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This research is aimed to analyse land use conflicts mainly caused by infrastructural development projects in the developing countries. For this purpose, qualitative data is gathered, which is repeatedly published on land use conflicts against the development related infrastructure projects in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and Pakistan. It identifies and defines land use conflicts, their dynamic features and contestations. The results reveal as to how the conflicts have been germinated by the property and human right violators? Further, it also focuses on the governance roles and responsibilities, the institutional inconsistency towards justice, and the local population's mistrust in the respective case study areas. This analysis concludes with an overview of root causes and consequences of the land use conflicts, by indicating as to how land use decisions for infrastructural settings have changed rural economy, and induced local population to displace and oppose the projects. Finally, on the basis of the results, this article proposes some preventive measures to manage such conflicts. JEL Classification: D74, O16, H54
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© The Pakistan Development Review
56: 1 (Spring 2017) pp. 19-30
Land Use Conflicts in the Developing Countries:
Proximate Driving Forces and Preventive Measures
This research is aimed to analyse land use conflicts mainly caused by infrastructural
development projects in the developing countries. For this purpose, qualitative data is
gathered, which is repeatedly published on land use conflicts against the development related
infrastructure projects in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and Pakistan. It identifies and defines
land use conflicts, their dynamic features and contestations. The results reveal as to how the
conflicts have been germinated by the property and human right violators? Further, it also
focuses on the governance roles and responsibilities, the institutional inconsistency towards
justice, and the local population's mistrust in the respective case study areas. This analysis
concludes with an overview of root causes and consequences of the land use conflicts, by
indicating as to how land use decisions for infrastructural settings have changed rural
economy, and induced local population to displace and oppose the projects. Finally, on the
basis of the results, this article proposes some preventive measures to manage such conflicts.
JEL Classification: D74, O16, H54
Keywords: Conflict, Proximity Relations, Infrastructure, Developing Countries
Land use conflicts are indeed a widespread phenomenon, and can occur at any
time or place between different stakeholders, mainly for different land expectations
[Torre, et al. (2014); Wehrmann (2008)]. During the twentieth century, many changes
have occurred in the agricultural land of the world, due to constant pressure of population
growth and urban sprawl. Together these factors have underlined the demand of more
infrastructural development projects, especially in the developing countries [Wang, et al.
(2015); Singhal (2009); Marshall and Shortle (2005)]. These major changes can appear as
strong incompatibilities between the development projects and wills or expectations of
the local populations. Thus, initiation of large construction projects can make local
Habibullah Magsi<> is an Associate Professor of Agriculture Economics at Faculty
of Agricultural Social Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam, Pakistan. Andre
Torre<> is a Professor, UMR SAD-APT, University Paris Saclay, INRA AgroParisTech,
France. Yansui Liu<> is a Professor at Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural
Resources Research (CAS), Beijing, China. M. Javed Sheikh<> is an Associate
Professor of Sociology at Faculty of Agricultural Social Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam,
Authors’ Note: The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments
on earlier draft of the article. The researchers are also thankful to the HEC (Pakistan) and Institute of
Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research (China) in supporting financially and accessing to
secondary data, respectively. Errors in interpretation are those of the authors.
Magsi, Torre, Liu, and Sheikh 20
inhabitants frustrated and angry due to indicators like partial advice, absence of
counseling and opposition to their own projects [Magsi and Torre (2014); Awakul and
Ogunlana (2002)]. Such frustrations often lead to the project resistance, where these types
of issues are mostly transformed into conflicts due to lack of participatory approach.
Theoretically, the land use conflicts are the result of lack of social justice and
recognised rights [Ostrom (1990)], which may bring about the important problems in
front of researchers and planners to encourage for consideration of new approaches, and
may increase the performance of conflict actors to unite and protest for their rights
[Hirschman (1970)]. Specifically, in the rural areas, such conflicts are sparked more
when owners are forcibly dispossessed from natural resources, i.e., land, water or forests
[Tilt, et al. (2009); Ostrom and Nagendra (2006)]. According to the welfare economic
aspects of land use conflicts (social welfare theory), "the superposition of lands must not
depend upon from one use to another, but must be only on its efficient distribution with
respect to the economic activities" [Cheshire and Vermeulen (2009)].
Many researchers have tried to explore the land use conflicts and their resolution
measures [Liu, et al. (2014); Torre, et al. (2014); Mann and Jeanneaux (2009); Deininger
and Castagnini (2006); Swanström and Weissmann (2005); Campbell, et al. (2000);
Owen, et al. (2000); Burton (1993)], but there are few references to the use of
methodologies providing support for their prevention. Through this research, it is aimed
to identify conflicting events in different pieces of land, and to suggest the preventive
measures. The most repeated examples are overviewed here with regard to the land use
conflicts from the developing countries (Pakistan, Indonesia, India, China and Brazil) in
order to explore land use related conflicts, and highlight (i) the affectees of different
types of land use decisions; and (ii) the extent to which these conflicts have an adverse
impact on life, livelihood, and land productivity. In order to explore incidence and impact
of the land use conflict, the following hypothesis is formulated which can be explored
qualitatively: the lack of inputs and involvement of the regional population in the
construction of a development project leads to disagreements and conflicts.
Moreover, a key contribution of this paper is an attempt to provide a qualitative
estimation that can help to estimate the regional development losses due to land issues.
