price was higher, consumers with a status motive perceived greater social benefits, which contributes to purchase intention. However, consumers with a low-status motive only increased their purchase intention when the product price was lower. Findings show that consumers with a status motive are more likely to buy more expensive green products, suggesting that the product price signals access to resources and prosocial behaviour. Findings contribute to understanding how social factors influence the purchasing decision of green products in emerging markets and have significant implications for promoting more sustainable consumption attitudes and behaviours.
Thesis
This research contributes to the existing literature on consumer-brand relationships by developing a dynamic construct servicing as an alternative approach to studying social-environmental consumer intentions. It empirically validates a model of factors consisting of antecedents and consequences of two brand relationship quality (BRQ) components (Hot BRQ/Cold BRQ) based on three distinct sets of consumer values and two branches of social responsibility, which aims to synthesize findings on the drive of consumer–green brand relationships on consumers’ purchase and advocacy intentions in Vietnam. An extensive literature review generated the conceptual model, validated by a sequential exploratory approach combining qualitative research through 20 in-depth interviews and quantitative research as the dominant approach with a questionnaire survey to collect data from a sample of 525 respondents. The results support that Hot and Cold BRQ components have varying influences on consumers’ responses as a direct result of personal values, social values, culture and individual social responsibility. BRQ has direct and indirect influences on behavioral indicators of consumer perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR), willingness to pay a price premium, positive word-of-mouth and green purchase intentions, albeit with differing effects from both BRQ components. While hot BRQ tempts consumers to pay more for the brand and their perceptions of a company’s CSR activities, cold BRQ engenders sharing of positive reviews. These findings corroborate previous endeavors and shed light on novel insights for managers of green product brands.
This study observed the relationship between psychological benefits and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the context of an eco-friendly TV home shopping broadcasts. The theoretical framework was enhanced even further by examining the moderating role of personal norm on proenvironmental attitudes in the TV home shopping context. An online survey was conducted with Korean customers who had purchased home meal replacement (HMR) products from a TV home shopping broadcast within the past 6 months. A total of 305 samples were collected and used for the data analysis. All six of the hypotheses in the psychological benefits and TPB model were supported, meaning all constructs of psychological benefits, including warm glow, self-expressive benefits, and nature experiences, impacted TPB and behavioral intentions. Furthermore, personal norm had a moderating role in the relationship between warm glow and attitude. This research provides significant theoretical and managerial implications for the home shopping industry.
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Conveying a brand image to a target market is a fundamental marketing activity. The authors present a normative framework, termed brand concept management (BCM), for selecting, implementing, and controlling a brand image over time. The framework consists of a sequential process of selecting, introducing, elaborating, and fortifying a brand concept. The concept guides positioning strategies, and hence the brand image, at each of these stages. The method for maintaining this concept-image linkage depends on whether the brand concept is functional, symbolic, or experiential. Maintaining this linkage should significantly enhance the brand's market performance.
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The authors examine how country characteristics systematicaliy moderate the effects of individual-level drivers of the perceived vaiue that consumers derive from visiting a brand manufacturer's Web site. They test hypotheses on data coiiected from 8886 consumers from 23 countries on three continents, involving 30 Web sites of the world's largest consumer packaged goods companies. They find that the effect of privacy/security protection on perceived vaiue is stronger for people from countries with a weak rule of law, whereas people from countries that are high on national identity give more weight to whether there is cultural congruity between the site and themseives. People who iive in more individualistic countries give more weight to pleasure, to privacy/security protection, and to customization in their perceived vaiue judgments than people from collectivistic countries. The authors discuss implications for Web site design strategies.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a literature survey on, and classification for, green marketing research. Design/methodology/approach – Suitable keywords were used to search peer-reviewed journal articles published in marketing, business and management journals in duration 1990-2014. The articles identified were screened for titles, abstracts, keywords, frameworks, headings and sub-headings that resulted in 161 relevant articles. These articles were classified across thematic categories and their distribution was also presented for year of publication, publication outlets, location of authors, key contributing authors. Findings – The articles were classified across four thematic categories: eco-orientation, green marketing strategy, green marketing functions and green marketing consequences. It outlined the contribution of the earlier work under each theme, illustrated upon their implications for green marketing practice and research and provided directions for future research. Research limitations/implications – This literature survey provides a source for understanding current state of research on green marketing and to stimulate further interest of researchers in the domain. Originality/value – The paper provides a comprehensive review of green marketing literature on green marketing, distinctly adding to the contributions made by earlier literature reviews in the domain. It outlines the classifications of the literature, and key concepts and themes related to green marketing that intend to shape future research directions. Keywords Green marketing, Literature survey, Eco-orientation, Green marketing consequences, Green marketing functions, Green marketing strategy
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This experimental study examined consumers’ response to green advertising for high- and low-involvement products by measuring its effect on consumers’ intention to purchase such brands. The present study enhances our understanding of the moderating role of product involvement and extends the structural equation tests of the four causal models. A dataset of 169 respondents is used to examine the role of brand image and brand attitude in the context of green advertisements. Consistent with earlier findings, the suggested model provides a good fit of the data and results indicate that positive attitude toward green advertisements, brand image, and attitude toward the brand enhances the chances of consumers’ purchase intention of such brands. The study also verifies that product involvement moderates the positive relationship between attitude toward green advertisements and brand image such that at higher levels of product involvement, attitude toward green advertisements has a stronger effect on brand image.
