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Abstract

Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are reportedly associated to over-activation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Therefore, modulation of the ECS offers potential therapeutic benefits on those diseases. GPR55, the receptor for L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) that has also affinity for various cannabinoid ligands, is distributed at the central and peripheral level and it is involved in several physiological processes. This review summarizes the localization and role of GPR55 in tissues that are crucial for the regulation of glucose metabolism, and provides an update on its contribution in obesity and insulin resistance. The therapeutic potential of targeting the GPR55 receptor is also discussed.

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... Curcumin stimulates the secretion of GLP-1 from gastrointestinal L-cells 7,8 resulting in insulin secretion and a hyperglycemic effect in humans 35 . On the other hand, GPR55 is involved in glucose homeostasis 36 . GPR55 is expressed in GLUTag cells and mouse small intestine and mediates GLP-1 secretion by LPI in L-cells through activation of Rho/Rock signaling 23 , and GPR55-null mice exhibit obesity and hyperglycemia 37 . ...
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The identification of molecular targets of bioactive food components is important to understand the mechanistic aspect of their physiological functions. Here, we have developed a screening system that enables us to determine the activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by food components and have identified GPR55 as a target for curcumin. Curcumin activated GPR55 and induced serum-response element- and serum-response factor-mediated transcription, which were inhibited by Rho kinase and GPR55 antagonists. Both the methoxy group and the heptadienone moiety of curcumin were required for GPR55 activation. The F190 5.47 residue of GPR55 was important for the interaction with curcumin. The curcumin-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 in GLUTag cells was inhibited by a GPR55 antagonist. These results indicate that expression screening is a useful system to identify GPCRs as targets of food components and strongly suggest that curcumin activates GPR55 as an agonist, which is involved in the physiological function of curcumin.
... In addition, endogenous (eCBs) and exogenous cannabinoids interact with other receptors [110][111][112] that could directly influence the development and progression of epilepsy. Among these receptors, G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) [113], nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) [114,115], transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) [114,116,117], or abnormal cannabidiol receptor (abn-CBDR) have been postulated and are currently recognized as cannabinoid-receptors [118]. ...
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Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions. Yearly, five million people are diagnosed with epileptic-related disorders. The neuroprotective and therapeutic effect of (endo)cannabinoid compounds has been extensively investigated in several models of epilepsy. Therefore, the study of specific cell-type-dependent mechanisms underlying cannabinoid effects is crucial to understanding epileptic disorders. It is estimated that about 100 billion neurons and a roughly equal number of glial cells co-exist in the human brain. The glial population is in charge of neuronal viability, and therefore, their participation in brain pathophysiology is crucial. Furthermore, glial malfunctioning occurs in a wide range of neurological disorders. However, little is known about the impact of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulation over glial cells, even less in pathological conditions such as epilepsy. In this review, we aim to compile the existing knowledge on the role of the ECS in different cell types, with a particular emphasis on glial cells and their impact on epilepsy. Thus, we propose that glial cells could be a novel target for cannabinoid agents for treating the etiology of epilepsy and managing seizure-like disorders.
... [37][38][39][40][41][42] In a previous study, it was demonstrated that feline intestinal immunocytes and macrophages showed GPR55 IR. 12 It has been shown that, in humans, GPR55 regulates intra-epithelial lymphocyte migration, at least in the damaged intestine. 43 The role played by this receptor during inflammation is not yet clear; however, it has been shown that, in mice, the administration of GPR55 antagonists seemed to reduce intestinal inflammation and decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocyte recruitment, 38,42,44 suggesting a pro-inflammatory role of this receptor. TRPA1 has not only been identified in rodent sensory neurons, but also in non-neuronal cells of various mammalian species. ...
Article
Objectives Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is an oral disease. Cats with FCGS experience intense oral pain. Some cats remain refractory to current therapies based on dental extraction and adjuvant medical treatment; it is therefore necessary to investigate alternative therapeutic targets involved in inflammatory mechanisms and pain, namely the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The present study investigated the expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1R) and 2 (CB2R), and cannabinoid-related receptors G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and serotonin 1a receptor (5-HT1aR), in the oral mucosa of healthy cats to determine whether there was altered expression and distribution in cats with FCGS. Methods Samples of caudal oral mucosa were collected from eight control cats (CTRL cats) and from eight cats with FCGS (FCGS cats). Tissue samples were processed using an immunofluorescence assay with cat-specific antibodies, and the immunolabelling of the receptors studied was semiquantitatively evaluated. Results The mucosal epithelium of the CTRL cats showed CB1R, TRPA1 and 5-HT1aR immunoreactivity (IR), while CB2R and GPR55 IR were generally not expressed. In the CTRL cats, the subepithelial inflammatory cells expressed CB2R, GPR55 and 5-HT1aR IR. In the FCGS cats, all the receptors studied were markedly upregulated in the epithelium and inflammatory infiltrate. Conclusions and relevance Cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors are widely expressed in the oral mucosa of healthy cats and are upregulated during the course of FCGS. The presence of cannabinoid and cannabinoid-related receptors in healthy tissues suggests the possible role of the ECS in the homeostasis of the feline oral mucosa, while their overexpression in the inflamed tissues of FCGS cats suggests the involvement of the ECS in the pathogenesis of this disease, with a possible role in the related inflammation and pain. Based on the present findings, ECS could be considered a potential therapeutic target for patients with FCGS.
... GPR55 is widely expressed in the central nervous system, glial cells, caudate, putamen, frontal cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, as well as in dorsal root ganglia neurons and adipocytes, chondrocytes and the gastrointestinal tract. It is upregulated in cancer, inflammation, pain and possibly regulates bone formation, blood pressure and insulin secretion [108,109]. At present, little is known about functional ligands other than the endogenous Lysophosphatidyl-inositol (LPI). ...
