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Plums are an important source of compounds influencing human health and preventing the occurrence of many diseases. Plums have abundance of bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, anthocyanin'
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Review Article
Journal of Food, Nutrition and Population Health
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Pree Birwal1, Deshmukh G1,
Saurabh SP1 and Praga S2
1 DairyEngineering,SRSofICAR-Naonal
2 IndianAgriculturalResearchInstute
Corresponding author: PreeBirwal
Tel: 9896649633
Citation: BirwalP,DeshmukhG,Saurabh
Plums: A Brief Introducon
Received: February03,2017; Accepted: March06,2017;Published: March16,2017
Plums are important source of compounds inuencing human health and
acids, (e.g., citric and malic acids), bre (pecn), tannins, aromac substances,
medicineasacomponentof natural drugs used in case of leucorrhea, irregular
menstruaon and miscarriage. Plum helps in prevenon of heart disease, lung
and oral cancer, lower the blood sugar, blood pressure, Alzheimer’s disease,
and food products like Yoghurt, Pies, Biscuits, Lassi, Ice cream etc., in form of
extract,pulp,powderor driedchunkswouldsurelyboostupthe nutrionaland
Plums are one of the most important stone fruits crops of the
world. Plums also include several familiar stone fruits- apricot,
among which relavely few are of commercial importance [1].
Plums are important source of compounds inuencing human
plums is generally relies on drying of fresh plum, canning and
beverage preparaon. Although sun drying was very common
dehydraon to desired moisture content, sub atmospheric
sun drying, vacuum drying, microwave drying, high pressure
assisted drying and osmoc dehydraon. Drying of plums is
usuallydoneforaainmentoflow microbialloadsandtomake
Increased compeon in today’s global market refers avenues
So, for increased globalizaon and consumer awareness it is
plumsundergo oxidavedamage,browning,lossof avourand
shrinkage, which lead to lower sensory and nutrional quality
oftheproducts.Toimprove product quality and reduce drying
me,osmoc dehydraon can beanadvantageousmethod for
to drying [5] and other heat assisted processing like canning,
freezing, and minimal processing as osmoc dehydraon does
Historical Background
With many know variees of plums, it is not surprising that it
The pracce of culvaon has been done since prehistoric
mes, longer perhaps than any other kind of fruit except the
apple.Earliest known data of plumssays that plums are origin
discovered around two thousand years ago, originang in the
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mes, 300 variees of European plums were menoned. The
Japan. It was introduced to Japan 200-400 years ago [7], from
whichitdisseminated around the world.Plumsmayhave been
one of the rst fruits domescated by humans. Plum remains
climate countries of the world. Europe rst bred European
plum (Prunusdomesca), America rst had the American plum
(Prunus Americana), South Asia culvated the cherry plum
(Prunuscerasifera), andWesternAsiaishavingtheDamsonplum
Characteriscs of Plums
Plums are a drupe fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus
Prunus. Weinberger, (1975) reported nearly 2000 species in
yellow,white,greenorredesh.Mature plumfruit mayhavea
dusty-whitecoangthatgivesthem a glaucous appearance [8]
(Table 1).
acids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, minerals and pecns. For
many decades plums have been used in Indian medicine as a
menstruaon and miscarriage [9]. Nutrients present in plum
Nutrional Value of Plums
acids, anthocyanins, carotenoids, minerals and pecns. Plums
constute a valuable component of our diet, both in terms of
their nutrive and dietary value. These fruits are becoming an
increasing popular object of nutrional studies conducted on
humansand animals, assessingtheeectof plumconsumpon
on the funconing of the organism. For many decades plums
have been used in Indian medicine as a component of natural
drugs used in case of leucorrhea, irregular menstruaon and
miscarriage[11].Plumshavelow calorie content and relavely
high nutrive value. They contain carbohydrates, rst of all
Contents of minerals in plums increase as fruits ripen. These
Anoxidant and Total Phenolic content
of Plums
compoundswidely spread throughout nature. Because of their
content [12], there has been great interest in ascertaining the
Thepredominantphenolic compounds in plums are derivaves
of caeic acid: 3-O-caeicquinic (neochlorogenic acid),
5-O-caeicquinic (chlorogenic acid) and 4-O-cae-icquinic
(cryptochlorogenic acid) as well as caeic acid, together with
According to literature data, depending on the variety,
environmental condions and applied analycal methods,
contentsof phenolic acids in plums fall within a wide range of
values(Table 2)[9,15-17].
