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The Communication Barriers between Teachers and Parents in Primary Schools

Authors:
  • Cyprus Health an Social Science. University
  • Manisa Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Education, Manisa, Turkey

Abstract

Problem Statement: In educational institutions, the effectiveness of communication between teachers and parents, in terms of student achievement and attendance, has a great importance. Parent-teacher communication provides multi-faceted benefits to teachers, the school, and parents as well. However, various obstacles hinder the realization of effective parent-teacher communication in school settings. Purpose of Study: The main purpose of this study is to determine the communication barriers between parents and teachers, based on the views of primary school teachers. This study is seen as important since it addresses the barriers in communication, which is seen as vital for achieving educational aims effectively. Effective communication provides achievement and improvement by providing support to parents, students, teachers, and schools and promoting appropriate environments. Method: This research is a survey type descriptive study. Due to the stratified and random type sample formation, 850 teachers were considered to be taken into the research sample; however, 514 of the distributed questionnaires were found valid. The data collection tool used was a four-dimensioned scale developed by the researchers themselves. In the analysis of the data, parametric and non-parametric tests were used. Findings: The findings revealed that teachers experienced “individual” barriers at a “general” level, but other “socio-cultural,” “accessibility,” and “field and status” related barriers at were experienced at the “very rare” level without any significant differences considering the gender and branches of the teachers. However, novice teachers (5 years and less work experience) stated significantly the most individual barriers and the most barriers related to the other dimensions as well. Results and Suggestions: The results obtained in this study show the same major communication preventive issues between teachers and parents documented in the literature. Thus, results such as physical distance, socio-cultural differences (language, dress, values), meeting with parents only when money is required, parents’ lack of trust in teachers and their unwillingness for cooperation, parents’ financial problems and lack of interest about informing parents of school-related issues, inappropriate schedule of school activities, teachers’ misbehaviors, parents’ education level, parents’ mistrust in teachers and managers, and the like also confirm the situation represented in previous research. It was recommended that school managers and teachers adopt an open-door policy for parents; and the schools should take the initiative of realizing collaborative efforts among the school staff, parents, and other relevant institutions in order to eliminate communication barriers. The training of the school administrators, teachers, and families about gaining effective communication skills that will contribute to student achievement should be emphasized.
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EurasianJournalofEducationalResearch
PrintISSN:1302597X&eISSN:25288911
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, Issue 66, 2016, 27-46
The Communication Barriers between Teachers and Parents
in Primary Schools
Fatma OZMEN
Cemal AKUZUM
Muhammed ZINCIRLI
Gulenaz SELCUK
Suggested Citation:
Ozmen, F., Akuzum, C., Zincirli, M., & Selcuk, G. (2016). The communication barriers
between teachers and parents in primary schools. Eurasian Journal of Educational
Research, 66, 26-46
http://dx.doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2016.66.2
Abstract
Problem Statement: In educational institutions, the effectiveness of
communication between teachers and parents, in terms of student
achievement and attendance, has a great importance. Parent-teacher
communication provides multi-faceted benefits to teachers, the school,
and parents as well. However, various obstacles hinder the realization of
effective parent-teacher communication in school settings.
Purpose of Study: The main purpose of this study is to determine the
communication barriers between parents and teachers, based on the views
of primary school teachers. This study is seen as important since it
addresses the barriers in communication, which is seen as vital for
achieving educational aims effectively. Effective communication provides
achievement and improvement by providing support to parents, students,
teachers, and schools and promoting appropriate environments.
Method: This research is a survey type descriptive study. Due to the
stratified and random type sample formation, 850 teachers were
considered to be taken into the research sample; however, 514 of the
distributed questionnaires were found valid. The data collection tool used
This paper was presented at the Ist Eurasian Educational Research Congress.
Prof. Dr., Trakya University, fatmaozmen@trakya.edu.tr
 Corrsponding author: Asst. Prof. Dicle University, cemal.akuzum@dicle.edu.tr
 Doctoral Student. Fırat University Institute of Education Sciences,
bmuhammedzincirli@gmail.com
 Teaching Assist., Celal Bayar Univesity, gselcuk@hotmail.com
28 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
was a four-dimensioned scale developed by the researchers themselves. In
the analysis of the data, parametric and non-parametric tests were used.
Findings: The findings revealed that teachers experienced “individual”
barriers at a “general” level, but other “socio-cultural,” “accessibility,” and
“field and status” related barriers at were experienced at the “very rare”
level without any significant differences considering the gender and
branches of the teachers. However, novice teachers (5 years and less work
experience) stated significantly the most individual barriers and the most
barriers related to the other dimensions as well.
Results and Suggestions: The results obtained in this study show the same
major communication preventive issues between teachers and parents
documented in the literature. Thus, results such as physical distance,
socio-cultural differences (language, dress, values), meeting with parents
only when money is required, parents’ lack of trust in teachers and their
unwillingness for cooperation, parents’ financial problems and lack of
interest about informing parents of school-related issues, inappropriate
schedule of school activities, teachers’ misbehaviors, parents’ education
level, parents’ mistrust in teachers and managers, and the like also confirm
the situation represented in previous research. It was recommended that
school managers and teachers adopt an open-door policy for parents; and
the schools should take the initiative of realizing collaborative efforts
among the school staff, parents, and other relevant institutions in order to
eliminate communication barriers. The training of the school
administrators, teachers, and families about gaining effective
communication skills that will contribute to student achievement should
be emphasized.
