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Aggressive, Passive, and Assertive: Which Communication Style Is Commonly Used by College Students?

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Abstract

The focus of this survey was the three basic communication styles. Specifically, these are the aggressive, passive, and assertive. This study was accomplished to confirm the communication style of the randomly selected students from the seven different colleges and one school in a university. The descriptive survey design was utilized in gathering the data. The instrument consisted of the indicators that verify the communication style of the respondents. There were three hundred thirty seven students who participated in the survey. The findings of the study revealed that females are greater in number that male respondents. Most of the respondents’ religious affiliation are Catholics and only few are non-Catholics. The location of respondents’ houses can be found mostly in the rural areas. Among the 337 respondents no one said that they use aggressive, passive, and assertive communication style extensively and at all times or always. Aggressive communication style is consistently utilized in few times by the CAS, COA, CBE, COE, CIT, CEA, and CON and was applied occasionally by the STHM students only. Passive communication style is used by the students from COA, CBE, CIT, CEA and STHM occasionally, while the students from CAS, COE and CON employed this communication style in few times. Assertive communication style was applied by CBE, COE, CIT, CEA, CON and STHM students often, while students from CAS and COA used it occasionally. In closing, the three communication styles were used by different group of people in different manner and at different extent; however an effective communicator is one who could transmit his message accurately regardless of his communication style. Keywords: Communication Styles, Aggressive, Passive, Assertive
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2956807
1
Aggressive, Passive, and Assertive: Which Communication Style
is Commonly Used by College Students?
Anna C. Bocar
anna@gulfcollege.edu.om
Muscat, Sultanate of Oman
ABSTRACT
The focus of this survey was the three basic communication styles. Specifically, these
are the aggressive, passive, and assertive. This study was accomplished to confirm the
communication style of the randomly selected students from the seven different colleges
and one school in a university. The descriptive survey design was utilized in gathering
the data. The instrument consisted of the indicators that verify the communication style of
the respondents. There were three hundred thirty seven students who participated in the
survey. The findings of the study revealed that females are greater in number that male
respondents. Most of the respondents religious affiliation are Catholics and only few are
non-Catholics. The location of respondents houses can be found mostly in the rural
areas. Among the 337 respondents no one said that they use aggressive, passive, and
assertive communication style extensively and at all times or always. Aggressive
communication style is consistently utilized in few times by the CAS, COA, CBE, COE,
CIT, CEA, and CON and was applied occasionally by the STHM students only. Passive
communication style is used by the students from COA, CBE, CIT, CEA and STHM
occasionally, while the students from CAS, COE and CON employed this
communication style in few times. Assertive communication style was applied by CBE,
COE, CIT, CEA, CON and STHM students often, while students from CAS and COA
used it occasionally. In closing, the three communication styles were used by different
group of people in different manner and at different extent; however an effective
communicator is one who could transmit his message accurately regardless of his
communication style.
INTRODUCTION
Communication happens every day, everywhere in people’s lives. The world is
uninteresting without communication. In the real world even the mute communicates by
means of sign language. Communication is a process by which information is
exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or
behavior,” (“Communication,” 2013). The choice of the language that a person may use
in certain communication situation is deeply influenced by his earlier period experiences
(Wood, 1976). The preceding statement does not only transport a strong message on
how a person behave and express his language but this also reflects that communication
is not only universal but it is also from generation to generation. Conflicts arising either
from home, work, and social life can be resolved by means of good communication.
Sherman (1999) said good communication skills require a high level of self-awareness.
To be aware of one’s personal style of communication is helpful. This creates good
and lasting impressions to others. By becoming more aware of how one perceived the
Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2956807
2
other can be a good avenue to adapt more readily to their styles of communication. One
can make another person more comfortable by choosing certain behavior that fit others
personality. Remaining aware of one’s own communication style will open the best
chance of success in production and life (Sherman, 1999). It is one of the thousand
ways that a communicator can avoid conflict against the receiver of the communications.