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Synthesizing insights from a dynamic capability perspective and social network theory, this study identifies the factors influencing green innovation and examines the relationships between influencing factors, green innovation, and performance. This study uses structural equation modeling to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that dynamic capability, coordination capability, and social reciprocity are significant drivers of green innovation, including green product innovation and green process innovation. Green product and process innovation have positive effects on environmental performance and organizational performance. These findings are relevant to firms in quest of green management and innovation.
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Consumer skepticism of corporate environmental activities is on the rise. Yet research on this timely, intriguing, and important topic is scarce for both academics and practitioners. Building on attribution theory, we develop and test a theoretically anchored model that examines how (1) attributions related to environmental initiatives are formed, (2) attributions trigger green skepticism, and (3) green skepticism influences important outcomes. The study findings reveal that consumers’ perceptions of industry norms, corporate social responsibility, and corporate history are important factors that explain why consumers assign different motives to corporate environmental actions. In addition, the results show that while intrinsic motives exert a strong negative effect on green skepticism, extrinsic motives have no discernible effect. Furthermore, the findings indicate that green skepticism prompts consumers to seek more information about the products, sparks negative word of mouth to friends and acquaintances, and forestalls purchase intentions. The study offers several implications for corporate and public policy makers and presents fruitful research directions.
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Conveying a brand image to a target market is a fundamental marketing activity. The authors present a normative framework, termed brand concept management (BCM), for selecting, implementing, and controlling a brand image over time. The framework consists of a sequential process of selecting, introducing, elaborating, and fortifying a brand concept. The concept guides positioning strategies, and hence the brand image, at each of these stages. The method for maintaining this concept-image linkage depends on whether the brand concept is functional, symbolic, or experiential. Maintaining this linkage should significantly enhance the brand's market performance.
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Purpose At present, environmental issues attract the attention of academics and professionals around the world. In the hospitality industry, this interest is even greater because of the considerable quantities of water and energy consumed by hotel companies, and because of the environmental degradation that this industry can cause with unmanaged growth and development. For this reason, several authors have proposed incorporating the green loyalty construct as a key variable in tourism theory and practice. This study proposes a hierarchy of effects model to study three antecedents of green loyalty ‒ green trust, green satisfaction and green overall image ‒ and to examine the relationships between these variables. Design/methodology/approach To test the proposed model empirically, personal surveys of hotel customers were conducted in Spain using a structured questionnaire. A structural equations model was developed to test the research hypothesis. Findings The findings show that green overall image has positive direct effects on green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty. At the same time, they reveal that both green trust and green satisfaction have positive effects on green loyalty. In addition, green trust has a positive influence on green satisfaction. Research limitations/implications This research deals with the relationship between the variables of interest, without considering other antecedents and consequences. Thus, there is still a need to explore other mediating variables (e.g., willingness to pay more to stay in a green room, or commitment regarding environmental issues), since the explanatory power of our model could still be improved. In addition, given the role of green trust and green satisfaction as mediating variables of green overall image and green loyalty, this study recognizes the need for in-depth research into the enhancement of green trust and green satisfaction. Practical implications From a practical point of view, hoteliers and marketers working for a green hotel should develop a positive green overall image and enhance customers’ perceptions of green trust and green satisfaction. In particular, they should emphasize the importance of environmental issues to customers by promoting green campaigns. At the same time, hoteliers in a green context should create effective strategies to improve their hotel’s image. Originality/value Although existing research has investigated relevant aspects of customer trust, satisfaction, overall image and loyalty, these issues have not been discussed from a green marketing perspective. Apart from that, the main contribution of this paper is its exploration of the influence of green trust, green satisfaction and green overall image on green loyalty in a hospitality setting, following the framework of the hierarchy of effects model. By complementing previous studies on customer loyalty in the environmental context and exploring the relationships among these constructs, this study offers an assessment of how green marketing strategies in the hospitality industry increase green loyalty.