Keywords: Schools, teachers, parents, effective communication,
communication barriers
Introduction
In fulfilling an efficient education in education organizations, communication not
only among the school managers, teachers, and students, but also with students’
parents bears a great importance. Especially communication between teachers and
parents regarding students’ performance in the class bears vital importance in better
understanding students’ problems, increasing parents’ support in education,
performing effective counselling and guidance, and ultimately increasing students’
motivation and success.
The existing parent-teacher communication studies generally approach the issue
from two aspects. The first covers teacher-parent relations and contributions of
parents to school communities and organizational activities, whereas the second one
covers studies about parents’ support of students’ academic development (Rogers et
al., 2009). Consequently, teacher-parent relations bear an increasing importance for
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 29
improving schools as learning communities and for students’ growth through
meeting their needs and expectations (Olcer & Kocer, 2015; Schussler, 2003). The US
National School Public Relations Association (NSPRA) reports numerous study
results that have indicated the important roles of school-parent-environment
cooperation in promoting school success and student growth (NSPRA, 2006).
However, healthy communication between teachers and parents is not always
possible, and numerous barriers on various levels can negatively affect the
communication process. These barriers can arise in connection with school resources,
teachers’ professional development levels, family, and environmental features. It is
not always possible to mention regular and efficient communication between school
management and structures, such as parent-teacher association and school protection
association, that are formed with the purpose of improving school-parent
cooperation (Aslan, 1984; Aytac, 2000; Gungor & Tasdan, 2016; Ozel, Bayindir &
Ozel, 2014). School managements remain incapable of understanding the importance
of communication between teachers-parents and school-parents and developing
efficient strategies in improving this communication (NSPRA, 2006). On the other
hand, most teachers cannot improve themselves without the knowledge and skills
that are needed in establishing an efficient communication with parents (Lawrence-
Lightfoot, 2004).
The main purpose of this study is to determine the communication barriers
between the parents and teachers based on the views of primary school teachers.
This study is seen as important since it addresses the barriers in communication,
which is seen as vital for achieving educational aims effectively. Effective
communication provides achievement and improvement by providing support to
parents, students, teachers, and schools and promoting appropriate environments.
Teacher-Parent Communication
The most common definition of communication is sharing emotions, thoughts,
knowledge, news, and skills, or in other words, the process of creating common
ground in the sense of emotions, thoughts, and manners among individuals (Karaca,
2016; Sever, 1998). Interpersonal communication is intentionally or unintentionally
affecting others by transmitting and receiving messages (Korkut, 2000).
Due to the raised awareness of the importance of parent-school cooperation in
achieving effective education, the number of studies encouraging parents to play
more active roles in school activities is increasing. A school-parent association is
deemed indispensable to school organizations for the realization of effective
education that will foster student performance (Acikalin & Turan, 2015; Ozyurek,
1983; Sisman & Turan, 2004). By means of communication, mutual trust between the
school and parents develops (Saritas, 2005), and mutual support towards
encouraging student learning increases (Celik, 2005).
A trust-based communication that can be established between teachers and
parents bears great importance from the aspect of determining problems, finding
ways to deal with them, and providing students with help on their way to learning.
30 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
Particularly at pre-school, elementary, and secondary school levels, communication
between teachers and parents assures the realization of issues such as informing,
enlightening, and training parents with the purpose of increasing student success.
Additionally, the efficiency of communication between teachers and parents
contributes to the schools by improving school and district relations, utilizing
environmental sources, and developing programs complying with environmental
conditions by securing parents’ integration into the school.
Schools that are organic parts of the society have a natural advantage in terms of
interacting with parents. For example, schools are in a position to host or facilitate
the organization of seminars for parents that range from child development to stress
management. Moreover, schools can help form support groups in meeting the
various needs of parents (Molland, 2004), can help parents to develop relationships
with the needed institutions, can encourage the parents to participate in school
projects, and can pioneer establishing a mechanism to promote counseling and
guidance programs (Graham-Clay, 2005).
Barriers in Teacher-Parent Communication and Ways to Deal with Them
Establishing healthy communication that makes life meaningful and forms social
life is not always possible due to “communication barriers.” In our schools, there are
numerous barriers that prevent the establishment of efficient communication
between teachers and parents. These barriers can generally be categorized as
physical, technical, psychological, or social and organizational (Sabuncuoglu &
Gumus, 2008). Hoover-Dempsey et al. (2002) categorize communication barriers in
schools as either school related and parent related. School-related obstacles are
described as the inability to provide communication support, lack of system
knowledge, and failure to develop alternative strategies. Parent-related ones are
described as family status, pragmatic concerns (such as non-flexibility of parents’
work hours, etc.), and psychological barriers (negative experiences about schools
etc.). Bursalioglu (2008) states that numerous barriers within or outside of the
organization can make the communication process harder, and sometimes it may
even stop it. The study describes these barriers as psychological, semantic, status-
related, protection-related, field-related, hierarchical, narcotizing, and restraining
barriers. Tutar (2009) categorizes factors that prevent the effective communication as
personal, language and expression difficulties, listening and perception inefficiencies,
lack of knowledge, sexual and cultural differences, misconception, and psychological
barriers.
Parents and school principals usually report lack of time as the most important
communication barrier. However, studies reveal that lack of planning towards
establishing cooperation and lack of developing a mutual understanding are the
most important communication barriers. In addition to that, some sort of feelings
related to previous negative experiences, religious and cultural differences,
transportation problems, and the incompetency and inefficiency of school members
may affect school-parent relations negatively (NSPRA, 2006).
