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The Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Customer Trust on Customer Loyalty

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Furious competition among the banks induces the owners to find out the ways to ensure the sustainability in the market and to gain competitive advantage even among competition. Thus, focus towards the customer loyalty has increased more than ever before which drew the attention of the researchers en route for the identification of the antecedents of customer loyalty. In this regard, the relationship between customer satisfaction and trust on customer loyalty has investigated in the commercial banks of Sri Lanka. The findings revealed a significant positive correlation between customer trust and loyalty; customer satisfaction and loyalty; and customer satisfaction and trust. Customer satisfaction has identified as an important influencer on customer loyalty. Further, customer trust impacted by customer satisfaction which proved that customer satisfaction is an antecedent of customer trust. Moreover, an indirect relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty through customer trust was observed. The future studies may replicate in other service contexts and comparison of models of government and private banks will give more understanding.
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International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences
2017, Vol. 7, No. 4
ISSN: 2222-6990
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The Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and
Customer Trust on Customer Loyalty
Vithya Leninkumar
Lecturer, Trincomalee Campus, Eastern University, Sri Lanka
Email: vcvithya@gmail.com
DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i4/2821 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i4/2821
Abstract
Furious competition among the banks induces the owners to find out the ways to ensure the
sustainability in the market and to gain competitive advantage even among competition. Thus,
focus towards the customer loyalty has increased more than ever before which drew the
attention of the researchers en route for the identification of the antecedents of customer
loyalty. In this regard, the relationship between customer satisfaction and trust on customer
loyalty has investigated in the commercial banks of Sri Lanka. The findings revealed a significant
positive correlation between customer trust and loyalty; customer satisfaction and loyalty; and
customer satisfaction and trust. Customer satisfaction has identified as an important influencer
on customer loyalty. Further, customer trust impacted by customer satisfaction which proved
that customer satisfaction is an antecedent of customer trust. Moreover, an indirect
relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty through customer trust was observed.
The future studies may replicate in other service contexts and comparison of models of
government and private banks will give more understanding.
Key Words: Customer Loyalty, Customer Satisfaction, Customer Trust, Commercial Banks
1. Introduction
The banking industry has identified as a dynamic service industry subject to increasing
competition with huge growth potential. The banking industry continues to grow even among
tighter competition. As competition strengthens, the relationship between loyalty and
competition deepens, especially in service industries (Stevens, 2000). Nowadays, customers are
not loyal to one particular bank as they have accounts in different banks for different purposes.
In Sri Lanka, post war developments paved a way for new market entries and expansion of new
branches of existing banks, especially in Northern Province which is directly affected by war
over past three decades. Number of banks recently entered into this market led to hyper-
competition in the marketplace among the already existing and the new banks where the
former focuses on retaining the existing customers and the latter on attracting new customers.
Consequently, now the banks started to realize the prominence of customer loyalty and its
contribution to its financial performance and growth. This scenario forced banks to consider
more on the creation of loyal customer base for a long term relationship.
Search for the antecedents of customer loyalty has increased and drew the attention of the
researchers in the contemporary environment. The findings of loyalty of tangible products
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cannot be applicable to intangible products, which are services (Bloemer, Ruyter and Wetzels,
1999). Further, factors that determine the loyalty of customers of the service industry are less
documented and the factors and its impacts vary across the countries (Han, Kwortnik and
Wang, 2008). Hence, identifying the antecedents of customer loyalty, especially in services in
different contexts is highly required.