Fruit processing aects polyphenol contents and alters fruit
microstructure, resulng in the loss or enrichment of some
(Table 3).
Health-Promong Properes of Plums
Numerous studies conrmed the health-promong acon of
healthbenetsofplums(Table 4).
Processing of Plums
There is old saying that “All dried plums are prunes but not
all plums are prunes”. Plums with high sugar content and rm
eshdriedwithoutremoval of stone and are calledprunes[7].
Plumsarebeingprocessedindierentkindofproductsand are
Kingdom Plantae
Order Rosales
Family Rosacease
Subfamily Amygdaloideae
Genus Prunus
Subgenus Prunus
Table 1SciencclassicaonofPlums.
Acids Quanty (mg/kg)
Neochlorogenicacid 85-1300mg/kg
Chlorogenicacid 13-430mg/kg
Cryptochlorogenicacid 956mg/kg
Table 2Phenoliccomponentspresentinplums.
Component Range (mg/100g f.w)
Cyanidin-3-glucoside 1.9-13.5
Cyanidin-3-runoside 14.1-33.0
Peonidin-3-glucoside 1.1-1.2
Table 3ContentofAnthocyanin’sinPlumFruits.
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Plums analyzed for quality at farms
(Brix, Titrable acidity, Color, % Initial moisture)
Harvested plums can be stored temporarily at refrigerated storage but
should be delivered to processing as soon as possible to minimize
quality loss
Washed plums loaded onto drying trays
At processing plant, air classification to remove leaves, stems,
harmless extraneous matters etc. And wash with about 20ppm
chlorinated water is done
Trays transferred to dryers
Drying for 24-36 h at about 140-165°F (Dried to moisture
about 16 ± 3 from initial moisture of 80%)
about 1-2 weeks for moisture equilibrium
Packed in high density corrugated bags
Stored at dry and cool preferably
refrigerated 40-55°F conditions
Produconofdriedplums.Flowchart 1
Sr. No. Health Benets
1. Regulates the funconing of the digesve system and thereby relieve conspaon condions due to the presence of dietary
2. VitaminChelpsthebodytodevelopresistancetoinfecousagentsandscavengesharmfulfreeradicals.
3. Freshplums,likeyellowMirabellehavemoderatevitaminAandbetacarotenecontent.Naturalfruit’svitaminAprotectfromlungand
Plumshavesignicant amount of health promong carotenoids such as lutein, cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin. These compounds are
onekindof scavengersagainstaging anddiseasecausingoxygen-derivedfreeradicalsandreacveoxygenspecies.Zeaxanthin provide
5. Plumsarerichsourceofpotassium,uorideandiron.Potassiumasanimportantcomponentofcellandbodyuids,helpsincontrolling
Inaddion, the plumsaremoderate sources invitaminB-complex groups suchasniacin, vitamin B-6andpantothenic acid andthese
vitaminshelpthe bodymetabolizeproteins,carbohydratesand fats.Plumsalsoprovideabout5%RDAlevelsofvitaminK.VitaminK is
7. Consumponofplumspreventsmaculardegeneraon,heartdiseasesandalsodamagetoourneuronsandfatsthatformapartofour
Table 4Healthbenets.
usedincreasingly as foodingredientsbyfood processors. Some
oftypes aredriedprunes, prunejuice,prune juiceconcentrate,
canned prunes, plum juice, plum paste, prune powder, prune
Producon of dried plums
PrunesarethedriedfruitsofsomeculvarsofPrunus domesca
In1856,FrenchmenLouisPellierintroducedtheLa Pete d’Agen
prune, a nave of southwest France, to the Santa Clara Valley
ofCalifornia.Todaymodern dehydrators have replaced the old
methods of drying prunes in the sun in the United States [23]
(Flowchart 1).