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 31
Cultural differences can create communication barriers if the teachers reflect their
own cultural perspectives while interacting with the parents from a different
language and culture (Colombo, 2004). In order to deal with this potential
miscommunication, teachers should begin a quest for knowledge to help them
understand their students’ parents’ language and cultural differences (Lai &
Ishiyama, 2004). Along with gaining knowledge of cultural features, trying to
understand cultural differences and values seems to be important from the aspect of
dealing with communication barriers (Karadeniz, 2015; Kasahara & Turnbull, 2005).
Negative school experiences of parents can also constitute a barrier in their
communication with teachers. Schools should be able to provide guidance service to
help parents to manage these kinds of psychological problems (Finders & Lewis,
1994; Hartman & Chesley, 1998). This guidance service should encourage the parents
to seek help and get information related to the issues they worry about, to
understand the improvement level of the class, to grasp the teachers’ approach to
education, and to learn how to behave under what conditions. Providing the parents
with this kind of knowledge can create dual effects by decreasing parents’ negative
thoughts about school on one hand and increasing their interest in the school on the
other (Graham-Clay, 2005).
Economy-related issues and time constraints are seen among the elements that
hinder effective communication. It is reported that especially working parents do not
have enough time to cooperate with school. Besides, since most of the school-parent
meetings converted into money demanded places, most of the parents from poor
economic conditions refrain from attending these meetings (Finders & Lewis, 1994;
Seyfullahogullari, 2012; Terek et al., 2015). To cope with this, teachers can conduct
surveys to determine the work schedules of the parents at the beginning of the school
year; they can even inform parents about how and when they can communicate with
teachers. A study should be conducted on how the communication hours can be
made flexible to enable parents to attend the school or class meetings (Molland,
2004).
Also, lack of technology can limit communication opportunities. The new
technologies that provide convenience, efficiency, and effectiveness in knowledge
transfer have an important force in the development of parent-teacher
communication (Zieger & Tan, 2012). However, teachers shouldn’t think that all
parents have access to such technology, and so, they should investigate whether they
can benefit from the new technology. On the other hand, most teachers and parents
are still unable to make use of technology efficiently, and they give weight to
traditional paper-and-pencil-based communication (Graham-Clay, 2005).
Using technical terminology in communication with parents at the school level
seems to pose a general communication barrier. Teachers should observe their own
speech and make sure that they omit educational jargon from written
communications. If it is a must to use technical terms, the meaning of them must be
explained. Messages that are given to the parents in face-to-face communication
32 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
should not be above the parents’ understanding capacity (Williams & Cartledge,
1997).
As a result, efficient communication is necessary for creating school-parent
cooperation and increasing parent contribution. Teachers should not only be skilled
in the art of teaching, but also should improve their knowledge and skills towards
efficient communication with the parent community. There are numerous
communication means that teachers can benefit from, such as internet technology,
private interviews, conferences, group meetings, and the like. Teachers should strive
to develop communication strategies, new cooperative communication methods
should be established, and these efforts should reflect a planned approach (Graham-
Clay, 2005).
Caspe (2003) argues that teacher training and professional development
programs must actively support improvement of teachers’ communication skills.
Implicit in the wish for improving teacher-parent communication is the expectation
that parent attendance will contribute to the improvement of student success and
realization of an efficient education (Tschannen-Moran, 2001; Virginia Department of
Education, 2002). Studies about strengthening teacher-parent communication show
that it can increase students’ success in school and prevent the occurrence of
disciplinary problems in the school as well (Aslanargun, 2007).
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the communication barriers between
parents and teachers based on the views of primary school teachers in terms of
various variables.
Method
Research Model
The research is a survey type descriptive study. Descriptive studies aim to
explain the interaction between situations by regarding their relation with previous
events and conditions (Kaptan, 1998). In this context, it was tried in this study to
describe the factors that prevent teacher-parent communication.
Research Sample
The space of the study consisted of 3,968 teachers who worked at 317 elementary
schools within the boundaries of Elazig city during 20112012 academic year. The
sample size was calculated as 350 with a reliability level of 95% based on Cochran’s
(1962) formula. A total of 15 schools were chosen randomly, with three schools from
each of the five education districts in Elazig city center. In addition, a total of six
schoolstwo randomly chosen schools from each randomly chosen three central
townsfrom the central town set were included in the sample. Thus, questionnaires
were distributed to a total of 806 teachers from 21 elementary schools. 514 of the
returned questionnaires that were filled properly were taken into consideration by
the study (Table 1).
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 33
Table 1.
The Schools Included in the Sample and the Numbers of Returned Questionnaires
Primary Schools
Number of
Teachers
Number of
Returned
Questionnaires
School Districts
Bahcelievler
Salim Hazardagli
64
25
Bahcelievler
65
42
24 Kasim
10
11
Firat
Vali Lutfullah Bilgin
48
30
Yahya Kemal Beyatli
36
23
Gonul Ihsan Tangulu
45
39
Harput
Murat
51
20
Dumlupinar
23
15
Elazig
50
38
Hazar
Sair Hayri
45
19
Selcuklular
28
15
Yucel
45
41
Karsiyaka
Dogukent
68
38
Kaya Karakaya
30
25
60. Yıl
69
31
Chosen Central
Towns
Kovancilar
Kovancilar
37
27
Kovancilar Eti Holding
33
21
Palu
Palu YIBO
15
10
Palu Yavuz Selim
17
14
Karakocan
Karakocan Nuri Özaltin
24
15
Karakocan Cengiz Topel
23
15
Total
21
806
514
The distribution of the teachers according to their genders indicates that 42.2% of
the sample are female teachers and 57.8% are male. Regarding the branch variables,
77.4% of the teachers are in social sciences, 14.8% are in physical sciences, and 7.8%
are in arts/special talents. By work year variable, 56.8% of teachers have “5 or fewer
years,” 37% have “6–15 years,” and 6.2% have “6 and more years” (Table 2).