Customer satisfaction has been discussed extensively by several researchers as a central
element of a firm’s marketing concept during the past two decades. Any business can move on
to the upper level of advantage by achieving customer satisfaction in an intensely competitive
market. Many researchers clearly established a positive relationship between customer
satisfaction and customer loyalty (Anderson, Fornell and Lehmann, 1994; Taylor and Baker,
1994; Rust, Zahorik, and Keiningham, 1995; Fornell, Johnson, Anderson, Cha and Bryant, 1996)
and they emphasized the significance of customer satisfaction in the studies of customer
loyalty. Further, trust identified as one of the most widely examined and confirmed construct
particularly in relationship marketing research (Aydin and Ozer, 2005). Furthermore, Ahmed,
Riswan, Ahamad and Haq (2014) highlighted that, a customer can’t enter in loyalty set without
the trust of a brand. Therefore, this study specifically focuses on these two factors. These
constructs used in the studies conducted especially in Europe and in some of the Asian
countries. Since there is not much attention given to these constructs in the Sri Lankan context,
this study attempts to fill the empirical gap.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Customer Loyalty
Customer loyalty has considered as an important factor which leads to gain competitive
advantage over other firms under a highly competitive and dynamic environment. It is a multi-
dimensional construct that is built on two components, attitude and behaviour. Oliver (1999)
defined customer loyalty as a promise of buyers to purchase particular products, services and
brands of an organization over a consistent period of time, irrespective of competitor’s new
products and innovations and these customers are not compelled to switch. Loyal customers
positively view the organization, endorse the organization to others, and would engage in
repurchase (Dimitriades, 2006). Similarly, Lam et al. (2004) defined customer loyalty as an
evidence of the repeated patronage of a service provider and the recommendations of a service
provider to other customers. Further, it is considered as the intention of the buyers to make the
purchases again and again to build a continuous relationship with the organization (Dick and
Basu, 1994; Fornell, 1992).
2.2 Customer Trust
All social relationships would fail or function irregularly without trust (Patrick, 2002). Trust
defined as a generalized expectancy held by an individual that the word of another can be
relied on (Rotter, 1967). Patrick (2002) viewed customer trust as thoughts, feelings, emotions,
or behaviours manifested when customers feel that a provider can be relied upon to act in their
best interest when they give up direct control. Morgan and Hunt (1994) defined trust as
confidence that one party has on another because of honesty and reliability of the other
partner.
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Previous studies identified trust as a predictor of customer loyalty (Gul, 2014; Bibb and Kourdi,
2007; Hsu, 2008; Liang and Wong, 2004; Chaudhuri and Holbrook, 2001). A customer loyalty to
an organization is enhanced by the trust created between the customer and the service
provider (Kassim and Abdullah, 2008; Kishada and Wahab, 2013). Gul (2014) emphasized that
when the customer is loyal towards a product or service he is basically trusting in it. Since trust
establishes an important bond between the brand and customers, it is one of the determinants
of brand loyalty (Morgan and Hunt, 1994). Further, Ranaweera and Prabhu (2003) highlighted
that trust is a stronger emotion than satisfaction and it better predicts loyalty. Therefore, the
following hypothesis are proposed:
H1A: There is a positive relationship between customer trust and customer loyalty.
2.3 Customer Satisfaction
Fornell (1992) is considered the customer satisfaction as an attitude shaped on the basis of
experience after clients acquire a product or use a service and pay for them. Similar to this
Ningsih and Segoro (2014) defined satisfaction as an attitude, assessment and emotional
response shown by the consumer after the purchase process. It is an indication of being
pleased with a product or a service. The definition given by Yap, Ramayah and Shahidan (2012)
posited satisfaction as an overall customer attitude towards a service provider.
Most frequently customer satisfaction is considered as an important antecedent of customer
loyalty. In other words, customer loyalty is calculated as a straight outcome to customer
satisfaction (Heskett, Sasser, and Schlesinger, 1997). Further, Consuegra et al., (2007) and
Wong and Zhou (2006) pointed out that customer loyalty is partially improved by satisfaction as
one of the most influential factors. Moreover, Wong and Sohal (2003) stated that satisfying
more consumer expectations during a service generates a higher repurchase probability for a
company. Most of the studies confirmed that contented clients have more possibility to
repurchase and communicate positively toward an organization (Blodgett & Anderson, 2000;
Maxham and Netemeyer, 2002). Though some of the researchers (Oliver, 1999; Seiders et al.,
2005; Jones and Sasser 1995; Reichheld, 1996) noted that high customer satisfaction does not
always indicate high loyalty, most of the researchers (Anderson 1996; Anderson et al. 1994;
Fornell 1992; Fornell et al., 1996; Ping, 1993; Rust and Zahorik, 1993; Rust, Zahorik, and
Keiningham 1995; Taylor and Baker 1994) clearly established a positive relationship between
customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Therefore deducing from the foregoing discussion,
it is hypothesized that:
H2A: There is a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.
