ArticlePDF Available

NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF SPINACIA OLERAECEA SPINACH-AN OVERVIEW

Authors:

Abstract

This study has been overviewed to observe the nutritional effect of (Spinacia Oleraecea) on human health by consuming it in to various form as raw or cooked because of its antioxidant compound, dietary fiber, minerals vitamins and iron compound prevents ones health from various diseases anemia, and also it contains many anticancer agents. It is also contains omega 3 fatty acids and anti-inflammatory agent. It is concluded that eating fresh green vegetables prevents many diseases which results a good heath.
Miano, IJLSR, 2016; Vol. 2(12): 172-174. ISSN: 2394-9864
International Journal of Life Sciences and Review 172
© 2015 by the International Journal of Life Sciences and Review. All rights reserved
IJLSR (2016), Vol. 2, Issue 12 Review Article
International Journal of Life Sciences and Review (IJLSR)
Received on 23 September, 2016; received in revised form, 18 November, 2016; accepted, 04 December, 2016; published 31 December, 2016
Document heading doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJLSR.2 (12).172-74
NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF SPINACIA OLERAECEA SPINACH-AN OVERVIEW
Tahseen Fatima Miano
Institute of Food Sciences and Technology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando jam, Pakistan.
ABSTRACT: This study has been overviewed to observe the nutritional effect of (Spinacia Oleraecea) on human health by consuming it in to
various form as raw or cooked because of its antioxidant compound, dietary fiber, minerals vitamins and iron compound prevents ones health
from various diseases anemia, and also it contains many anticancer agents. It is also contains omega 3 fatty acids and anti-inflammatory agent.
It is concluded that eating fresh green vegetables prevents many diseases which results a good heath.
Keywords: Fresh, cooked, vitamin K, antioxidant, anti cancer, health.
Correspondence to Author:
Tahseen Fatima Miano
Institute of Food Sciences and Technology Sindh, Agriculture University, Tando jam, Pakistan.
E-mail: tahseenfm@yahoo.com
INTRODUCTION: Spinach (Spinacia oleraecea)
has been widely growing throughout the Pakistan.
There are so many seasonal vegetables produced
from them spinach is one of the most important and
nutritious vegetable eaten raw or cooked it provides
a very good amount of vitamins B6, riboflavin,
folate, niacin, soluble dietary fiber, omega 3-fatty
acid and minerals. Spinach is also rich with iron; its
use prevents from some of diseases like
osteoporosis, anaemia results of iron deficiency 6.
In adding to its food value, spinach has a numeral
therapeutic uses. S Use of spinach for
gastrointestinal disorder, blood-generating therapy,
growth stimulation in children, appetite
stimulation, convalescent support, and fatigue. It
has been also suggested its use as an anticancer
agent, antioxidant 6, and cancer preventative.
QUICK RESPONSE CODE
DOI:
10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJLSR.2(12).172-74
Article can be accessed online on:
www.ijlsr.com
DOI link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJLSR.2(12).172-74
Spinach may also reduce age-related eyesight
worsening from macular deterioration and cataract.
In which may also interact 1 with anticancer herbs
and supplements 7. Spinach cultivation in Pakistan
has more consideration now a days, consuming
200gm of spinach gives 41 calories it also an
excellent source of vitamin K, flavnoids, carotenes,
vitamin C, folic acid compounds in spinach
prevents from development of cancer cells, it has
been further observed that flavonoids compounds
in spinach functions as an antioxidant agent which
act in body anticancer agent. Functional and health
qualities of spinach 7 and its technological
advances in formulation 3 or preserving the fresh
vegetables is under consideration for health
benefits. Spinach is also composed of various
active compounds such as flavonoids and other
polyphenolic active ingredient compounds are
acting in combination with one another as anti
inflammatory agents and antioxidant agent.
Vitamin K in spinach: Spinach contains Vitamin
K is a group of compounds. The most important of
these compounds appears to be vitamin K1 and
vitamin K2. Vitamin K1 is obtained from leafy
greens and also from spinach vegetables.
Miano, IJLSR, 2016; Vol. 2(12): 172-174. ISSN: 2394-9864
International Journal of Life Sciences and Review 173
FIG. 1: CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF VITAMIN K IN
SPINACH.
Antioxidantive agents in spinach: Flavonoids,
carotenoids, vitamins (C, E) and phenolic
compounds have antioxidative action when spinach
is consumed these all components together controls
the effect of free radical (Fig. 2) to reduce their
harmful effect. All compounds have antioxidant
effect 2.