dried to about 18% moisture, which has suciently low-water
acvity to avoid problems of microbial spoilage allowing long
term storage [24]. Generally, forced-dra tunnel dehydrators
are used for drying plums, with a total drying process me of
24–36 h, depending on the size and soluble solids contents of
Yield of dried prunes is about 33%. Convenonal dried prunes
are somemes dried to very low moisture content in vacuum
shelfdrier[23]. The nished low moisture dried plums contain
less than 4% moisture. Because of high sugar content of dried
only under sub-atmospheric condions. About 75% of world’s
Theprocess of drying fresh fruits to produce dried plums on a
Austria,beforethepruneindustrycommencedintheU.S. Prunes
are also products with an advantageous nutrive and dietary
value, whose popularity as a wholesome snack has increased
Consumer Percepon
Marketersbelievethat thetermdriedplumhasamoreposive
imageto customersthandriedprunes. Inastudy plumsscored
higher on the following percepons of healthiness compared
to dried fruits: more natural, easier to digest, containing more
vitamins, and eaten instead of candy [26]. About one-half of
the plums are consumed fresh while the rest are processed.
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term“dried plum”hasa moreposiveimagetothe consumers
Inastudyplumsscoredhigher on the following percepons of
healthiness compared to dried fruits: more natural, easier to
digest, containing more vitamins, and eaten instead of candy
[26]. Dierent kind of drying techniques are applied for drying
high pressure assisted drying, vacuum drying, microwave
detrimental eects on the quality of fruits, mainly oxidave
reduce sensory and nutrional quality of the products [27,28].
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anoxidant acvity of Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. Selecons from
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vitamin C contents of nectarine, peach and plum culvars from
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... There are estimated over 400-430 species under the Prunus genusbut only 89 species are listed in genetic resource information system [2]. Plum fruits are grown in many regions, the leading countries are the U.S.A, China, and Romania [3]. ...
... Contrary to its name, Japanese plums originated from China, and were only introduced to Japan in 1600-1800s. Furthermore, plum has been used in India as medicine for decades, treating the cases of irregular menstruation, miscarriage problems, and leucorrhea [3]. ...
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Plums is one of the most cultivated stone fruits due to its fast growing popularity. It has various traditionally recognized health benefits. There are two main commercial types of plums: the European plum (Prunus domestica) and the Japanese plum (Prunus salicina), each having many varieties. Researchers are gathering further evidence of pharmacological effects for plums by scientifically studying its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties. A systematic review analysing the literature related to the effects of plums on prevention and treatment of cancer is warranted. This is the first review examining the cancer-related effects of plums. Antioxidation properties of the active constituents of plum were also compared. Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medxriv and Cochrane Library databases, from their date of inception until July 2021 were utilized. The risk of bias was assessed using CONSORT checklist. A total of 6639 studies were screened and eventually only 54 studies were included. Full-text review of included studies revealed that plum extracts were rich in antioxidants. Overall, most of the studies that fulfilled the eligibility criteria were in vitro and a few clinical studies involving in vivo work. Therefore, it would be beneficial to perform more studies on animals or humans, to confirm that the result obtained from these in vitro studies are able to be extrapolated in a wider range of applications. Further clinical and in vivo studies are warranted to validate plums as a functional food for treatment and prevention of cancer.
... To satisfy consumers, who constantly demand a diversity of processed plant products, the food industry has focused on improving the drying process. Thanks to new drying technologies, dehydrated products of high nutritional value, which may be used as an additive enriching many food products, can be obtained [Birwal et al., 2017;Güzeler et al., 2018;Znamirowska et al., 2018] As regards drying methods, the one commonly employed is convection drying. Apart from advantages such as the simple design of devices and the well-understood production process, it also has numerous disadvantages, e.g. ...
... The antioxidant properties of plums are determined by bioactive compounds including polyphenolic compounds such as anthocyanins, mainly rutinoside derivatives, and phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids [Sahamishirazi et al., 2017;Navarro et al., 2018;Cabrera-Bañegil et al., 2020]. Moreover, plum fruit is characterised by a high carbohydrate (saccharose, glucose and fructose), organic acid, dietary fibre (pectins), mineral (K, P, Ca) and vitamin (C, A, B) content [Iannuzzi et al., 2015, Sahamishirazi et al., 2017Birwal et al., 2017]. Thanks to their high antioxidant compound content, plums are considered to have many health benefits. ...