Further, buyer’s overall satisfaction with the buying experience is proposed to have a positive
impact on his or her trust of the service provider. Geyskens et al. (1999) found satisfaction to be
an antecedent to trust. Studies conducted by Dabholkar and Sheng (2012), Yoon (2002), and
Crosby et al., 1990, found a significant positive correlation between trust and satisfaction. On
the other hand, some of the studies contradicted from this and proposed that trust precedes
satisfaction (Lin and Wang, 2006; Ercis et al., 2012 and Chang, 2012; Gul, 2014) in which they
argued that the first customers trust the service providers based on some factors which have an
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effect on satisfaction. Therefore, the literature shows bi-directional relationships between
satisfaction and trust. However, the current study considers satisfaction as the predictor of
trust and argues that if the customers are satisfied with the services provided by the bank then
eventually they trust the bank. Therefore, the subsequent hypothesis is tested.
H3A: There is a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and customer trust.
Figure 1: Conceptual Model
(Source: Developed for study purpose)
3. Methods
The study population comprises all the individual customers of selected Commercial Banks in
Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Customers of four leading banks, which have a comparatively
long history in the Northern Province, namely, Bank of Ceylon, Peoples Bank, Hatton National
Bank Plc. and Commercial Bank Plc., were selected for the study. Questionnaires were
developed (see table 2) and issued to 300 customers using convenience sampling method
among which 210 were collected. Due to the high number of missing values six questionnaires
were rejected. Further, SPSS and SmartPLS were used to analyse the data.
4. Analysis
4.1 Confirmatory factor analysis using SPSS
Pre analysis testing for suitability of the entire sample for factor analysis was computed using
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy and Bartlett tests of sphericity. The
KMO measure of sampling adequacy was 0.858, 0.797 and 0.800 respectively, for customer
satisfaction, customer trust and customer loyalty and the Bartlett tests of sphericity were
significant at 0.000 for all three constructs (see table 1). These results indicated that the sample
was suitable for factor analytic procedures. Further, indicators of customer trust and customer
loyalty explained 70% of the variance of the constructs and the indicators of customer
satisfaction explained 68% of the variance.
Table 1: Eigenvalues, KMO Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's test Significance
Constructs and
dimensions
Eigenvalue
%
variance
KMO Measure of
Sampling Adequacy
Bartlett's test
Significance
Customer Satisfaction
3.436
68.72
0.858
0.000
Customer Trust
2.827
70.68
0.797
0.000
Customer Loyalty
2.823
70.56
0.800
0.000
(Source: Survey data)
H1
H3
H2
Customer Satisfaction
Customer Trust
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4.2 Structural equation modelling
The examination of the conceptual framework was conducted with the use of structural
equation modelling technique (SmartPls Version 3.0) as it has the ability to examine a number
of dependent and independent variables simultaneously where one or more constructs are
both dependent and independent (Hair et al., 1998). Moreover, it helps to calculate the direct
and indirect effects between constructs. There are two sub models in the structural equation
modelling viz. measurement model and structural model (Wong, 2013).
4.3 Measurement model analysis
The measurement model specifies the relationship between the latent variables and their
observed indicators (Wong, 2013). Before the testing of hypotheses, the measurement model
should be tested as a basis. In order to complete the examination of structural model, the
establishment of reliability and validity of latent variables is very essential.
The strength of the measurement model is ensured by the examination of factor loading and
internal consistency reliability. Outer loadings of all indicators of all constructs were ranged
between 0.424 and 0.871 (see table 2) and were statistically significant. Except LOY1, all other
indicators were above the threshold value of 0.7 since the indicator reliability was established
(Hair et al., 2011).
