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oat is truly known as the poor man's cow.
Dairy goat and dairy sheep farming are a
vital part of the national economy in many
countries, especially in the Mediterranean and
Middle-East region and are particularly well
organized in France, Italy, Spain and Greece
(Chiofalo et al., 2004). Presently, India possesses
126 million goats which contribute 14.5% of the
world (FAO, 2009). The goat is one of the main
contributors of dairy and meat products for rural
people, more than any other mammalian farm
animal, particularly in developing country. One
of the prominent aspects of demand of goat milk
is its home consumption. This demand is
increasing because of the growing populations
of people. The second important aspect of demand
for goat milk is the connoisseur interest in goat
milk products especially, cheeses and yoghurt
in several developed and developing countries.
This demand is growing because of the increasing
levels of per capita incomes. In addition to that,
another important aspect of demand for goat milk
derives from the affliction of persons with cow
milk allergies and other gastro-intestinal
ailments. This demand is also growing because
of a greater awareness of problems with
traditional medical treatments to such afflictions
among the people. Goat milk is wanted or even
needed by people of all income groups. Despite
the much larger volume available of cow milk,
it's much cheaper production usually and
therefore, lower market price, the production
and marketing of goat milk and its products is
therefore, an essential niche in the total dairy
industry sector. Goat milk differs from cow or
human milk in having better digestibility,
alkalinity, buffering capacity and certain
therapeutic values in medicine and human
nutrition (Coni et al., 1999).
The specific gravity of cow and goat milk is almost
similar and generally found in the range of 1.023
to 1.030. Titratable acidity (expressed as
percentage of lactic acid) is also nearer to that
Nutritional FNutritional F
Nutritional FNutritional F
Nutritional Featureatur
eatures of Goat Milkes of Goat Milk
es of Goat Milkes of Goat Milk
es of Goat Milk
— A R— A R
— A R— A R
— A Revieweview
1 * Corresponding author
. Sr. Assistant Professor (Dairy Technology), Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Dairy Technology (BAU, Sabour), P.O.- BVC
Campus, Jagdeopath, Patna-800014. Email:
2 M. Sc. (Dairy Technology), Bihar Agriculture College (BAU, Sabour), Sabour, Bhagalpur (Bihar)
3 Assistant Professor (Animal Science), Bihar Agriculture College (BAU, Sabour), Sabour, Bhagalpur (Bihar)
4 Assistant Professor (Dairy Technology), Sanjay Gandhi Institute of Dairy Science and Technology (BAU, Sabour),
P.O.- BVC Campus, Jagdeopath, Patna-800014. Email:
5 Research Associate, Dairy Technology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001. Email:
6 Principal Scientist, Dairy Technology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001. Email:
2012-044 Received:October 2011; Accepted:July 2012
Sanjeev Kumar1*, Birendra Kumar2, Rajesh Kumar3, Suryamani Kumar4,
Sunil K. Khatkar5 and S. K. Kanawjia6
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132001 (Haryana)
The goat is one of the main contributor of dairy and it produces about 2% of the world's total
annual milk supply. Goat's milk is the most highly consumed milk in many other parts of the
world and it is delicious as well as extremely nutritious. It has vitamins, minerals, trace
elements, electrolytes, enzymes, proteins, and fatty acids that are easily assimilated by the
body. Goat's milk has a similarity to human milk that is unmatched in bovine (cow) milk and
also has several medicinal values. Therefore, awareness about advantage of consumption of
goat milk should be popularized so that production and utilization of goat milk could be
Keywords: Goat's milk, Nutritional value, Protein, Fat profile, Minerals, Vitamins
Review Article
267 Indian J. Dairy Sci. 65(4), 2012
of cow's milk and generally observed from 0.11
to 0.18. Viscosity at 27°C is marginally lower
than that of cow's milk. In addition to that, the
refractive index of goat milk is also almost close
to cow milk. The electrical conductivity of goat
milk is found in the range of 0.0101 to 0.0188
ohm-1 cm-1, whereas, pH value of goat milk found
in the ranges of 6.5 to 6.9 as against 6.6 to 6.8
in case of cow milk. However, curd tension is
below than the cow milk, which is responsible
for better digestibility in goat milk as compared
to cow milk. Goat milk has more Ca, P and K in
comparison to cow and human milk (Bihaqi and
Jalal, 2010). Goat milk also has simple lipids
(diacylglycerols, monoacylgycerols, cholesterol
esters), complex lipids (phospholipids) and
liposoluble compounds (sterols, cholesterol esters,
hydrocarbons). Non-protein nitrogen (NPN)
contents of goat and human milks are higher
than in cow milk (Jooyandeh and Aberoumand,
2010). Especially, one of the important aspects
of demand for goat milk is mainly due to its
medicinal value. Still, more research for its
nutritional and medicinal value is essential for
utilization of goat milk in human consumption
as well as in medicinal use in developing as
well as in developed countries.