Discovering which communication style best fits to a person can be done in a number of
ways. This study desires to determine the communication style of the students in a
chosen university.
Review of Related Literature
The Department of Environment and Conservation Government of Western Australia
said that “social research can help us to understand better on issues related to the
department’s programs, enhance decision making and improve the effective and timely
delivery of services”. The statement is extremely striking and would arouse enormous
encouragement to social science researchers. The areas mentioned for better
understanding tremendously includes communication. Communication involved the
transfer of message from a source to the destined receiver. While the message travel
from one end to the other communication is associated with uncertainty but this
uncertainty is removed and becomes clear when the message arrives. Mackenzie (1998)
articulates that, communication transport messages from a source to a destination and
these message carry information. An organization’s existence face no much problems
and barriers when there is a good communication. The speaking, writing and listening are
forms of communication (Heller and Hindle, 1998). The forms of communication
brought all nations, all peoples close to one another. The standard of living of the is most
often the product of powerful industries, business activities across the globe, speedy
means of transportation, modern and advance technology for education, science,
agriculture, entertainment and recreation is made possible by communication (Neal,
1961).
There are four parameters in a certain situation of communication. These are the
participants, setting (time and place), and topic and task (Wood, 1976). Participants of a
communication are the sender and the receiver. The setting refers to the time and place
where the communication took place. The topic is the message while the task is the
transmittal of the message. The transmittal or delivery of the message to the receiver is
the invariable or constant purpose of communication. The information is handed from
one person to the other through communication and in this way relationship is improve
(Heller and Hindle, 1998). A person could be an effective communicator when he has
more strategies to employ while transmitting the message (Wood, 1976). In supervising a
group of people communication is essential in order to acquire and transmit information
so that wise decisions will be made, project will be finished with proper comprehension
and relationship is develop. It is a fact that every person communicates. In business or the
academe not all managers or supervisors deliver their message well. There are basic rules
that one should know better in order to send the message clearly. Unambiguous and good
communication will achieve clarity. The sender must see to it that the message he wants
to deliver to the receiver has a clear meaning in his mind (Heller and Hindle, 1998).
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Theoretical Background
This study was anchored from Sherman (1999) as she pronounced that there are three
basic communication styles: aggressive, passive, assertive. In aggressive communication
style the communicator is close minded, poor listener, has difficulty seeing the other
person's point of view, interrupts, and monopolized. In passive communication style the
communicator is indirect, always agrees, does not speak up, and hesitant. Whereas in
assertive communication style the communicator is effective and active listener , states
limits or expectations, states observations and no labels or judgments, expresses self
directly, honestly, and as soon as possible about feelings and wants, and checks on
others feelings. Sherman (1999) further added that “each of these styles has some
effects.
The aggressive communicator may challenge the other and get counter aggression. It will
place the aggressive communicator in isolation, cause some ill-feelings of others and
resentment. On the other hand, the passive communicator does not know where he or she
stands and slowly loses his self-esteem. Furthermore, Sherman (1999) articulated that
“the effects of assertive style are: increased self-esteem and self-confidence, increased
self-esteem of others, feels motivated and understood, will let others know where they
stand”. The behavior of the communicator may express his communication style.
According to Sherman (1999):
The aggressive communicator puts others down, does not ever think they are
wrong, bossy, know-it-all attitude, and does not show appreciation. The passive
communicator sighs a lot, asks permission unnecessarily, complains instead of
taking action, and lets others make choices. The assertive communicator operates
from choice, action-oriented, firm, fair and just, consistent, takes appropriate
action toward getting what she wants without denying rights of others.
Good communication underpinned long-term successful relationships. Verbal
communication is an imperative tool for people to get to know each other. To feel a
connection of friendship or intimacy through communication is highly enjoyable in
order to work out problems and misunderstandings (“Match Matrix”, n.d.).