Table 2: Factor loadings
Construct
Indicators
Loadings
p-
value
References
Customer
satisfaction
Based on all of my experience with
my bank, I am very satisfied with
the banking services it provides
(SAT 1)
0.779
0.000
Gremler and
Gwinner, 2000;
Kaura, 2013;
Fatima and
Razzaque, 2014
My choice to use this bank was a
wise one (SAT 2)
0.834
0.000
Overall, I am satisfied with the
decision to use this bank (SAT 3)
0.844
0.000
I think I did the right thing when I
decided to use this bank for my
banking needs (SAT 4)
0.871
0.000
My overall evaluation of the
services provided by this bank is
very good (SAT 5)
0.800
0.000
Customer
trust
Overall, I have complete trust in
my bank (TRU 1)
0.829
0.000
Ball et al., 2004;
Ball et al., 2006
When the bank suggests that I buy
a new product it is because it is
best for my situation (TRU 2)
0.841
0.000
The bank treats me in an honest
way in every transaction (TRU 3)
0.857
0.000
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Customer
loyalty
I say positive things about my bank
to other people (LOY 1)
0.424
0.000
Zeithaml et al.,
(1996);
Tam (2012);
Ganguli and Roy
(2011);
Caruana (2002)
I recommend my bank to someone
who seeks my advice (LOY 2)
0.851
0.000
I encourage friends and relatives to
do business with my bank (LOY 3)
0.842
0.000
I consider my bank as first choice
to buy banking services (LOY 4)
0.827
0.000
I will do more business with my
bank in the next few years (LOY 5)
0.793
0.000
(Source: Survey data)
Further, the composite reliability of the constructs customer satisfaction, customer trust and
customer loyalty were correspondingly 0.915, 0.906 and 0.871 (see table 3) which were above
the widely recognized rule of thumb of 0.7, the internal consistency reliability was proved.
The measurement models’ validity assessment focuses on convergent validity and discriminant
validity where the convergent validity is attested based on the value of Average Variance
Extracted (AVE). The values of each construct; customer satisfaction, customer trust and
customer loyalty were correspondingly 0.683, 0.706 and 0.585 and all the values were above
the threshold value of 0.5, the convergent validity was confirmed.
Table 3: Composite reliability, Cronbachs alpha and AVE
Construct
Composite reliability
Cronbachs alpha
AVE
Customer satisfaction
0.915
0.883
0.683
Customer trust
0.897
0.827
0.743
Customer loyalty
0.871
0.811
0.585
(Source: Survey data)
Discriminant validity assesses the extent to which a measure does not correlate with other
constructs from which it is supposed to differ (Hair et al., 1998). Table 4 shows the inter
correlation of research constructs and the diagonal of this matrix represent the square root of
the average variance extracted. For adequate discriminant validity, the diagonal values should
significantly larger than the correlation of specific construct with any other constructs (Hair et
al., 2011; Fornell and Larcker, 1981). As all the diagonal values are larger than the correlation of
specific construct with any other constructs, the discriminant validity also established.
Table 4: Discriminant validity
Constructs
Customer satisfaction
Customer trust
Customer loyalty
Customer satisfaction
0.826
Customer trust
0.609
0.862
Customer loyalty
0.736
0.588
0.765
(Source: Survey data)
Moreover, Hair et al. (2011) emphasized that loadings of indicators should be higher than its
cross loading. Table 5 shows the cross loadings of the indicators with its’ constructs. As
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expected, all the indicators had high loading with its’ predestined construct. Thus, the
discriminant validity is confirmed and sufficient to support the model of this study.
Table 5: Cross loadings
Indicators
Customer loyalty
Customer Trust
Customer satisfaction
Sat1
0.587
0.550
0.777
Sat2
0.593
0.488
0.834
Sat3
0.605
0.474
0.845
Sat4
0.629
0.495
0.871
Sat5
0.624
0.505
0.801
Tru1
0.474
0.828
0.471
Tru2
0.525
0.883
0.564
Tru3
0.520
0.874
0.537
Loy1
0.426
0.226
0.253
Loy2
0.850
0.467
0.675
Loy3
0.841
0.437
0.572
Loy4
0.827
0.534
0.622
Loy5
0.794
0.517
0.588
(Source: Survey data)
4.4 Structural model analysis
The structural model was used to determine the model’s explanatory power and to test the
developed hypotheses based on the cause-effect relationship among the constructs. The
model’s explanatory power was assessed by the coefficient of determination, R2. The
coefficient of determination (R2) is 0.573 for the “customer loyalty” construct (see figure 2).