The overall average composition of goat, cow and
human milk is presented in Table 1. The
nutritional and health benefits of goat milk are
related to a number of medical problems of people,
foremost being food allergies with cow milk
proteins the dominant food cause (Walker, 1964).
The α-Lactoglobulin is not present in human
milk and has therefore been assumed to be the
most offending protein in cow milk, however
comparative studies showed no difference between
the allergenicity of α-lactoglobulin and caseins
(Buergin-Wolff et al., 1980; Taylor, 1986). Cow
milk allergy is considered a common disease
with a prevalence of 2.5% in children during
the first 3 years of life (Businco and Bellanti,
1993), occurring in 12-30% of infants less than
3 months old (Lothe et al., 1982), with an overall
frequency in Scandinavia of 7-8% (Host et al.,
1988), even as high as 20% in some areas (Nestle,
1987), and reported in Italy in 3% of children
under 2 years of age (Bevilacqua et al., 2000).
Treatment with goat milk resolved between 30
and 40% of the problem cases, and in one
particular study 49 of 55 treated children
benefited. There are wide varieties of genetic
polymorphisms (Grosclaude, 1995) of the different
caseins and whey proteins which add to the
complexity of the cow milk allergy situation and
difficulty to determine which protein is mainly
responsible for an allergic reaction. However, it
has now been noticed that this genetic protein
diversity may actually help identify which protein
is the allergen, if genetic polymorphisms of milk
proteins are specifically used for clinical tests
(Bevilacqua et al., 2000). Goat milk with the
genetic trait of low or no αs1-casein, but instead
with αs2-casein, has less curd yield, longer rennet
coagulation time, more heat stability, and weaker
curd firmness, which also may explain the benefits
in digestibility in the human digestive tract
(Ambrosoli et al., 1988). Goat milk as a substitute
for cow milk was studied in 38 children during
a 5 months period (Mack, 1952). The children
on goat milk surpassed those on cow milk in
weight gain, height, skeletal mineralization, and
blood serum contents of Vitamin A, calcium,
thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and hemoglobin. Similar
findings were obtained in studies with rats (Park
et al., 1986). In other extensive clinical studies
with children allergic to cow milk, the treatment
with goat milk produced positive results in 93%
of the children and was recommended as a
valuable aid in child nutrition because of less
allergenicity and better digestibility than cow
milk (Reinert and Fabre, 1997; Fabre, 1997;
Grzesiak, 1997). In further studies with rats,
which had 50% of their distal small intestine
removed by resection, simulating the pathological
condition of malabsorption syndrome, the feeding
of goat milk instead of cow milk as part of the
diet resulted in significantly higher digestibility
and absorption of iron and copper, thus preventing
anemia (Barrionuevo et al., 2002). Due to
predominance of smaller fat globules in goat milk,
it is easier to digest than cow milk and this
may be attributed to faster lipase activity on
smaller fat globules due to greater surface area
(Chandan et al., 1992). Hence, goat milk is
recommended for infants, old and convalescent
people. In addition to this, fatty acids like caproic,
caprylic and capric are reported to have great
medicinal values for patients suffering from a
variety of malabsorption, childhood epilepsy, cystic
fibrosis and gallstones (Haenlein, 1992). Also in
these further studies, the utilization of fat and
Features of Goat Milk
weight gain was improved with goat milk in the
diet, compared to cow milk, and levels of
cholesterol were reduced, while triglyceride, HDL
values remained normal (Alferez et al., 2001). It
was concluded that the consumption of goat milk
reduces total cholesterol levels and the LDL
fraction because of the higher presence of