Statement of the Problem
This study intended to determine the communication style of the students. Purposely, this
paper desires to answer the following question: (1) what is the demographic profile of the
respondents from each college in terms of: sex, religion, residence or house location? (2)
What communication style is most commonly used by the respondents?
METHODOLOGY
This study made use of the descriptive method. The survey form consisted of the
communication style indicators anchored from the article of Sherman, (1999). The
researcher constructed the survey questionnaire as the main instrument to measure the
communication style of the respondents. Questionnaires were distributed, after the
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proposal hearing with the members of the College Research Council of the university.
After the distribution of the questionnaires and has been answered they are collected and
tallied before it was presented and analyzed. This survey was conducted in the seven
different colleges and one school in a certain university in the city namely: College of
Arts and Sciences (CAS), College of Accountancy (COA), College of Business and
Economics (CBE), College of Education (COE), College of Information Technology
(CIT), College of Engineering and Architecture (CEA), College of Nursing (CON), and
School of Tourism and Management (STHM). The three hundred thirty seven
respondents in this study were randomly selected students from the seven colleges and
one school in the university
There are number of communication styles. They can be measured also in different ways.
In this paper, a checklist survey form was employed as the instrument utilized in this
study for the purpose of describing what communication style is used by the respondents.
The indicators chosen by the respondents as their answers were interpreted through a
qualitative scale with its corresponding verbal descriptions. The survey form consists of
the communication style indicators ( Sherman, 1999 ) which are mentioned in the
theoretical background section, the college where the respondents belong and their
demographic profile which constitute the sex, religion (with dichotomous response of
“Catholic” or “Non-Catholic” ) and the residence or house location of the respondents (
also dichotomized as “ urban” or “ rural” ).
Treatment of Data
The accomplished questionnaires were collected and the responses to each instrument
were tallied. The data were then processed and tabulated. The weights assigned to the
scale were noted. The weighted mean of each item was determined.
For interpretation purposes, the researchers assigned a hypothetical mean range as
follows:
Numeric
Value
Hypothetical
Range
Qualitative
Description
Verbal
Interpretation
1
1.00 1.75
Few times
( Ft)
which means that the students make use of the
described communication style in small number of
instances
2
1.76 2.50
Occasionally
(Occ)
which means that the students make use of the
described communication style in a moderately
extensive manner and in some instances only
3
2.51 3.25
Often
(O)
which means that the students make use of the
described communication style extensively and in
the majority of instances
4
3.26 4.00
Always
(A)
which means that the students make use of the
described communication style very extensively and
at all times
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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This section presents, interprets and analyzes the answers of the respondents based on the
retrieved answered instrument.
Profile of the Respondents
The table below shows the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of their sex,
religion and residence/house location. As manifested by the respondents from the seven
colleges and one school in the university only in the CAS, CIT and CEA where there are
more males than females. In the other four colleges and one school female respondents
dominate.
As regards to the religious affiliation of the respondents most of them are Catholics. This
result could be expected positively on the reason that the university is a Catholic
educational institution; however, this academic institution is at all times welcomes the
non Catholics enrollees.
Table 1
The Demographic Profile of the Respondents
Colleges
Sex
Religion
Residence / House
location
Male
Female
Catholic
Non-
Catholic
Urban
Rural
%
%
%
%
%
%
CAS
52.38
47.62
71.43
28.57
54.76
45.24
COA
14.63
85.37
75.61
24.39
36.59
63.41
CBE
25.00
75.00
88.64
11.36
45.45
54.55
COE
18.60
81.40
83.72
16.28
25.58
74.42
CIT
58.70
41.30
76.09
23.91
47.83
52.17
CEA
68.89
31.11
73.33
26.67
46.67
53.33
CON
31.11
68.89
84.44
15.56
37.78
62.22
STHM
22.58
77.42
80.06
19.35
51.62
48.38
As to the residence ( house location) of the respondents the results evidently prove
that many are coming from rural ( countryside); however, in the CAS and STHM
majority of them are coming from the urban area ( city ).