... Interestingly, CB 1 is involved in the regulation of food intake by digestive system and insulin release by pancreatic islets. Furthermore, we must consider that some of these metabolic effects of CB ligands could be related, at least in part, with alternative receptors such as GPR55 (Tudurí et al. 2017). ...
Article
The herb Cannabis sativa has been traditionally used in many cultures and all over the world for thousands of years as medicine and recreation. However, because it was brought to the Western world in the late 19th century, its use has been a source of controversy with respect to its physiological effects as well as the generation of specific behaviors. In this regard, the CB1 receptor represents the most relevant target molecule of cannabinoid components on nervous system and whole-body energy homeostasis. Thus, the promotion of CB1 signaling can increase appetite and stimulate feeding, whereas blockade of CB1 suppresses hunger and induces hypophagia. Taste and flavor are sensory experiences involving the oral perception of food-derived chemicals and drive a primal sense of acceptable or unacceptable for what is sampled. Therefore, research within the last decades focused on deciphering the effect of cannabinoids on the chemical senses involved in food perception and consequently in the pattern of feeding. In this review, we summarize the data on the effect of cannabinoids on chemical senses and their influences on food intake control and feeding behavior.
... [7][8][9] This receptor displays G-protein coupling promiscuity associating with G a13 , 8,10 G aq/11 , 11 G a12, 11 or G a12/ 13 8,12 depending on the cell line or tissue. GPR55 has been implicated in different physiopathological conditions such as cancer, [13][14][15] pain, 11,16,17 metabolic disorders, 18,19 vascular functions, 20,21 bone physiology, 22 and motor coordination. 23 The phospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is considered the endogenous GPR55 ligand. ...
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The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been shown to be of great importance in the regulation of numerous physiological and pathological processes. To date, two Class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been discovered and validated as the main therapeutic targets of this system: the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), which is the most abundant neuromodulatory receptor in the brain, and the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), predominantly found in the immune system among other organs and tissues. Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligands (endocannabinoids) and the enzymes involved in their synthesis, cell uptake, and degradation have also been identified as part of the ECS. However, its complex pharmacology suggests that other GPCRs may also play physiologically relevant roles in this therapeutically promising system. In the last years, GPCRs such as GPR18 and GPR55 have emerged as possible missing members of the cannabinoid family. This categorization still stimulates strong debate due to the lack of pharmacological tools to validate it. Because of their close phylogenetic relationship, the Class A orphan GPCRs, GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12, have also been associated with the cannabinoids. Moreover, certain endo-, phyto-, and synthetic cannabinoid ligands have displayed activity at other well-established GPCRs, including the opioid, adenosine, serotonin, and dopamine receptor families. In addition, the cannabinoid receptors have also been shown to form dimers with other GPCRs triggering cross-talk signaling under specific conditions. In this mini review, we aim to provide insight into the non-CB1, non-CB2 cannabinoid-related GPCRs that have been reported thus far. We consider the physiological relevance of these molecular targets in modulating the ECS.
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Orphan G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) comprise a large number of receptors which are widely distributed in the nervous system and represent an opportunity to identify new molecular targets in pain medicine. GPR55 and GPR119 are two orphan GPCR receptors whose physiological function is unclear. The aim was to explore the participation of spinal GPR55 and GPR119 in the processing of neuropathic pain in rats. Mechanical allodynia was evaluated using von Frey filaments. Protein localization and modulation were measured by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, respectively. Intrathecal administration of CID16020046 (selective GPR55 antagonist) or AS1269574 (selective GPR119 agonist) produced a dose-dependent antiallodynic effect, whereas O1062 (GPR55 agonist) and G-protein antagonist peptide dose-dependently prevented the antiallodynic effect of CID16020046 and AS1269574, respectively. Both GPR55 and GPR119 receptors were expressed in spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve, but only GPR119 was downregulated after 14 days of spinal nerve ligation. Data suggest that GPR55 and GPR119 participate in the processing of neuropathic pain and could be useful targets to manage neuropathic pain disorders.
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Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), characterized by the abnormal deposition of lipids within the liver not due to alcohol consumption, is a growing epidemic affecting over 30% of the US population. Both simple fatty liver and its more severe counterpart, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represent one of the most common forms of liver disease. Recently, several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as targets for therapeutic intervention for these disorders. These include those with known hepatic function as well as those involved in global metabolic regulation. In this review, we highlight these emerging therapeutic targets, focusing on several common themes including their activation by microbial metabolites, stimulatory effect on insulin and incretin secretion, and contribution to glucose tolerance. The overlap in ligands, localization, and downstream effects of activation indicate the interdependent nature of these receptors and highlight the importance of this signaling family in the development and prevention of NAFLD.
Article
The legalization of cannabis in some states has intensified interest in the potential for cannabis and its constituents to lead to novel therapeutics for pain. Our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying cannabinoid actions in the brain have lagged behind opioids; however, the current opioid epidemic has also increased attention on the use of cannabinoids as alternatives to opioids for pain, especially chronic pain that requires long-term use. Endogenous cannabinoids are lipid signaling molecules that have complex roles in modulating neuronal function throughout the brain. In this review, we discuss cannabinoid functions in the descending pain modulatory pathway, a brain circuit that integrates cognitive and emotional processing of pain to modulate incoming sensory inputs. In addition, we highlight areas where further studies are necessary to understand cannabinoid regulation of descending pain modulation.