34 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
Table 2.
Demographic Qualifications of Teachers Who Participated in the Study
Demographic Qualifications
Groups
N
%
Gender
Female
217
42.2
Male
297
57.8
Total
514
100
Branch
Social sciences
398
77.4
Physical Sciences
76
14.8
Fine arts/Special talent
40
7.8
Total
514
100
Work Years in School
5 years and less
292
56.8
615 years
190
37.0
16 years and more
32
6.2
Total
514
100
Research Instrument and Procedure
With the purpose of determining the issues that prevent teacher-parent
communication, the “Communication Barriers Assessment Scale” was developed by
the researchers. In the development process, 27 items were initially generated,
accompanied by a literature review and expert opinions. In order to assess the
reliability and validity of the instrument, a pilot application was done, and the
opinions of randomly selected 152 teachers were asked. An exploratory factor
analysis was applied to the instrument. During the principal component analysis, six
items were excluded since their factor loads were found to be below .40 or because
they took place in two factors with close loads with a rate difference under .10. At the
end of varimax rotated analyses, 21 items were gathered under four factors with an
eigenvalue over 1.00. These factors were labeled “personal” (items 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 12),
“socio-cultural” (items 4, 8, 9, 10 ), “accessibility” (items 12, 14, 15, 18, 19 ) and “field
and status” barriers (items 13, 16, 17, 20, 21 ) according to the meanings of the items
grouped under each factor. In this pilot study, Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient
for the whole scale was calculated as .78. This is regarded as sufficient since .70 is
considered the limit value to test reliability (Buyukozturk, 2012). Reliability
coefficients for sub-dimensions were .82 for personal barriers, .71 for socio-cultural
barriers, .74 for accessibility barriers, and .70 for field and status barriers.
The Likert type scale contains five options namely “always, “generally,
“sometimes,” “rarely,” and “never,” to be scored as 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 for the items that have
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 35
negative connotations, and the reverse scoring for the positive ones. On the basis of
these dimensions, the responses of the subjects were computed regarding the mean
ranks as
4.20 always, 4.19 ≥
≥ 3.40 generally, 3.39 ≥
≥ 2.60 sometimes, 2.59
≥ 1.80 rarely, and
≤ 1.79 never.
Data Analysis
Data obtained from research were first entered to SPSS (Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences) package software, and the demographical features of the sample
group were analyzed by means of this software. Pursuant to the results of
Kolmogrov-Smirnov Z test for normal distribution, the Levene test for the
homogeneity of the scale, independent t test for gender variable, ANOVA for branch
variable, Kruskal-Wallis H test for work years of the subjects at schools, and the
Least Significant Difference (LSD) test and Mann-Whitney U test for assessing the
meaningful differences were computed.
Results
On the basis of the teachers’ opinions and with the purpose of determining the
preventive factors for the realization of efficient communication between teachers
and parents, the obtained findings are interpreted below.
Results and Interpretations Related to Gender Variable
Pursuant to the independent samples t test, there is no significant difference
between female (
A =3.68) and male teachers’ (
B =3.62) [t(512) =1.29, p>.05] views
regarding “personal” barriers (parents’ prejudices towards school, illiteracy of
parents, concern about hearing negative comments about children, parents’ problems
with school management, and so on). This finding indicates that, although female
teachers have encountered more personal barriers, male and female teachers are
exposed to a similar number of personal obstacles at the “generally” level. Other
“socio-cultural barriers (parents’ religious affinity, poor socio-economic conditions,
low level of education, parents’ tendency to find their children very successful);
accessibility barriers (not stating the needs and opinions openly, not paying
attention to the teacher, inaccessibility of parents when they are needed, insufficient
amount of time devoted to the parents, not talking easily with the parents about their
children at any time); and “field and status”-related barriers (distance of residential
address of the parents, the lack of appropriate spaces in the school to talk with
parents, social status differences between teachers and parents, working at the same
school with some parents, and so on) have been experienced at the rarely level
without any significant difference (Table 3).
36 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
Table 3.
Data Distribution According to Gender Variable on the Basis of Dimensions
Dimensions
Groups
N
S
sd
t
p
Personal Barriers
A) Female
217
3.68
.60
512
1.29
.20
B) Male
297
3.62
.60
Total
514
Socio-Cultural Barriers
A) Female
217
2.31
.63
512
-.77
.44
B) Male
297
2.36
.67
Total
514
Accessibility Barriers
A) Female
217
2.08
.56
512
-1.21
.22
B) Male
297
2.13
.50
Total
514
Field and Status
Barriers
A) Female
217
2.43
.48
512
-.87
.38
B) Male
297
2.47
.56
Total
514
*P<.05
Results and Interpretation Regarding Branch Variable
Pursuant to the “socio-cultural barriers dimension, the analysis of the data
indicated significant differences among the opinions of teachers from three different
branches related to barriers in teacher-parent communication [F(2-511) =3.25, p< 0.05].
The Least Significant Difference test revealed the difference between social sciences
and physical sciences and between physical science and fine arts/special talent
branches. Accordingly, it is observed that teachers of fine arts/special talent branches
(
C =2.56) have encountered barriers based on socio-cultural reasons more when
compared to teachers of social sciences (
A =2.33) and physical sciences (
B =2.24);
however, it is understood that all sample groups have encountered barriers at the
“rarely” level (Table 4).
In the dimensions of “personal, accessibility,” and “field and status” related
barriers, no statistically significant difference is observed between teacher opinions
(p> .05). Personal barriers have been experienced at the “generally” level;
“accessibility” and “field and status” related barriers have been encountered at the
rarely level (Table 4).