FIG. 2: CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF ANTIOXIDANT
EFFECTS IN SPINACH.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Processing of
freshly harvested Spinach is under.
Selection of spinach: Spinach can be harvested
when its leaves fully mature they are picked by
hand or by scissor properly collect with careful
handling.
FIG. 3: A. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SPINACH
WITH NUTRIENTS.
Wash with clean water: After collection the
spinach leaves should be ashed with clean water to
remove the dust dirt or other impurities repeat this
process for two or three time to achieve impurities
free spinach leaves.
Homogenous cutting: Take stainless steel knife
for cutting the spinach, cutting should be done
homogenous.
Cooking: Spinach for cooking should be placed in
a pot put all the cutted spinach in to pan on medium
heat after few minutes it releases water. Another
method is to boil the water and add spinach leaves
in to boiled water for few minutes, discard the
water from spinach cook as desired Fig. 4. Show
the flow process of spinach as raw to eat.
FIG. 4: FLOW PROCESSING CHART OF SPINACH
Spinach leaves drying: Above mentioned method
is applied for drying of spinach to use in off season
when this crop is not available it can be stored for
long time by drying 4. After washing of spinach it
can be spread in direct sun light to remove the
moisture content, after two days direct exposure to
sun it can be collected and paced in to polyethylene
bags tightly store at safe and hygiene place for use3.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION: It is concluded
from the overview that the use of spinach in our
daily life has great importance to prevent the health
from many disease its antioxidative effect has
active compounds and are highly available to the
body, a powerful natural antioxidant mixture has
been identified from spinach leaves with its main
active compounds, these compounds are heat stable
and non toxic when eaten its dietary invention is
important in human. All compounds have
antioxidant effect in body 2.
Miano, IJLSR, 2016; Vol. 2(12): 172-174. ISSN: 2394-9864
International Journal of Life Sciences and Review 174
REFERENCES:
1. Agoreyo BA, O Akpirorah, OA Orukpe, OR Osaweren.
The effect of various drying methods on the nutritional
composition of Musa Paradisaca, Dioscorea rotundata and
Colocasia esculenta. Asian j. of bio. Chem. 2011,
6(6):548-464.
2. Bergquist S. Bioactive Compounds in Baby Spinach
(Spinacia oleracea L.) Effects of Pre and Postharvest
Factors. Doctoral thesis Swedish University of
Agricultural Sciences Alnarp, 2006.
3. Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou. Responses of Spinach to
Salinity and Nutrient Deficiency in Growth, Physiology,
and Nutritional Value. JAHS 2016, 141(1) 12-21.
4. Gupta S, BS Gowri, AJ Lakshmi, and J Prakash. Retention
of nutrients in green leafy vegetables on dehydration. J
Food Sci Technol. 2013, 50(5): 918925.
5. Kamal K, T Muslim and M A Rahman. Chemical
Composition of Some Leafy Vegetables of Bangladesh.
Dhaka Univ. J. Sci. 2013, 61(2): 199-201.
6. Patricia O. Proximate composition and nutritive value of
leafy vegetables consumed in northern côte d’ivoire.
European Scientific Journal, 2014, 10(6) ISSN: 1857
7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431.
7. Robinson SP, WJS Downton, and JA Millhouse.
Photosynthesis and Ion Content of Leaves and Isolated
Chloroplasts of Salt-Stressed Spinach. Plant Physiol. 1983,
73, 238-242
All © 2015 are reserved by International Journal of Life Sciences and Review. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
This article can be downloaded to ANDROID OS based mobile. Scan QR Code using Code/Bar Scanner from your mobile. (Scanners are
available on Google Playstore)
How to cite this article:
Miano TF: Nutritional value of Spinacia oleraecea spinach-an overview. Int J Life Sci Rev. 2016; 2(12) 172-
74:.doi:10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJLSR.2(12).172-74.