medium chain triglycerides (MCT) (36% in goat
milk versus 21% in cow milk), which decreases
the synthesis of endogenous cholesterol. Thus
goat milk is recommended as a "useful alternative
to cow milk for all age groups especially to
The comparative composition of proteins and
their components in the milk of goats and cows
have been reviewed by Jenness (1980) and
Haenlein (2001), identifying many unique
differences between the two species, and showing
a wide diversity due to genetics of different breeds
within each species, influences of stage of
lactation, feeding, climate, and subclinical
mastitis. It has been found that goat milk has
a significantly higher dye-binding capacity per
unit protein (1% more than cow milk) and a
lower infra-red absorption (4% less than cow milk)
(Grappin et al.,1979), making it necessary to
use different calibration curves for each species
to measure milk protein content. These studies
have been supported by Zeng (1996), when testing
with cow milk standards resulted in 0.04% less
fat and 0.27% less protein in goat milk. Goat
milk proteins are similar to the major cow milk
proteins in their general classifications of α-,
β-, κ-caseins, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, but
they differ widely in genetic polymorphisms and
their frequencies in goat populations (Grosclaude,
1995). The presence of the αs1-casein trait has
been studied much in recent years, when it
was discovered that it has six different types,
A, B, C, E, F and "null" in goat milk. In cow
milk, αs1-casein is the major αs-casein. The
"null" type or absence in some goat milk means
that in different goats the major (αs-casein is
the αs2-casein variant, but which has different
digestibility and cheese making properties
(Remeuf, 1993). The differences in genetic types
are because of amino acid substitutions in the
protein chains, which are responsible for the
differences in digestibility, cheese making
properties and flavors of goat milk products
(Rystad et al., 1990), but the amino acid
substitutions also enable the detection of even
small amounts of adulteration with cow milk
(Aschaffenburg and Dance, 1968; Amigo et al.,
1989). Peptides formed from goat milk casein
by proteases tasted much less bitter than those
from cow milk casein (Pelissier and Manchon,
1976). Casein micelles, the form of casein
molecule suspended in goat milk, also differ
markedly from cow milk in less complete
sedimentation rate, greater β-casein
solubilization, smaller size of micelle, more
calcium and phosphorus, less solvation, and low
heat stability (Jenness, 1980). Average amino
acid composition of goat and cow milk (Table 2),
shows higher levels of 6 of the 10 essential
amino acids: threonine, isoleucine, lysine,
cystine, tyrosine, valine in goat milk (Posati
and Orr, 1976). Their comparative metabolic
effects have not been studied much in goat milk,
but this could assist in the interpretation of
some of the empirical beneficial effects of goat
milk in human nutrition. In studies with rats,
which had malabsorption syndromes, it was found
that goat milk improved the intestinal absorption
of copper, which was attributed to the higher
contents of cysteine (derived from cystine) in
goat milk (83 mg/100 g) than in cow milk (28
mg/100 g) (Barrionuevo et al., 2002). Overall,
the adult daily dietary nutrient recommendations
for essential amino acids would be met equally
or exceeded by a 0.5 litre goat milk consumption
compared to same quantity of cow milk (NRC,
Table 1: Average Composition (%) of Milks
Species Water Fat Protein Lactose Ash Solid-not-fat Total
(SNF) Solids
Goat 87.00 4.25 3.52 4.27 0.86 8.75 13.00
Cow 87.20 3.70 3.50 4.90 0.70 9.10 12.80
Human 87.43 3.75 1.63 6.98 0.21 8.82 12.75
Source: Webb and Johnson, 1965
Sanjeev Kumar et al.
269 Indian J. Dairy Sci. 65(4), 2012
An important component in goat milk is its fat
or lipid content. The size of fat globules in milk
range from 1-10 micron in both cow and goat.