This means that the two constructs (customer satisfaction and customer trust) moderately
explains 57.3% of the variance in customer loyalty since the R2>0.50 (Hair et al., 2011). Further,
the coefficient of determination (R2) of “customer trust” construct is 0.371 means that, the
construct of customer satisfaction alone explains 37.1% of the variance in customer trust.
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Figure 2: Structural model
(Source: Survey data)
Another important assessment of the structural model is the models’ capability to predict.
Predictive relevance postulates that the model must be able to adequately predict each
endogenous latent construct’s indicators (Hair et al., 2011). The Q2 value was obtained using
blindfolding procedure with omission distance seven. The Q2 of cross validated redundancy was
selected since it uses the PLSSEM estimates of both the structural model and the
measurement models for data prediction. Table 6 shows the Q2 values of the constructs and
indicators of endogenous latent construct (dependent variables). As all the values were larger
than zero, the model adequately predicts each indicator of the endogenous latent constructs.
Table 6: Cross validated redundancy
Construct/ Indicators
Q2
Customer loyalty
0.309
Loy1
0.061
Loy2
0.414
Loy3
0.323
Loy4
0.389
Loy5
0.355
Customer trust
0.259
Tru1
0.209
Tru 2
0.295
Tru 3
0.272
(Source: Survey data)
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4.5 Hypotheses testing
As shown in Table 7, the hypotheses were tested using the path coefficient (β) indicating the
strength of the cause-effect relationship between the research constructs using the p value.
The bootstrapping procedure was used to assess the significance of path coefficient values (β).
The statistical significance was tested at 5% (p<0.05).
Table 7: Research hypotheses testing
Hypotheses
Path
coefficient (β)
P
values
Supported/Not
Supported
Hypothesis 1A:
Customer trust Customer loyalty
0.222
0.001
Supported
Hypothesis 2A:
Customer satisfaction Customer loyalty
0.601
0.000
Supported
Hypothesis 3A:
Customer satisfaction Customer trust
0.609
0.000
Supported
(Source: Survey data)
H1A: There is a significant positive relationship between customer trust and customer loyalty
As shown in Table 7, customer trust affected the customer loyalty (p = 0.000) with an effect size
of β = 0.222. Since customer trust was positively and significantly related customer loyalty (β=
0.222, p < 0.05), supporting H1A.This indicates that the more customer trust, the more loyal
they are with their bank. The current finding was coincided with the findings of the scholars
(Gul, 2014; Chinomona, 2013; Yap, Ramayah and Shahidan, 2012; Rasheed and Abadi, 2014;
Vuuren, Lombard and Tonder, 2012; Mosavi and Ghaedi, 2012).
Hence it was concluded that there is a (positive) relationship between customer trust and
customer loyalty in Commercial Banks of Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
H2A: There is a significant positive relationship between customer satisfaction and customer
loyalty
According to the results in Table 7, customer satisfaction affected the customer loyalty (p=
0.00) with a larger effect size (β = 0.601). Since satisfaction of the customers was positively and
significantly related to customer loyalty (β= 0. 601, p < 0.05), supporting H2A.This indicates that
high customer satisfaction of the bank is likely to increase customer loyalty. The current study
finding is supported by a few previous studied on testing these two constructs (Annamalah et
al., 2011; Hassan et al., 2013; Tam, 2012; Mokhtar et al., 2011; Keisidou et al., 2013; Ganguli
and Roy, 2011; Vuuren et al., 2012).