Communication Style
The Table 2 below displays the result of the study regarding the type of communication
style which the respondents used. It can be noticed that none of the three communication
styles (aggressive, passive, and assertive) is used always or very extensively by the
respondents. This signifies that among the three communication style utilized in this
study none of them that is specifically used by the respondents at all times. This result
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gives the researchers an impression that this concurs with what was discussed in the
online article entitled Identify the Different Reasons People Communicate and Explain
How Communication Affects Relationships within the Work Setting, (2012). The article
confers that persons “need communication for many different reasons and enthusiastic
tone of voice” is one of the very important form of communication to avoid dullness in
certain activity. Thus, to carry on one communication style may not be desirable. Positive
relationship seems to be far from reality when an individual does not know how to
communicate in an effective manner with the different groups of people, (“Identify the
Different Reasons People Communicate,” 2012).
Aggressive Communication Style
It can be observed from the outcome of the survey that the aggressive communication
style is used by the respondents of CAS, COA, CBE, COE, CIT, CEA, and CON in few
times while the STHM respondents manifested that they utilized aggressive
communication style occasionally. This invites the idea that most of the behavior in
aggressive communication style as identified by Sherman, ( 1999) which are to put
others down, does not ever think they are wrong, bossy , moves into people's space,
overpowers, jumps on others, pushes people around, know-it-all attitude , and does not
show appreciation” are practiced by the respondents only in small number of instances
except the STHM respondents which they showed that they use it in a moderately
extensive manner. This means that aggressive communication style is practiced by them
in some instances.
Passive Communication Style
The STHM and COA, CBE, CIT, and CEA applied passive communication style
occasionally. This means that the respondents make use of the described communication
style in a moderately extensive manner. This implies that the description of Sherman,
(1999) as to the behavior of passive communication style which cited that the
communicator sighs a lot, tries to sit on both sides of the fence to avoid conflict, clams
up when feeling treated unfairly, asks permission unnecessarily, complains instead of
taking action, let others make choices, has difficulty implementing plans, and self-
effacing” ( shy) are practiced by majority of the respondents in some instances. On the
other hand, CAS, COE and CON used passive communication style in few times. This
means that commonly they applied this communication style in small number of
instances.
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Table 2
The Communication Style Used by the Respondents from Different Colleges
Colleges
CAS
COA
CBE
COE
CIT
CEA
CON
STHM
Communication
Style and its
Indicators
Item
Ave.
µ
Int
Item
Ave.
µ
Int
Item
Ave.
µ
Int
Item
Ave.
µ
Int
Item
Ave.
µ
Int
Item
Ave.
µ
Int
Item
Ave.
µ
Int
Item
Ave.
µ
Int
Aggressive
1. I am close
minded.
1.55
Ft
1.41
Ft
1.66
Ft
1.35
Ft
1.72
Ft
1.51
Ft
1.51
Ft
1.65
Ft
2. I am a poor
listener.
1.83
Occ
1.66
Ft
1.43
Ft
1.56
Ft
1.65
Ft
1.53
Ft
1.40
Ft
1.81
Occ
3.I have difficulty
seeing the other
persons point of
view.
1.69
Ft
1.39
Ft
1.67
Ft
1.30
Ft
1.70
Ft
1.64
Ft
1.58
Ft
1.84
Occ
4. I interrupt while
others are talking.
1.67
Ft
1.59
Ft
1.52
Ft
1.44
Ft
1.64
Ft
1.67
Ft
1.56
Ft
1.84
Occ
5. I monopolize in
times of
conversation.
1.79
Occ
1.54
Ft
1.64
Ft
1.40
Ft
1.87
Occ
1.44
Ft
1.33
Ft
1.71
Ft
Factor Average
1.70
Ft
1.52
Ft
1.58
Ft
1.41
Ft
1.72
Ft
1.56
Ft
1.48
Ft
1.77
Occ
Passive
6. I indirectly
transmit the message
to a person.
