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This article provides a review of the latest experimental results in quantum physics and astrophysics, discussing their repercussions on the advanced physical theories that go beyond both the SMs (standard models) of particle physics and cosmology. It will be shown that many of the essential concepts of the advanced theoretical models developed over the past 40 years are no longer tenable because they are contradicting the novel data. Most recent results (December 2016) from the Large Hadron Collider revealed no new matter particles up to particle masses of 1.6 TeV/c

Content uploaded by J. Häuser

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All content in this area was uploaded by J. Häuser on Dec 23, 2017

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... In this article our argumentation, as in Part I [2] and Part II [3], will be mostly based on experimental data and to a lesser extent on speculative ideas, which are nevertheless needed if new physics is to be introduced. Keeping in line with Part I and Part II, emphasis is on the presentation of physical concepts, and mathematical derivations have been minimized. ...

... Today, 36 or 13 years later (LHC) 1 it seems that the concepts of superstrings and higher real spatial dimensions are starkly questioned by numerous independent experiments as already discussed extensively in Part I [2] and Part II [3] of this article series. In particular, it was shown in Part II that Newton's law appears to be valid 1 Although the LHC did not confirm any of the predictions of string theory, LHC has, up to now, found 59 new hadrons, including several tetra-and penta-quarks as well as novel mesons and baryons, that all contain the heavy quarks charm and bottom but no strange quarks. ...

... 3 3 The four algebras of numbers (real, complex, hypercomplex (quaternion), octonion) have one important (for physics) fact in common, for they are the only ones that under multiplication preserve the norm (distance) of unit vectors, as was shown by A. Hurwitz in 1898 (remember the failure of Weyl's initial gauge theory). It was only in 1956 that the mathematician J. F. Adams proved that the four number systems (dimensions: 1,2,4,8) are the only ones with a division algebra (i.e., division is always possible, except by 0, of course). Thus, it seems that any other number system may not be of interest in In order to be consistent with recent LHC measurements, the Higgs boson cannot be composed of two or more particles [26] with spin-1 because the Higgs particle was found to have spin 0 as was unmistakably measured by the decay of the Higgs particle. ...

This article, the last in a series of three articles, attempts to unravel the underlying physics of recent experiments regarding the contradictory properties of the neutron lifetime that has been a complete riddle for quite some time. So far, none of the advanced theories beyond the Standard Models (SMs) of particle physics and cosmology have shown sufficient potential to resolve this mystery. We also try to explain the blatant contradiction between the predictions of particle physics and experiments concerning the nature and properties of the (so far undetected) dark matter and dark energy particles. To this end the novel concepts of both negative and hypercomplex matter (giving rise to the concept of matter flavor) are introduced, replacing the field of real numbers by hypercomplex numbers. This extension of the number system in physics leads to both novel internal symmetries requiring new elementary particles – as outlined in Part I and II, and to novel types of matter. Hypercomplex numbers are employed in place of the widely accepted (but never observed) concept of extra space dimensions – and, hence, also to question the corresponding concept of supersymmetry. To corroborate this claim, we report on the latest experimental searches for novel and supersymmetric elementary particles by direct searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other colliders as well as numerous other dedicated experiments that all have come up empty handed. The same holds true for the dark matter search at European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN) [CERN Courier Team, “Funky physics at KIT,” in CERN Courier, 2020, p. 11]. In addition, new experiments looking for dark or hidden photons (e.g., FUNK at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, CAST at CERN, and ALPS at Desy, Hamburg) are discussed that all produced negative results for the existence of the hitherto unseen but nevertheless gravitationally noticeably dark matter. In view of this contradicting outcome, we suggest a four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, assumed to be a quasi de Sitter space, dS 1,3 , complemented by a dual spacetime , denoted by DdS 1,3 , in which the dark matter particles that are supposed to be of negative mass reside. This space is endowed with an imaginary time coordinate, −i t and an imaginary speed of light, i c . This means that time is considered a complex quantity , but energy m (i c ) ² > 0. With this construction visible and dark matter both represent positive energies, and hence gravitation makes no distinction between these two types of matter. As dark matter is supposed to reside in dual space DdS 1,3 , it is principally undetectable in our spacetime. That this is evident has been confirmed by numerous astrophysical observations. As the concept of matter flavor may possibly resolve the contradictory experimental results concerning the lifetime of the neutron [J. T. Wilson, “Space based measurement of the neutron lifetime using data from the neutron spectrometer on NASA’s messenger mission,” Phys. Rev. Res., vol. 2, p. 023216, 2020] this fact could be considered as a first experimental hint for the actual existence of hypercomplex matter. In canonical gravity the conversion of electromagnetic into gravity-like fields (as surmised by Faraday and Einstein) should be possible, but not in cosmological gravity (hence these attempts did not succeed), and thus these conversion fields are outside general relativity. In addition, the concept of hypercomplex mass in conjunction with magnetic monopoles emerging from spin ice materials is discussed that may provide the enabling technology for long sought propellantless space propulsion.