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Aims/hypothesis: Abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD) and AS-1269574 are potent selective agonists for GPR55 and GPR119, respectively. The present study evaluated the actions and ability of these small-molecule agonists to counteract experimental diabetes in mice. Methods: Diabetes was induced in NIH Swiss mice by five consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of 40 mg/(kg body weight) streptozotocin. Diabetic mice received daily oral administration of Abn-CBD or AS-1269574 (0.1 μmol/kg) or saline vehicle (0.9% wt/vol. NaCl) over 28 days. Body weight, food intake, fluid intake, plasma glucose, insulin, glucose tolerance, insulin release, lipid profile and pancreatic morphology were examined. Mechanism of action of agonists was assessed in acute studies using incretin-receptor-knockout mice. Results: Abn-CBD and AS-1269574 decreased plasma glucose (20-26%, p < 0.05) and increased circulating insulin (47-48%, p < 0.05) by 10-28 days, compared with saline-treated diabetic controls. Food intake and polydipsia were reduced by both agonists (21-23%, p < 0.05 and 33-35%, p < 0.01, respectively). After 28 days of treatment, plasma glucagon concentrations were reduced (p < 0.01) and glucose tolerance was enhanced by 19-44% by Abn-CBD (p < 0.05 or p < 0.001) and AS-1269574 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Plasma insulin responses were improved (p < 0.01) and insulin resistance was decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in both Abn-CBD- and AS-1269574-treated groups. Triacylglycerols were decreased by 19% with Abn-CBD (p < 0.05) and 32% with AS-1269574 (p < 0.01) while total cholesterol was reduced by 17% (p < 0.01) and 15% (p < 0.05), respectively. Both agonists enhanced beta cell proliferation (p < 0.001) although islet area was unchanged. Acute studies in Gipr- and Glp1r-knockout mice revealed an important role for the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor in the actions of both agonists, with the glucose-lowering effects of Abn-CBD also partly mediated through the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) receptor. Conclusions/interpretation: These data highlight the potential for fatty acid G-protein-coupled receptor-based therapies as novel insulinotropic and glucose-lowering agents acting partly through the activation of incretin receptors.
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The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been directly or indirectly related to basic alterations that drive malignant growth: uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation, sustained angiogenesis, and cancer cell adhesion and migration. However, little is known about the involvement of this receptor in metastasis. Here, we show that elevated GPR55 expression in human tumors is associated with the aggressive basal/triple-negative breast cancer population, higher probability to develop metastases, and therefore poor patient prognosis. Activation of GPR55 by its proposed endogenous ligand lysophosphatidylinositol confers pro-invasive features on breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, this effect is elicited by coupling to Gq/11 heterotrimeric proteins and the subsequent activation, through ERK, of the transcription factor ETV4/PEA3. Together, these data show that GPR55 promotes breast cancer metastasis, and supports the notion that this orphan receptor may constitute a new therapeutic target and potential biomarker in the highly aggressive triple-negative subtype.
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Background/objectives: Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the best-characterized cannabinoid receptor, and CB1 antagonists are used in clinical trials to treat obesity. Because of the wide range of CB1 functions, the side effects of CB1 antagonists pose serious concerns. G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an atypical cannabinoid receptor, and its pharmacology and functions are distinct from CB1. GPR55 regulates neuropathic pain, gut, bone, immune functions and motor coordination. GPR55 is expressed in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. However, the roles of GPR55 in energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown. Here we have investigated the roles of GPR55 in energy balance and insulin sensitivity using GPR55-null mice (GPR55(-/-)). Methods: Body composition of the mice was measured by EchoMRI. Food intake, feeding behavior, energy expenditure and physical activity of GPR55(-/-) mice were determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle function was assessed by forced treadmill running test. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Adipose inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry analysis of adipose tissue macrophages. The expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissues and orexigenic/anorexigenic peptides in the hypothalamus was also analyzed by real-time PCR. Results: GPR55(-/-) mice had normal total energy intake and feeding pattern (i.e., no changes in meal size, meal number or feeding frequency). Intriguingly, whereas adult GPR55(-/-) mice only showed a modest increase in overall body weight, they exhibited significantly increased fat mass and insulin resistance. The spontaneous locomotor activity of GPR55(-/-) mice was dramatically decreased, whereas resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis were unchanged. Moreover, GPR55(-/-) mice exhibited significantly decreased voluntary physical activity, showing reduced running distance on the running wheels, whereas muscle function appeared to be normal. Conclusions: GPR55 has an important role in energy homeostasis. GPR55 ablation increases adiposity and insulin resistance by selectively decreasing physical activity, but not by altering feeding behavior as CB1.
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The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance) in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.
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G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 55 is sensitive to certain cannabinoids, it is expressed in the brain and, in cell cultures, it triggers mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. However, the adaptive neurobiological significance of GPR55 remains unknown. Here, we use acute hippocampal slices and combine two-photon excitation Ca2+ imaging in presynaptic axonal boutons with optical quantal analysis in postsynaptic dendritic spines to find that GPR55 activation transiently increases release probability at individual CA3-CA1 synapses. The underlying mechanism involves Ca2+ release from presynaptic Ca2+ stores, whereas postsynaptic stores (activated by spot-uncaging of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) remain unaffected by GPR55 agonists. These effects are abolished by genetic deletion of GPR55 or by the GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol, a constituent of Cannabis sativa. GPR55 shows colocalization with synaptic vesicle protein vesicular glutamate transporter 1 in stratum radiatum. Short-term potentiation of CA3-CA1 transmission after a short train of stimuli reveals a presynaptic, Ca2+ store-dependent component sensitive to cannabidiol. The underlying cascade involves synthesis of phospholipids, likely in the presynaptic cell, but not the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol or anandamide. Our results thus unveil a signaling role for GPR55 in synaptic circuits of the brain.
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GPR55 is a putative cannabinoid receptor, and l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is its only known endogenous ligand. We investigated 1) whether GPR55 is expressed in fat and liver; 2) the correlation of both GPR55 and LPI with several metabolic parameters; and 3) the actions of LPI on human adipocytes. We analyzed CB1, CB2, and GPR55 gene expression and circulating LPI levels in two independent cohorts of obese and lean subjects, with both normal or impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Ex vivo experiments were used to measure intracellular calcium and lipid accumulation. GPR55 levels were augmented in the adipose tissue of obese subjects and further so in obese patients with type 2 diabetes when compared with nonobese subjects. Visceral adipose tissue GPR55 correlated positively with weight, BMI, and percent fat mass, particularly in women. Hepatic GPR55 gene expression was similar in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects. Circulating LPI levels were increased in obese patients and correlated with fat percentage and BMI in women. LPI increased the expression of lipogenic genes in visceral adipose tissue explants and intracellular calcium in differentiated visceral adipocytes. These findings indicate that the LPI/GPR55 system is positively associated with obesity in humans.
