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Plums are an important source of compounds influencing human health and preventing the occurrence of many diseases. Plums have abundance of bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, anthocyanin'
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Review Article
Journal of Food, Nutrition and Population Health
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Pree Birwal1, Deshmukh G1,
Saurabh SP1 and Praga S2
1 DairyEngineering,SRSofICAR-Naonal
2 IndianAgriculturalResearchInstute
Corresponding author: PreeBirwal
Tel: 9896649633
Citation: BirwalP,DeshmukhG,Saurabh
Plums: A Brief Introducon
Received: February03,2017; Accepted: March06,2017;Published: March16,2017
Plums are important source of compounds inuencing human health and
acids, (e.g., citric and malic acids), bre (pecn), tannins, aromac substances,
medicineasacomponentof natural drugs used in case of leucorrhea, irregular
menstruaon and miscarriage. Plum helps in prevenon of heart disease, lung
and oral cancer, lower the blood sugar, blood pressure, Alzheimer’s disease,
and food products like Yoghurt, Pies, Biscuits, Lassi, Ice cream etc., in form of
extract,pulp,powderor driedchunkswouldsurelyboostupthe nutrionaland
Plums are one of the most important stone fruits crops of the
world. Plums also include several familiar stone fruits- apricot,
among which relavely few are of commercial importance [1].
Plums are important source of compounds inuencing human
plums is generally relies on drying of fresh plum, canning and
beverage preparaon. Although sun drying was very common
dehydraon to desired moisture content, sub atmospheric
sun drying, vacuum drying, microwave drying, high pressure
assisted drying and osmoc dehydraon. Drying of plums is
usuallydoneforaainmentoflow microbialloadsandtomake
Increased compeon in today’s global market refers avenues
So, for increased globalizaon and consumer awareness it is
plumsundergo oxidavedamage,browning,lossof avourand
shrinkage, which lead to lower sensory and nutrional quality
oftheproducts.Toimprove product quality and reduce drying
me,osmoc dehydraon can beanadvantageousmethod for
to drying [5] and other heat assisted processing like canning,
freezing, and minimal processing as osmoc dehydraon does
Historical Background
With many know variees of plums, it is not surprising that it
The pracce of culvaon has been done since prehistoric
mes, longer perhaps than any other kind of fruit except the
apple.Earliest known data of plumssays that plums are origin
discovered around two thousand years ago, originang in the
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mes, 300 variees of European plums were menoned. The
Japan. It was introduced to Japan 200-400 years ago [7], from
whichitdisseminated around the world.Plumsmayhave been
one of the rst fruits domescated by humans. Plum remains
climate countries of the world. Europe rst bred European
plum (Prunusdomesca), America rst had the American plum
(Prunus Americana), South Asia culvated the cherry plum
(Prunuscerasifera), andWesternAsiaishavingtheDamsonplum
Characteriscs of Plums
Plums are a drupe fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus
Prunus. Weinberger, (1975) reported nearly 2000 species in
yellow,white,greenorredesh.Mature plumfruit mayhavea
dusty-whitecoangthatgivesthem a glaucous appearance [8]
(Table 1).
acids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, minerals and pecns. For
many decades plums have been used in Indian medicine as a
menstruaon and miscarriage [9]. Nutrients present in plum
Nutrional Value of Plums
acids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, minerals and pecns. Plums
constute a valuable component of our diet, both in terms of
their nutrive and dietary value. These fruits are becoming an
increasing popular object of nutrional studies conducted on
humansand animals, assessingtheeectof plumconsumpon
on the funconing of the organism. For many decades plums
have been used in Indian medicine as a component of natural
drugs used in case of leucorrhea, irregular menstruaon and
miscarriage[11].Plumshavelow calorie content and relavely
high nutrive value. They contain carbohydrates, rst of all
Contents of minerals in plums increase as fruits ripen. These
Anoxidant and Total Phenolic content
of Plums
compoundswidely spread throughout nature. Because of their
content [12], there has been great interest in ascertaining the
Thepredominantphenolic compounds in plums are derivaves
of caeic acid: 3-O-caeicquinic (neochlorogenic acid),
5-O-caeicquinic (chlorogenic acid) and 4-O-cae-icquinic
(cryptochlorogenic acid) as well as caeic acid, together with
According to literature data, depending on the variety,
environmental condions and applied analycal methods,
contentsof phenolic acids in plums fall within a wide range of
values(Table 2)[9,15-17].