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 37
Table 4.
Data Distribution According to Branches Variable on the Basis of Dimensions
Dimensions
Groups
N
Source
of
Variance
Sum of
Squares
SD
Mean
Square
F
p
Significant
Difference
(LSD)
Personal
Barriers
Between
Groups
2.071
2
1.036
2.90
.06
A) Social
Sciences
398
3.62
B) Physical
Sciences
76
3.67
Within
Groups
182.794
511
.358
C) Fine
Arts/Special
Talent
40
3.85
Total
514
3.65
184.865
513
Socio-
Cultural
Barriers
Between
Groups
2.754
2
1.377
3.25
.04*
A-C
B-C
A) Social
Sciences
398
2.33
B) Physical
Sciences
76
2.24
Within
Groups
216.288
511
.423
C) Fine
Arts/Special
Talent
40
2.56
Total
514
2.34
219.041
513
Accessibility
Barriers
Between
Groups
1.377
2
.689
2.51
.08
A) Social
Sciences
398
2.09
B) Physical
Sciences
76
2.23
Within
Groups
140.358
511
.275
C) Fine
Arts/Special
Talent
40
2.12
Total
514
2.11
141.735
513
Field and
Status
Barriers
Between
Groups
.406
2
.203
.72
.49
A) Social
Sciences
398
2.45
B) Physical
Sciences
76
2.45
Within
Groups
143.454
511
.281
C) Fine
Arts/Special
Talent
40
2.55
Total
514
2.45
143.859
513
*P<.05
Results and Interpretation Regarding Work Year Variable
The analysis of the data revealed that teachers’ opinions relating to “personal”
barriers differed significantly by their work years in school [χ2(2) =19.318, p< 0.05]. As
a result of multiple comparisons that were performed through a Mann-Whitney U
test, this difference seems to occur in groups that have “5 years and lessand “6–15
38 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
years” of work in the school. This finding shows that teachers’ years of work in the
school have an impact on the rate of their encountering personal barriers. When the
mean rank of the groups is regarded, it is seen that the “5 years and less” work year
group encounters the most barriers, and it is followed by “6–15 years” and “16 years
and more” groups respectively.
It is understood that there is no significant difference related to other socio-
cultural,” “accessibility,” and “field and status” related barriers. However, it is seen
that teachers with “5 years and less” work years have encountered socio-cultural
barriers at the highest level; this is followed by teachers with “16 years and more
and “6–15 years” of work experience. Further, teachers with “16 years and more” of
work experience have encountered accessibility barriers the most, and it is followed
by teachers with “5 years and less” and “6–15 years” work year experience. Related
to field and status” barriers, it is seen that teachers with “5 years and less” work
experience have encountered the most barriers, followed by teachers who have “6–15
years” and “16 years and more” work experience (Table 5).
Table 5.
Data Distribution According to Work Year Variable on the Basis of Dimensions
Dimensions
Work Experience
N
Mean
Rank
sd
χ2
P
Significant
difference
(Mann
Whitney U)
Personal
Barriers
A) 5 years and less
292
282.14
2
19.318
.00*
A-B
B) 615 years
190
221.97
C) 16 years and more
32
243.61
Total
514
Socio-
Cultural
Barriers
A) 5 years and less
292
264.63
2
4.162
.13
B) 615 years
190
241.61
C) 16 years and more
32
286.80
Total
514
Accessibility
Barriers
A) 5 years and less
292
267.87
2
4.555
.10
B) 615 years
190
239.38
C) 16 years and more
32
270.45
Total
514
Field and
Status
Barriers
A) 5 years and less
292
265.30
2
1.894
.39
B) 615 years
190
247.25
C) 16 years and more
32
247.17
Total
514
*P<.05
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 39
Discussion and Conclusion
This study tried to determine the barriers to effective communication between
teachers and parents on the basis of teacher opinions. The results considering the
independent variables as gender, branch, and work years of teachers in the school
can be summarized as follows:
Results obtained related to gender variable reveal that personal barriers are
encountered at the “generally” level; socio-cultural, accessibility, and field and status
related barriers are encountered at the rarely level. Compared to male teachers,
female teachers seem to witness personal barriers more. Celik’s (2005) result that
female teachers experience more problems in school-parent communication supports
the results of this research. On the other hand, the research results of Cengil (2016),
Cevis (2002), and Kenanoglu (2004) indicate no significant difference between
teachers’ opinions by gender related to problems in school-parent relations.
As the branch variable is regarded, it is understood that teachers from all
branches (social sciences, physical sciences, and fine arts/special talents) encounter
personal barriers at the generally” level and the other socio-cultural, accessibility,
field and status related barriers at the “rarely” level. However, it is understood that
teachers from fine arts/special talent branches encounter socio-cultural related
barriers more significantly than the other branch teachers. In Celik’s (2005) study, it
is concluded that teachers who graduated from other branches, but work as class
teachers experience more problems than other teachers.
The results related to work years in the school indicate that teachers with “5 years
and less” work experience encounter personal barriers the most, and the teachers
who have “16 years and more” and “6–15 year” of work experience follow them.
Likewise, teachers with “5 years and less” experience encounter socio-cultural and
field and status based barriers more than the other branch teachers. However,
teachers with “16 years and more” work year experience encounter accessibility
related barriers the most. It is understood that the least experienced teachers
encounter almost all kind of barriersmainly personal barriersmore than the more
experienced ones. This situation indicates that novice teachers are not able to develop
sufficient knowledge and skills in communication. Research shows that the greatest
problems that novice teachers face are related to communication with parents as well
(NSPRA, 2006).