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to build a comprehensive model and examine the relationship among green brand positioning (GBP), green brand knowledge (GBK), attitude toward green brand (AGB), and green purchase intention (GPI). Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire survey was deployed to collect data from the members of Taiwan's Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability (LOHAS) Club, obtaining 425 valid samples which were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Findings – GBP and GBK influence green brand attitudes separately. GBK affects green brand attitudes. Meanwhile, green brand attitudes influence GPIs. Another finding indicates that the mediating effects exist. Research limitations/implications – By applying the environmental knowledge-attitude-intention paradigm to green brand research, it was empirically supported the existence of a GBK-attitude-intention hierarchy in the context of GPIs. Practical implications – GBP can be used as brand marketing strategy to improve consumers’ GBK and form positive green brand attitudes as well as enhance GPIs. Originality/value – Proposing two novel concepts, i.e. GBK and green brand attitude to develop and test the framework of this study.
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This study aims at examining the influence of green image on shopping value and store loyalty. Convenience sampling using quota sampling was used to collect data of a sample of 565 consumers. Using structural equation modeling, it was found that green image of retailers has no significant relationship with store loyalty but has a significant influence on shopping value. Shopping value appears to mediate the relationship between green image of retailers and store loyalty. The result provides important findings to researchers and practitioners as well as implications for future research directions and management of the retail industry.
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A steady demand for green products from concerned consumers has led companies to introduce new product lines that match or exceed consumer environmental concerns. Nonetheless, not all the organizations were able to achieve significant returns on their investments in green products. These failures are generally attributed towards companies’ inability to overcome consumer scepticism towards the performance of functional and green attributes of their brands to generate a positive green image and green value in consumers mind. Therefore, the question arises that does the success in promoting green brand image and value depend on consumer existing perceptions about the brand quality and credibility? This study analyzes the influence of brand perceive quality and credibility on consumer perceptions towards a brand green image, green value and green equity. A theoretical model with hypothesized relationships is developed and tested to answer these research questions. Data have been collected from the consumers of electrical and electronic goods. The hypothesized relationships were tested with the help of structural equation modeling procedure. The results suggest that brand perceived quality and its overall credibility does have a significant influence on generating a greener image, green perceive value and green brand equity.
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This paper highlights a major conceptual problem in the branding literature which is currently impeding theoretical development and managerial practice. In calling for more thorough and precise research in this field, the paper focuses on the delineation between the concepts of brand image, brand personality and user image. Utilising qualitative content analysis of existing definitions, substantive terms are identified and used in the construction of three new working definitions. The paper then proposes a conceptual framework of brand image based on the extant literature and which represents the relationship between the components of brand image. Thus, this paper lays the groundwork for a stronger branding literature which should in turn inform the creation of more potent communications strategies.
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If service quality relates to retention of customers at the aggregate level, as other research has indicated, then evidence of its impact on customers' behavioral responses should be detectable. The authors offer a conceptual model of the impact of service quality on particular behaviors that signal whether customers remain with or defect from a company. Results from a multicompany empirical study examining relationships from the model concerning customers' behavioral intentions show strong evidence of their being influenced by service quality. The findings also reveal differences in the nature of the quality-intentions link across different dimensions of behavioral intentions. The authors' discussion centers on ways the results and research approach of their study can be helpful to researchers and managers.
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Examines the determinants that influence consumers’ intention to buy environmentally friendly products. Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour (TPB) provides the conceptual framework of the research and the appropriateness of the theory and is tested in two distinct market conditions (UK and Greece). Although the findings offer considerable support for the robustness of the TPB in explaining intention in both samples, there is some indication that the theory is more appropriate in well established markets that are characterised by clearly formulated behavioural patterns (i.e. the model fitting elements of the UK sample are superior to the corresponding ones obtained from the Greek sample). The results are consistent with previous research on moral behaviour.