... In Malaysia, two species of spinach commonly consumed as vegetable dishes are green spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius). Green spinach provides good amount of antioxidant compound, dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins, and iron compound which is beneficial to prevent anaemia [1]. Meanwhile, red spinach contains vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C, chlorophyll, beta carotene, and riboflavin as well as multiple secondary metabolites such as alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, glycoside and many more [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The chemical composition, such as water, ash, iron and total vitamin C content, of 28 green leafy vegetables were analyzed in this investigation. The water content of the leafy vegetables varied between 83.8 to 95.5 g/100 g fresh vegetable sample. The ash content of the samples varied between 8.0 to 22.6 g /100 g of dry vegetable powder. The iron content of the leafy vegetables varied from 11.8 to 78.2 mg/100 g of dry sample and the total vitamin C content varied from 191.5 to 21.6 mg/100 g of fresh sample. These findings conclusively suggest that the locally available leafy vegetables are good source of water, minerals, iron and vitamin C.
Article
Full-text available
Salinity and nutrient-depleted soil are major constraints to crop production, especially for vegetable crops. The effects of salinity and nutrient deficiency on spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) were evaluated in sand cultures under greenhouse conditions. Plants were watered every day with Hoagland nutrition solution, deprived of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), or potassium (K) for nutrient deficiency, either with or without 20/10 mm sodium chloride (NaCl)/calcium chloride (CaCl2) for salinity treatment. Salinity significantly decreased shoot fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW), leaf relative water content (RWC), and specific leaf area (SLA) relative to controls after 4 weeks of treatment and increased chlorophyll content, maximum photochemical efficiency (F-v/F-m), and photochemical yield [Y(II)]. Nitrogen deficiency greatly reduced shoot FW and DW, SLA, and chlorophyll content, regardless of salt treatment. Y(II) and F-v/F-m were reduced by N deficiency and salinity treatment. Phosphorous and K deficiencies, similarly, decreased shoot FW and DW irrespective of salinity treatment and increased chlorophyll content without salt stress. Phosphorous deficiency increased Y(II) under control and F-v/F-m under both control and salt treatment. Salinity and nutrient deficiency also affected the nutritional value of spinach. Salt stress increased carotenoid and flavonoid contents, and reducing power in full-strength Hoagland solution, and decreased leaf ferrous ion chelating ability (FICA). Nutrient deficiency increased reducing power regardless of salinity treatment. Nitrogen deficiency increased anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, decreased carotenoids and flavonoids regardless of salinity treatment, and increased antioxidant capacity under no-salt conditions. Phosphorous deficiency increased carotenoid and flavonoid contents under no-salt condition and enhanced total phenolic content and reduced FICA and amino acid content under salt stress. Potassium deficiency increased total phenolic, carotenoid, and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity under non-salt condition, but decreased FICA regardless of salinity treatment. These results suggest that spinach nutritional value could be improved with only moderately or slightly reduced yield through cultural practices that impose either low fertilizer levels or slight salt stress.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of dehydration on nutrient composition of Amaranthus gangeticus, Chenopodium album, Centella asiatica, Amaranthus tricolor and Trigonella foenum graecum. The green leafy vegetables (GLV) were steam blanched for 5 min after pretreatment and dried in an oven at 60 °C for 10–12 h. The fresh and dehydrated samples were analyzed for selected proximate constituents, vitamins, minerals, antinutrients and dialyzable minerals. Dehydration seems to have little effect on the proximate, mineral and antinutrient content of the GLV. Among the vitamins, retention of ascorbic acid was 1–14%, thiamine 22–71%, total carotene 49–73% and β—carotene 20–69% respectively, of their initial content. Dialyzable iron and calcium in the fresh vegetables ranged between 0.21–3.5 mg and 15.36–81.33 mg/100 g respectively, which reduced to 0.05–0.53 mg and 6.94–58.15 mg/100 g on dehydration. Dehydration seems to be the simplest convenient technology for preserving these sources of micronutrients, especially when they are abundantly available. Irrespective of the losses of vitamins that take place during dehydration, dehydrated GLV are a concentrated natural source of micronutrients and they can be used in product formulations. Value addition of traditional products with dehydrated GLV can be advocated as a feasible food-based approach to combat micronutrient malnutrition.