Fruit processing aects polyphenol contents and alters fruit
microstructure, resulng in the loss or enrichment of some
(Table 3).
Health-Promong Properes of Plums
Numerous studies conrmed the health-promong acon of
healthbenetsofplums(Table 4).
Processing of Plums
There is old saying that “All dried plums are prunes but not
all plums are prunes”. Plums with high sugar content and rm
eshdriedwithoutremoval of stone and are calledprunes[7].
Plumsarebeingprocessedindierentkindofproductsand are
Kingdom Plantae
Order Rosales
Family Rosacease
Subfamily Amygdaloideae
Genus Prunus
Subgenus Prunus
Table 1SciencclassicaonofPlums.
Acids Quanty (mg/kg)
Neochlorogenicacid 85-1300mg/kg
Chlorogenicacid 13-430mg/kg
Cryptochlorogenicacid 956mg/kg
Table 2Phenoliccomponentspresentinplums.
Component Range (mg/100g f.w)
Cyanidin-3-glucoside 1.9-13.5
Cyanidin-3-runoside 14.1-33.0
Peonidin-3-glucoside 1.1-1.2
Table 3ContentofAnthocyanin’sinPlumFruits.
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Plums analyzed for quality at farms
(Brix, Titrable acidity, Color, % Initial moisture)
Harvested plums can be stored temporarily at refrigerated storage but
should be delivered to processing as soon as possible to minimize
quality loss
Washed plums loaded onto drying trays
At processing plant, air classification to remove leaves, stems,
harmless extraneous matters etc. And wash with about 20ppm
chlorinated water is done
Trays transferred to dryers
Drying for 24-36 h at about 140-165°F (Dried to moisture
about 16 ± 3 from initial moisture of 80%)
about 1-2 weeks for moisture equilibrium
Packed in high density corrugated bags
Stored at dry and cool preferably
refrigerated 40-55°F conditions
Produconofdriedplums.Flowchart 1
Sr. No. Health Benets
1. Regulates the funconing of the digesve system and thereby relieve conspaon condions due to the presence of dietary
2. VitaminChelpsthebodytodevelopresistancetoinfecousagentsandscavengesharmfulfreeradicals.
3. Freshplums,likeyellowMirabellehavemoderatevitaminAandbetacarotenecontent.Naturalfruit’svitaminAprotectfromlungand
Plumshavesignicant amount of health promong carotenoids such as lutein, cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin. These compounds are
onekindof scavengersagainstaging anddiseasecausingoxygen-derivedfreeradicalsandreacveoxygenspecies.Zeaxanthin provide
5. Plumsarerichsourceofpotassium,uorideandiron.Potassiumasanimportantcomponentofcellandbodyuids,helpsincontrolling
Inaddion, the plumsaremoderate sources invitaminB-complex groups suchasniacin, vitamin B-6andpantothenic acid andthese
vitaminshelpthe bodymetabolizeproteins,carbohydratesand fats.Plumsalsoprovideabout5%RDAlevelsofvitaminK.VitaminK is
7. Consumponofplumspreventsmaculardegeneraon,heartdiseasesandalsodamagetoourneuronsandfatsthatformapartofour
Table 4Healthbenets.
usedincreasingly as foodingredientsbyfood processors. Some
oftypes aredriedprunes, prunejuice,prune juiceconcentrate,
canned prunes, plum juice, plum paste, prune powder, prune
Producon of dried plums
PrunesarethedriedfruitsofsomeculvarsofPrunus domesca
In1856,FrenchmenLouisPellierintroducedtheLa Pete d’Agen
prune, a nave of southwest France, to the Santa Clara Valley
ofCalifornia.Todaymodern dehydrators have replaced the old
methods of drying prunes in the sun in the United States [23]
(Flowchart 1).