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As anecdotal evidence mounts that concerns over the environmental friendliness of products are heightening worldwide, there is a need to assess the importance of a product's environmental attributes relative to its other attributes in consumers' product choice decisions. Assesses and compares the trade-offs among product attributes that American and Dutch consumers are willing to make for the sake of the environment, across three product categories. Survey research was conducted that examined attitudes regarding environmental protection and consumer choice criteria. Results suggest, based on conjoint analysis, that there are noteworthy differences between Americans and Dutch in how they value a product's environmental attributes.
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Based on theory from consumer behavior and cognitive psychology, the purpose of this paper is to discuss and test corporate image and customer satisfaction as two routes to customer loyalty. Based on data from 600 individual customers categorized as having high or low service expertise of three companies within the package tour industry, a conceptual model is proposed and tested empirically using structural equation modeling. The data used in the study are included in The Norwegian Customer Satisfaction Barometer. The paper concludes by claiming that for complex services, corporate image and customer satisfaction are not two separate routes to customer loyalty. Corporate image impacts customer loyalty directly whereas customer satisfaction does not. This finding was consistent with high and low service expertise. These results challenge the disconfirmation paradigm which predicts customer satisfaction as the primary route to customer loyalty. From a managerial perspective, information regarding the relative strength of the two routes is vital with regard to resource allocation in order to improve customer loyalty.
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Purpose – Proposes a set of strategic options for green brand positioning, based either on functional brand attributes or on emotional benefits. The aim of the study is to test the suggested green positioning strategies against one another, assessing their effect on perceived brand positioning and brand attitude. Design/methodology/approach – A theoretical model of the dimensionality and attitudinal effects of green brand positioning was developed. Both suggested alternatives to green brand positioning, along with a combined functional and emotional strategy, were tested in an experimental online setting. The hypothesized model was tested in the scope of exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Findings – Results indicate an overall positive influence of green brand positioning on brand attitude. Further findings suggest distinct functional and emotional dimensions of green brand positioning with the interaction of both dimensions in the formation of brand attitude. Highest perceptual effects were achieved through a green positioning strategy that combined functional attributes with emotional benefits. Research limitations/implications – The measures used, while providing good reliability and validity, have their limitations, especially in the case of the emotional dimension of green brand associations. Future research should concentrate on the further development of the constructs used in the study, particularly that of the emotional dimension of green brand associations and replicate the study under “real-life” conditions within different product categories and with a representative sample. Practical implications – A well implemented green positioning strategy can lead to a more favourable perception of the brand, giving support to the green marketing approach in general. This study supports significant attitude effects of both functional and emotional green positioning strategies. Thus, brand managers should deliver emotional benefits through the brand, at the same time making sure that target groups perceive real environmental benefits. Originality/value – Although green marketing has been an important research topic for more than three decades, hardly any research has been conducted that focuses specifically on green branding. This paper analyses the dimensionality of green brand positioning, offers green branding insight and suggests strategic tools for brand managers.
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In this article the relationship between store image, store satisfaction and store loyalty is examined. A distinction is made between true store loyalty and spurious store loyalty and manifest and latent satisfaction with the store. We hypothesise that the positive relationship between manifest store satisfaction and store loyalty is stronger than the positive relationship between latent store satisfaction and store loyalty. Furthermore, we hypothesise a direct as well as an indirect effect through satisfaction of store image on store loyalty. Second, the relationship between store image and store loyalty is mediated by store satisfaction. We do not find evidence for a direct effect of store image on store loyalty.