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Over the past three decades, the number of people with diabetes mellitus has more than doubled globally, making it one of the most important public health challenges to all nations. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes are increasingly observed among children, adolescents and younger adults. The causes of the epidemic of T2DM are embedded in a very complex group of genetic and epigenetic systems interacting within an equally complex societal framework that determines behavior and environmental influences. This complexity is reflected in the diverse topics discussed in this Review. In the past few years considerable emphasis has been placed on the effect of the intrauterine environment in the epidemic of T2DM, particularly in the early onset of T2DM and obesity. Prevention of T2DM is a 'whole-of-life' task and requires an integrated approach operating from the origin of the disease. Future research is necessary to better understand the potential role of remaining factors, such as genetic predisposition and maternal environment, to help shape prevention programs. The potential effect on global diabetes surveillance of using HbA(1c) rather than glucose values in the diagnosis of T2DM is also discussed.
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Emerging data suggest that off-target cannabinoid effects may be mediated via novel seven-transmembrane spanning/G protein-coupled receptors. Due to its cannabinoid sensitivity, the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was recently proposed as a candidate; however, GPR55 is phylogenetically distinct from the traditional cannabinoid receptors, and the conflicting pharmacology, signaling, and functional data have prevented its classification as a novel cannabinoid receptor. Indeed, the most consistent and potent agonist to date is the noncannabinoid lysophospholipid, lysophosphatidylinositol. Here we present new human GPR55 mRNA expression data, providing supportive evidence of GPR55 expression in a vast array of tissues and cell types. Moreover, we summarize major recent developments in GPR55 research and aim to update the reader in the rapidly expanding fields of GPR55 pharmacology, physiology, and pathology.
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The cannabinoid CB1 receptor is a well-known player in energy homeostasis and its specific antagonism has been used in clinical practice for the treatment of obesity. The G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 has been recently proposed as a new cannabinoid receptor and, by contrast, its pharmacology is still enigmatic and its physiological role is largely unexplored, with no reports investigating its putative role in metabolism. Thus, we aim to investigate in rats the presence, distribution and putative physiological role of GPR55 in a key metabolic tissue, the endocrine pancreas. We found high Gpr55 mRNA content in pancreatic islets and considerable protein distribution in insulin-secreting β-cells. Activation of GPR55 by the agonist O-1602 increased calcium transients (P<0.01) and insulin secretion (P<0.001) stimulated by glucose. This latter effect was blunted in Gpr55 KO mice suggesting that O-1602 is acting, at least in part, through GPR55. Indeed, acute in vivo experiments showed that GPR55 activation increases glucose tolerance (P<0.05) and plasma insulin levels (P<0.05), suggesting an in vivo physiological relevance of GPR55 systemic stimulation. Taken together, these results reveal the expression of GPR55 receptors in the endocrine pancreas as well as its function at stimulus-secretion coupling of insulin secretion, suggesting a role in glucose homeostasis. In this context, it may also represent a new target for consideration in the management of type 2 diabetes and related diseases.
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The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptors, associated with drugs of abuse, may provide a means to treat pain, mood, and addiction disorders affecting widespread segments of society. Whether the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR55 is also a cannabinoid receptor remains unclear as a result of conflicting pharmacological studies. GPR55 has been reported to be activated by exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid compounds but surprisingly also by the endogenous non-cannabinoid mediator lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). We examined the effects of a representative panel of cannabinoid ligands and LPI on GPR55 using a beta-arrestin-green fluorescent protein biosensor as a direct readout of agonist-mediated receptor activation. Our data demonstrate that AM251 and SR141716A (rimonabant), which are cannabinoid antagonists, and the lipid LPI, which is not a cannabinoid receptor ligand, are GPR55 agonists. They possess comparable efficacy in inducing beta-arrestin trafficking and, moreover, activate the G-protein-dependent signaling of protein kinase CbetaII. Conversely, the potent synthetic cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 acts as a GPR55 antagonist/partial agonist. CP55,940 blocks GPR55 internalization, the formation of beta-arrestin GPR55 complexes, and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2; CP55,940 produces only a slight amount of protein kinase CbetaII membrane recruitment but does not stimulate membrane remodeling like LPI, AM251, or rimonabant. Our studies provide a paradigm for measuring the responsiveness of GPR55 to a variety of ligand scaffolds comprising cannabinoid and novel compounds and suggest that at best GPR55 is an atypical cannabinoid responder. The activation of GPR55 by rimonabant may be responsible for some of the off-target effects that led to its removal as a potential obesity therapy.
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The endogenous phospholipid l-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was recently identified as a novel ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55). In this study we define the downstream signaling pathways activated by LPI in a human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell line engineered to stably express recombinant human GPR55. We find that treatment with LPI induces marked GPR55 internalization and stimulates a sustained, oscillatory Ca(2+) release pathway, which is dependent on Galpha13 and requires RhoA activation. We then establish that this signaling cascade leads to the efficient activation of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) family transcription factors and their nuclear translocation. Analysis of cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55 revealed no clear effect of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol; however, the classical CB(1) antagonist AM251 evoked GPR55-mediated Ca(2+) signaling. Thus, LPI is a potent and efficacious ligand at GPR55, which is likely to be a key plasma membrane mediator of LPI-mediated signaling events and changes in gene expression.