Plums are a popular fruit whose large quantities are subjected to processing, which contributes to changes in the physicochemical parameters, and the magnitude of these changes is determined by the technology applied. The study aimed to analyse the bioactive compound content and the antioxidant capacity of plums of the Bluefree, Stanley and Sweet Common Prune (Węgierka Zwykła) varieties, depending on the drying and extraction processes applied. Significant differences in the bioactive compound content and the antioxidant capacity were found between the varieties under study. The convection drying process resulted in the greatest significant decrease in both the anthocyanin pigment content (by an average of 82%) and the total polyphenol content (by an average of 41%). The average losses of phenolic acids reached 34%, and the greatest decrease was noted for chlorogenic acid (an average of 69%). As regards flavan-3-ols and flavonols, the drying processes caused their losses by an average of 56%. The vacuum drying and lyophilisation processes applied were softer for the tested bioactive compounds. Moreover, these processes reduced the ABTS and FRAP antioxidant capacity. The ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction increased the total anthocyanin content by an average of 29%. These methods yielded significantly greater amounts of all four determined anthocyanins in the tested fruit. The results show that the search for a safe, inexpensive raw material drying method is still a current research issue.
... Approximately 2000 species of plums are known worldwide with varying shapes where terminologies such as tiny, round, large, and oval are used to describe their appearance. In terms of color, they can range from pale yellow to red fruit flesh and yellow to black skin [2,3]. Plums are commercially available in both fresh and processed forms and the most sought-after products are prunes, cans, jams, and juices [4]. ...
Full-text available
Plums are one of the commercially important stone fruits that are available on the market in both fresh and processed form and the most sought-after products are prunes, cans, jams, and juices. Maturity, harvest, and post-harvest technologies fundamentally determine the relatively short shelf life of plums which is often threatened by Monilinia spp. Causing brown rot worldwide. The aim of the present research was to use advanced analytical techniques, such as hand-held near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electronic tongue (e-tongue) to detect M. fructigena fungal infection on plums and quantify this fungal contamination in raw plum juices. For this purpose, plums were inoculated with fungal mycelia in different ways (control, intact, and through injury) and stored under different conditions (5 °C, and 24 °C) for eight days. The results obtained with the two instruments were analyzed with chemometric methods, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). The NIRS-based method proved successful when detectability before the appearance of visible signs of the infection was studied. E-tongue was able to detect and quantify the concentration of juice derived from plum developed with M. fructigena with RMSECV lower than 5% w/w. Overall, the two methods proved to be suitable for discriminating between the treatment groups, however, the classification accuracy was higher for samples stored at 24 °C. The research results show both NIRS and e-tongue are beneficial methods to reduce food waste by providing rapid determination of fruit quality.
... One serving (100 g) of fresh plum contains minerals such as potassium (157 mg), phosphorus (16 mg), magnesium (7 mg) and calcium (6 mg) as well as vitamin A (17 µg), vitamin C (9.5 mg), vitamin K (6.4 µg) and vitamin B complex: thiamine (0.028 mg), pantothenic acid (0.135 mg), riboflavin (0.026 mg), niacin (0.417) (Anonymous, 2019b). The purported health benefits of plum fruit include prevention of cancer and heart diseases, regulation of the digestive system, resistance to infectious agents or free radicals, balancing of blood pressure, and reduction in the severity of Alzheimer's disease (Birwal et al., 2017). ...
... Prunus domestica, which is widespread in our country and is well known for its medicinal properties and applications in folk medicine drew our attention. (Igwe et al. 2016;Preeti et al. 2017). The variety of pharmacological effects (laxative, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, membrane-stabilizing, etc.) and the absence of single-component drugs based on Prunus domestica, indicates the feasibility of pharmacological studies of these herbal raw materials as promising to create an effective and safe laxative for treatment intestinal tract with impaired liver function. ...