But, in goat milk the globule size less than 5
microns is 83%, as compared to 62% in cow's
milk (Bihaqi and Jalal, 2010). Average goat milk
fat differs in contents of its fatty acids profile
significantly from average cow milk fat (Jenness,
1980), being much higher in butyric (C4:0),
caproic (C6:0), caprylic (C8:0), capric (C10:0),
lauric (C12:0), myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0),
linoleic (C18:2), but lower in stearic (C18:0),
and oleic acid (C18:1) (Table 3). Capric, caprylic
acids and medium chain triglycerides (MCT) have
become established medical treatments for an
array of clinical disorders, including
malabsorption syndromes, chyluria, steatorrhea,
hyperlipoproteinemia, intestinal resection,
premature infant feeding, non-thriftiness of
children, infant malnutrition, epilepsy, cystic
fibrosis, coronary by-pass, and gallstones, because
of their unique metabolic ability to provide direct
energy instead of being deposited in adipose
tissues, and because of their actions of lowering
serum cholesterol, inhibiting and limiting
cholesterol deposition (Alferez et al., 2001). Goat
milk has higher content of monounsaturated
(MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and
medium chain triglycerides (MCT) than cow milk,
which all are proven to be beneficial for human
health, especially for cardiovascular conditions
(Table 3). This biomedical superiority has not
been promoted much in marketing goat milk,
goat yoghurt and goat cheeses, but has great
potential in justifying the uniqueness of goat
milk in human nutrition and medicine (Haenlein,
1992) for treating the various gastro-intestinal
disorders and diseases, besides its value in
alleviating cow milk allergies. The fatty acid
composition of goat milk fat can also be changed
towards even more of the beneficial fatty acids
by different regimes of feed supplementation to
goats (LeDoux et al., 2002; Sanz Sampelayo et
al., 2002).
Manipulations of goat feeding towards higher
contents of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids
in goat milk fat by feeding special feed
supplements like protected fats can be used to
"tailor make" "functional foods" and even further
improve the nutritional value of goat milk (Sanz
Sampelayo et al., 2002). Recently more "beneficial
fat", conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), has been
identified as a potent anticarcinogen and is
primarily provided to the human diet by dairy
products (Pfeuffer, 2000; Kansal, 2003). Mono
ethyl-branched substitutions on C4 and C6 fatty
acids are present only in goat milk and not in
Table 2: Average amino acid composition (g/l00 g milk) in proteins of goat and cow milk
Goat milk Cow milk Difference (%) for goat milk
Essential amino acids
Tryptophan 0.044 0.046
Threonine 0.163 0.149 +9
Isoleucine 0.207 0.199 +4
Leucine 0.314 0.322
Lysine 0.290 0.261 +11
Methionine 0.080 0.083
Cystine 0.046 0.030 +53
Phenylalanine 0.155 0.159
Tyrosine 0.179 0.159 +13
Valine 0.240 0.220 +9
Non-essential amino acids
Arginine 0.119 0.119
Histidine 0.089 0.089
Alanine 0.118 0.113
Aspartic acid 0.210 0.250
Glutamic acid 0.626 0.689
Glycine 0.050 0.070
Proline 0.368 0.319
Serine 0.181 0.179
Source: Posati and Orr, 1976
Features of Goat Milk
cow milk. A comparatively high number of minor
branched-chain fatty acids is found in goat milk
and the content of trans-C18:l fatty acids is
significantly lower in goat milk than in cow milk,
also a benefit for coronary heart disease risks.
Goat butter, ghee and related products with their
even higher contents of MCT, unsaturated fatty
acids and CLA than the original milk has not
been studied much nor produced commercially.
Here is the potential to provide a goat milk
product with specially beneficial and proven
properties for human nutrition and health,
besides its general food value to starving people
and to connoisseurs. This supports the idea that
goat butter would have new and not yet promoted
for human health benefits so far. So, there is a
need to further studies the beneficial health
aspects of goat milk and milk products.