1.83
Occ
1.90
Occ
1.84
Occ
1.47
Ft
1.96
Occ
1.73
Ft
1.73
Ft
1.97
Occ
7. I always agree.
1.74
Ft
1.90
Occ
1.91
Occ
1.88
Occ
2.26
Occ
1.87
Occ
1.76
Occ
2.10
Occ
8. I do not speak up.
1.64
Ft
1.78
Occ
1.84
Occ
1.44
Ft
1.98
Occ
1.76
Occ
1.56
Ft
1.65
Ft
9. I am hesitant to
talk.
1.79
Occ
1.80
Occ
1.61
Ft
1.49
Ft
1.85
Occ
1.91
Occ
1.69
Ft
1.81
Occ
Factor Average
1.75
Ft
1.85
Occ
1.80
Occ
1.57
Ft
2.10
Occ
1.82
Occ
1.68
Ft
1.88
Occ
Assertive
10. I am an effective
and active listener.
2.29
Occ
2.29
Occ
2.68
O
2.63
O
2.65
O
2.62
O
2.56
O
2.71
O
11. I state my
limitations or
expectations.
2.12
Occ
2.12
Occ
2.64
O
2.60
O
2.61
O
2.60
O
2.64
O
2.61
O
12. I state my
observations and
with no judgments.
2.17
Occ
2.20
Occ
2.55
O
2.51
O
2.43
Occ
2.40
Occ
2.40
Occ
2.48
Occ
13. I express myself
directly, honestly
about my feelings
and wants, and as
soon as possible.
2.17
Occ
2.41
Occ
2.70
O
2.72
O
2.80
O
2.71
O
2.62
O
2.77
O
14. I check on others’
feelings.
2.31
Occ
2.71
O
2.68
O
2.88
O
2.96
O
2.69
O
2.89
O
2.87
O
Factor Average
2.21
Occ
2.35
Occ
2.65
O
2.67
O
2.69
O
2.60
O
2.62
O
2.69
O
Legend: Ft - Few Times µ - weighted mean
Occ - Occasionally Int - Interpretation
O - Often Item Ave. - Item Average
A - Always
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Assertive Communication Style
In the assessment made by the CBE, COE, CIT, CEA, and CON and STHM respondents
it can be described that they used assertive communication style often. This means that
this communication style is use by the former extensively and in majority of instances.
Meanwhile, the CAS and COA respondents declared that they applied assertive
communication style occasionally. This signifies that the respondents make use of the
described communication style in a moderately extensive manner which in one way or
another agrees the words of Clifford, (1996) when she said that, “Communicating is a
matter of style. While other people prefer to be frank, others like beating around the
bush”. At this point, the result of this study leads the researcher to believe that most
of the respondents adhere to the concepts of Sherman, (1999) when she enumerates that
assertive communicator “operates from choice, knows what is needed and develops a
plan to get it, action-oriented, firm, realistic in her expectations , fair, just , consistent
and takes appropriate action toward getting what she wants without denying rights of
others; however, it is lightly impressive since this is observed and applied moderately.
Though every person has different communication style, assertive communication style
needs to be intensified in view of its commendable characteristics. Sherman, (1999)
documented that assertive communicator have “ sense of humor, trusts self and others,
confident, self-aware, open, flexible, versatile , playful, decisive , proactive, initiating,
non-judgmental, observes behavior rather than labeling it.” According to Johnson,
(2008) “there exists different kinds of communication mediums in the market, but what
matters most is how effectively one communicates with one another. He believes that
communication can be gauge effective if the intended message has been received more or
less accurately.”
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The main purpose of this study was to determine the communication style of the student-
respondents from the chosen university in the city. There were numbers of different
communication style; however, this work concentrated only on the three basic
communication style namely aggressive, passive and assertive.