Full-text available
The experimental work focused on the study of the pharmacological properties of extracts obtained from the Prunus domestica fruits to create a prospective laxative drug with moderate hepatoprotective properties. Prunus domestica fruit extracts have been shown to have a pronounced laxative and moderate hepatoprotective effect. Extract containing fibers at a dose of 200 mg/kg was selected as the most active extract for laxative and hepatoprotective activity among all extracts from the Prunus domestica fruits. It was conventionally named “Prunophyte”. Studies of the specific pharmacological action of “Prunophyte” extract in a model of comorbid functional constipation on the background of combined alcoholic liver disease in rats showed that “Prunophyte” at a dose of 200 mg/kg had positive dynamics in the treatment of constipation on the background of subacute liver disease. In some cases it exceeded the effects of combination therapy with drugs “Silibor” at a dose of 25 mg/kg and “Senadexin” at a dose of 14 mg/kg. “Prunophyte” extract, in contrast to “Senodexin”, did not cause signs of diarrhea in animals, which may be a beneficial feature of this drug in subsequent clinical use. This drug has shown that it can be a promising alternative to a one-time complex treatment with herbal laxatives and hepatoprotectors, which will avoid polypragmatism in the treatment of comorbid conditions in gastroenterology associated with functional constipation and liver dysfunction.
... Згідно даних літератури листя сливи домашньої широко застосовуються у терапії захворювань шлунково-кишкового тракту та гепатобіліарної системи [2]. Попередніми експериментальними дослідженнями було доведено антиокиснювальні, антиоксидантні та гепатопротекторні властивості екстракту з листя сливи звичайної. ...
... Depending on the taxonomist, there are approximately 400 species of trees and subspecies (Ayanoğlu et al., 2007;Özçağıran et al., 2011). However, the most economically significant species are the European plum (Prunus domestica L.) and Japanese or Asian plum (Prunus salicina Lindell) (Birwal and Saurabh, 2017;USDA, 2019;Walkowiak-Tomczak, 2008). In general, the Japanese plums (Prunus salicina L.) are grown for fresh consumption (Srinivasan et al., 2005). ...
Conference Paper
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РЕЗЮМЕ С цел подобряване на почвеното плодородие, качеството и хранителните свойства на плодовете, през периода 2016-2017 година в Институт по планинско животновъдство и земеделие – Троян при три сливови сорта (Тегера, Елена и Стенлей) е приложено подхранващо органично и конвенционално торене. Установено е, че актуализирането на елементи от технологиите на сливопроизводството оказва влияние върху плодова твърдост и хранителните свойства на плодовете. Резултатите показват най-висока плодова твърдост и при трите изпитвани сорта от варианта с приложено конвенционално торене (Тегера-5.18kgf, Елена-9.35 kgf и Стенлей-5.16 kgf). Твърдостта на плодовото месо е най-голяма при варианта на био торене при сорт Тегера (1.68 kgf), конвенционалното торене при сорт Елена (1.88 kgf) и пилешкия тор при сорт Стенлей (1.60 kgf). Определеното количествено съдържание на елементния състав в сливовите плодове се различава между сортовете и вариантите на торене, но отделни макро и микро елементи са в положителна корелационна зависимост с твърдостта на плода и плодовото месо. Ключови думи: сливи, торене, плътност, минерален състав,
Fruit drop is a major physiological disorder limiting the productivity of plum fruit. The present study was conducted to test the efficacy of foliar application of different concentrations of plant growth regulators (NAA, Salicylic acid, 2,4-D) and CaNO3 on management of fruit drop with improvement of fruit quality parameters of Plum (Prunus salicina) cv. Satluj Purple. The foliar spray application was done twice, first ten days after the pit hardening stage, and the second ten days after the first application. Among the different treatments, 0.15 mM SA reduced fruit drop significantly and translated into highest fruit yield, higher content of ascorbic acid, total and reducing sugar content. The reduced activity of cell wall degrading enzymes cellulase, polygalactouranase and glucanase in the fruit pedicels registered with 0.15 mM SA suggest their significant role in reducing fruit drop. Hence, two foliar applications of 0.15 mM SA are beneficial for reducing fruit drop and improvement of fruit quality in plum cv. Satluj purple.