The results obtained in this study are the same major communication preventive
issues between teachers and parents found in the literature. Thus, the results such as
physical distance, socio cultural differences (language, dressing, values) (Sisman &
Turan, 2004); meeting with parents only when money is required (Kocak, 1991);
parents’ lack of trust in teachers and their unwillingness to cooperate (Celik, 2005);
parents’ financial problems and lack of interest in informing parents of school-related
issues (Ceylan & Akar, 2010); inappropriate schedule of school activities (Basaran &
Koc, 2001); teachers’ misbehaviors (Ogan, 2000; Yılmaztekin, 2015); parents’
education level, parents’ mistrust in teachers and managers (Porsuk, 2010), and the
like also confirm the findings of that research.
40 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
Recommendations
School managers and teachers should have knowledge about the socio-economic
and cultural structure of parents’ environments in order to increase communication
with them. Besides, school managers and teachers should develop an open-door
policy for parents and the parents should be encouraged to visit the school as much
as possible. Thus, while parent support can be obtained more easily on one hand, the
cooperation opportunities will be created on the other to improve the students in all
aspects.
Schools should plan parents’ meeting at the beginning of the instructional year,
announce the meeting schedule and agenda to parents, and secure a suitable place,
time, and environment for meetings.
In this study, personal barriers were mentioned at the generally level. In order
to eliminate personal barriers, prejudices towards the school and teachers should be
eliminated, and a relationship that is based on mutual trust and tolerance should be
developed.
In establishing communication with parents who do not have the ability to speak
Turkish well, the assistance of other school members should be obtained, in case the
class teacher is incapable of understanding them. The meeting time with parents
should be arranged pursuant to parents’ availability and should be used efficiently.
In order to eliminate communication barriers that art/special talent branches
teachers encounter, the importance of these branches for personal development
should be explained well, and psychological consultancy and guidance should be
obtained on this subject. The assistance of experienced teachers to the novice teachers
should be ensured in establishing a good communication between parents and
teachers. Besides traditional communication methods such as face-to-face and
written communication, electronic communication (mobile phones, social network,
and computer environment) should be utilized efficiently as well.
Under the leadership of the National Education Ministry and universities,
various informative and educational programs with the goal of improving teacher-
parent communication should be organized.
In order to perform teacher-parent communication efficiently and develop a
sustainable cooperation, a schoolwide mechanism should be built where preventive
factors to efficient communication are identified and ways to overcome them are
sought systematically.
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 41
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İlköğretim Okullarında Öğretmen-Veli İletişiminde Karşılaşılan Engeller
Atıf:
Ozmen, F., Akuzum, C., Zincirli, M., & Selcuk, G. (2016). The communication barriers
between teachers and parents in primary schools. Eurasian Journal of Educational
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Özet
Problem Durumu: Eğitim kurumlarında etkili eğitimin gerçekleştirilmesinde
okullardaki yönetici, öğretmen ve öğrenciler yanında öğrenci velileriyle kurulan
iletişim büyük önem taşır. Özellikle sınıf içindeki öğrenci performansına ilişkin
öğretmen ve veliler arasında kurulan iletişim öğrenci sorunlarının daha iyi
anlaşılması, velilerin eğitime olan desteklerinin artırılması, etkili yönlendirme ve
rehberlik yapılması ve nihayet öğrenci güdülenmesinin ve başarısının artırılmasında
yaşamsal önem taşır. Etkili iletişim, güçlü okul-aile işbirliğini yaratmak ve veli
katılımını artırmak için gereklidir. Öğretmen sadece öğretme sanatında beceri sahibi
olmamalı, aynı zamanda kendi veli topluluğuyla etkili iletişime yönelik bilgi ve
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 45
becerisini de geliştirmelidir. Öğretmenlerin yararlanabileceği internet teknolojisi,
velilerle özel görüşmeler/konferanslar ve okul ile ev iletişimine yönelik birçok
iletişim olanağı vardır. Öğretmenler, velilerle iletişim kurmak için, iletişim
stratejilerini ve işbirlikli yeni iletişim yöntemlerini kullanma konusunda çaba sarf
etmeli ve bu çabalar planlı bir yaklaşımı yansıtmalıdır.
Araştırmanın Amacı: Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, ilköğretim okullarında öğretmen
ve veli arasında etkili iletişime engel oluşturan unsurları öğretmen görüşlerinden
yola çıkarak belirlemeye çalışmaktır.
Araştırmanın Yöntemi: Araştırma tarama türünde betimsel bir çalışmadır.
Araştırmanın evrenini, 2011-2012 eğitim-öğretim yılında, Elazığ ili sınırları içinde
bulunan 317 ilköğretim okulunda görev yapan 3,968 öğretmen oluşturmaktadır.
Elazığ il merkezindeki beş eğitim bölgesinin her birinden tesadüfi örnekleme
yöntemiyle 3’er okul olmak üzere, toplam 15 okul seçilmiştir. Merkez ilçeler
kümesinden rastgele seçilen üç ilçenin her birinden 2’şer okul olmak üzere 6 okul
ayrıca araştırma kapsamına dâhil edilmiştir. Böylece, toplam 21 ilköğretim okulu ve
bu okullarda görev yapan toplam 806 öğretmene ölçek dağıtılmış, bu ölçeklerden
uygun şekilde doldurularak dönenlerin sayısı 514 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Öğretmen-
veli iletişimine engel olan unsurları saptamak amacıyla araştırmacılar tarafından
geliştirilen “İletişim Engellerini Belirleme Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Ölçek geliştirilirken
literatür ve uzman görüşleri eşliğinde, önce 27 adet madde geliştirilmiştir. Geçerlik
ve güvenirliği tespit etmek amacıyla ölçek bir pilot uygulamaya tabi tutulmuş ve
yansız olarak seçilen 152 öğretmenin görüşleri alınmıştır. Yapılan faktör analizinde 6
maddenin faktör yükü düşük çıktığından bu maddeler ölçeğe dahil edilmemiştir.