There are a number of unique physiological and
anatomical differences between goats and cows
which translate into differences in composition
of goat milk and its products (Haenlein, 1992,
1996, 2001). This was already recognized by the
Goat Milk Task Force of the National Conference
on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS, USA)
(Atherton, 1983).US dairy industry had set up
separate standards for goat milk from cow milk
for butter fat content minimum, solids-not-fat
content, somatic cell count maximum, method
for only nucleated cells in milk, lower freezing
point level, different natural inhibitor test,
different milk pasteurization test, validity of
brucellosis ring test, detection of cow milk in
goat milk, all of which had to insure fair market
quality control regulations and practices for goat
milk producers.
Mineral contents of goat milk are much higher
than cow and human milk. Goat milk contains
about 134 mg Ca and 121 mg P/100 g (Table 4),
while human milk has only one-fourth to one-
sixth of these two major minerals. The
concentrations of macro-minerals may not
fluctuate much, but they vary depending on the
breed, diet, individual animal, stage of lactation,
and status of udder health (Park and Chukwu,
1988). Overall, goat milk has more Ca, P, K, Mg
and Cl, and less Na and S contents than cow
milk (Park and Chukwu, 1988; Chandan et al.,
1992). Among trace minerals, Zn was in greater
amounts, but goat and cow milk had more Zn
than human milk (Park and Chukwu, 1989).
Levels of Fe in goat and cow milk are significantly
lower than in human milk (Table 4), whereas
goat and cow milk contain significantly greater
iodine contents than human milk, which would
be important for human nutrition, since iodine
and thyroid hormones are involved in the
metabolic rate of physiological body functions
(Underwood, 1977). Goat and human milk contain
Table 3: Average fatty acid composition (g/100 g milk) in lipids of goat and cow milk
Goat milk Cow milk Difference (%) for goat milk
C4:0 butyric 0.13 0.11
C6:0 caproic 0.09 0.06
C8:0 caprylic 0.10 0.04
C10:0 capric 0.26 0.08
C12:0 lauric 0.12 0.09
C14:0 myristic 0.32 0.34
C16:0 palmitic 0.91 0.88
C18:0 stearic 0.44 0.40
C6-14 total MCT 0.89 0.61 +46
C4-18 total SAFA 2.67 2.08 +28
C16:1 palmitoleic 0.08 0.08
C18:1 oleic 0.98 0.84
C16:1-22:1 total MUFA 1.11 0.96 +16
C18:2 linoleic 0.11 0.08
C18:3 linolenic 0.04 0.05
C18:2-18:3 total PUFA 0.15 0.12 +25
(Source: Posati and Orr, 1976)
MCT: medium chain triglycerides; SAFA: saturated fatty acids; MUFA:
monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA: polyunsaturated fatty acids
Sanjeev Kumar et al.
271 Indian J. Dairy Sci. 65(4), 2012
higher levels of Se than cow milk (Table 4).
Small amounts of Se (<3%) are associated with
the lipid fraction of milk. Glutathione peroxidase
is higher in goat than in human and cow milk.
Total peroxidase activity (associated with
glutathione peroxidase) was 65% in goat milk
as opposed to 29% for human and 27% for cow
milk (Debski et al. 1987).
Goat milk has higher amounts of Vitamin A
than cow milk (Table 5). Because goats convert
all β-carotene into Vitamin A in the milk, caprine
milk is whiter than bovine milk. Goat milk
supplies adequate amounts of Vitamin A and
niacin, and excesses of thiamin, riboflavin and
pantothenate for a human infant (Ford et al.,
1972; Parkash and Jenness, 1968). If a human
infant fed solely on goat milk, the infant is
oversupplied with protein, Ca, P, Vitamin A,
thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and pantothenate in
relation to the FAO-WHO requirements (Jenness,
1980). Compared to cow milk, goat milk has
significant deficiencies in folic acid and Vitamin
B12, which cause "goat milk anemia" (Jenness,
1980). Levels of folate and Vitamin B12 in cow
milk are five times higher than those of goat
milk, and folate is necessary for the synthesis
of hemoglobin (Davidson and Townley, 1977).