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Purpose – The most recent literature on competitive advantage views brand equity as a relational market-based asset because it arises from the relationships that consumers have with brands. Given the fact that trust is viewed as the corner-stone, as well as one of the most desirable qualities in any relationship, the objective of this study is to analyze the importance of brand trust in the development of brand equity. Specifically, the paper examines the relationships network in which brand trust is embedded. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative methodology was adopted. The data are based on a survey conducted in a region in the south-eastern part of Spain, resulting in 271 surveys. Findings – The findings reveal that brand trust is rooted in the result of past experience with the brand, and it is also positively associated with brand loyalty, which in turn maintains a positive relationship with brand equity. Furthermore, the results suggest that, although brand trust does not play a full mediating role as suggested by Morgan and Hunt, it contributes to a better explanation of brand equity. Originality/value – These results have significant implications. The fact that brand equity is best explained when brand trust is taken into account reinforces the idea that brand equity is a relational market-based asset. Therefore, branding literature may be enriched through the integration with the literature on the resource-based-view of the firm. From a practical point of view, companies must build brand trust in order to enjoy the substantial competitive and economic advantages provided by brand equity as a relational, market-based asset.
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Concerns related to the environment are evident in the increasingly ecologically conscious marketplace. Using various statistical analyses, investigats the demographic, psychological and behavioral profiles of consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Finds that this segment of consumers were more likely to be females, married and with at least one child living at home. They reported that today’s ecological problems are severe, that corporations do not act responsibly toward the environment and that behaving in an ecologically favorable fashion is important and not inconvenient. They place a high importance on security and warm relationships with others, and they often consider ecological issues when making a purchase. Managerial implications for green marketers and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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The author proposes an alternative estimation technique for quadratic and interaction latent variables in structural equation models using LISREL, EQS, and CALIS. The technique specifies these variables with single indicants. The loading and error terms for the single indicants can be specified as constants in the structural model. The author's technique is shown to perform adequately using synthetic data sets.
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The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i.e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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With the growth and competition of the smartphone industry, developing a better understanding of what drives consumers' loyalty to smartphone brands has become an important issue for academics and practitioners. This study hypothesizes four determinants of smartphone brand loyalty based on the perspectives of consumer value and consumer-brand identification. Furthermore, this study also explores the moderating effects of age and gender differences on the determination process of smartphone brand loyalty. Data collected from 157 respondents was tested against the research model using a partial least squares (PLS) approach. The results indicate that functional value, emotional value, social value, and brand identification have a positive influence on smartphone brand loyalty. Of the two moderators, results show that age enhances the emotional value-brand loyalty and social value-brand loyalty linkages but weakens the brand identification-brand loyalty relationship. However, gender does not play a moderating role in the determination of smartphone brand loyalty. The results of this study provide several important theoretical and practical implications for smartphone brand management.
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While identification of the drivers of eco-innovation in firms is a popular topic in the literature, many questions about these drivers in developing countries remain unanswered. The present study aims to determine empirically the primary factors that influence adoption of eco-innovation in Chinese firms. To achieve this, a conceptual model is developed and tested on a large database of firms from various industries, using hierarchical regression analysis. The study reveals that eco-innovation is triggered by a mixture of internal and external drivers. However, in China, the external pressures from environmental regulations, customers' green demands, and competitors affect eco-innovation partially through internal drivers. The analysis further shows that firms' integrative capability the ability to adopt appropriate eco-innovative responses by combining internal and external capabilities partially mediates the relationship between drivers and eco-innovation performance. Moreover, firms that have more efficient external networks tend to conduct more eco-innovative activities. This study contributes to a more detailed understanding of the factors that initiate and boost eco-innovation.
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The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i. e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
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The author proposes an alternative estimation technique for quadratic and interaction latent variables in structural equation models using LISREL, EQS, and CALIS. The technique specifies these variables with single indicants. The loading and error terms for the single indicants can be specified as constants in the structural model. The author's technique is shown to perform adequately using synthetic data sets.
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As a tool for regulating the environment in China, does environmental information disclosure reduce pollutant discharge? To answer this question, we empirically analyzed the emission data of “the three wastes” (i.e., waste gas, wastewater, and solid waste) in unit industrial GDP in 31 provincial units. As a measure to reduce institutional emission, environmental information disclosure only slightly influenced waste discharge reduction in the implementation period of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan of China. Instead, command control and market-based tools significantly affected waste discharge reduction. Representative measures included penalties and charges. With the continuously enhanced pressure of control, environmental information disclosure facilitates the effects of command control tools on waste discharge reduction. Content analysis of environmental information disclosed by sample listed companies in Jiangsu Province was conducted. The disclosure of insufficient environmental information on emission reduction can be attributed to “adverse selection” in system performance (i.e., the selective disclosure trend considering “greenwashing” in the listed companies) and to the limited quality of overall environmental information disclosure. This study provides empirical evidence for Chinese policy makers to improve the system for environmental information disclosure of listed companies.