Therefore, this article is structured as follows. The first section provides the approaches
towards data collection for descriptive evidences on the land use issues in the selected
developing countries. There is then a discussion on the land governance and land use
conflict preventive measures in detail. Final section concludes with a guiding principle
for sustainable land use and economic development in the developing countries in the
To deal with the issues and to explore the land use conflict figures and evidences,
data collection was carried through various secondary sources. In order to extract a true
picture of the tension and conflict situations with their causes and consequences, the
information was thus, gathered through national and international dailies of the respected
countries.1 In order to understand public voices on pre, during, and post conflict
situations, the news articles were downloaded from the web pages of the selected dailies,
in which the news regarding selected case studies were published. Those articles were
searched, while using specific keywords (local population, conflict, protest,
compensation, rehabilitation, policy, etc.) followed by the names of the projects.
1Following newspapers were selected from the respective countries: from Pakistan DAWN
International and The NEWS; from Indonesia The Jakarta Post; from India Times of India and The Indian
Express; from China The Epoch Times and China Digital Times; and from Brazil Survival International and The
Rio Times.
21 Land Use Conflicts in the Developing Countries
As a matter of fact, information on the conflicts of land use is very sensitive,
therefore, during analysis of the daily press, an important care has been taken to avoid
unreliable information to ensure the originality and reliability of the facts [McCarthy, et
al. (1996)]. Moreover, information was also collected through published material from
various public and private, national and international organisations, as well as from the
websites and internet pages.
It is beyond doubt that the growing population demands more housing, public
utilities, roads, parks, schools, hospitals, sports arenas, airports, railway stations, prisons,
crematoriums, cemeteries, offices, and retail spaces for manufactured products and other
infrastructural projects. These are certainly key issues to the development projects, but
for some reason partly opposed by the local people, and labeled as undesired or semi-
desired infrastructure projects [Torre, et al. (2015)]. Hence, authors decided to highlight
the most recent incidences of the conflicts over land used for infrastructural settings in
the developing countries, e.g. Pakistan, Indonesia, India, China and Brazil.
3.1. Infrastructural Settings
Here are the examples of the conflicts linked with infrastructural settings, and their
impact on the existence of millions of local inhabitants in the selected developing
countries like Pakistan, China, India, Indonesia and Brazil.
In Pakistan, unfortunately large numbers of displacements have been recognised
due to some blemished dam projects, like the Chotiari water reservoir constructed by the
Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) with the help of international donor
agencies i.e. the world bank and Saudi fund for development. The main aim of this
project was to irrigate around 1.2 million acres in various districts of Sindh province.
Contrary to this, it has in the end created some unwanted results (see box 1).
Box 1: Chotiari Water Reservoir in Pakistan
The Chotiari water reservoir lies on the western wings of Nara desert in the district of
Sanghar. The reservoir occupies an area of about 18,000 hectares and has a water
storage capacity of 0.75 million acre feet. The project was approved in 1992 (finally
1994) and supposed to be completed by December 1997, with a cost of Rs 1.5 billion
(approximately US $ 26.3 million). Due to ineffectual planning and corruption the
project was delayed by five years up-to December 2002, with a total cost of Rs 6 billion,
which is approximately US $ 105 million. Experts from the Chotiari area opined that its
actual output was far below from which it was planned, where its financial, social, and
environmental costs were much greater than expected. According to the community
representatives and their organisations, a total of 993 families were directly affected by
the construction of this reservoir. They had been uprooted from their homes and in most
cases were left without any resettlement and/or compensation. Conflicts over the
construction of big dams have grown into forceful policy debates in numerous countries
around the world, but this case might be considered as one of the planned social and
environmental tragedies.
Sources: Authors extraction from DAWN International 12-11-2009; The NEWS 14-01-2007; UNEP 14 and
It is observed that mostly in the developing countries, indigenous people have not
been consulted or treated as prime stakeholders, therefore, they are not being consulted
about their views while taking some decisions on the development projects, which would
Magsi, Torre, Liu, and Sheikh 22
affect them directly or indirectly [Magsi and Torre (2013); Scudder (2005); UNEP
(2004); Awakul and Ogunlana (2002)]. Afterwards, when the people see any initiation of
large construction projects, they often become frustrated and angry about partial advice
and counsel. This disappointment often leads to the project opposition and violence, but it
rarely leads to a change in the public authorities’ behaviours. Instead, they carry on
thinking to launch new projects, disregarding the oppositions and the damages caused by
the previous initiatives. Thus, it becomes vital to examine the position of the factors
leading to the conflicts. Especially, those indicators which encountered on the
development projects in order to understand as to what interested groups and the project
participants could learn from the preceding failures? This would enable the project
initiators to keep on identifying the root causes of those areas, which turn out to be causes
of the project fiascos.
Furthermore, land use conflicts are common in Indonesia as well. During 2002, the
Indonesian government issued an official regulation, allowing the state to take over land
to be used for construction of public facilities, even if no agreement has reached to
farmers residing on their lands. This rule had raised public concerns and protests
throughout Indonesia. Many of farm-lands were lost due to infrastructure projects (see
Box 2), which were fertile agricultural lands, as well as owing tremendous value for
marine biodiversity and ecology [LRAN (2007)]. Such land loss has a long term
implications for the economic, social and food security of local communities, who once
and for all get deprived of often their only source of livelihood.