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Several fruit characteristics were determined along with the total phenolic content (TP) and total antioxidant capacities (TAC) of eighteen Prunus cerasifera accessions previously selected from the Mediterranean region of Turkey and grown in Mut, Mersin, Turkey. Five cultivars (‘Can2’, ‘Cin’, ‘Havran’, ‘Ozark Premier’ and ‘Papaz’) from the same orchard were also included in this study. TP and TAC were determined by ferric reducing ability (FRAP) and trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. The accessions were found to be significantly different for all the characters tested. TP ranged between 136.8 (‘Ozark Premier’) and 583.1 (Selection No. 3) Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg fresh weight (fw) while FRAP and TEAC measurements of TAC ranged between 0.123 (Selection 33C 02) and 0.127 (Selection 31C 18) to 0.835 (‘Can 2’) and 0.420 (Selection No. 8) mmol TE/kg fw. The correlation analysis indicated that TP was significantly correlated with L and hue° values of color measurements. While FRAP was found to be correlated with pH, no significant correlation was detected with TEAC. A notable variation among the green-fleshed P. cerasifera accessions was reported for TP and TAC and, P. cerasifera had comparable TP to other plum species while it did not have a good antioxidant activity.
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Phylogenetic relationships among 88 genera of Rosaceae were investigated using nucleotide sequence data from six nuclear (18S, gbssi1, gbssi2, ITS, pgip, and ppo) and four chloroplast (matK, ndhF, rbcL, and trnL-trnF) regions, separately and in various combinations, with parsimony and likelihood-based Bayesian approaches. The results were used to examine evolution of non-molecular characters and to develop a new phylogenetically based infrafamilial classification. As in previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of the family, we found strong support for monophyly of groups corresponding closely to many previously recognized tribes and subfamilies, but no previous classification was entirely supported, and relationships among the strongly supported clades were weakly resolved and/or conflicted between some data sets. We recognize three subfamilies in Rosaceae: Rosoideae, including Filipendula, Rubus, Rosa, and three tribes; Dryadoideae, comprising the four actinorhizal genera; and Spiraeoideae, comprising Lyonothamnus and seven tribes. All genera previously assigned to Amygdaloideae and Maloideae are included in Spiraeoideae. Three supertribes, one in Rosoideae and two in Spiraeoideae, are recognized.
There is a total of 2,254 accessions of plums and prunes that are included in the present European Prunus (EP) database. A great majority of them have been previously classified as belonging to Prunus domestica. When obvious duplicates are subtracted, there still remain approximately 1,300 different varieties of the species that are potentially available for plum breeders in about 30 European countries. More than 2,000 other varieties of the crop, mostly present in East European countries, have not been submitted in the database yet. Outside the territory, 128 accessions of Prunus domestica are held in the US Germplasm repository. The next most numerous plum species in Europe regarding genetic resources is Prunus cerasifera, which has been substituted by 347 accessions (about 280 varieties) in the EP database and about 700 varieties outside the database (mostly collected in Ukraine and Russia). Most of the present plum breeding worldwide, however, is focused on Prunus salicina and its relatives. This species is represented by 57 accessions in the EP database and another 45 in the US. A great majority of these genetic resources, however, represented by more than 1500 accessions, are being preserved in Russia, China and Japan. A very small percentage of genetic resources to a global extent has been utilized in plum breeding so far or was properly screened for this purpose. Some examples of their successful application are given.
Dried fruits consumption has not received much research attention, although these foods are associated with potential health benefits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare fresh fruits and dried fruits on measures of health, convenience and consumer feelings.An on-line questionnaire that measured consumers' perceptions of the health benefits and convenience characteristics and their feelings about the consumption of both fresh fruits (apples and plums) and dried fruits (e.g., raisins, dates, and apricots) was completed by 693 respondents (Polish, French, and Dutch).Generally, fresh fruits were perceived to be healthier and less convenient than dried fruits. Consumers also reported more positive feelings about the consumption of fresh fruits compared to dried fruits. The more that the respondents were willing to sacrifice for their health, the more positively they rated the health aspects of both fresh and dried fruits, as well as several perceptions of convenience of both fresh and dried fruits. Health preoccupation was unrelated to most of the convenience perceptions and was associated with lower scores on several perceptions of healthiness. Recommendations for the consumer-oriented development of dried fruits are also provided.