Faktör analizi sonucunda, dört faktör altında toplanan 21 madde, maddelerin taşıdığı
anlamlar dikkate alınarak, “kişisel” (1-2-3-5-6-7-12 no’lu maddeler), “sosyo-kültürel”
(4-8-9-10 no’lu maddeler), “ulaşılabilirlik” (13-16-17-20-21 no’lu maddeler), “alan ve
statü” (14-18-19-22-23 no’lu maddeler) engelleri şeklinde isimlendirilmiştir. Ölçeğin
tamamı için Cronbach Alfa güvenirlik katsayısı .78 olarak bulunmuştur.
Çalışmadan elde edilen veriler SPSS paket programı aracılığı ile analiz edilmiştir.
Verilerin analizinde kullanılacak istatistiksel yöntemleri belirlemek amacıyla normal
dağılıma uygunluk analizinde Kolmogrov-Smirnov Z sınaması, verilerin homojenlik
durumunu tespit etmek için de Levene sınaması kullanılmıştır. Bu sınamaların
sonuçlarına göre, cinsiyet değişkeninde Independent Sample t test; branş
değişkeninde Varyans Analizi (ANOVA); ve görev yapılan okuldaki çalışma süresi
değişkenine yönelik Kruskal-Wallis test ve anlamlı farklılığın hangi denek grupları
arasında gerçekleştiğini belirleyebilmek için Least Significant Difference (LSD) test
ve Mann-Whitney U sınaması ile çoklu karşılaştırmalar yapılmıştır.
Araştırmanın Bulguları: Cinsiyet değişkenine ilişkin olarak ulaşılan bulgular, kişisel
engellerle “genellikle” düzeyinde; sosyo-kültürel, ulaşılabilirlik, alan ve statüden
kaynaklanan engellerle ise “çok nadir” düzeyinde karşılaşıldığını göstermektedir.
Kadın öğretmenler, kişisel engellere daha çok tanık olurken, erkek öğretmenler
sosyo-kültürel, ulaşılabilirlik, alan ve statüden kaynaklanan engellerle daha çok
karşılaşmaktadırlar. Branş değişkeni dikkate alındığında, tüm branşlardaki (sosyal
bilimler, fen bilimleri ve güzel sanatlar/özel yetenek) öğretmenlerin, kişisel
46 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
engellerle “genellikle” düzeyinde; sosyo-kültürel, ulaşılabilirlik, alan ve statüden
kaynaklı engellerle ise “çok nadir” düzeyinde karşılaştığı anlaşılmaktadır.
Öğretmenlerin görev yaptıkları okuldaki çalışma süreleri değişkenine ilişkin ulaşılan
bulgular, kişisel engellerle en yüksek düzeyde “5 yıl ve daha az” çalışma süresine
sahip öğretmenlerin karşılaştığını, bunu “16 yıl ve üzeri” ve “6-15 yıl” çalışma
süresine sahip öğretmenlerin izlediğini göstermektedir. Sosyo-kültürel kaynaklı
engeller ile alan ve statüden kaynaklanan engellerle çalışma süresi “5 yıl ve daha az”
olan grup daha çok karşılaşırken, ulaşılabilirlikle ilişkili engellerle çalışma süresi “16
yıl ve üzeri” grubun daha çok karşılaştığı anlaşılmıştır.
Araştırmanın Sonuç ve Önerileri: Öğretmen-veli iletişimini etkili şekilde
gerçekleştirmek ve sürdürülebilir bir işbirliğini geliştirmek için, etkili iletişime engel
olan unsurları tanımlayacak ve sistematik olarak irdeleyecek okul çapında bir
mekanizmanın oluşturulması gerekir. Öğretmen-veli iletişiminde karşılaşılan
engeller, öğretmen-veli arasındaki anlayışın geliştirilmesi ve işbirliğine yönelik
alternatiflerin oluşturulması için bir fırsat olarak ele alınmalıdır. Öğretmen-veli
iletişiminin etkili şekilde gerçekleştirilmesi isteğinin temelinde, veli katılımının
çocuğun başarısının artmasına ve etkili eğitimin gerçekleştirilmesine yapacağı katkı
beklentisi vardır. Bu araştırmada da, öğretmen ve veli arasında etkili iletişime engel
oluşturan unsurlar öğretmen görüşlerinden yola çıkarak belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır.
Araştırmada belirlenen boyutlar temelinde ulaşılan sonuçlar, alan yazın
çalışmalarında da öğretmen ve veli arasındaki etkili iletişimi engelleyen temel
unsurlar olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Nitekim, fiziksel uzaklık, sosyo-kültürel
farklılıklar (dil, giyim, değer); velilerle sadece para söz konusu olduğunda
görüşülmesi; velilerde öğretmenlere karşı güven eksikliğinin olması ve velilerin
işbirliğine açık olmaması; velilerin ekonomik sorunları ve velilerin okul işleyişi
konusunda yeterli düzeyde bilgilendirilmemesi; okuldaki etkinliklerin zamanı;
öğretmenlerin olumsuz tavırları ve velinin kendi öğrenciliğini anımsamak
istememesi; velilerin eğitim düzeyi, velilerin öğretmen ve yöneticilere karşı güven
duymamaları gibi sonuçlar bu durumu teyit etmektedir. Elde edilen bu sonuçlardan
yola çıkarak şu önerilere yer verilebilir: Okul yönetimi ve öğretmenler, ailelerle
iletişimi artırabilmek için, ailelerin yaşadığı çevrenin sosyo-ekonomik ve kültürel
yapısı hakkında bilgi sahibi olmalıdır. Okul yönetimi ve öğretmenler, velilere karşı
açık kapı politikası oluşturmalı, velilerin okula gelmeleri cesaretlendirilmelidir.