Box 2: Land Use Conflicts over Airport Construction in Indonesia
The Lombok International Airport is built over farm lands of local indigenous people,
which is located in TanakAwu village. This mega project turned a cause of conflict
between the government and local farmers, due to dissatisfying policy adopted by the
government towards proper compensation and rehabilitation. “It is not in the place that
the local government of west Nusa Tenggara, and the linked parties who have interest
to build the airport on the fertile land, which is the only resource for peasant in central
Lombok to make living”; expressed by Henry Saragih to The Jakarta post (September,
09, 2006). Henry Saragih is the secretary general of the Indonesian federation of
peasant unions (FSPI) had expressed above outrage at the airport construction site plan
in Lombok, after unprovoked attack by the police on peasant’s crowd—included women
and children - gathered to record their concerns against violation of their rights.
Source: Authors extraction from Land Research Action Network 03-05-2007; The Jakarta Post 09-19-2006.
On the other side, in order to achieve a rapid economic growth, India has also
been investing in the industrial projects, dams, roads, mines, power plants, where some of
the projects, particularly dams have generated serious controversies (see Box 3), as they
have tended to be the major sources of displacement-related conflicts [UNEP (2004)].
Therefore, about 21000 families were disturbed and ousted when the Pong dam was
constructed nearly 25 years ago, and still have not received the benefits of any proper
rehabilitation measures. Moreover, the development has induced about 21.3 million
persons, including; displaced by the dams (16.4 million), mines (2.55 million), industrial
development (1.25 million), wildlife sanctuaries, and national parks (0.6 million) [Lama
23 Land Use Conflicts in the Developing Countries
Box 3: Development Induces Displacement in India
India’s current social and economic trembling issue is Yamuna expressway, which is a
165.5 km long road project in Utter Pradesh (UP). Actually, this is the dream project of
the UP’s government. This project aimed to connect New Delhi to Agra along side of
the Yamuna river, but being a more populous state it has not only caused disturbances
among local population, but has also negatively affected the country’s economy.
Around 12000-14000 farmers have protested and likely blocked Delhi road against the
forceful acquisition, and unjustified compensation of their land for the project. This also
seemed more intense and complex land use conflict of the year 2014, up-to now almost
a dozen of causalities have been taken place. Number of causalities could increase if the
resolution measures have not been taken into account.
Source: Authors extraction from Times of India 22-11-2014; Mahaprashasta2012.
In China, due to the rapid industrialisation and population growth, the land base
for agricultural growth has been shrinking [Wang, et al. (2015)]. In fact, China is well
known for its efficient infrastructural and urbanisation projects, but violent conflicts have
also been reported (see Box 4), which might be due to compensation disagreements
[Rooij (2007)]. According to Robertson (2010), “the expropriation of land in China is a
polemic social issue, where so many houses have been demolished forcibly by using
modern tactics like switching off the power or water to whole blocks of houses, and
sending thugs to harass and intimidate residents”.
Box 4: Land Use Conflicts in China
In China official statistics show that more than 50,000 cases of land use dispute took
place in 224 cities, and counties across the country from 2003 to March 2008. In 2010,
more than 30,000 villagers in the eastern China blocked a highway and clashed with
police while protesting against the land compensation deals. Protestors accused local
officials of arranging a deal in which villagers were paid far less than the market value
for their land. The protesters were gathered over government land seizure in Zhenjiang
for infrastructural development projects. Moreover, the expropriation of land in China
has become one of the most polemical social issues. Therefore, “The government should
solve previous problems before making more laws”, said Li Huifang, a petitioner from
Shanghai. “How many people were imprisoned and tortured trying to protect their
houses and lands? They should be redressed”, he added while expressing his grievances
to The Epoch Times (October 28, 2010).
Source: Authors extraction from The Epoch Times 28-10-2010; CDT 26-07-2009.
Plethora of research has proved that there are no geographical limitations of the
conflict; it can occur in any part of the world. Semi-developed or emerging countries like
Brazil are also disturbed due to land use conflicts [Vainer (2007)], for example the
conflict has started in early 2010, when mining companies started working on the
northern states of the country (see Box 5). According to Sharma (2002) "in these regions
the concentration of land ownership is high, and some troublemakers community or
union dispute their rights to maintain thousands of hectares of land uncultivated, or
stripped of all forest for mining and cattle pasture (beef for export), while millions of
Brazilians are willing to work on land, who remain landless and survive in near virtual
starvation in the rural poverty or urban slums".
Magsi, Torre, Liu, and Sheikh 24
Box 5:Land Use Conflicts Created by Miners in Brazil
In, 2010, Yanomami and Yekuana Indians of Roraima state of northern Brazil held a
protest to denounce the invasion of Yanomami land by international mining companies
and national cattle ranchers. They have demanded from the authorities to remove them
immediately, and also demonstrated that more than 1000 gold-miners are working on
their land and polluting the river and forest with mercury, where cattle ranchers are
invading and deforesting the eastern fringes of their land. These Yanomami indigenous
people are living in the Amazon rainforest, where the forest is their only source of
livelihood survival.
Source: Authors extraction from The Rio Times; Survival International 09-04-2010.
Such conflicts seem to be the result of both need and greed, which not only
degrade natural resources, but also put the lives of indigenous people at risk. According
to Ostrom (2007) "local people are dispossessed either due to failure to recognise their
rights to land or due to invalidation of those rights by the state". In such economies
careful management of natural resources and environmental landscapes are important for
the development, especially for socio-economic betterment in rural zones [Tscarntke, et
al. (2005)], otherwise it will work beyond social welfare theory [Cheshire and Vermeulen
(2009)]. Most of the resulting conflicts are driven by the underlying frustration of basic
human needs and values that cannot be compromised [Abdalla and Timothy (1996)].