dried to about 18% moisture, which has suciently low-water
acvity to avoid problems of microbial spoilage allowing long
term storage [24]. Generally, forced-dra tunnel dehydrators
are used for drying plums, with a total drying process me of
24–36 h, depending on the size and soluble solids contents of
Yield of dried prunes is about 33%. Convenonal dried prunes
are somemes dried to very low moisture content in vacuum
shelfdrier[23]. The nished low moisture dried plums contain
less than 4% moisture. Because of high sugar content of dried
only under sub-atmospheric condions. About 75% of world’s
Theprocess of drying fresh fruits to produce dried plums on a
Austria,beforethepruneindustrycommencedintheU.S. Prunes
are also products with an advantageous nutrive and dietary
value, whose popularity as a wholesome snack has increased
Consumer Percepon
Marketersbelievethat thetermdriedplumhasamoreposive
imageto customersthandriedprunes. Inastudy plumsscored
higher on the following percepons of healthiness compared
to dried fruits: more natural, easier to digest, containing more
vitamins, and eaten instead of candy [26]. About one-half of
the plums are consumed fresh while the rest are processed.
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term“dried plum”hasa moreposiveimagetothe consumers
Inastudyplumsscoredhigher on the following percepons of
healthiness compared to dried fruits: more natural, easier to
digest, containing more vitamins, and eaten instead of candy
[26]. Dierent kind of drying techniques are applied for drying
high pressure assisted drying, vacuum drying, microwave
detrimental eects on the quality of fruits, mainly oxidave
reduce sensory and nutrional quality of the products [27,28].
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Anoxidant acvity of prune (Prunus domesca L.) constuents
10 ErtekinaC,GozlekcibS,KabasaO, SonmezcS, AkinciI (2006)Some
11 NakataniN,KayanoS,KikuzakiH,SuminoK,KatagiriK,etal.(2000)
Idencaon, quantave determinaon, and an-oxidave
12 CaoH,ZhangM,MujumdarAS,DuW,SunJ(2006)Opmizaonof
13 Kazim G, Onur S (2012) Variaon in total phenolic content and
anoxidant acvity of Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. Selecons from
14 AugerC,Al-Awwadi N, BornetA,Rouanet JM,GascF, et al.(2004)
Catechinsand procyanidinsinMediterranean diets.FoodResearch
15 DonovanJL,MeyerAS,WaterhouseAL(1998)Phenoliccomposion
16 LosJ,WilskaJJ,PawlakM(2000)Polyphenoliccompoundsofplums
17 TomasBFA,GilMI,CreminP,WaterhouseAL,HessPB,etal.(2001)
HPLC-DAD-ESIMS analysis of phenolic compounds in nectarines,
18 Abdulrazak A (2007) Dairy industry euent treatment: anaerobic
19 KimD,Chun OK,KimYJ, MoonHY,Lee CY(2003)Quancaon of
20 ChunOK,Kim DO, Moon HY,KangHG,Lee CY (2003) Contribuon
of individual polyphenolics to total anoxidant capacity of plums.
21 CevallosCB,ByrneD,OkieW,CisnerosZL(2006)Selecngnewpeach
and plum genotypes rich in phenolic compounds and enhanced
22 Hui YH. Handbook of food products manufacturing. Wiley Inter
23 SomogyiLP,LuhBS(1989)Dehydraonoffruits,incommercialfruit
24 Newman GM, Price WE, Woolf LA (1996) Factors inuencing the
drying of prunes. I. Eects of temperature upon the kinecs of
25 DorotaWT (2008) Characteriscs of plums as a raw material with
26 Siet J, Sijtsema, Katarzyna J, Ronan S, Dorota K, et al. (2012)
Perceponsofthehealth and convenience characteriscs of fresh
27 hps://
28 Anon(2004)Plum.In:TheColumbiaElectronicEncyclopedia,6thEd.
29 Gil MI, Tomas-Barberan FA, Hess-Pierce B, Kader AA (2002)
Anoxidant capacies, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and
vitamin C contents of nectarine, peach and plum culvars from
30 RaynalJ,MoutounetM(1989)Intervenonofphenoliccompounds
in plum technology. I. Mechanism of anthocyanin degradaon.