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The endocannabinoid system functions through two well characterized receptor systems, the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Work by a number of groups in recent years has provided evidence that the system is more complicated and additional receptor types should exist to explain ligand activity in a number of physiological processes. Cells transfected with the human cDNA for GPR55 were tested for their ability to bind and to mediate GTPgammaS binding by cannabinoid ligands. Using an antibody and peptide blocking approach, the nature of the G-protein coupling was determined and further demonstrated by measuring activity of downstream signalling pathways. We demonstrate that GPR55 binds to and is activated by the cannabinoid ligand CP55940. In addition endocannabinoids including anandamide and virodhamine activate GTPgammaS binding via GPR55 with nM potencies. Ligands such as cannabidiol and abnormal cannabidiol which exhibit no CB1 or CB2 activity and are believed to function at a novel cannabinoid receptor, also showed activity at GPR55. GPR55 couples to Galpha13 and can mediate activation of rhoA, cdc42 and rac1. These data suggest that GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor, and its ligand profile with respect to CB1 and CB2 described here will permit delineation of its physiological function(s).
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The CB1 cannabinoid receptor mediates many of the psychoactive effects of Δ⁹THC, the principal active component of cannabis. However, ample evidence suggests that additional non-CB1/CB2 receptors may contribute to the behavioral, vascular, and immunological actions of Δ⁹THC and endogenous cannabinoids. Here, we provide further evidence that GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor, is a cannabinoid receptor. GPR55 is highly expressed in large dorsal root ganglion neurons and, upon activation by various cannabinoids (Δ⁹THC, the anandamide analog methanandamide, and JWH015) increases intracellular calcium in these neurons. Examination of its signaling pathway in HEK293 cells transiently expressing GPR55 found the calcium increase to involve Gq, G12, RhoA, actin, phospholipase C, and calcium release from IP3R-gated stores. GPR55 activation also inhibits M current. These results establish GPR55 as a cannabinoid receptor with signaling distinct from CB1 and CB2. • orphan • pain • CB3 • G protein-coupled receptor
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Aims: The novel cannabinoid receptor GPR55 is expressed by rodent islets and it has been implicated in β-cell function in response to a range of ligands. This study evaluated the effects of GPR55 ligands on intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) levels and insulin secretion from islets isolated from GPR55 knockout (GPR55 (-/-) ) mice, age-matched wildtype (WT) mice and human pancreas. Materials and methods: GPR55 expression was determined by Western blotting and fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Changes in [Ca(2+) ]i were measured by Fura-2 microfluorimetry. Dynamic insulin secretion was quantified by radioimmunoassay following perifusion of isolated islets. RhoA activity was monitored using a Rho binding domain pull down assay. Results: Western blotting indicated that MIN6 β-cells, mouse and human islets express GPR55 and its localization on human β-cells was demonstrated by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. The pharmacological GPR55 agonist O-1602 (10 μM) significantly stimulated [Ca(2+) ]i and insulin secretion from WT mouse islets and these stimulatory effects were abolished in islets isolated from GPR55 (-/-) mice. In contrast, while the putative endogenous GPR55 agonist lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI, 5 µM) and the GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol (CBD, 1 µM) also elevated [Ca(2+) ]i and insulin secretion, these effects were sustained in islets from GPR55 (-/-) mice. Stimulatory effects of O-1602 on [Ca(2+) ]i and insulin secretion were also observed in experiments using human islets, but O-1602 did not activate RhoA in MIN6 β-cells. Conclusions: Our results therefore suggest that GPR55 plays an important role in the regulation of mouse and human islet physiology, but LPI and CBD exert stimulatory effects on islet function by a GPR55-independent pathway(s).
Article
Background and purpose: Tumor cell migration and adhesion constitute essential features of metastasis. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a lysophospholipid receptor, has been shown to play an important role in carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the involvement of GPR55 in migration and metastasis of colon cancer cells. Experimental approach: Adhesion and migration assays using the highly metastatic colon cancer cell line HCT116 and an in vivo assay of liver metastasis were performed. GPR55 antagonist CID16020046, cannabidiol, a putative GPR55 antagonist, and GPR55 siRNA were used to block GPR55 activity in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Key results: HCT116 cells showed a significant decrease in adhesion to endothelial cells and in migration after blockade with CID16020046 or cannabidiol. The inhibitory effects of CID16020046 or cannabidiol were averted by GPR55 siRNA knock down in cancer cells. The integrity of endothelial cell monolayers was increased after pretreatment of HCT116 cells with the antagonists or after GPR55 siRNA knockdown while pretreatment with lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), the endogenous ligand of GPR55, decreased integrity of the monolayers. LPI also induced migration in GPR55 overexpressing HCT116 cells that was blocked by GPR55 antagonists. In a mouse model of metastasis, the arrest of HCT116 cancer cells in the liver was reduced after treatment with CID16020046 or cannabidiol. Increased levels of LPI (18:0) was found in colon cancer patients when compared to healthy individuals. Conclusions and implications: GPR55 is involved in the migratory behavior of colon carcinoma cells and may serve as a pharmacological target for the prevention of metastasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Endocannabinoids and their G protein-coupled receptors have been suggested to play a key role in human pregnancy, by regulating important aspects such as implantation, decidualization, placentation and labor. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was previously postulated to be another cannabinoid receptor, since specific cannabinoids were shown to act independently of the classical cannabinoid receptors CB1 or CB2. Current knowledge about GPR55 expression and function in human placenta is very limited and motivated us to evaluate human placental GPR55 expression in relation to other human peripheral tissues and to analyze spatiotemporal GPR55 expression in human placenta. Gene expression analysis revealed low GPR55 levels in human placenta, when compared to spleen and lung, the organs showing highest GPR55 expression. Moreover, expression analysis showed 5.8 fold increased placental GPR55 expression at term compared to first trimester. Immunohistochemistry located GPR55 solely at the fetal endothelium of first trimester and term placentas. qPCR and immunocytochemistry consistently confirmed GPR55 expression in isolated primary placental arterial and venous endothelial cells. Incubation with L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), the specific and functional ligand for GPR55, at a concentration of 1 µM, significantly enhanced migration of venous, but not arterial endothelial cells. LPI-enhanced migration was inhibited by the GPR55 antagonist O-1918, suggesting a role of the LPI-GPR55 axis in placental venous endothelium function.