3.2.Land Use Conflict Features
A study of the regional press, corresponding to the case studies that are given in
the preceding subsection (see Boxes 15) summarizes the main peculiarities which
define and describe the driving forces of land use conflicts (see Figure 1).
Fig. 1.Land Use Conflict Driving Forces
Source: Authors extraction from the Daily Regional Press (DRP) in developing countries.
The above figure indicates that the land use conflicts are disagreements resulted
from the policy responsiveness of the institutional behaviours, i.e. government and
Opposition to responsive
decision of the institutions
for development projects
Resistance against
misuse of power and
Land consumption due
to over population and
Land protection for
agriculture, farmer
life and social safe
Land use
25 Land Use Conflicts in the Developing Countries
judiciary, for their decision towards the development projects. Thus, the decision for an
infrastructural project, which may have a direct impact on the land owner’s survival
might create tensions, and ultimately lead to a conflict of the land use. Such conflicts
emerge from situations in which the localities attempt to ignore or challenge those
decisions as an overstrained power. It further reveals that in the developing world, such
projects are initiated on the basis of increasing public needs (social safe), which are
directly in proportionate with the increase in population. Whereas, some decisions of the
projects are also made in non-democratic way2 and that is why there are always
opposition on the nature of such flawed projects.
For example, in the case of Chotiari water reservoir construction in Pakistan, the
evicted families were referred to the courts for justice. At first, courts have preceded their
land use and compensation related cases, but after inauguration of the reservoir in 2003,
almost all cases have been discarded without any decision, because of the involvement of
high profile officials and bureaucrats [Nauman (2003)]. On the other hand, in the case of
Lombok International Airport in Indonesia, despite regular agitations, government never
invited land owners for a dialogue [LRAN (2007)]. Likewise, Ahmed Yani, one of the
land owners led others affected for agitation in order to raise their voices for
compensation. Contrary, he was accused and declared as a lunatic, and still there is no
information about him as he disappeared after the event. The incident of Mr. Yani has not
only discouraged the local settlers for their compensation, but also suppressed their
voices [Mataram (2008)]. Contrary to developed countries, there are few ways to express
public opposition, and local population cannot use the voice channel [Hirschman (1970)]
in order to express their will and their disagreement with the projects proposed by the
local authorities.
Through this section, insights are provided on misuse of political strategy and
institutional inconsistency (lack of organised proximity between infrastructures
promoters and local population). Readers are also informed as to how land use conflict
preventive measures can be taken, in order to avoid violent oppositions and social
incoherence, and to maintain the possibility of local development in emerging regions
and countries.
4.1. Prevention Strategy and Dimension
In order to define or identify the successful resolution of conflicts and
implementation of preventive measures, it is important to be aware of their causative
factors [Burton (1993)]. Fundamentally, conflict prevention is defined as a range of
actions or a set of instruments undertaken by an organisation to deal with a potential
tension, before it turns into a conflict or violence [Bercivitch and Jackson (2009);
Clément (1997)]. Land use conflict prevention may be defined as the short term
responses, and long term engagement towards the outbreak or recurrence of any conflict
at any piece of land due to its economic, social cultural or religious uses [Daniel (2010)].
To intervene for support: to promote culture of justice, good governance towards human
and property rights with their ownership protections [Rooij (2007), to uphold the rule of
law and respect pride of the inhabitants [Schlager and Ostrom (1992)]. According to
2Some projects seemed having roots in corruption and greed, which are doomed to benefit to a few
stakeholders rather than to whole society or economy [Lama (2008); Nauman (2003); Sharma (2002)].
Magsi, Torre, Liu, and Sheikh 26
Wehrmann (2008), "the prevention from land use conflicts can be achieved only by a
combination of correcting institutional weaknesses and introducing good governance".
One of the best solutions to avoid such conflicts at an early stage, is to keep local
populations informed [Ackermann (2003)], or give awareness about the projects, as well
as to increase the level of local democracy through participatory approaches. In this
study, this particular is interpreted in terms of promotion of organised proximity links
between the infrastructure developers and their local supports on the one hand, and the
local population on the other [Torre and Rallet (2005); Magsi and Torre (2014)].The
concept of preventive diplomacy [Swanström and Weissmann (2005)] can be extracted
from the intensity of the conflicts prevailing in the said regions, and further, these
strategies can be referred for application in the region. For better illustrations regarding
the conflict prevention measures [OECD (2008)], it is important to have a look on some
basic questions like, what are new factors/stakeholders contributing in prolonging
conflict dynamics, and what are the interests, goals, positions, capacities and
relationships of the stakeholders? Therefore, the decisions towards development projects
must be made in light of the causes and consequences of the prevailing land use conflicts,
which will help in the best stage selection for prevention and management. For example,
to make sure that the decision has not been taken in the interest of one group/stakeholder,
which is going to affect directly or indirectly to the other actors, but the criteria of “win-
win” theory must be followed.