... Plum (Prunus salicina L.) belongs to the Rosaceae family, which comprises a wide range of flavors (from sour to sweet) and colors (black, red, purple, and yellow) (Birwal et al.,2017). The average production of plums and sloes in Egypt recorded 17882.51 ...
... Clinical studies have demonstrated that drinking plum juice helps to maintain blood levels of insulin and glucose, which may lower anxiety and neophobia and reduce the risk of heart disease. It also controls heart rate and blood pressure (Birwal et al., 2017). ...
... The beneficial substances phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids are abundant in plums. Additionally, due to their high content of pectin, organic acids (citric and malic), sugars (sucrose, glucose, and fructose), tannins, aromatic compounds, and enzymes, plums offer low calories and a relatively high nutritional value (Nakatani et al., 2000;Ertekina et al., 2006;Birwal et al.,2017). ...
... In the USA, Japanese plum was brought in the late nineteenth century. [3] In the present day, the norm fabricators of industrially developed plums are the Assembled States, China, Serbia, and Romania. Starches (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and sorbitol), just as natural acids, for example, citrus and malic acids, notwithstanding fiber (gelatins), tannins, sweet-smelling substances, and compounds, were present in these fruits. ...
... Consequently, one of the essential conditions deciding productivity of plum generation is the presentation of new, profitable cultivars reasonable for concentrated developing in business plantations. [3] The more drawn out the period when a given plum cultivar is accessibly available, the more aggressive it is as far as cost in contrast with cultivars with a short keeping period. Customer acknowledgment of plums is firmly related to collected date and development phase of products of the soil supply ought to be connected with their potential keeping period, for example, timeframe of realistic usability. ...
... The cultivation of plums has been practiced since ancient times, may be longer than any other fruit except apple [2]. The earliest known evidence about plums dates back to 470 BC and indicates that this fruit originated in China [3]. European plums are believed to have been first spotted around two thousand years ago in the region surrounding Eastern Europe and Western Asia. ...
... European plums are believed to have been first spotted around two thousand years ago in the region surrounding Eastern Europe and Western Asia. There were 300 varieties of European plums described in ancient Rome and pilgrims brought this fruit to the United States in the 17 th century [3]. It was first introduced in Japan 200-400 years ago [2] and then spread around the globe. ...
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Pakistan is ranked 17th in the world for plum production, with a total output of 67,000 tonnes. In terms of area and production, plum (Prunus domestica) is Pakistan's second largest stone fruit, after peach. Plum (Prunus domestica L.) is a temperate zone fruit crop, made up of different varieties. This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional quality and yield performance of five different plum varieties (Methley, Shakar Prune, Santa Rosa, Hersminar, and Red Beaut) grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Plum samples were collected from the Horticultural Research Station, Nowshera (Soon Valley), Pakistan during May 2021 and analyzed for fruit yield and nutritional quality parameters. The maximum fruit fresh weight (52.9g) was recorded in Red Beaut and the lowest fresh weight (12.4 g) in Methley. The cultivar with the highest nutritional value was Shakar Prune with 16.4% of total soluble solids (TSS) and 12.2% of total sugars content, whereas the lowest nutritional value was recorded in Herisminar with total soluble solids (TSS) and total sugars content of 14.8% and 10.0%, respectively. All varieties showed significant variation in terms of fresh weight, total soluble solids (TSS), and total sugars. The results showed the yield performance and nutritional quality of different plum varieties, with Red Beaut and Shakarprune cultivars highlighted as the best. The study concluded that yield performance and nutritional quality depend strongly on the respective plum variety.