Article
G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in several tissues involved in regulating energy homeostasis, including the hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, liver, white adipose and skeletal muscle. GPR55 has been shown to have a role in cancer and gastrointestinal inflammation, as well as in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite this, the (patho)physiological role of GPR55 in cell dysfunction is still poorly understood, largely because of the limited identification of downstream signalling targets. Nonetheless, research has suggested that GPR55 modulation would be a useful pharmacological target in metabolically active tissues to improve treatment of diseases such as obesity and T2DM. Further research is essential to gain a better understanding of the role that this receptor might have in these and other pathophysiological conditions.
Article
G-protein coupled receptor (GPR)55 is a novel lipid sensing receptor activated by both cannabinoid endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) and other non-cannabinoid lipid transmitters. This study assessed the effects of various GPR55 agonists on glucose homeostasis. Insulin secretion and changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP in response to glucose and a range of GPR55 agonists (endogenous ligands (OEA, PEA), chemically synthetic CBD analogues (Abn-CBD, 0-1602), an analogue of rimonabant (AM-251) and antagonist (CBD)) were investigated in clonal BRIN-BD11 cells and mouse pancreatic islets. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH release, cellular localisation by double-staining immunohistochemistry and in vivo effects assessed in mice. The most potent and selective GPR55 agonist was the synthetic CBD analogue, Abn-CBD (pEC50 10.33), maximum stimulation of 67% at 10(-4) mol/l (p<0.001) in BRIN-BD11 cells. AM-251 (pEC50 7.0), OEA (pEC50 7.0), 0-1602 (pEC50 7.3) and PEA (pEC50 6.0) stimulated insulin secretion. Results were corroborated by islet studies, with no cytotoxic effects. Concentration-dependent insulin secretion by GPR55 agonists was glucose-sensitive and accompanied by elevations of [Ca(2+) ]i (p<0.01-p<0.001) and cAMP (p<0.05-p<0.01). GPR55 agonists exhibited insulinotropic and glucose lowering activity in vivo. GPR55 was expressed on BRIN-BD11 cells and confined to islet beta cells with no distribution on alpha cells. These results demonstrate GPR55 is distributed in pancreatic beta cells and is a strong activator of insulin secretion, with glucose-lowering effects in vivo. Development of agents agonising the GPR55 receptor may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Article
Objective The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a novel cannabinoid (CB) receptor, whose role in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains unknown. Here we studied the significance of GPR55 in the regulation of GI motility. Design GPR55 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The effects of the GPR55 agonist O-1602 and a selective antagonist cannabidiol (CBD) were studied in vitro and in vivo and compared to a non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2. CB1/2−/− and GPR55−/− mice were employed to identify the receptors involved. Results GPR55 was localized on myenteric neurons in mouse and human colon. O-1602 concentration-dependently reduced evoked contractions in muscle strips from the colon (∼60%) and weakly (∼25%) from the ileum. These effects were reversed by CBD, but not by CB1 or CB2 receptor antagonists. I.p. and i.c.v. injections of O-1602 slowed whole gut transit and colonic bead expulsion; these effects were absent in GPR55−/− mice. WIN55,212-2 slowed whole gut transit effects, which were counteracted in the presence of a CB1 antagonist AM251. WIN55,212-2, but not O-1602 delayed gastric emptying and small intestinal transit. Locomotion, as a marker for central sedation, was reduced following WIN55,212-2, but not O-1602 treatment. Conclusion GPR55 is strongly expressed on myenteric neurons of the colon and it is selectively involved in the regulation of colonic motility. Since activation of GPR55 receptors is not associated with central sedation, the GPR55 receptor may serve as a future target for the treatment of colonic motility disorders.
Article
The orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR55 was shown to bind to certain cannabinoid compounds which led to its initial classification as the third type of cannabinoid receptor. Later studies showed that lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) also activated GPR55, in particular 2-arachidonoyl-LPI was proposed to be its endogenous ligand. However, the results of pharmacological studies regarding GPR55 have been quite inconsistent. Despite its contradictory pharmacological profile, GPR55 has been implicated in various disease states including inflammatory and neuropathic pain, metabolic bone diseases, and cancer. Herein, we report the ligand binding properties of GPR55 by applying homology modeling and automated docking algorithms in order to understand its pharmacological profile. The 3D homology model of GPR55 was built based on the adenosine A(2A) receptor crystal structure. Docking studies of several types of reported ligands were carried out afterwards. The results indicated that both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions contributed significantly for its ligand binding and the amino acid residue Lys80 seemed to be the anchor residue for receptor recognition. In addition, its putative agonist and antagonist appeared to recognize different domains of the receptor corresponding to their reported pharmacological activities.
Article
Cannabinoids are known to control energy homeostasis. Atypical cannabinoids produce pharmacological effects via unidentified targets. We sought to investigate whether the atypical cannabinoid O-1602 controls food intake and body weight. The rats were injected acutely or subchronically with O-1602, and the expression of several factors involved in adipocyte metabolism was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In vivo findings were corroborated with in vitro studies incubating 3T3-L1 adipocytes with O-1602, and measuring intracellular calcium and lipid accumulation. Finally, as some reports suggest that O-1602 is an agonist of the putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55, we tested it in mice lacking GPR55. Central and peripheral administration of O-1602 acutely stimulates food intake, and chronically increases adiposity. The hyperphagic action of O-1602 is mediated by the downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of the anorexigenic neuropeptide cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript. The effects on fat mass are independent of food intake, and involve a decrease in the expression of lipolytic enzymes such as hormone sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase in white adipose tissue. Consistently, in vitro data showed that O-1602 increased the levels of intracellular calcium and lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Finally, we injected O-1602 in GPR55 -/- mice and found that O-1602 was able to induce feeding behaviour in GPR55-deficient mice. These findings show that O-1602 modulates food intake and adiposity independently of GPR55 receptor. Thus atypical cannabinoids may represent a novel class of molecules involved in energy balance.