4.2. Promotion of Development Assumptions
An institutional framework is needed to optimise allocation of land resource and
policy innovation, in order to build a sustainable socio-economic development, aiming at
land use conflict prevention. Although, land use conflict nature varies across countries,
but some assumptions are proposed here for prevention of such issues, which are based
upon public voices published in the regional press on currently prevailing land use
conflicts in the developing countries (quoted in Boxes 1-5) coupled with the author’s own
experiences in the land use conflict research on various countries [Sheikh, et al. (2015);
Liu (2014); Torre, et al. (2014); Magsi and Torre (2013)]. Fundamentally, the tensions
and conflicts can largely be prevented through the promotion of governance structures,
social relationships among conflict actors and by ensuring security to local inhabitants. It
should always be the responsibility of political, administrative, and economic actors to
manage state's affairs, where actors can easily exercise their rights, and can mediate their
tensions before transforming into conflicts. For example, development of civil society,
access and participation of local inhabitants during feasibility of the projects,
demobilisation of agented people and development of ordinances for land and other
natural resource planning and protection. Contrary, if states keep benefitting the ruling
class alone it will surely lead to conflictive and violent situations [Eitzen and Ninn
Dynamics of spatial conflicts are based on reticular mobilisation of local
population and stakeholders through information networks, exchange and sharing of
resources that deploy controversial territorial governance, and lead to violent oppositions.
As consequences, the protests and oppositions are directly related to the initiation of new
public infrastructure projects on farmlands and due to their unlawful strategic planning
[Wang, et al. (2015)]. Moreover, before planning of initiating a development project a
redress system related to land-acquisition, compensation and resettlement should be
clearly established, which should ensure that the affected population may regain their
former living standards and prestige [Schlager and Ostrom (1992)].
27 Land Use Conflicts in the Developing Countries
Therefore, the situation of developing countries (especially from the case studies
are taken) is much more complex with respect to conflicts and oppositions. Because the
networks and stakes are more intricate, legal protections are consistently lower, the aims
and goals of the project are rarely explained to local stakeholders clearly, and the level of
information of the local population about their rights is quite inconsistent. In the rural
settings, land use problems are mostly created by influential landlords or politicians,
because the owners of the land are illiterate to understand their rights, and at times, even
they do not know about the economic value of their land. Thus, the process and structure
in which use and control of the land is managed forcibly, and decisions are implemented
without democratic process, can be termed as land governance failure [Palmer, et al.
(2009); Borras-Jr and Franco (2010)]. As generally understood today, the range of actors
in the land use policy decisions are seen in complexities due to lack of good governance.
The aim of this article is to contribute to the research on land use conflicts in the
selected developing countries, which occupy an important place in social science
literature and the daily press. These conflicts are of different types due to the involvement
of various stakeholders, with their peculiar needs and their spatial and temporal scale. It
can be defined that the land use conflicts are the result of the competition towards actual
to future use of the land, which might have a higher probability of confrontation related
to the level of information, and involvement of local population.
In this paper, the main features of the existing land use conflicts in the selected
developing countries are explored, and then these are distinguished on the basis of
competition between actors for the same piece of land. Authors’ general thesis banks
upon a pivotal factor the lack of involvement of local inhabitants for a development
project leads to tensions and (violent) conflicts in the region. Sometimes, governments
or political leaders impose their decisions forcibly due to their provocative and
manipulative behaviours, or the involvement of the powerful personalities ignores local
inhabitant’s rights in a suppressed society. As a result, in the most cases, people in
developing countries are cornered to adopt violent pathways rather than to follow a legal
step. Furthermore, the rise of population also increases the demand of infrastructural
projects; thus, land use conflicts may enhance as the pressure increases on the land, if
preventive measures will not be taken with respect to conflict sensitivity.
Therefore, research intervenes in the field work to prevent conflicts by creating
change in people's attitudes, thought processes and relationships. It also focuses more on
supporting processes rather than concrete quantifiable outcomes. Because any decision
made beyond the conflict sensitivity will lead to a deep understanding of the conflict
dynamics, which will further potentially contribute in its factual prevention. These steps
stand crucial in order to ensure that the economic development of emerging regions or
countries is not made at the expense of the wills and rights of the local population.
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... Many researchers have tried to explore the land use conflicts and probable measures of resolving such conflict (Deininger and Castagnini (2004) ;Magsi, et al. (2017) ; Lund, et al. (ND); Wu (2008)). Wu (2008) stated that land use change has social and environmental implications. ...
... He asserted that urbanization brought about many challenges such as destruction of crops and damage to farm equipment for farmers in the urban fringe and degradation in the ecosystem which altered the Earth's landscape. Magsi et al. (2017) examined the land use conflicts mainly caused by infrastructural development projects in some developing countries. They identified four driving forces on land use conflict as extracted from Daily Regional Press (DRP) but similar to their case study as: Land consumption due to over population and urbanisation, Resistance against misuse of power and corruption, Opposition to responsive decision of the institutions for development projects and Land protection for agriculture, farmer life and social safe. ...
This study examined agricultural land use conflicts and right to farm in an urbanizing environment. It also examined the implication of urbanization on farming activities. Three sub-urban communities currently undergoing urbanization were selected for the study. Primary and secondary data were collected. Primary data were obtained through the use of questionnaires and interviews. A total of 150 questionnaires were distributed out of which 139 were retrieved and analysed. This represents 92.67% of the total questionnaires distributed. Data collected were analysed using simple frequency distribution table and graphs. The results revealed that land use is gradually shifting from agriculture to residential land use, forcing the farmers to face increase in land value due to high demand for land, difficulty in accessing land for agriculture and land speculation.