... Plums are nutrient-rich food and can be eaten raw, dried, or processed. This fruit has many bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavanols, organic acids (e.g., citric and malic acids), fiber (pectin), tannins, aromatic substances, enzymes, minerals (e.g., potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium) and vitamins A, B, C, and K [4]. Plums also have various health benefits, namely as an antioxidant, antibacterial, antihemolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer [5]. ...
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Medical science has progressed a lot and Anti Aging Medicine (AAM) is one of the sciences in the medical world that brings a new paradigm. Hyperpigmentation is one of the most common skin problems caused by excessive pigment melanin production. Plums are nutrient-rich and can be eaten raw, dried, or processed. This research aimed to evaluate the administration of 2% plum extract in inhibiting the increase of tyrosinase enzyme expression and the amount of skin melanin in male guinea pigs’ skin exposed to UV B light. This was a randomized post-test-only control group design using 30 male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), aged 12-16 weeks, weight 300-350 grams, and divided into three groups, the control group did not get any cream, treatment group 1 received cream base, and treatment group 2 got 2% plum extract cream. Creams were applied daily 0.1 mg/cm2 at 09.40 and 14.00 WITA. All guinea pigs received UV-B irradiation, three times a week with a total dose of 390 mJ/cm2. Tyrosinase enzyme expression was examined by calculating the percentage of cells expressing the enzyme using immunohistochemical methods. On the other hand, the amount of melanin was obtained by calculating the melanin percentage that appeared on histopathological preparations using Masson-Fontana staining. The data obtained were analyzed using the One-way ANOVA test with a significance value of p<0.05. The expression of the tyrosinase enzyme in the control group and group with base cream was not significantly different (22.75 ± 5.50% vs. 21.30 ± 6.50%, p = 0.601). Similarly, the mean amount of melanin (4.42 ± 1.57% vs 4.27 ± 1.63%, p = 0.775). On the other hand, the results of the mean tyrosinase expression and the mean amount of melanin in the group receiving 2% plum extract were significantly lower than the treatment group receiving base cream (7.06 ± 5.18% vs 21.30 ± 6.50% and 0.42 ± 0.19% vs. 4.27 ± 1.63%) with p-value < 0.000. It can be concluded that the administration of 2% plum (Prunus domestica L.) extract cream inhibited the increase in the expression of the tyrosinase enzyme and the amount of melanin in the skin of male guinea pigs (C. porcellus) exposed to UVB light.
... Peaches, plums, apricots and other stone fruit agricultural products are widely loved by people for their rich nutritional value, sweet and refreshing taste and great economic value (Faust et al. 1998;Byrne et al. 2012;Birwal et al. 2017). Grafting is the main way of propagation, so the selection of rootstocks is very important. ...
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Grafting is the most important means of breeding peach, plum, apricot, and other fruit trees, and the selection of the rootstock is crucial to the quality of the grafting and the yield of the products. The traditional commonly used peach rootstock is susceptible to root-knot nematode infections, resulting in a decreased yield, while a variety of cherry plum rootstocks, Mirabolano 29C, is resistant to root-knot nematode. In this study, root-knot nematode infection experiments on seedlings of traditional peach rootstocks and Mirabolano 29C confirmed that Mirabolano 29C was indeed more resistant to root-knot nematodes. At the same time, we compared the roots of the root-knot nematode uninfected and infected Mirabolano 29C by transcriptome sequencing and found 3 176 differentially expressed genes. A further functional enrichment analysis of these genes found that the secondary metabolites, phenylpropane and flavonoids, may be responsible for the high resistance of Mirabolano 29C to root-knot nematodes. These results can provide a reference value for the disease resistance breeding of rootstocks.