Article
This study was to investigate the effects of the novel cannabinoid receptor - G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) - and its ligands O-1602 and cannabidiol (CBD) on gastrointestinal (GI) motility in rodents. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used in vivo to produce the model of septic ileus. The intestinal motility was measured by recording myoelectrical activity of jejunum in rats, and by measuring GI transit with a charcoal marker in mice, in presence of O-1602 or CBD. Inflammatory response was assessed serologically and histologically. The expression and distribution of GPR55 in the different parts of rat intestine were investigated by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. In vitro, the effects of the drugs on the GI movement were investigated by measuring the contraction of the intestinal muscle strips in organ bath, and the intracellular responses of the muscle cells with microelectrode technique. G protein-coupled receptor 55 was expressed in different parts of rat intestine. Lipopolysaccharide significantly inhibited the intestinal motility, increased inflammatory cytokines and GPR55 expression. Pretreatment with CBD normalized LPS-induced hypomotility and improved the inflammatory responses serologically and histologically. Both O-1602 and CBD counteracted LPS-induced disturbances of the gut contraction, but had no effect on the membrane potential of the muscle cells, while cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist AM251 and cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist AM630 increased the potential. G protein-coupled receptor 55 existed throughout the whole intestine of rats. O-1602 or CBD selectively normalized the motility disturbances. Possible mechanisms involved systemic anti-inflammation and the regulation of myoelectrical activity of the intestine.
Article
Many GPCRs, including the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor, are down-regulated following prolonged agonist exposure by interacting with the GPCR-associated sorting protein-1 (GASP-1). The CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant has also recently been described to be an agonist at GPR55, a cannabinoid-related receptor. Here we investigated the post-endocytic properties of GPR55 after agonist exposure and tested whether GASP-1 is involved in this process. We evaluated the direct protein-protein interaction of GPR55 with GASP-1 using (i) GST-binding assays and (ii) co-immunoprecipitation assays in GPR55-HEK293 cells with endogenous GASP-1 expression. We further tested the internalization, recycling and degradation of GPR55 using confocal fluorescence microscopy and biotinylation assays in the presence and absence of GASP-1 (lentiviral small hairpin RNA knockdown of GASP-1) under prolonged agonist [rimonabant (RIM), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI)] stimulation. We showed that the prolonged activation of GPR55 with rimonabant or LPI down-regulates GPR55 via GASP-1. GASP-1 binds to GPR55 in vitro, and this interaction was required for targeting GPR55 for degradation. Disrupting the GPR55-GASP-1 interaction prevented post-endocytic receptor degradation, and thereby allowed receptor recycling. These data implicate GASP-1 as an important regulator of ligand-mediated down-regulation of GPR55. By identifying GASP-1 as a key regulator of the trafficking and, by extension, functional expression of GPR55, we may be one step closer to gaining a better understanding of this receptor in response to cannabinoid drugs. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-8. To view Part I of Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7.
Article
Marijuana is the most widely abused illegal drug, and its spectrum of effects suggests that several receptors are responsible for the activity. Two cannabinoid receptor subtypes, CB1 and CB2, have been identified, but the complex pharmacological properties of exogenous cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are not fully explained by their signaling. The orphan receptor GPR55 binds a subset of CB1 and CB2 ligands and has been proposed as a cannabinoid receptor. This designation, however, is controversial as a result of recent studies in which lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was identified as a GPR55 agonist. Defining a biological role for GPR55 requires GPR55 selective ligands that have been unavailable. From a β-arrestin, high-throughput, high-content screen of 300000 compounds run in collaboration with the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network initiative (PubChem AID1965), we identified potent GPR55 selective agonists. By modeling of the GPR55 activated state, we compared the GPR55 binding conformations of three of the novel agonists obtained from the screen, CID1792197, CID1172084, and CID2440433 (PubChem Compound IDs), with that of LPI. Our modeling indicates the molecular shapes and electrostatic potential distributions of these agonists mimic those of LPI; the GPR55 binding site accommodates ligands that have inverted-L or T shapes with long, thin profiles that can fit vertically deep in the receptor binding pocket while their broad head regions occupy a horizontal binding pocket near the GPR55 extracellular loops. Our results will allow the optimization and design of second-generation GPR55 ligands and provide a means for distinguishing GPR55 selective ligands from those interacting with cannabinoid receptors.
Article
Increased circulating levels of L-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) are associated with cancer and LPI is a potent, ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55. Here we have assessed the modulation of breast cancer cell migration, orientation and polarization by LPI and GPR55. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure GPR55 expression in breast cancer cell lines. Cell migration and invasion were measured using a Boyden chamber chemotaxis assay and Cultrex invasion assay, respectively. Cell polarization and orientation in response to the microenvironment were measured using slides containing nanometric grooves. GPR55 expression was detected in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. In these cells, LPI stimulated binding of [(35)S]GTPgammaS to cell membranes (pEC(50) 6.47 +/- 0.45) and significantly enhanced cell chemotaxis towards serum. MCF-7 cells expressed low levels of GPR55 and did not migrate or invade towards serum factors. When GPR55 was over-expressed in MCF-7 cells, serum induced a robust migratory and invasive response, which was further enhanced by LPI and prevented by siRNA to GPR55. The physical microenvironment has been identified as a key factor in determining breast tumour cell metastatic fate. LPI endowed MDA-MB-231 cells with the capacity to detect shallow (40 nm deep) grooved slides and induced marked cancer cell polarization on both flat and grooved surfaces. LPI and GPR55 play a role in the modulation of migration, orientation and polarization of breast cancer cells in response to the tumour microenvironment.