... That requires a glance at the land issues and conflicts of tribal. Magsi et al. (2017) seek land-use conflicts in developing nations to describe the fundamental factors and effects of land-use disputes. Also, entail providing any protective strategies for coping with such conflicts (Deininger & Feder, 2001;Geoghegan, 2002). ...
... The area is unusual in terms of land alienation and the conflicts that result from it. Magsi et al. (2017) investigate land use disputes in underdeveloped countries. Is it possible to prove how land and human rights offenders planted the seeds of conflict using the findings? ...
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Inequitable land access and land disputes are commonly mentioned as major causes of instability in the Bodoland region. Land problems are frequently invoked as a more potent debating tactic in conflict. For tribals in the region, land reform, ownership, registry, legal pluralism, boundary difficulties, landlessness, insecure land usage, and other associated issues are all major concerns. Major land legislation has failed to significantly reduce the number of major land disputes in the region. The British Colonial rule in India created substantial disruptions to land practises and possessions, which are still felt today in various regions of the country and in Northeast India, notably Assam. It's clear that the land issue is still relevant and active.
... Its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) share is 24 percent, involving more than half of the country's total labor force and earning a large proportion of foreign exchange by exporting 80% of agricultural products [8]. However, the rural population is migrating to urban centers using agricultural land, creating a difficult situation for our country in the coming time [9]. Speedy urbanization converted 3307 acres of agricultural land into built-up areas in the last 13 years; the decline was due to no rule regulations to restrict this conversion. ...
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Urban encroachment due to urban sprawl and unchecked expansion in built-up areas is one of the top challenges developing countries such as Pakistan face. The fertile agricultural land is continuously converting into built-up areas reducing the capacity of food production and bringing down the livelihood opportunities associated with agricultural land. Pakistan is an agricultural country with extensive fertile areas. The GDP share of agriculture is more than 20%, and it engages more than half of the country’s total labor force, producing a handsome foreign exchange. However, this fertile and productive land is now altering due to urbanization encroachment. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the level of urbanization encroachment and its temporal dynamics in the lowlands of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The sample area of District Peshawar was selected for this purpose. First, the study’s objective was to detect the district’s temporal dynamics in the land-use pattern. Secondly, the quantification of agricultural land converted to built-up in District Peshawar was also considered. The study of urbanization encroachment in temporal dynamics focused on the conversion of agricultural land-use change using high-resolution satellite images (Arc GIS 10.5), a detailed questionnaire survey, and interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to obtain more profound insight into the study area. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), ANOVA, and regression models were applied where needed. For the agricultural land investigation, data from the landowners were also incorporated to learn the size of the lands they currently hold. To claw out the fragmentation of the land, the previous status of the land, its selling, purchasing, and the causes thereof, have also been probed. The results show that 46.35 sq. km of the land area has been built-up since the first census in 1981. In 2019, it increased by 173.3049 sq. km in District Peshawar against the total area of 1257 sq. km. In the sample area, the fertile agricultural land shows a change five times greater than the population increase. The land is continuously reduced and utilized for different purposes. The land values also appeal to the land owners for handsome returns, which is another crucial factor of urban encroachment over the fertile agricultural area. A proper and active regularity authority is recommended, and policies for land transformation from agriculture to built-up coverings should be formed. Decentralization of facilities, subsidies, and incentives to the farmers are recommended to slow down the speed of land conversion.
... Semua stakeholder dapat menafsirkan sesuai dengan kepentingannya sehingga berpotensi menimbulkan konflik kepentingan yang berkepanjangan. Konflik penggunaan lahan memang merupakan fenomena yang tersebar luas dan dapat terjadi kapan saja atau di tempat antara pemangku kepentingan yang berbeda, terutama untuk ekspektasi lahan yang berbeda (Magsi et al., 2017). Kondisi seperti yang harusnya dapat diantisipasi dalam membuat peta pola ruang. ...
... Most cities are spreading over agricultural land, changes in agricultural land in urban centers might create food conflicts in the future. (Magsi et al., 2017). Total cultivated land is an important factor that influences the food security situation in Pakistan. ...
... One of the challenges of the overlapping boundry is contradicting landuses: The consequences of contradicting land uses are significant threats to conservation (Rajvanshi, 2005), causing ownership insecurity (Magsi et al., 2017), increasing ecological degradation such as riverine ecosystems (Valle et al., 2015) primarily on landscapes classified as natural and working. According to Jong et al. (2021), overlapping land right is one of the root causes of conflict related to land use and related changes, which supplement the case study area. ...
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In Ethiopia, urban boundary roles are ineffective, leading to conflicting urban development, particularly on areas share borders and are administered by different regional governments. Therefore, this study examined the nature of shared urban boundaries and related social-ecological challenges. It employed a case study approach, and the findings are conceptualized to the broader urbanization and urban planning trends, with particular relevance to any urban areas sharing borders. Temporal satellite images from 2005 and 2018 were used to examine land use/land cover changes around shared urban regions, and their proposed and existing land-uses were compared with the aid of Geographical Information System and ERDAS IMAGINE. The findings show lack of clear criteria to delineate urban boundaries in Ethiopian urban planning; absence of regional planning leading to indistinct and overlapping boundary setting, which triggered challenges related to: rapid conversion of ecosystem service providing sites to settlements, conflicts over land administration, and land ownership insecurity. Furthermore, non-integrated urban planning trends between urban areas sharing borders amplify the proposal of conflicting and incompatible land uses. As a result, policymakers and planners should employ integrated and participatory urban and regional planning concepts for the effectiveness of urban areas sharing boundaries and administered by different regions.