... Within hexaploid European plum (Prunus domestica) there are many varieties and hybrids, varying from red, purple to yellow and green skin or pulp, being suitable for fresh consumption, dried prunes, smoked plums, jams or jellies, juices, plum purée, liqueur, spirts (brandy). Plums are also a great source of vitamins (vitamin C, A, K) and minerals (Ca, Mg, K, P) and other phytochemicals influencing human and preventing many diseases (heart diseases, Alzheimer`s disease, lung and oral cancer, reducing blood sugar, protecting bones, muscular degeneration, improving memory) (Arjmandi et al., 2002;Byrne et al., 2009;Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, 2013;Birwal et al., 2017;Wallace, 2017;DiNardo et al., 2018;Gill et al., 2019;Mohammadi-Moghaddam et al., 2020 a, b). However, the nutraceutical effects of food or parts of food were underlined previously by many authors, being of great importance nowadays (Lever et al., 2015;Igwe and Charlton, 2016;Sadler, 2016;Soare et al., 2016;Chiu et al., 2017;Shamloufard et al., 2017;Mirza et al., 2018;Al-Dashti et al., 2019;Alsolmei et al., 2019;Tomić et al., 2019;Bonciu, 2020a;Khorrami et al., 2020;Dodier et al., 2021). ...
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European plum (Prunus domestica) is one of the fruit tree species cultivated around the world for fresh consumption, prunes (dried fruits), smoked plums, in jams or jellies, juices, plum purée as a baby food, liqueur, distilled into a 'brandy' or spirits, having also a large potential for rural and metropolitan zones landscaping. The experiment was conducted during 2020 year to individual trees in a randomized compete block design in four replicate blocks (10 plum trees/block) within a private plum orchard in the proximity of Craiova city, Dolj county, Romania and included ʻVâlceanʼ plum variety and four rootstocks (Oteşani 8, Pixy, Miroval, Roşior văratic). The study assessed the architecture of root system, in thickness and variable depths, at 1 and 2 meters away from trunk. For 0-3 mm root thickness category Miroval rootstock has developed the highest roots number (104 roots) at 1m distance from the trunk, while at 2 m trunk distance the best root system development was noticed in Roşior văratic rootstock (58 roots). Among all plum rootstocks included in the experiment Miroval had the most performant root system.
... The ethanolic extract of Plum Fruit could work as an antioxidant by inhibiting the increase in liver MDA levels in rats precipitated by an excessive fat. Antioxidants can prevent the process of lipid peroxidation caused by free radicals, which can be produced from oxidative stress in liver damage due to a high-fat diet [9][10][11]. ...
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The aim of this study was to find the chemical parameters for the differentiation of plum cultivars grown along the fjord areas of Western Norway and Eastern Norway, having specific agroclimatic conditions. Chemical analysis of the fruits confirmed the contents of 13 quantified elements, 22 sugar compounds, 11 organic acids, 19 phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity in 68 plum cultivars. Dominated contents were noted for nitrogen (with the maximum mean value of 3.11%), potassium (8055.80 mg/kg), and phosphorous (7878.88 mg/kg). Averagely, the highest level of sugars was determined for glucose (244.46 g/kg), fructose (197.92 g/kg), sucrose (208.25 g/kg), and sorbitol (98.02 g/kg), organic acids for malic acid (24.06 g/kg), and for polyphenol compounds were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (66.31 mg/kg), and rutin (58.06 mg/kg). Applied principal component analysis has been useful for distinguishing the plum cultivars from three areas in Norway where copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and sodium; sucrose, ribose, maltose, and raffinose; p-hydroxybenzoic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, kaempferol 7-O-glucoside, p-coumaric acid, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were the most influential. In regard to human health and future breeding work that will have the aim to produce functional food with high health-related compounds, the plum cultivar ‘Mallard’ should be underlined due to the high level of elements, ‘Valor’ due to high sugar content, ‘Helgøyplomme’ due to content of organic acids, and ‘Diamond’ due to the content of phenolic compounds.