Findings
Painstakingly a research has been made and the researchers observed the
following:
1. Among the randomly selected respondents, females are dominant in number that
male respondents.
2. By religious affiliation most of the respondents are Catholics and only few are
non-Catholics.
3. Except for a few, most of the houses of the respondents are located in the rural
areas.
4. Among the 337 respondents no one said that they use aggressive, passive and
assertive communication style extensively and at all times or always.
9
5. Aggressive communication style is consistently utilized in few times by CAS,
COA, CBE, COE, CIT, CEA, and CON and was applied occasionally by the
STHM respondents only.
6. Passive communication style is used by the respondents from the COA, CBE,
CIT, CEA and STHM occasionally, while the CAS, COE and CON respondents
employed this communication style in few times.
7. Assertive communication style was applied by CBE, COE, CIT, CEA, CON and
STHM often, while CAS and COA used it occasionally.
Conclusion
In the light of the findings of the study, the researchers conclude that the respondents get
hold on the idea that everyone has his own rights. A person should believe in
himself/herself but should also value others. Being assertive does mean that a person
should always win because he thinks he knows everything, but instead a glorious person
is one who could handle a situation even in the most difficult time effectively. Aggressive
style of communication has its equal importance especially in times where the state of
affairs needs immediate decisions. Passiveness is applicable when it involves
insignificant issues and when it would be impossible to change decisions of the higher
authority. In closing, the three communication styles were used by different group of
people in different manner and at different extent; however an effective communicator is
one who could transmit his message accurately regardless of his communication style.
Recommendations
In the context of the findings of the study, the researcher presents the following
recommendations:
1. That, students must be encouraged to improve their communication style; much
enhance communication style will produce good communicators.
2. That, teachers should be more liberal in understanding the students when they
try to overcome their communication difficulty.
3. That, school administrators should initiate more programs that would increase
students’ self-esteem and self-confidence.
4. That, other researchers may utilize this output for their future research study
which may explore on the relationship of the demographic profile of the
respondents namely sex, religion and residence/home location with their
communication style.
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Communication. (2013). Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved April 2, 2012 from
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Johnson, J. (2008). The many modes of communication. Network World. Vol. 25.Trade
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Heller, R. & Hindle, T. (1998). Essential manager’s manual. Dorling Kindersley
Limited. London
Identify the Different Reasons People Communicate and Explain How Communication
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Neal, H. E. (1961). Communication. From Stone Age to space age. Julian Messner,Inc.
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Mackenzie, L. (1998). Communication and Networks. McGraw-Hill International
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A**A
... The research on interpersonal conflict, identifies three styles of communication behaviors in conflict situations (Pipas and Jaradat, 2010;Maximo et al., 2011;Bocar, 2017;Tripathy, 2018). An aggressive communication style is made up of a domineering attitude and manipulation, commanding things to fall into place (Pipas and Jaradat, 2010;Tripathy, 2018). ...
... An aggressive communication style is made up of a domineering attitude and manipulation, commanding things to fall into place (Pipas and Jaradat, 2010;Tripathy, 2018). In a passive communication style, the communicator is indirect, always agrees, does not speak up, and appears hesitant to communicate their feelings (Bocar, 2017;Tripathy, 2018). An assertive style emphasizes dialogue, patience, respect for others, collaboration, as well as a willingness to hear each other out (Pipas and Jaradat, 2010;Maximo et al., 2011). ...
... Nonverbally, it can be expressed through behaviors such as speaking loud and fast, staring, closed mouth, fast and quick body movement, and being too close physically. An aggressive person is often closed-minded, a poor listener, has difficulty seeing the other person's point of view, often achieves goals at others' expense, is domineering overpowering, bullying, puts others down, doesn't acknowledge others point of view, and tells others who they think they are (Bocar, 2017;Tripathy, 2018). ...