... Abegunde et al., Sabir and Torre and, as an early example, Schueler et al. discovered significant negative consequences for local livelihoods [12][13][14]. Magsi et al. additionally found displacement of local populations [15]. Interestingly, Ooi et al. revealed a positive effect of land use conflicts, finding that they can boost the development of social capital [16]. ...
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As land is limited, conflicts between land uses, and, consequently, conflicts between land users about land use inevitably arise. However, how these land use conflicts affect local land use actors has remained underexplored. The objective of this paper is to provide a broad, cross-sectoral overview of land use conflicts as perceived by local land use actors and to explore the actors’ experiences with these conflicts. We conducted 32 semistructured interviews with key land use actors (mayors, local agencies, interest groups, local boards, businesses) in the urban-rural fringe region of Schwerin, Germany. We then applied a qualitative text analysis to identify the region’s most relevant conflicts across all land use sectors (agriculture, settlement, infrastructure, forestry, conservation, tourism, industry, etc.) and their impacts on local actors’ daily experiences. The results show that local actors are aware of many diverse land use conflicts, most frequently regarding land uses for housing, environmental/species conservation, and traffic. Moreover, local actors report these conflicts as relevant to their daily work, and many perceive the conflicts as a strain. Conflicts impede land management processes; they tie up resources, are often perceived as complex, and can be experienced as highly stressful—as summed up in an interviewee’s conclusion: “It is a total drama”. Thus, land use conflicts play an important and mostly negative role in the experiences of land use actors. These findings fill current gaps in the literature on land use conflicts regarding the types of conflicts about which actors are aware and the consequences of these conflicts. The results also underline the relevance of addressing conflicts in land use planning and governance, the need for appropriate conflict management, and the necessity of providing local actors with sufficient resources to deal with land use conflicts. The paper further identifies some starting points so conflicts can enhance rather than impede communal life in rural areas.
... Many researchers have identified the social and political impacts due to manmade structures or governmental use of land (Zewdu et al., 2016). The main intention of these manufactured structures is to help or support the residents of that area (Magsi et al., 2017). Lack of constant supervision of these types of structures can negatively area and its ecosystem (Rais et al., 2011). ...
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Chotiari was a natural wetland before the construction of the reservoir. In 1994 wetland was converted into a reservoir to develop a water source for the people. But due to lack of proper attention this reservoir promoted waterlogging and salinity problems instead. The goal of this study is to investigate the variation that occurred on the land cover of the Chotiari wetland and surrounding area, before and after the construction of the reservoir. Satellite images of Chotiari reservoir and its buffer up to 5 km area of 1990 and 2019 were taken. The study was conducted at USPCASW (United States Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Water) Mehran University of Engineering and Technology Jamshoro. In the study, compositing was done by GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to join the bands of images of 1990 and 2019 for observing changes. After extracting the required shapefile of the Chotiari reservoir and its buffer, unsupervised classification was done for three classes: water, vegetation, and barren land. The difference in areas of water, vegetation, and barren land was calculated by superimposing both the images and joining all the bands of Landsat 5 image and Landsat 9 image. By comparing results of both years, a 12% increase in water availability was found whereas 8% and 4% net reduction was found in both vegetation and barren land, respectively. The main reason behind the increment of water quantity might be the construction of a reservoir. Moreover, it also affected the 5 km buffer area around the reservoir which resulted in a 9% reduction in water, 11% increment in vegetation, and 2% drop in the barren land.
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The research assessed the causes of urban and rural land conflicts inikwerre ethnic nationality Nigeria. The investigations centred on urban and rural land dispute in ikwerre ethnic nationality and the relationship between residents of urban and rural communities and land dispute. The questionnaire was employed to obtain data on sources and causes of ethnic land dispute from residents. The study identified the 9 causes of urban and rural land dispute and revealed that scarcity/ land value price, boundary dispute, land use change, urbanization, violent demolition enforcement, compensation challenges, sharing of diseased property, land owners and human right violators are among the sources of urban and rural land dispute. In addition, the study also shown that there was a strong positive connexion between urban land dispute and non-indigenes of (r = .178, p<.05) and a positive moderate relationship between families and rural land dispute (r = .321, p<0.5). However, there was a negative relationship between land acquired for public purposes and urban land dispute ((r =-.055 p > .05).