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Several fruit characteristics were determined along with the total phenolic content (TP) and total antioxidant capacities (TAC) of eighteen Prunus cerasifera accessions previously selected from the Mediterranean region of Turkey and grown in Mut, Mersin, Turkey. Five cultivars (‘Can2’, ‘Cin’, ‘Havran’, ‘Ozark Premier’ and ‘Papaz’) from the same orchard were also included in this study. TP and TAC were determined by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The accessions were found to be significantly different for all the characters tested. TP ranged between 136.8 (‘Ozark Premier’) and 583.1 (Selection No. 3) Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh weight (fw) while FRAP and TEAC measurements of TAC ranged between 0.123 (Selection 33C 02) and 0.127 (Selection 31C 18) to 0.835 (‘Can 2’) and 0.420 (Selection No. 8) mmol TE/kg fw. The correlation analysis indicated that TP was significantly correlated with L and hue° values of color measurements. While FRAP was found to be correlated with pH, no significant correlation was detected with TEAC. A notable variation among the green-fleshed P. cerasifera accessions was reported for TP and TAC and, P. cerasifera had comparable TP to other plum species while it did not have a good antioxidant activity.
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Phylogenetic relationships among 88 genera of Rosaceae were investigated using nucleotide sequence data from six nuclear (18S, gbssi1, gbssi2, ITS, pgip, and ppo) and four chloroplast (matK, ndhF, rbcL, and trnL-trnF) regions, separately and in various combinations, with parsimony and likelihood-based Bayesian approaches. The results were used to examine evolution of non-molecular characters and to develop a new phylogenetically based infrafamilial classification. As in previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the family, we found strong support for monophyly of groups corresponding closely to many previously recognized tribes and subfamilies, but no previous classification was entirely supported, and relationships among the strongly supported clades were weakly resolved and/or conflicted between some data sets. We recognize three subfamilies in Rosaceae: Rosoideae, including Filipendula, Rubus, Rosa, and three tribes; Dryadoideae, comprising the four actinorhizal genera; and Spiraeoideae, comprising Lyonothamnus and seven tribes. All genera previously assigned to Amygdaloideae and Maloideae are included in Spiraeoideae. Three supertribes, one in Rosoideae and two in Spiraeoideae, are recognized.
There is a total of 2,254 accessions of plums and prunes that are included in the present European Prunus (EP) database. A great majority of them have been previously classified as belonging to Prunus domestica. When obvious duplicates are subtracted, there still remain approximately 1,300 different varieties of the species that are potentially available for plum breeders in about 30 European countries. More than 2,000 other varieties of the crop, mostly present in East European countries, have not been submitted in the database yet. Outside the territory, 128 accessions of Prunus domestica are held in the US Germplasm repository. The next most numerous plum species in Europe regarding genetic resources is Prunus cerasifera, which has been substituted by 347 accessions (about 280 varieties) in the EP database and about 700 varieties outside the database (mostly collected in Ukraine and Russia). Most of the present plum breeding worldwide, however, is focused on Prunus salicina and its relatives. This species is represented by 57 accessions in the EP database and another 45 in the US. A great majority of these genetic resources, however, represented by more than 1500 accessions, are being preserved in Russia, China and Japan. A very small percentage of genetic resources to a global extent has been utilized in plum breeding so far or was properly screened for this purpose. Some examples of their successful application are given.
Dried fruits consumption has not received much research attention, although these foods are associated with potential health benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare fresh fruits and dried fruits on measures of health, convenience and consumer feelings. An on-line questionnaire that measured consumers' perceptions of the health benefits and convenience characteristics and their feelings about the consumption of both fresh fruits (apples and plums) and dried fruits (e.g., raisins, dates, and apricots) was completed by 693 respondents (Polish, French, and Dutch). Generally, fresh fruits were perceived to be healthier and less convenient than dried fruits. Consumers also reported more positive feelings about the consumption of fresh fruits compared to dried fruits. The more that the respondents were willing to sacrifice for their health, the more positively they rated the health aspects of both fresh and dried fruits, as well as several perceptions of convenience of both fresh and dried fruits. Health preoccupation was unrelated to most of the convenience perceptions and was associated with lower scores on several perceptions of healthiness. Recommendations for the consumer-oriented development of dried fruits are also provided.