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Conflict is a natural but uncomfortable part of all human relationships. Researchers and practitioners alike are interested in developing training and therapeutic methods for teaching couples and families healthy conflict management styles. However, the research literature offers little for practitioners in the way of specific verbal and nonverbal “skills” they can teach to their clients and patients. In this paper, we examine the work of Dr. Steven Winer, educator and practitioner in Communication, with a focus on anger management and conflict resolution in interpersonal relationships. We review the research literature on interpersonal conflict and compare it to the advice offered through Dr. Winer's workshops, which he developed through years of viewing over 4,000 videotapes of communication behavior patterns exhibited by his clients during conflict role-play sessions.
... Assertive communication style is associated with communicators who have a sense of has self-confidence, who develop self-esteem and are self-motivated. They communicate their feelings freely, take prompt action, are very consistent, they respect the rights of others and they are just fair and firm (Sherman, 1999in Bocar, 2018) Bocar (2018, asserts that that "good communication underpinned long-term successful relationship. Verbal communication is an imperative tool for people to get to know each other. ...
... Assertive communication style is associated with communicators who have a sense of has self-confidence, who develop self-esteem and are self-motivated. They communicate their feelings freely, take prompt action, are very consistent, they respect the rights of others and they are just fair and firm (Sherman, 1999in Bocar, 2018) Bocar (2018, asserts that that "good communication underpinned long-term successful relationship. Verbal communication is an imperative tool for people to get to know each other. ...
Poster
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IGWEBUIKE JOURNAL VOL. 6. NO. 6
... Since computationally analyzing human characteristics is beyond our research scope, we asked two annotators to rate the participants' verbal and behavior character by observing the recorded video. We simply classified the characteristic into three groups: Passive, Assertive, or Aggressive based on [4]. We calculated mean values after each annotator assigned a score of -1, 0, or 1, respectively, and then we mapped the score onto the ranges of (-1 to -0.35) for passive, (0.35 to -0.35) for Assertive, and (1 to 0.35) for Aggressive. ...
Article
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Physical face-to-face collaboration with someone gives a higher-quality experience compared to mediated communication options, such as a phone-or video-based chat. Participants can share rich sensory cues to multiple human senses in a physical space. Also, the perceptual sensing of the surrounding environment including other peoples' reactions can influence human communication and emotion, and thus collaborative performance. Shared spaces in virtual environments provide degraded sensory experiences because most commercial virtual reality systems typically provide only visual and audio feedback. The impact of richer, multi-sensory feedback on joint decision-making tasks in VR is still an open area of research. Two independent studies exploring this topic are presented in this paper. We implemented a multi-sensory system that delivers vision, audio, tactile, and smell feedback, and we compared the system to a typical VR system. The scenario placed two users in a virtual theme-park safari ride with a number of non-player character (NPC) passengers to simulate realistic scenarios compared to the real-world and we varied the type and complexity of NPCs reactions to participants. In Experiment 1, we provided both users with either multi-sensory or typical sensory feedback symmetrically as a between-subjects factor, and used NPC reaction type as a within-subjects factor. In Experiment 2, we provided sensory feedback asymmetrically to each user (i.e., one had multi-sensory cues and the other had typical sensory cues) as a between-subjects factor, and used NPC reaction type as a within-subjects factor. We found that the number of sensory channels and NPC reactions did not influence user perception significantly under either symmetric or asymmetric sensory feedback conditions. However, after accounting for individual personality traits (e.g., assertive, passive), as well as any existing relationship between the pairs, we found that increasing the number of sensory channels can significantly improve subjective responses.
... Kuesioner dipilih karena mudah digunakan untuk mendapatkan data dari sampel penelitian yang relatif banyak (Purwanto, 2018) Kuesioner penelitian disusun dengan mengadopsi dari para peneliti sebelumnya. Kuesioner tentang non-assertive, aggressive dan assertive diadopsi dari kuesioner yang telah digunakan oleh Bocar (2017). Adapun untuk kuesioner tentang gaya komunikasi manipulative menggunakan kuesioner yang disusun sendiri oleh peneliti. ...