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During the last few years there has been an increasing trend for companies to market their products or services as green or environmentally friendly as part of their corporate social responsibility. Few studies have analyzed the effects of this recent focus on the environment and its impact on airline passengers. Therefore, we examine passengers' general attitudes towards the green image of different airlines, perceived differences in eco-friendliness among these airlines, and effects on airline choice during booking. We also investigate how passengers' recent experiences with an airline affect perceived eco-friendliness of that airline. In addition we compare passenger ratings of airline eco-friendliness to those published by independent 3rd parties. Our findings show that the green image of airlines does influence airline choice during booking. We observed a passenger willingness to pay extra for a green image, however, not as much as their willingness to pay extra for amenities, such as additional legroom.
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This paper considers corporate brand image, focusing on cognitive and affective brand attributes in the context of business schools. While previous research on university or institutional branding has studied these elements separately via cognitive (e.g., service or educational quality attributes) or affective criteria (personality traits of the corporate brand), this study investigates them jointly through behavioral responses (leading to positive recommendations about the corporate brand). This is important because brand equity such as positive word-of-mouth (or mouse) is derived from both attitudinal components, rather than being based on only one component. Drawing on an empirical survey of postgraduate (MBA) students from four business schools, the findings reveal that both cognitive and affective attitudinal components appear equally important in shaping corporate brand image. Further, when the mediating effect is investigated, interestingly, students' positive recommendations to schools depended largely on the affective (prestigious, adventurous, empathy and competence) rather than upon the cognitive brand attributes. This paper contributes theoretically to the corporate brand and consumer behavior literature by investigating both attitudinal components at a corporate brand level and investigates their effects on behavioral/conative response. The practical contribution of the paper and its managerial implications lie in the context of defining strategy in relation to positioning business schools in an increasingly competitive higher education market.
Purpose ‐ The green marketing concept emerged in the late 1980s, and many hotels have since implemented a variety of green marketing strategies, such as the use of the "green hotel" label to project a green image and attract potential customers. However, some companies that have launched environment-based promotions have been accused of "green washing" by their customers. This study aims to investigate the gap between hotel manager and customer perceptions of the relative importance of green marketing-related activities. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Two sets of 30-statement questionnaires designed for hotel managers and customers were used to gauge respondents' perceptions of a variety of hotel green marketing-related activities. Independent samples t-tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the significant differences between the ways in which hotel managers and customers rate the importance of these activities. Findings ‐ The two statements that gained the highest level of agreement amongst both hotel managers and customers were: "The internet is an effective channel for marketing a hotel's green initiatives directly to customers"; and "Green hotels can elevate industry members' image and reputation to attract green tourists who demand green accommodation when travelling". Both also perceived: "The environmental claims in advertisements are often met with criticism from competitors and consumer organisations"; "Hotel customers are willing to pay a higher price for eco-facilities"; and "Customers are willing to pay a higher green price if part of the amount paid is donated to green activities" to be the three least important statements. The results also indicated ten over-perceptions and three under-perceptions amongst hotel managers, thus implying that they may require a better understanding of customer expectations. Several demographic differences were also identified. Female hotel managers and customers were found to be more concerned with green hotel products and a green image; hotel managers aged over 59 were found to have reservations about certain green marketing strategies probably because of service quality issues, although green supporters are in general older than average; younger customers aged between 20-29 become more concerned about environmental issues; and customers with a Master degree level of education or above challenged whether hotels are truly innovative in their development of green products and services and had reservations about the use of eco-labels. Research limitations/implications ‐ The results of this study may not reflect the full picture of managerial perceptions of green hotel marketing, as the sample was restricted to hotels on the Hong Kong Hotels Association list. Researchers may thus wish to undertake further studies with larger hotel samples over a longer time period in future. Drawing on the foundations laid by this study, future researchers may also wish to investigate smaller, lower-ranked hotels, which may experience greater challenges in implementing green marketing strategies than those considered here. Originality/value ‐ Few studies to date have investigated green hotel marketing. The findings of this study can be viewed as a preliminary step towards greater understanding of green hotel marketing-related activities.