... Signals were observed from Al, Nb and YBCO disks, but only for clockwise rotation. The experiments of 2009 [63] showed that liquid and superfluid [69][70][71][72]. This approach predicts the existence of three gravitational fields (both attractive and repulsive), of stable neutral leptons and of particles of imaginary mass, which might be a component of dark matter. ...

We review experiments and theoretical models about the possible mutual interplay between the gravitational field and materials in the superconducting state or other macroscopic quantum states. More generally, we focus on the possibility for quantum macrosystems in a coherent state to produce local alterations of the gravitational field in which they are immersed. This fully interdisciplinary research field has witnessed a conspicuous progress in the last decades, with hundreds of published papers, and yet several questions are still completely open.

... Well, we here also should know that there are scientific publications claiming that there are experimental observations pointing beyond the theoretical conceptions of nowadays [19,20]. Well, regarding this issue, we here should be aware that the "grand unified theory" that I have launched in a series of subsequent publications [3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11] beginning in the 90's of the past century presents the superior states of cosmic physics, classical physics, and quantum physics that are in the focus of scientific observations as extremal points placed within a nonlinear landscape to be adjusted by an energy momentum tensor adapted to cosmic needs, classical needs, or quantum needs. ...

The zoo of elementary particles as extremal state points of nonlinear quantum landscapes. An introduction to the basics.

... Here, a fermion converts to a boson by multiplication by an antifermionic operator Q †; a boson converts to a fermion by multiplication by a fermionic operator Q, and the sequence (ikE + ip + jm) k (ikE + ip + jm) ... can be represented by the supersymmetric 10 If this is interpreted as the series of boson and fermion loops, of the same energy and momentum, required by the exact supersymmetry, then the self-energy renormalization can be eliminated and the hierarchy problem removed altogether [5,8,31] ...

The Standard Model has three generations of fermions and antifermions, each with two states of isospin, and each of these has both a lepton and a quark in three possible colour states. In total there are 48 states. No known system exists for constructing these from first principles. Here, it is suggested that the number of degrees of freedom required is a consequence of the nilpotent complexified vector-quaternion Dirac algebra, which emerges from the representation of the fundamental parameters mass, time, charge and space as a Klein-4 group, and that these degrees of freedom lead to unique structural representations of each of the individual fermions.

... Standard cosmology is not unique in standing falsified. In this, it shares the company of all the advanced models that have been developed during the past 50 years in theoretical physics [98] (varieties of string theory, supergravity, supersymmetry, grand unification theory, the existence of D-branes, etc.). All of these were questionable already when proposed. ...

First, this paper broaches the definition of science and the epistemic yield of tenets and approaches: phenomenological (descriptive only), well-founded (solid first principles, conducive to deep understanding), provisional (falsifiable if universal, verifiable if existential), and imaginary (fictitious entities or processes, conducive to empirically unsupported beliefs). The Big-Bang paradigm and the ΛCDM "concordance model" involve such beliefs: the emanation of the universe out of a non-physical stage, cosmic inflation (hardly testable), Λ (fictitious energy), and 'exotic' dark matter. They fail in the confidence check that empirical science requires. They also face a problem in delimiting what expands from what does not. In the more well-founded cosmology that emerges, energy is conserved, the universe is persistent (not transient) and the 'perfect cosmological principle' holds. Waves and other field perturbations that propagate at c (the escape velocity of the universe) expand exponentially with distance. This results from gravitation. The galaxy web does not expand. Potential Φ varies as-H/(cz) instead of-1/r. Inertial forces reflect gradients present in comoving frames of accelerated bodies (interaction with the rest of the universe-not with space). They are increased where the universe appears blueshifted and decreased more than proportionately at very low accelerations. A cutoff acceleration a 0 = 0.168 cH is deduced. This explains the successful description of galaxy rotation curves by MoND. A fully elaborated physical theory is still pending. The recycling of energy via a cosmic ocean filled with photons (the CMB), neutrinos and gravitons, and wider implications for science are briefly discussed.