Therefore, it was concluded that there is a (positive) relationship between customer
satisfaction and customer loyalty in Commercial Banks of Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
H3A: There is a significant positive relationship between customer satisfaction and customer
trust
As shown in Table 7, customer satisfaction affected the customer trust (p = 0.000) with a larger
effect size = 0.609) since customer satisfaction was positively and significantly related to
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customer trust (β= 0.609, p < 0.05), supporting H3A. This indicates that customer satisfaction is
likely to display higher customer loyalty towards the bank. Past literatures have enough support
to the current findings (Trif, 2013; Chinomona, 2013; Yap et al., 2012; Mosavi and Ghaedi, 2012;
Madjid, 2013).
Thus, it was concluded that there is a (positive) relationship between customer satisfaction and
customer trust in Commercial Banks of Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
More interestingly the findings revealed that, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty was
mediated by customer trust (β = 0.142, p = 0.001). Since an indirect relationship between
customer satisfaction and customer loyalty through customer trust (β= 0.142, p < 0.05) was
found (see table 8). This relationship also supported by Madjid (2013). Therefore the evidence
showed customer loyalty can be achieved through improving customer trust where customer
trust is determined by the satisfaction of the customers.
Table 8: Direct, indirect and total effect between constructs
Constructs
Customer
Loyalty/ p-value
Customer
Satisfaction/ p-
value
Customer
Trust/ p-
value
Direct effect
Customer Loyalty
1
Customer Satisfaction
0.601 (0.000)
1
Customer Trust
0.222 (0.000)
0.609 (0.000)
1
Indirect effect
Customer Loyalty
1
Customer Satisfaction
0.135 (0.001)
1
Customer Trust
1
Total effect
Customer Loyalty
1
Customer Satisfaction
0.736 (0.000)
1
Customer Trust
0.222 (0.001)
0.609 (0.000)
1
(Source: Survey data)
5. Conclusion
Customer loyalty has identified as an imperative construct which is widely studied by the
researchers across the globe. The current study focused on the effect of customer satisfaction
and customer trust on customer loyalty. The findings revealed that there is a significant positive
relationship between customer trust and customer loyalty. Those who are not willing to trust
the bank in a competitive marketplace are unlikely to be loyal. Similarly, if the customer
customers are satisfied with the services of the bank, they tend to be loyal to the bank. Further,
a positive significant relationship between customer satisfaction and customer trust which
proved that customer satisfaction is the antecedent of trust. In other words, the more the
customers are satisfied with the banking service the more they will trust the bank. In addition, a
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significant indirect relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty through
customer trust was revealed. Moreover, the study found customer satisfaction as a major
driver of customer loyalty and an important predecessor of customer trust in the Sri Lankan
commercial banking context.
6. Implications of the study
Literature showed that there were few studies on this topic across the globe. In the Sri Lankan
context, limited studies were found in testing this relationship (Karunanithy and Rasanayagam,
2013; Fernando and Patabendige, 2014) but those were not from the banking scenario. The
current study focuses on the Northern Province of Sri Lanka which was affected by the war over
thirty years where the lifestyle of people is different from other provinces. As the relationship
marketing has become a prominent topic in marketing, investigation on customer loyalty is also
very much important to Sri Lankan marketers and researchers. This research finding will give
knowledge to the academicians about the link between customer satisfaction, trust and
customer loyalty in the banking industry which bridge the existing empirical gap. It also helps
them to have an understanding regarding the theory and practical matters. Further, this
research will be an initial outline to the researchers for further studies in this study area in Sri
Lanka.
The findings of this study will have many important implications for the industry. It will help the
banks, particularly in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka to find out the relationship between
the constructs. It has revealed that customer loyalty is highly impacted by customer satisfaction
and the customer satisfaction identified as an important predictor of customer trust. As the
loyal customers are the profitable customers, banks are searching ways to make the customers
loyal to them. Hence, practically customer loyalty towards the banks could be achieved by
enhancing the satisfaction and trust of the customers of the banks. It also covered both public
and private banks, which will help the banks to develop strategies to delight the customers
through which build the trust of the customers and make them loyal to the bank.
7. Future research direction
The scope of generalizing the results to other contexts and to whole Sri Lanka may be limited.
As the current study on focused on commercial banks, covering the whole banking industry in
entire Sri Lanka may provide new findings. Further, replications in other service contexts are
highly desirable. Comparison of models of government and private banks will give more
understanding on the difference between them. Further, developing a richer model that
incorporates other constructs also give more insights.