Goat and cow milk are both deficient in
pyridoxine (B6), Vitamins C and D, and all these
deficient vitamins must be supplemented to baby
nutrition from other sources (Mc Clenathan and
Walker, 1982). In heat treatment of goat milk,
Lavigne et al. (1989), reported that high
temperature short time pasteurization (HTST)
Table 4: Mineral contents (amount in 100 g) of goat and cow
milk as compared with human milk
Mineral Goat Cow Human
Ca (mg) 134 122 33
P (mg) 121 119 43
Mg (mg) 16 12 4
K (mg) 181 152 55
Na (mg) 41 58 15
Cl (mg) 150 100 60
S (mg) 28 32 14
Fe (mg) 0.07 0.08 0.20
Cu (mg) 0.05 0.06 0.06
Mn (mg) 0.032 0.02 0.07
Zn (mg 0.56 0.53 0.38
I (mg) 0.022 0.021 0.007
Se (μg) 1.33 0.96 1.52
Source: Park et al., 2007
Table 5: Vitamin contents (amount in 100 g) of goat and
cow milk as compared with human milk
Vitamin Goat Cow Human
Vitamin A (IU) 185 126 190
Vitamin D (IU) 2.3 2.0 1.4
Thiamine (mg) 0.068 0.045 0.017
Riboflavin (mg) 0.21 0.16 0.02
Niacin (mg) 0.27 0.08 0.17
Pantothenic acid (mg) 0.31 0.32 0.20
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.046 0.042 0.011
Folic acid (μg) 1.0 5.0 5.5
Biotin (μg) 1.5 2.0 0.4
Vitamin B12 (μg) 0.065 0.357 0.03
Vitamin C (mg) 1.29 0.94 5.00
Source: Park et al., 2007
Features of Goat Milk
of goat milk was the best processing method to
preserve vitamins as well as to extend shelf-
life of the milk, although some losses of thiamine,
riboflavin and Vitamin C occurred.
It is evident from this paper that goat milk is
superior with respect to cow milk in terms of
nutritional value of milk. Awareness about
advantage of consumption of goat milk should
be popularized so that production and utilization
of goat milk could be enhanced. More research
are still required to exploit the use of liquid
goat milk as well as its application licensing
in manufacture of several milk products
especially various types of cheese and fermented
milk food throughout the world.
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Features of Goat Milk
... An increase in the activity of a number of proteases during the heat treatment of milk can contribute to this [20]. In addition, by increasing the number and increasing the availability of sulfhydryl groups, denaturation and degradation of proteins can lead to an additional contribution to the increase in the antioxidant activity of cow and goat milk [20,21]. As well as other side groups of amino acids that can play the role of traps for reactive oxygen species. ...
The paper presents the data on the physicochemical composition of cow and goat milk in different seasons of the year, as well as physicochemical data on mixed compositions of cow and goat milk in various proportions for the production of soft cheeses without ripening. The yield of soft cheese samples was calculated for a different combination of cow and goat milk, where a soft cheese sample with a milk raw material ratio of 50/50 and with the addition of extruded chickpea flour had a yield of 20.5%. Thus, it was found that the developed soft cheese formulation from a mixture of milk raw materials with chickpea flour allows the production of an environmentally friendly and biologically complete product.
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Yoghurt is one of the well‐known fermented dairy products that play an important role in the human diet. At present, products made of goat's milk are becoming more popular. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of physicochemical properties of yoghurt fortified with vitamin C. Six different yoghurts were developed: from goat's and cow's milk without any addition, with L‐ascorbic acid and acerola addition. The results showed that the addition of L‐ascorbic acid significantly decreased pH. Based on the sensory evaluation, the natural cow's yoghurt has scored higher in the overall rating among yoghurts. The addition of L‐ascorbic acid to natural goat's yoghurt positively affected the color, taste, flavor, and consistency. In the case of cow's milk yoghurt, the addition of L‐ascorbic acid and acerola deteriorated the taste of the product. The current study supports the conclusion that the addition of vitamin C to yoghurt produces an enriched yoghurt with desirable properties compared to plain yoghurt.