Article
In the current study, lysophosphatidylinositol is shown to promote insulin release in a manner having characteristics of physiologic exocytosis--that is, it is dose-dependent, saturable, reversible, inhibitable and unassociated with detrimental effects on subsequent islet functioning. Lysophosphatidylglycerol had similar insulinotropic effects. However, lysophosphatidic acid was ineffective over a wide range of concentrations. These studies provide further support for the postulated role of phospholipase A-generated lysophospholipids in signal transduction in the pancreatic islet but suggest that any de novo synthesis of lysophosphatidic acid from metabolites of glucose (M. Dunlop and R. Larkins, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 132:467, 1985) is unlikely to contribute directly to the insulin secretion induced by that fuel.
Article
The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family share a structural motif of seven transmembrane segments with large numbers of conserved residues in those regions. Here, we report the identification and cloning of two novel human intronless GPCR genes, GPR52, GPR55 and a pseudogene PsiGPR53. GPR55 was identified from the expressed sequence tags (EST) database whereas GPR52 and pseudogene PsiGPR53 originated from the high throughput genome (HTG) database. A partial cDNA clone obtained from the IMAGE Consortium of GPR55 was used to screen a human genomic library to acquire the full length gene. GPR52 and PsiGPR53 were amplified from human genomic DNA using primers based on the HTG sequences. GPR55 and GPR52 encode receptors of 319 and 361 amino acids, respectively. GPR55 gene was mapped to chromosome 2q37, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and its mRNA transcripts have been detected in the caudate nucleus and putamen, but not in five other brain regions. Human receptors showing the highest amino acid identity to GPR55 include P2Y5 (29%), GPR23 (30%), GPR35 (27%) and CCR4 (23%). GPR52 gene localized to chromosome 1q24 shares the highest identity with GPR21 (71%), histamine H2 (27%) and 5-HT4 (26%) human receptors. PsiGPR53 is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 6p21 that demonstrates the highest similarity to the MRG (35%), MAS (28%) and C5a (24%) human receptor genes.
Article
Cannabinoid CB(1) receptor blockade decreases weight and hyperinsulinemia in obese animals and humans in a way greatly independent from food intake. The objective of this study was to investigate the regulation and function of the endocannabinoid system in adipocytes and pancreatic beta-cells. Mouse 3T3-F442A adipocytes and rat insulinoma RIN-m5F beta-cells, pancreas and fat from mice with diet-induced obesity, visceral and sc fat from patients with body mass index equal to or greater than 30 kg/m(2), and serum from normoglycemic and type 2 diabetes patients were studied. Endocannabinoid enzyme and adipocyte protein expression, and endocannabinoid and insulin levels were measured. Endocannabinoids are present in adipocytes with levels peaking before differentiation, and in RIN-m5F beta-cells, where they are under the negative control of insulin. Chronic treatment of adipocytes with insulin is accompanied by permanently elevated endocannabinoid signaling, whereas culturing of RIN-m5F beta-cells in high glucose transforms insulin down-regulation of endocannabinoid levels into up-regulation. Epididymal fat and pancreas from mice with diet-induced obesity contain higher endocannabinoid levels than lean mice. Patients with obesity or hyperglycemia caused by type 2 diabetes exhibit higher concentrations of endocannabinoids in visceral fat or serum, respectively, than the corresponding controls. CB(1) receptor stimulation increases lipid droplets and decreases adiponectin expression in adipocytes, and it increases intracellular calcium and insulin release in RIN-m5F beta-cells kept in high glucose. Peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity might explain why CB(1) blockers cause weight-loss independent reduction of lipogenesis, of hypoadiponectinemia, and of hyperinsulinemia in obese animals and humans.
Article
GPR55 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor. In this study, we explored a possible endogenous ligand for GPR55 using HEK293 cells which expressed GPR55. We found that lysophosphatidylinositol induced rapid phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase in transiently or stably GPR55-expressing cells. On the other hand, lysophosphatidylinositol did not induce phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase in vector-transfected cells. Lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate also induced phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase in GPR55-expressing cells. However, these lipid phosphoric acids elicited similar responses in vector-transfected cells. Various types of other lysolipids as well as the cannabinoid receptor ligands did not induce phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase. We also found that lysophosphatidylinositol elicited a rapid Ca2+ transient in GPR55-expressing cells. Lysophosphatidylinositol also stimulated the binding of GTPgammaS to the GPR55-expressing cell membranes. These results strongly suggest that GPR55 is a specific and functional receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol.
Assessment Report for Acomplia (Rimonabant)
European Medicines Agency E, 2009. Assessment Report for Acomplia (Rimonabant). (Accessed 23 February 2017). http://www ema europa eu/docs/en_GB/document_ library/EPAR_-_Assessment_Report_-_Variation/human/000666/WC500021280.pdf.
GPR55 is a cannabinoid receptor that increases intracellular calcium and inhibits M current
  • J E Lauckner
  • J B Jensen
  • H Y Chen
  • H C Lu
  • B Hille
  • K Mackie
Lauckner, J.E., Jensen, J.B., Chen, H.Y., Lu, H.C., Hille, B., Mackie, K., 2008. GPR55 is a cannabinoid receptor that increases intracellular calcium and inhibits M current. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105 (7), 2699-2704 (Epub 2008/02/12).
Identification of GPR55 as a lysophosphatidylinositol receptor
  • S Oka
  • K Nakajima
  • A Yamashita
  • S Kishimoto
  • T Sugiura
Oka, S., Nakajima, K., Yamashita, A., Kishimoto, S., Sugiura, T., 2007. Identification of GPR55 as a lysophosphatidylinositol receptor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 362 (4), 928-934 (Epub 2007/09/04).