The mass spectrum of elementary particles is calculated in a new approach, based on B. Heim’s quantum field theory, which manifests in a non-linear eigenvalue equation and merges into the Einstein field equation in the macroscopic limit. The poly-metric of the theory allows spacetime and matter to be described in a unified formalism, representing a radical geometrisation of physics. The calculated mass energies are in very good agreement with the empirical data (error < 1 % on average) if the mass scale is gauged to the electron as lowest mass and the second main parameter, determining the strength of obtained mass hierarchy levels, is close to the half inverse of the fine structure constant, describing the difference in strength between the electromagnetic and the strong interaction. The obtained hierarchy levels are not identical to the particle generations of the Standard Model; however, show a self-similarity typical for non-linear theories. For higher values of the main quantum number N, the calculated mass formula becomes identical to the phenomenological formulae of Nambu, respectively, Mac Gregor.

A unified theory is proposed of gravity and quantum mechanics, based on a multiconnected toroidal space connected with a monopole topology, in which each state of the ordinary quantum system encodes the information about the state of the higher-dimensional system. Space-time is created out of quantum processes themselves at the subatomic level and emerges like a hologram out of information stored in the entangled quantum states of elementary particles. Einstein's equation links matter to gravity and his formula E = mc 2 links matter to energy. It is proposed that the nature of quantum gravity is a manifestation of quantum entanglement, has a local and non-local nature and is mediated by wave-functions of bosonic and fermionic elementary particles supported by a vacuum field. The gravitational waves are in the open strings at the top and bottom of the toroidal geometry as left and right rotating vortices in a small curvature region. The mathematics can be described by two quantum wave equations: one for the coherent quantum states and a second for the incoherent quantum states. The proposed quantum information has been calculated containing thirteen scalars and can be described by a Pythagorean like equation: how to distribute ratios of 3/2 into 2/1 and describes coherent ordered systems and emerged from non-gravitational entangled quantum systems. The theory makes use of twelve normalized Chern invariants in a o-minimal structure The validity of the gravity model has been substantiated by measurements of gravitational waves and shows a coherent distribution of energy according the distribution as found for Bosonic elementary particles and Bose Einstein condensates. The proposed quantum wave equation and calculated eigenfunctions are in line with the theory of David Bohm and Louis de Broglie and is a non-probabilistic formula and a way in which geometry encodes entanglement.