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This present investigation aimed to compare between cow and goat yogurt based on compositions, physicochemical and sensory properties. The Association of Official Analytical Chemistry International and Indonesian National Standards were used to analyze the parameters of yogurt samples. One-way ANOVA was achieved to assess the variance between data by Microsoft Excel. Yogurt was made from different fresh milk samples; cow and goat milk. Thees results shown there were no significant differences between cow and goat yogurt on fat values were 2.02, 2.10%, ash values were 0.39, 0.59 and in viscosities values were 47.18 and 47,65 respectively. On the other side there were significant differences on total solids were 12.82 and 14.5%, protein content was 2.89 and 3.185%, and pH was 4.56 and 4.34, respectively. The results from this study concluded that goat yogurt had the best physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics comparable with cow yogurt.
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In the Mediterranean area, the olive cake (OC) and cactus cladodes (CC) are two alternative resources widely available that could be used for ruminants' feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of OC and/or CC diet incorporation on the production performance and quality of goat milk. Forty-four lactating goats were randomly allocated to four groups. The control one (Co) received a conventional feed. Test groups (TOC; TCC and TOC+CC) received 20% OC, 30% CC, or 15% OC and 20% CC, respectively, on concentrate dry matter basis. Over three months, milk production was evaluated, and samples were collected to analyze the milk quality. No significant differences were observed between control and test groups for daily milk production, yield, composition and acidity. In milk fat, OC incorporation increased C18:1n-9, mono-unsaturated (MUFA) and n-9 fatty acid (FA), and decreased 9t-C18:1 and poly-unsaturated FA (PUFA) (p < 0.05). Significantly highest contents of C15:0, C18:1n-9, and C21:0, and lowest levels of C4:0, 9t-C18:1, 6t-C18:2, C20:0, and PUFA were obtained with cactus cladodes administration (p < 0.05). The TOC + CC diet reduced C4:0, 9t-C18:1, 6t-C18:2, C22:6n-3, and PUFA proportions, and increased C18:1n-9, MUFA/PUFA, and thrombogenic indexes. The incorporation rates of OC and CC that could reach 20% and 30%, respectively, had no major negative effects on milk production performance, composition, and quality. Thus, they could be introduced in the diets of lactating goats.
Copy number variation (CNV) is a major type of genomic structural variation. We investigated their impacts on goat dairy traits using the CaprineSNP50 array. From 120 samples of five dairy goat breeds, we totally identified 42 CNVs ranging from 56,044 bp to 4,337,625 bp. We found significant associations between two CNVs (CNV5 and CNV25) and two milk production traits (mean of milk fat yield and mean of milk protein yield) after false discovery rate (FDR) correction (P < 0.05). CNV5 overlaps the ADAMTS20 gene, which is involved in the differentiation of mammary cell and plays a crucial role in lactogenic activity of bovine mammary epithelial cells. CNV25 overlaps with PAPPA2, which has been found to be associated with bovine reproduction and milk production traits. Our results revealed that CNVs overlapped with ADAMTS20 and PAPPA2 could be involved in goat dairy traits and function as candidate markers for further genetic selection.
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The consumption of garlic (Allium sativum) is widely known to (negatively) impact body odor, in particular breath and sweat, but also urine. Despite this common phenomenon, the underlying processes in the body that lead to the malodor are not yet fully understood. In previous studies we identified three volatile garlic-derived metabolites in human milk and urine, namely allyl methyl sulfide (AMS), allyl methyl sulfoxide (AMSO), and allyl methyl sulfone (AMSO2). In the present study, we monitored the excretion processes of these metabolites via human urine after consumption of garlic over time, whereby 19 sets of eight urine samples (one sample pre-ingestion and seven samples post-ingestion) were analyzed using two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (HRGC-GC-MS/O). The highest concentrations of these metabolites were detected in urine ~1–2 h after garlic ingestion, with a second increase observed after 6–8 h in the urine of some participants. Moreover, the highest observed concentrations differed between the individual participants or test series by up to one order of magnitude.