Mass transfer rates were quantitatively investigated during osmotic dehydration of kiwifruit slices using response surface methodology with the sucrose concentration (20–80%, w/w), temperature of sucrose solution (15–75°C), osmotic time (60–420 min), and slice thickness (2–10 mm) as the independent process variables. Quadratic regression equations are obtained to describe the effects of independent process variables on the water loss (WL), sucrose gain (SG), and ascorbic acid loss (AAL). It was found that all factors had significant effect on the WL during osmotic dehydration of kiwifruit. Effects of temperature, time, and slice thickness were more pronounced on SG than the effect of concentration of sucrose solution. The osmotic solution temperature was the most significant factor affecting the AAL, followed by slice thickness and duration of treatment. The optimal conditions for osmotic dehydration were: 60% sucrose concentration, 30–40°C osmotic temperature, 150 min osmotic time, and 8 mm slice thickness.
The phenolic compounds of 25 peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars were studied and quantified by HPLC−DAD−ESIMS. Hydroxycinnamates, procyanidins, flavonols, and anthocyanins were detected and quantified. White and yellow flesh nectarines and peaches, and yellow and red plums, were analyzed at two different maturity stages with consideration of both peel and flesh tissues. HPLC−MS analyses allowed the identification of procyanidin dimers of the B- and A-types, as well as the presence of procyanidin trimers in plums. As a general rule, the peel tissues contained higher amounts of phenolics, and anthocyanins and flavonols were almost exclusively located in this tissue. No clear differences in the phenolic content of nectarines and peaches were detected or between white flesh and yellow flesh cultivars. There was no clear trend in phenolic content with ripening of the different cultivars. Some cultivars, however, had a very high phenolic content. For example, the white flesh nectarine cultivar Brite Pearl (350−460 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 430−550 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and the yellow flesh cv. Red Jim (180−190 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 210−330 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh), contained 10 times more phenolics than cultivars such as Fire Pearl (38−50 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 23−30 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh). Among white flesh peaches, cultivars Snow King (300−320 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 660−695 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and Snow Giant (125−130 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 520−540 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) showed the highest content. The plum cultivars Black Beaut and Angeleno were especially rich in phenolics. Keywords: Nectarine; peach; plum; Prunus persica; P. salicina; Rosaceae; phenolics; polyphenols; flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamates; flavonols; anthocyanins; HPLC−MS
Anthocyanins disappear during the initial hours of drying of d'Ente plum (Prunus domestica, var. d'Ente). The use of model solutions indicates that d'Ente plums do not appear to possess enzymes capable of acting directly on anthocyanins. However, glutathione was used to show that anthocyanins can be transformed by a coupled oxidation mechanism involving quinones formed from chlorogenic acid under polyphenoloxidase dependence. HPLC was found to be useful in the simultaneous monitoring of the various constituents of the reaction medium.
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Phenolic compounds in foods have been associated with reduced incidences of heart disease by acting as antioxidants for low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Commercial prune and prune juice extracts (Prunus domestica cv. French) were analyzed for phenolics by reversed phase HPLC with diode array detection and tested for the ability to inhibit the Cu 2+ -catalyzed oxidation of human LDL. The mean concentrations of phenolics were 1840 mg/kg, 1397 mg/kg, and 441 mg/L in pitted prunes, extra large prunes with pits, and prune juice, respectively. Hydroxycinnamates, especially neochlorogenic acid, and chlorogenic acid predominated, and these compounds, as well as the prune and prune juice extracts, inhibited the oxidation of LDL. The pitted prune extract inhibited LDL oxidation by 24, 82, and 98% at 5, 10, and 20 μM gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The prune juice extract inhibited LDL oxidation by 3, 62, and 97% at 5, 10, and 20 μM GAE. These data indicate that prunes and prune juice may provide a source of dietary antioxidants.