This article attempts to explain the underlying physics of several recent experiments and astrophysical observations that have been mystifying the physics community for quite some time. So far, none of the advanced theories beyond the standard models of particle physics and cosmology have shown sufficient potential to resolve these mysteries. The reason for this failure may lie in the fact that these theories are based on the concept of extra space dimensions that appears to be in conflict with numerous experiments, in particular with recent Large Hadron Collider data. Therefore, the novel idea of extra number systems is introduced, replacing the idea of extra space dimensions. This approach is complemented by a set of fundamental physical principles that provide the constraints and guidelines for a modified physical formulation in agreement with known experimental reality. However, such a theory requires novel physical concepts in conjunction with novel symmetry groups. These groups give rise to additional types of matter, termed hypercomplex masses (which are responsible for the extreme hypercomplex gravitational fields, see below, and are also denoted as matter flavour ), including, for instance, particles of negative mass, identified with dark matter. Furthermore, four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, assumed to be a quasi de Sitter space $dS^{1,3}$dual spacetime , $DdS^{1,3}$ , with imaginary time coordinate; that is, time is a complex quantity . The three spatial coordinates are shared by the two spacetimes. Dark matter is assumed to reside in $DdS^{1,3}$ and therefore is principally invisible. On the other hand, its gravitational interaction with ordinary matter ( m ≥ 0) in spacetime $dS^{1,3}$ is directly perceptible. The novel group structure predicts the existence of a fourth particle family of negative masses; that is, besides the dark matter particle χ of mass $m_{\chi}\approx-80.77$ GeV/c ² , there is the dark neutrino ν χ of mass $m_{\nu_{\chi}}\approx-3.23$ eV/c ² . Moreover, the hypercomplex group structure of gravity ( $SU(2)\times SU(2)$ ) postulates three gravitational bosons for cosmological fields [resulting from Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR)], the graviton $\nu_{G_{N}}$ with spin 2, the novel gravitophoton $\nu_{gp}$ with spin 1 (existence of weak gravitomagnetic fields of GR), and the quintessence particle ν q with spin 0, which, when present, mediates an interaction between ordinary matter ( m ≥ 0) and the ubiquitous scalar field of dark energy. In addition, the existence of extreme gravity fields (hypercomplex gravity) is postulated, based on the second group SU (2), and an interaction between electromagnetism and hypercomplex gravity is predicted, mediated by three additional hypercomplex-gravity bosons. Some long-standing problems of cosmology will be addressed; namely, the Big Bang scenario and the origin of dark energy and the nature of dark matter and their relation to the modified Newtonian dynamics hypothesis will be discussed.

On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 × 10[superscript -21]. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410[+160 over -180] Mpc corresponding to a redshift z = 0.09[+0.03 over -0.04]. In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36[+5 over -4]M[subscript ⊙] and 29[+4 over -4]M[subscript ⊙], and the final black hole mass is 62[+4 over -4]M[subscript ⊙], with 3.0[+0.5 over -0.5]M[subscript ⊙]c[superscript 2] radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.

The possibility that we live in a higher-dimensional world with spatial dimensions greater than three started with the early work of Kaluza and Klein. However, in addressing experimental constraints, early model-builders were forced to compactify these extra dimensions to very tiny scales. With the development of brane-world scenarios it became possible to consider novel compactifications which allow the extra dimensions to be large or to provide observable effects of these dimensions at experimentally accessible energy scales. This book provides a comprehensive account of these recent developments, keeping the high-energy physics implications in focus. After an historical survey of the idea of extra dimensions, the book deals in detail with models of large extra dimensions, warped extra dimensions and other models such as universal extra dimensions. The theoretical and phenomenological implications are discussed in a pedagogical manner for both researchers and graduate students. The first proper account of brane-world motivated models of extra dimensions and their implications for particle physics. Brings a student or working researcher up to date with the current understanding of the subject. Uses a pedagogical approach to address theoretical issues in high-energy physics and their connections to high-energy experiments.

The book originated in a series of lectures given at Liverpool in 2013 to a group that included postgraduate and undergraduate students and staff of the Physics Department. They followed from two very successful lectures given to the undergraduate Physical Society. It seemed that there was a very large interest among the students in investigating the foundations of physics in a way that was never done in physics courses, and was not available in books or other outlets. However, the idea was to create a framework in which students (and interested staff) could develop their own thinking relative to the ideas in the lectures. So it was important to create both conceptual and mathematical structures on the issues that are important at this level. The book has the right sort of technical content to allow for this development, but doesn’t lose itself in excessive details. The ideal use for this book would be on postgraduate courses where students would be encouraged to think about the foundations in a way that is well beyond the superficial. However, a course on aspects of this material would also be valuable at the undergraduate level, where students could be stimulated into believing that creative thinking could solve the problems that emerge when we confront foundational problems. © 2015 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.

The bronchoscope has gone through much advancement from its origin as a thin metal tube. It has become a highly sophisticated tool for clinicians. Both rigid and the flexible bronchoscopes are invaluable in the diagnosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Treatment of this disease process hinges on accurate diagnosis and lymph node staging. Technologies, such as endobronchial ultrasound, navigational bronchoscopy, and autofluorescence, have improved efficacy of endobronchial diagnosis and sample collection. If a patient is not a candidate for surgery and has a complication from a centrally located mass, the bronchoscope has been used to deliver palliative therapies.

Two precision experiments disagree on how long neutrons live before decaying. Does the discrepancy reflect measurement errors or point to some deeper mystery?