The purpose of this study was to determine goat milk physicochemical parameters during the feed scarcity season. An evaluation was made for 398 milk samples from 80 multiparous goats belonging to three different production systems: (S1) mechanized milking grazing pasture and harvested residue (alfalfa) and grain supplemented; (S2) system grazing native pasture; and (S3) system grazing native pasture and grain supplemented. The general averages were: fat (FT) 4.0 ± 0.20%, protein (PR) 3.3 ± 0.05%, lactose (LC) 4.9 ± 0.09%, nonfat solids (NFS) 8.9 ± 0.13%, total solids (TS) 14.5 ± 0.20%, temperature (TM) 24.6 ± 1.06°C, and acidity (pH) 6.7 ± 0.049. Most of the physicochemical components of milk were affected (p < 0.0001) by the production system × month interaction and production system × group × month interaction. The FT content was higher (p < 0.05) in S2 (4.56 ± 0.18) than in S1 (3.64 ± 0.20) and S3 (3.50 ± 0.20). LC differed (p < 0.05) in S2 (5.07 ± 0.08) than in S1 (4.77 ± 0.09) and S3 (4.70 ± 0.09). No differences were observed for the rest of the variables (p < 0.05) among the production systems. The study unveiled a higher content of FT, LC, NFS, PR, and TS for S2 than for S1 and S3. This higher content may be explained because S2 only grazed on herbs and shrubs, in contrast to S1 and S3 which were additionally supplemented with grain concentrates.
In reply to Dr Carey, we want to emphasize that the criterion for entering a study was that our definition of colic (as quoted by Dr Carey) was fulfilled (ie, "crying of about 3 hours or longer per day. . ."). In our report, an unfortunate misprint occurred. On page 264, first paragraph of the "Results" section, line 5, is written "infants receiving cow's milk-based formula cried 1.5 hours per day or more." It should have been "3 hours per day or more." In the double-blind trial, we decided to reduce the time of crying to > 1.5 hours per day to accept the reaction as positive for the following reasons: Experienced pediatricians know that the adverse reaction to food in a food-allergic (intolerant) infant is dose dependent.
Prevalence of food allergy is increased worldwide and cow's milk is the food that sensitization occurs more frequently in infants. The most common clinical manifestations are immediate reactions, with skin (angioedema, urticarial, dermatitis) and digestive symptoms (vomiting, acute diarrhea); respiratory and systemic symptoms are less frequent. The suspected diagnosis is based on clinical history, which must be confirmed with the improvement by milk food derivate elimination from the diet and if possible, a positive challenge test after variable period of time. It is recommended perform allergic tests in the improvement patient after the suppression, to confirm whether milk allergy is IgE or non-IgE mediated. The only treatment that has proven effective is elimination diet, which must be as strict as possible, in exclusively breast-fed infants with maternal milk food derivates avoidance diet, and in formula-fed with extensively hydrolyzed cow milk protein or soy protein-based formulas. The prognosis is usually good and most will tolerate milk proteins at two years of age, earlier when presented in isolation; in contrast, in the polysensitized patient usually takes more years to disappear. In the case of not reaching the tolerance, oral immunotherapy is one option, but still limited to research.
Cows' milk is an important component of the diet especially during infancy. Yet, cows' milk can elicit allergic and other sensitivity reactions in some individuals. Cows' milk allergy (CMA) results from an abnormal immunologic reaction to cows' milk proteins. IgE responses are definitely involved in CMA. Immune complexes and tissue lymphocytes may also play a role in some forms of CMA, but further evidence is needed to firmly establish this possibility. The presence of circulating antibodies to cows' milk proteins of the IgG, IgA and IgM classes is not clinically significant. Such antibodies are found in both normal and allergic individuals. (β-Lactoglobulin and casein are the most common cows' milk allergens, although other cows' milk proteins may play important roles in some cases. Partial digestion of cows' milk proteins may enhance their allergenicity, whereas complete hydrolysis abolishes their allergenicity. Heating can also alter the allergenicity of the cows' milk proteins, but rather severe heati...