One of the main factors preventing food production in urban and peri‐urban areas is territorial oppositions between different land uses. The aim of this article is to address the question of conflicts close to large urban centers, taking the example of the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR), a representative urban area, which includes both food issues of the cities: the still important presence of a subsistence agriculture that serves to feed the local people, and the development of a much‐gentrified urban agriculture. Our study is based on expert interviews, an analysis of the regional daily press and a study of local information sites and blogs. First, we briefly depict peri‐urban agriculture, its main characteristics, and we stress the importance of land use occupation faced with competing uses. Then we present our method of analysis and the main agricultural characteristics of the SPMR. The third part is devoted to a study of the local conflicts, their location, their link to agriculture and the consumption of agricultural soils, and the typology of the opponents and supporters of this activity. We finally conclude with some lessons on the place of peri‐urban agriculture, drawn from this experiment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Agriculture and water management are of the important tools to poverty reduction among farming communities that helps to provide individual and collective benefits, and enhance quality of life. But in real, the farmers of Sindh province are largely dissatisfied with what they have, indicated by the current situation. Therefore, the researcher focused on the background of farming communities to reveal the facts and figures of rural people connected with water management. In this regard, the cross-sectional data were collected on a structured scale through personal interview method, using multi-stage cluster sampling from 457 farmers in Sindh province of Pakistan, and analysis was performed by means of SPSS-20. The results regarding the background of the farmers illustrate that the majority of the farmers aged 36 to 56 were involved in water management activities. In connection with the marital status, an overwhelming majority (98%) of the respondents were married, showing the picture of common rural values, about three fourth (75%) of the respondents are habituated in an extended/joint family system, and a little less than half (47%) of the respondents were illiterate or do not have any formal education. A simple majority (50.5%) of the respondents were landlord-cum-farmers (owner-cultivator), however, an unfair distribution of agricultural land is frequently observed among the farmers in Sindh province of Pakistan. Water logging and salinity was found to be a major issue in the study area as reported by the respondents. Simultaneously, an A quantitative survey of water Management 99 overwhelming majority of the farmers in Sindh province of Pakistan showed their concern over existing irrigation and drainage system and of the opinion that the institutional corruption and bad governance are hurdled behind the issue.
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The aim of this study is to establish several important factors representing land use intensification in cultivated land (denoted by CII), using a multi-dimensional approach to achieve realistic and practical cultivated land use policies in China. For this reason, the theoretical framework was first built to explain the changes of land use intensification in the cultivated land, and then the variables and index were further developed for the purpose of characterizing the dynamic trends and driving forces of the land use intensification in the cultivated land at the provincial level. The study results indicate that the extent of CII significantly increased during the period of 1996 to 2008, due to the extensive use of fertilizers, machinery and pesticide, increased labor and capital input, and intensified land use. Moreover, the principal component regression results show that the productivity of cultivated land, economic benefits of cultivated land, labor productivity, and land use conversion are the main factors affecting the village development. The first three factors play a positive role, while the last one has a negative effect on the land use intensification in the cultivated land. According to these results, the main policies for sustainable intensification in cultivated land are proposed. First, the sustainable pathways for intensification should be adopted to reduce the unsustainable uses of chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals, etc. Second, the conditions for agricultural production should be further improved to increase the cultivated land productivity. Third, it is very necessary and helpful for improving labor productivity and land use efficiency from the viewpoint of accelerated the cultivated land circulation. The last step is to positively affect the production activities of peasants by means of reforming the subsidy standards.
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Protest is now central to politics in Western democracies, but it is known to citizens mainly through portrayals in the media. Yet the media cover only a small fraction of public protests, raising the possibility of selection bias. We study this problem by comparing police records of demonstrations in Washington, D.C. in 1982 and 1991 with media coverage of the events in The New York Times, The Washington Post, and on three national television networks. We model the consequences of demonstration form, context, and purpose on the likelihood of media coverage. The estimated size of a demonstration and its importance to the current media issue attention cycle are the strongest predictors of its coverage. Additional analyses support our claim that heightened media attention to an issue increases the likelihood that protests related to that issue will be covered. Comparing 1982 to 1991 suggests that television coverage of protests is increasingly subject to the impact of media issue attention cycles.
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The presence of nearby public facilities has an impact on real-estate values; for this reason, the market may reasonably anticipate that public infrastructure projects will affect house prices. But undesirable and semi-desirable facility location choices may be contested by nearby residents, as they are a source of negative externalities or expectations. In Paris's suburban zones, opposition to these infrastructures is frequent, and the official announcement of a project does not automatically mean it will be implemented. Through three case studies, we explore the way in which the expectation mechanism is affected by legal conflicts driven by nearby residents. We suppose that expectations depend on the probability that a given project will be realized. The variation is captured by a hedonic model. As conflicts amplify or reduce the certainty of the new facility's arrival, market perceptions of the infrastructure vary.
Viewed by some as symbols of progress and by others as inherently flawed, large dams remain one of the most contentious development issues on Earth. Building on the work of the now defunct World Commission on Dams, Thayer Scudder wades into the debate with unprecedented authority. Employing the Commission's Seven Strategic priorities, Scudder charts the 'middle way' forward by examining the impacts of large dams on ecosystems, societies and political economies. He also analyses the structure of the decision-making process for water resource development and tackles the highly contentious issue of dam-induced resettlement, illuminated by a statistical analysis of 50 cases.
Land-use conflicts reveal the contemporary evolution of rural areas. They illustrate the rising popularity of the countryside among an urbanized population, which might be in conflict with traditional ideas of rural land uses and living. Because public decision makers have difficulty recognizing the diversity of societal demands and users of rural and periurban areas have difficulty vocalizing their preferences, participative approaches have become an important planning strategy. Ideally, they go together with conflict analysis about causes, effects, and preferences and thus supplement classical formal planning instruments. In this article, we present two examples of land-use conflicts occurring in rural settings: conflicts related to the residential environment and to outdoor recreation. Methods for distinct conflict analysis are presented and strategies for land-use planning and management are described. Two case studies, one collective action approach from Puy-de-Dôme, France, and one participative planning approach from the Black Forest, Germany, underline the different forms of litigation used by stakeholders to change land-use planning and management, empirically. Finally, the need for new modes of governance and institutional arrangements for collaborative regional and local landscape planning is highlighted and suggestions for their application are made.