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Gravity beyond Einstein? Part I: Physics and the Trouble with Experiments

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This article provides a review of the latest experimental results in quantum physics and astrophysics, discussing their repercussions on the advanced physical theories that go beyond both the SMs (standard models) of particle physics and cosmology. It will be shown that many of the essential concepts of the advanced theoretical models developed over the past 40 years are no longer tenable because they are contradicting the novel data. Most recent results (December 2016) from the Large Hadron Collider revealed no new matter particles up to particle masses of 1.6 TeV/c
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Vol. 72, Iss. 6: Gravity beyond Einstein? Part I: Physics and the Trouble with
Experiments by Jochem Hauser and Walter Dröscher
for download.
... In this article our argumentation, as in Part I [2] and Part II [3], will be mostly based on experimental data and to a lesser extent on speculative ideas, which are nevertheless needed if new physics is to be introduced. Keeping in line with Part I and Part II, emphasis is on the presentation of physical concepts, and mathematical derivations have been minimized. ...
... Today, 36 or 13 years later (LHC) 1 it seems that the concepts of superstrings and higher real spatial dimensions are starkly questioned by numerous independent experiments as already discussed extensively in Part I [2] and Part II [3] of this article series. In particular, it was shown in Part II that Newton's law appears to be valid 1 Although the LHC did not confirm any of the predictions of string theory, LHC has, up to now, found 59 new hadrons, including several tetra-and penta-quarks as well as novel mesons and baryons, that all contain the heavy quarks charm and bottom but no strange quarks. ...
... 3 3 The four algebras of numbers (real, complex, hypercomplex (quaternion), octonion) have one important (for physics) fact in common, for they are the only ones that under multiplication preserve the norm (distance) of unit vectors, as was shown by A. Hurwitz in 1898 (remember the failure of Weyl's initial gauge theory). It was only in 1956 that the mathematician J. F. Adams proved that the four number systems (dimensions: 1,2,4,8) are the only ones with a division algebra (i.e., division is always possible, except by 0, of course). Thus, it seems that any other number system may not be of interest in In order to be consistent with recent LHC measurements, the Higgs boson cannot be composed of two or more particles [26] with spin-1 because the Higgs particle was found to have spin 0 as was unmistakably measured by the decay of the Higgs particle. ...
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This article, the last in a series of three articles, attempts to unravel the underlying physics of recent experiments regarding the contradictory properties of the neutron lifetime that has been a complete riddle for quite some time. So far, none of the advanced theories beyond the Standard Models (SMs) of particle physics and cosmology have shown sufficient potential to resolve this mystery. We also try to explain the blatant contradiction between the predictions of particle physics and experiments concerning the nature and properties of the (so far undetected) dark matter and dark energy particles. To this end the novel concepts of both negative and hypercomplex matter (giving rise to the concept of matter flavor) are introduced, replacing the field of real numbers by hypercomplex numbers. This extension of the number system in physics leads to both novel internal symmetries requiring new elementary particles – as outlined in Part I and II, and to novel types of matter. Hypercomplex numbers are employed in place of the widely accepted (but never observed) concept of extra space dimensions – and, hence, also to question the corresponding concept of supersymmetry. To corroborate this claim, we report on the latest experimental searches for novel and supersymmetric elementary particles by direct searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and other colliders as well as numerous other dedicated experiments that all have come up empty handed. The same holds true for the dark matter search at European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN) [CERN Courier Team, “Funky physics at KIT,” in CERN Courier, 2020, p. 11]. In addition, new experiments looking for dark or hidden photons (e.g., FUNK at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, CAST at CERN, and ALPS at Desy, Hamburg) are discussed that all produced negative results for the existence of the hitherto unseen but nevertheless gravitationally noticeably dark matter. In view of this contradicting outcome, we suggest a four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime, assumed to be a quasi de Sitter space, dS 1,3 , complemented by a dual spacetime , denoted by DdS 1,3 , in which the dark matter particles that are supposed to be of negative mass reside. This space is endowed with an imaginary time coordinate, −i t and an imaginary speed of light, i c . This means that time is considered a complex quantity , but energy m (i c ) ² > 0. With this construction visible and dark matter both represent positive energies, and hence gravitation makes no distinction between these two types of matter. As dark matter is supposed to reside in dual space DdS 1,3 , it is principally undetectable in our spacetime. That this is evident has been confirmed by numerous astrophysical observations. As the concept of matter flavor may possibly resolve the contradictory experimental results concerning the lifetime of the neutron [J. T. Wilson, “Space based measurement of the neutron lifetime using data from the neutron spectrometer on NASA’s messenger mission,” Phys. Rev. Res., vol. 2, p. 023216, 2020] this fact could be considered as a first experimental hint for the actual existence of hypercomplex matter. In canonical gravity the conversion of electromagnetic into gravity-like fields (as surmised by Faraday and Einstein) should be possible, but not in cosmological gravity (hence these attempts did not succeed), and thus these conversion fields are outside general relativity. In addition, the concept of hypercomplex mass in conjunction with magnetic monopoles emerging from spin ice materials is discussed that may provide the enabling technology for long sought propellantless space propulsion.
... Signals were observed from Al, Nb and YBCO disks, but only for clockwise rotation. The experiments of 2009 [63] showed that liquid and superfluid [69][70][71][72]. This approach predicts the existence of three gravitational fields (both attractive and repulsive), of stable neutral leptons and of particles of imaginary mass, which might be a component of dark matter. ...
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... Well, we here also should know that there are scientific publications claiming that there are experimental observations pointing beyond the theoretical conceptions of nowadays [19,20]. Well, regarding this issue, we here should be aware that the "grand unified theory" that I have launched in a series of subsequent publications [3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11] beginning in the 90's of the past century presents the superior states of cosmic physics, classical physics, and quantum physics that are in the focus of scientific observations as extremal points placed within a nonlinear landscape to be adjusted by an energy momentum tensor adapted to cosmic needs, classical needs, or quantum needs. ...
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... Here, a fermion converts to a boson by multiplication by an antifermionic operator Q †; a boson converts to a fermion by multiplication by a fermionic operator Q, and the sequence (ikE + ip + jm) k (ikE + ip + jm) ... can be represented by the supersymmetric 10 If this is interpreted as the series of boson and fermion loops, of the same energy and momentum, required by the exact supersymmetry, then the self-energy renormalization can be eliminated and the hierarchy problem removed altogether [5,8,31] ...
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... Standard cosmology is not unique in standing falsified. In this, it shares the company of all the advanced models that have been developed during the past 50 years in theoretical physics [98] (varieties of string theory, supergravity, supersymmetry, grand unification theory, the existence of D-branes, etc.). All of these were questionable already when proposed. ...
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