Article
Purpose ‐ This study aims to combine the literature on green marketing and relationship marketing into a new managerial framework of green trust. In addition, this study seeks to elaborate the relationships among green perceived quality, green perceived risk, green satisfaction, and green trust. Design/methodology/approach ‐ The research object of this paper focuses on Taiwan's consumers who have the purchase experience of information and electronics products. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of the questionnaire survey method. The questionnaires were randomly mailed to consumers who had the purchase experience of information and electronics products. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is applied to test the research framework. Findings ‐ The empirical results indicate that green perceived quality would positively affect green satisfaction and green trust, whereas green perceived risk would negatively influence both of them. In addition, this study points out that the relationships between green trust and its two antecedents ‐ green perceived quality and green perceived risk ‐ are partially mediated by green satisfaction. Hence, investing resources in the increase of green perceived quality and the decrease of green perceived risk is useful to enhance green satisfaction and green trust. Originality/value ‐ Although previous research has explored the relevant issues about trust, none highlights trust about green or environmental issues from the perspectives of perceived quality and perceived risk. This study proposes a research framework, which can help companies enhance their green trust via its three determinants: green perceived quality, green perceived risk, and green satisfaction.
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Do restaurant green practices, such as using recyclable take-out containers, really affect customers’ perceptions of the restaurants’ green image and their attitudes toward the restaurant? If so, does it matter whether these customers are ecologically conscious or not? The present study attempted to examine the relationships among three constructs—customers’ perceived green practices, perceived green image of a restaurant brand, and attitudes toward a restaurant brand, in a study of Starbucks’ customers and identifies the key green practices that influence customers’ perceptions of a restaurant's green image. First, the results suggest that the perception of green practices affects customers’ perceived green image of a restaurant which in turn influences customers’ attitudes toward a restaurant. Second, the study identifies recyclable take-out containers, recycling waste, and energy-efficient lighting as the key green practices that contribute to the formation of customers’ perceptions of a restaurant's green image, but only across ecologically conscious customers. Finally, the paper includes a theoretical model that helps explain customers’ formation of a green image and attitudes toward a restaurant company and offers practical guidelines for effective green marketing management in restaurant operations.
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This study proposed five novel constructs – green satisfaction, green affect, green trust, green brand loyalty, and green brand equity – and explored the positive relationships between these constructs. Electronics products in South Korea were the focus of this research. This empirical study was carried out by the one-to-one interview method using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that green brand satisfaction has a positive effect on green trust, affect, and loyalty. In addition, the results revealed that green brand, trust, and affect have a significantly positive influence on green brand loyalty. Furthermore, we found that green brand loyalty has a strongly positive influence on green brand equity. This study suggests that in addition to the perceived green trust arising from eco-friendly attributes, green affect characterized by positive emotional consumption plays an important role in building green loyalty and green brand equity for sustainable development. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
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This paper applies perceived risk theory to explore the relationships among green perceived quality, green brand awareness, green perceived risk, and green brand equity. The research object of this study focuses on Taiwanese consumers who have the purchase experience of information and electronics products in Taiwan. The empirical results show that green perceived quality and green brand awareness would positively affect green brand equity. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that green perceived risk which is negatively influenced by green perceived quality and green brand awareness would negatively affect green brand equity. The positive relationships between green brand equity and its two antecedents—green perceived quality and green brand awareness—are partially mediated by green perceived risk. Hence, investing resources in the increase of green perceived quality and green brand awareness and the decrease of green perceived risk is helpful to enhance green brand equity.
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The paper explores the influence of greenwash on green trust and discusses the mediation roles of green consumer confusion and green perceived risk. The research object of this study focuses on Taiwanese consumers who have the purchase experience of information and electronics products in Taiwan. This research employs an empirical study by means of the structural equation modeling. The results show that greenwash is negatively related to green trust. Therefore, this study suggests that companies must reduce their greenwash behaviors to enhance their consumers’ green trust. In addition, this study finds out that green consumer confusion and green perceived risk mediate the negative relationship between greenwash and green trust. The results also demonstrate that greenwash is positively associated with green consumer confusion and green perceived risk which would negatively affect green trust. It means that greenwash does not only negatively affect green trust directly but also negatively influence it via green consumer confusion and green perceived risk indirectly. Hence, if companies would like to reduce the negative relationship between greenwash and green trust, they need to decrease their consumers’ green consumer confusion and green perceived risk.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.