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... Therefore, promoting loyalty through trust promotes happiness and guarantees business growth. Leninkumar [18], in his study on the relationship between customer loyalty, trust, and satisfaction, found that in Sri Lanka's banking sector, besides just trust, corporates must sustain business operations to achieve loyalty. Unlike [6] study, Leninkumar [18] found that customer satisfaction heavily relied on quality of services offered as it builds trust. ...
... Leninkumar [18], in his study on the relationship between customer loyalty, trust, and satisfaction, found that in Sri Lanka's banking sector, besides just trust, corporates must sustain business operations to achieve loyalty. Unlike [6] study, Leninkumar [18] found that customer satisfaction heavily relied on quality of services offered as it builds trust. Therefore, the positive link between trust and loyalty depends on satisfaction levels. ...
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Various issues influence customer happiness in the service industry. The ultimate goal is to meet consumer preferences and tastes. However, various factors, including quality of service, professionalism, sensitivity, reliability, and consistency to achieve happiness. Nonetheless, for this study, the fundamental ones included loyalty, trust, and satisfaction. While various aspects affect operations in the service industry, the three are fundamental for this study in achieving customer happiness. These factors determine a customer’s willingness to spend as a happy and satisfied customer will likely recommend the quality of service. However, due to changes in dynamics in the service industry, these factors could potentially change with emerging trends and pandemics, as in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study reviewed other studies’ findings and evaluated what other researchers had conducted and found the hospitality industry presented was the most researched. Ideally, this means that the industry leads in preferences for researchers based on its changing consumer preferences and tastes that shape consumer happiness levels. The study used a hypothetical approach in relating variables from 30 sources that shape the findings. In the long term, the future of customer happiness in the service industry relies on achieved satisfaction levels.KeywordsHappinessCustomer happinessLoyaltySatisfactionTrustSystematic review
... Studies conducted to find the relationship between customer trust and satisfaction support the hypothesis that trust in the research is a predictor of customer satisfaction. As seen in studies on bank customers (Leninkumar, 2017), distribution industry customers (Bricci et al., 2016), travel agency customers (Setiawan & Sayuti, 2017), and hotel customers (Al-Msallam & Alhaddad, 2016;Maghzi et al., 2011;Osman, 2013;Valenzuela & Vásquez-Párraga, 2006), it has been stated that customer trust has an effect on customer satisfaction, and that the factor that had the greatest effect on satisfaction was the feeling of trust (Mosavi & Ghaedi, 2012). ...
... Wantara and Tambrin (2019) stated that while customer loyalty can be utilised to generate sustained competitive advantage, the effectiveness of marketing is measured by the volume of products sold to customers, and this is affected by a variety of factors, including pricing, the brand's image and how satisfied they are https: //doi.org/10.15405/epms.2022.10.14 Corresponding Author: Ida Farina Muhammad Yunus Selection and peer-review under 143 with the product. Customer satisfaction is frequently considered an important antecedent of customer loyalty (Leninkumar, 2017). ...
... The association between trust and satisfaction Leninkumar (2017) study was conducted in Sri Lanka, he got a sample of individual customers from particular Commercial Banks. Questionnaires were given to 300 consumers using a convenience sampling approach about 210 were pardon. ...
... Consumer satisfaction is the key to attain a higher market share and thereby, enrich the profitability of the organizations (Rego et al., 2013). Furthermore, evidence from various studies also suggests that higher customer satisfaction also translates into customer loyalty (Leninkumar, 2017; Ahrhold et al., 2019). It is further proved to strengthen brand equity (Susanty and Kenny, 2015). ...
... Customers with short-term loyalty can easily change to different products or businesses. According to Leninkumar (2017), Customer loyalty is based on attitude and trust, which is critical for gaining competitive advantages in today's market. Customer loyalty can also be defined as a customer's promise to buy products or services regularly, ignoring a competitor's innovation, and having no intention of switching-actions that result in developing a long-term relationship between the customer and the company. ...
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