Mass transfer rates were quantitatively investigated during osmotic dehydration of kiwifruit slices using response surface methodology with the sucrose concentration (20–80%, w/w), temperature of sucrose solution (15–75°C), osmotic time (60–420 min), and slice thickness (2–10 mm) as the independent process variables. Quadratic regression equations are obtained to describe the effects of independent process variables on the water loss (WL), sucrose gain (SG), and ascorbic acid loss (AAL). It was found that all factors had significant effect on the WL during osmotic dehydration of kiwifruit. Effects of temperature, time, and slice thickness were more pronounced on SG than the effect of concentration of sucrose solution. The osmotic solution temperature was the most significant factor affecting the AAL, followed by slice thickness and duration of treatment. The optimal conditions for osmotic dehydration were: 60% sucrose concentration, 30–40°C osmotic temperature, 150 min osmotic time, and 8 mm slice thickness.
The phenolic compounds of 25 peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars were studied and quantified by HPLC−DAD−ESIMS. Hydroxycinnamates, procyanidins, flavonols, and anthocyanins were detected and quantified. White and yellow flesh nectarines and peaches, and yellow and red plums, were analyzed at two different maturity stages with consideration of both peel and flesh tissues. HPLC−MS analyses allowed the identification of procyanidin dimers of the B- and A-types, as well as the presence of procyanidin trimers in plums. As a general rule, the peel tissues contained higher amounts of phenolics, and anthocyanins and flavonols were almost exclusively located in this tissue. No clear differences in the phenolic content of nectarines and peaches were detected or between white flesh and yellow flesh cultivars. There was no clear trend in phenolic content with ripening of the different cultivars. Some cultivars, however, had a very high phenolic content. For example, the white flesh nectarine cultivar Brite Pearl (350−460 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 430−550 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and the yellow flesh cv. Red Jim (180−190 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 210−330 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh), contained 10 times more phenolics than cultivars such as Fire Pearl (38−50 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 23−30 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh). Among white flesh peaches, cultivars Snow King (300−320 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 660−695 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and Snow Giant (125−130 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 520−540 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) showed the highest content. The plum cultivars Black Beaut and Angeleno were especially rich in phenolics. Keywords: Nectarine; peach; plum; Prunus persica; P. salicina; Rosaceae; phenolics; polyphenols; flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamates; flavonols; anthocyanins; HPLC−MS
Anthocyanins disappear during the initial hours of drying of d'Ente plum (Prunus domestica, var. d'Ente). The use of model solutions indicates that d'Ente plums do not appear to possess enzymes capable of acting directly on anthocyanins. However, glutathione was used to show that anthocyanins can be transformed by a coupled oxidation mechanism involving quinones formed from chlorogenic acid under polyphenoloxidase dependence. HPLC was found to be useful in the simultaneous monitoring of the various constituents of the reaction medium.
IntroductionPersonnelPlants and GroundsRaw MaterialsEquipment and UtensilsManufacturing Process
Phenolic compounds in foods have been associated with reduced incidences of heart disease by acting as antioxidants for low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Commercial prune and prune juice extracts (Prunus domestica cv. French) were analyzed for phenolics by reversed phase HPLC with diode array detection and tested for the ability to inhibit the Cu 2+ -catalyzed oxidation of human LDL. The mean concentrations of phenolics were 1840 mg/kg, 1397 mg/kg, and 441 mg/L in pitted prunes, extra large prunes with pits, and prune juice, respectively. Hydroxycinnamates, especially neochlorogenic acid, and chlorogenic acid predominated, and these compounds, as well as the prune and prune juice extracts, inhibited the oxidation of LDL. The pitted prune extract inhibited LDL oxidation by 24, 82, and 98% at 5, 10, and 20 μM gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The prune juice extract inhibited LDL oxidation by 3, 62, and 97% at 5, 10, and 20 μM GAE. These data indicate that prunes and prune juice may provide a source of dietary antioxidants.