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Kata Kunci: Communication Style, Educator, Learning Motivation Learning motivation is one of the factors that can determine the success or failure of learning, therefore the study of factors that can increase learning motivation is needed, because motivation to learn is an encouragement that makes students have the desire, attention so as to be able to become a driver of students to realize behavior in this case is a behavior for learning. One variable that has an influence on students' learning motivation is the educator's communication style. Thus the purpose of this study is how the influence of the educator's communication style on learning motivation. This type of study is a quantitative study. The sample in this study were 100 students from two schools, namely Al-Firdaus Mertoyudan Middle School students and MTs Mamba'ul Hisan students. The types of data in this study are primary data collected using a questionnaire. Data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling. with the help of SmartPLS software. The results of this study are communication styles that can affect students' learning motivation including manipulative, aggressive, and assertive communication styles. Aggressive communication style has a significant negative effect on students' learning motivation. On the contrary, manipulative and assertive communication styles must be maintained because they can increase students' learning motivation. Meanwhile the non-assertive communication style proved not to have a significant effect on learning motivation. ABSTRAK Motivasi belajar merupakan salah satu faktor yang dapat menentukan berhasil tidaknya pelaksanaan pembelajaran, oleh karenanya studi mengenai faktor-faktor yang dapat meningkatkan motivasi belajar diperlukan, karena motivasi belajar merupakan dorongan yang membuat peserta didik memiliki keinginan, perhatian sehingga
... Kuesioner dipilih karena mudah digunakan untuk mendapatkan data dari sampel penelitian yang relatif banyak (Purwanto, 2018) Kuesioner penelitian disusun dengan mengadopsi dari para peneliti sebelumnya. Kuesioner tentang non-assertive, aggressive dan assertive diadopsi dari kuesioner yang telah digunakan oleh Bocar (2017). Adapun untuk kuesioner tentang gaya komunikasi manipulative menggunakan kuesioner yang disusun sendiri oleh peneliti. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kata Kunci: Communication Style, Educator, Learning Motivation Learning motivation is one of the factors that can determine the success or failure of learning, therefore the study of factors that can increase learning motivation is needed, because motivation to learn is an encouragement that makes students have the desire, attention so as to be able to become a driver of students to realize behavior in this case is a behavior for learning. One variable that has an influence on students' learning motivation is the educator's communication style. Thus the purpose of this study is how the influence of the educator's communication style on learning motivation. This type of study is a quantitative study. The sample in this study were 100 students from two schools, namely Al-Firdaus Mertoyudan Middle School students and MTs Mamba'ul Hisan students. The types of data in this study are primary data collected using a questionnaire. Data analysis using Structural Equation Modeling. with the help of SmartPLS software. The results of this study are communication styles that can affect students' learning motivation including manipulative, aggressive, and assertive communication styles. Aggressive communication style has a significant negative effect on students' learning motivation. On the contrary, manipulative and assertive communication styles must be maintained because they can increase students' learning motivation. Meanwhile the non-assertive communication style proved not to have a significant effect on learning motivation. ABSTRAK Motivasi belajar merupakan salah satu faktor yang dapat menentukan berhasil tidaknya pelaksanaan pembelajaran, oleh karenanya studi mengenai faktor-faktor yang dapat meningkatkan motivasi belajar diperlukan, karena motivasi belajar merupakan dorongan yang membuat peserta didik memiliki keinginan, perhatian sehingga
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This is a study of the structural relationships among four commonly used networks in small-group experiments. Using graph theory several relationships among these networks are developed. The results demonstrate how these networks can be decomposed into subnetworks. Several behavioral consequences are developed and a rationale is provided for using 5-person groups in experiments. Other consequences indicate several experimental procedures that can be used in the analysis of organizations.
What's your communication style? Teen Magazine
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