Article
Full-text available
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants were subjected to salt stress by adding NaCl to the nutrient solution in increments of 25 millimolar per day to a final concentration of 200 millimolar. Plants were harvested 3 weeks after starting NaCl treatment. Fresh and dry weight of both shoots and roots was decreased more than 50% compared to control plants but the salt-stressed plants appeared healthy and were still actively growing. The salt-stressed plants had much thicker leaves. The salt-treated plants osmotically adjusted to maintain leaf turgor. Leaf K(+) was decreased but Na(+) and Cl(-) were greatly increased.The potential photosynthetic capacity of the leaves was measured at saturating CO(2) to overcome any stomatal limitation. Photosynthesis of salt-stressed plants varied only by about 10% from the controls when expressed on a leaf area or chlorophyll basis. The yield of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence from leaves was not affected by salt stress. Stomatal conductance decreased 70% in response to salt treatment.Uncoupled rates of electron transport by isolated intact chloroplasts and by thylakoids were only 10 to 20% below those for control plants. CO(2)-dependent O(2) evolution was decreased by 20% in chloroplasts isolated from salt-stressed plants. The concentration of K(+) in the chloroplast decreased by 50% in the salt-stressed plants, Na(+) increased by 70%, and Cl(-) increased by less than 20% despite large increases in leaf Na(+) and Cl(-).It is concluded that, for spinach, salt stress does not result in any major decrease in the photosynthetic potential of the leaf. Actual photosynthesis by the plant may be reduced by other factors such as decreased stomatal conductance and decreased leaf area. Effective compartmentation of ions within the cell may prevent the accumulation of inhibitory levels of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the chloroplast.
Article
A high intake of fruit and vegetables is well known to have positive effects on human health, and has been correlated to a decreased risk of most degenerative diseases of ageing, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts and several forms of cancer. These protective effects have been attributed to high concentrations of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, flavonoids, carotenoids) in fruit and vegetables, partly due to the antioxidative action of some of these compounds. Maintaining a high level of these compounds in fruit and vegetables is therefore desirable. In addition, a high concentration of antioxidants in horticultural produce is believed to improve its storability and reduce the rate of deterioration. This thesis investigated the effects of pre- and postharvest factors on the concentrations of bioactive compounds in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). The factors studied included sowing time, growth stage at harvest, use of shade nettings and postharvest storage temperature and duration. Bioactive compounds were analysed using reversed-phase HPLC and chlorophylls using a spectrophotometric method. Visual quality of the fresh and stored leaves was scored on a 1-9 scale, where 9 was the best. The concentrations of ascorbic acid and flavonoids most often decreased during plant growth. Carotenoids showed relatively small increases or decreases, but nevertheless, plant growth had the largest impact on carotenoid concentration of the factors studied. Harvesting the leaves slightly earlier than is currently common practice may thus give increased concentrations of bioactive compounds. The variation in these compounds during the season was relatively small except for the flavonoids, which doubled in concentration in April-sown spinach compared to August-sown. Shading generally decreased ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations, but most often increased carotenoid concentration. Flavonoid concentration showed different responses at different times of the season and at different growth stages. In some cases the concentration decreased due to shading, while in others it did not change significantly. There were considerable losses of ascorbic acid during storage, whereas carotenoids and flavonoids were more stable and sometimes increased. Ascorbic acid concentration at harvest was correlated with visual quality after storage, indicating that the antioxidative action of ascorbic acid may protect the plant tissue against oxidative stress and subsequent deterioration.
The effect of various drying methods on the nutritional composition of Musa Paradisaca, Dioscorea rotundata and Colocasia esculenta. Asian j. of bio
  • B A Agoreyo
  • Akpirorah
  • Oa Orukpe
  • Or Osaweren
Agoreyo BA, O Akpirorah, OA Orukpe, OR Osaweren. The effect of various drying methods on the nutritional composition of Musa Paradisaca, Dioscorea rotundata and Colocasia esculenta. Asian j. of bio. Chem. 2011, 6(6):548-464.
Proximate composition and nutritive value of leafy vegetables consumed in northern côte d'ivoire
  • O Patricia
Patricia O. Proximate composition and nutritive value of leafy vegetables consumed in northern côte d'ivoire. European Scientific Journal, 2014, 10(6) ISSN: 1857 -7881 (Print) e -ISSN 1857-7431.
Scan QR Code using Code/Bar Scanner from your mobile. (Scanners are available on Google Playstore) How to cite this article: Miano TF: Nutritional value of Spinacia oleraecea spinach-an overview
This article can be downloaded to ANDROID OS based mobile. Scan QR Code using Code/Bar Scanner from your mobile. (Scanners are available on Google Playstore) How to cite this article: Miano TF: Nutritional value of Spinacia oleraecea spinach-an overview. Int J Life Sci Rev. 2016; 2(12) 17274:.doi:10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJLSR.2(12).172-74.