Böylelikle, bir yandan veli desteği daha kolay elde edilirken, diğer yandan
öğrencilerin her yönden gelişmesi yönünde işbirliği fırsatları yaratılacaktır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Okul, öğretmen, veli, etkili iletişim, iletişim engelleri.
... Despite the advantages of communication between teachers and parents in the school environment, this is not always efficient. According to Ozmen et al. (2016), social and cultural differences between teachers and parents, parents' financial problems and their educational background contribute to parents' unwillingness to communicate with their children's teachers. The different way in which parents and teachers perceive parent-teacher communication and their different cognitive, social and cultural starting points create problems in the parent-teacher communication (Stamatis & Nikolaou, 2020;Attanucci, 2004). ...
... Research has shown that these meetings improve communication quality, positive atmosphere and efficiency in the school unit operation (Stamatis, 2019; Bennett-Conroy, 2012). Through their communication, parents connect with the school community and in this way a positive atmosphere of trust, confidentiality and empathy is developed between them, benefiting both the child and school (Ozmen et al., 2016;Jeynes, 2005). Peña (2000) holds that students' school performance and conduct improve when teachers communicate personally with parents, by phone or email or through written updates. ...
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This paper studies the advantages and reasons hindering communication between teachers and parents. Two hundred and twenty-two teachers and thirty-three primary school principals consider communication with parents important, because this communication creates a sense of security in students, improving their learning skills and conduct. Teachers consider that effective communication between teachers and parents benefits the school unit itself, contributing to its efficiency. The reasons hindering communication with parents mentioned by teachers include parents’ lack of time to visit the school unit, parents’ low social or education background, their children’s poor performance or conduct. Teachers disagree that the education system structure constitutes a problem in their communication with parents, stressing that many parents do not understand the importance of their communication with the school unit attended by their children. Finally, teachers consider guidance plays an important part, as it helps mitigate the problems hindering efficient communication between teachers and parents.
... While communication is an essential factor in creating partnerships, it has not always been easy for teachers (and other school staff) and families to communicate frequently and effectively. Although face-to-face interactions with families help to build rapport and trust, such interactions are not always possible given logistic constraints (Ozmen et al., 2016) such as time of meetings, schedules, and availability which have often limited parent-teacher communication. However, the ability to engage in instant communication builds and promotes a feeling of connectedness, and technology provides the means to accomplish this (Natale & Lubniewski, 2018). ...
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... Simultaneously, the parent-teacher association (PTA) has been formed in each school, empowering PTA more optimally to support the education process, ranging from planning, implementation, and evaluation. The involvement of school management effectiveness from the community is a different strength, namely stakeholders and parents of students to create communication on strategic issues (Ozmen et al., 2016). Working together in the bearing of burdens (gotong royong) to help each other in the community has been the working culture of the Indonesian people since the days of their ancestors (Simarmata et al., 2020). ...
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In school management, several variables support the effectiveness of the principal's performance. The study analyzed the effects of exogenous to endogenous, either directly or indirectly, and work satisfaction as a variable intervening. This study was a quantitative survey with a sample size are 360 state high school teachers. Data analysis uses path analysis. With the help of Smart partial least squares software, data that meets the criteria r > 0.70 will be used in the research. The results showed that organizational culture, leadership style, and work environment significantly affect work satisfaction. The organizational culture, leadership style, and work satisfaction directly affect teachers' performance. the organizational culture, leadership style, and work environment significantly indirectly affect work satisfaction on teachers' performance. In organizational culture, instruments have involved working together in bearing burdens culture as the potential of the community for empowerment again; it is a novelty of this research. The results of research that require follow-up are how to improve principal leadership style with the hope that micro-school management is more effective and macro enhancing the quality of education in Indonesia
... The finding also reveals the presence of ethnicity among teachers, which can be explained by the geographical location of the province. This may have relevance among teachers in terms of classroom setting, as Ozmen et al. (2016) and Ang (2009) asserted that race and ethnicity may create barriers in communication among teachers and parents that may lead to stress. ...
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The study aimed to determine the relationship between participation in recreational activities and stress management among high school teachers in Lopez Jaena during SY 2018–2019. The study used an evaluative-inferential research design that used quantitative and qualitative descriptive-correlational approaches to interpret the data. There were 119 respondents, with 34 males and 85 females. The instruments were adopted from those made by Prof. Henry C. Daut’s SPEAR 174 class in 1994 for participation in recreational activities and by Della Franklin in 2008 for managing stress. The study found that most of the respondents were young adults or middle-aged females; the majority were Cebuano; married; most were regular or permanent employees, with salary income ranging from ₱10, 001.00 to ₱20, 000.00. Almost all the respondents participated in one recreational activity. The relationship between the variables showed that daily schedule is related to monthly income; money involvement in recreation is related to age; cost of money is related to sex; venue/place is related to ethnicity; off-campus is related to the tenure of work and monthly income; recreation activities are related to age, and involvement in recreation is related to age. It was also found that the correlation between moderating variables and stress management revealed a highly significant relationship with ethnicity. It was concluded that the correlation between recreational activities and stress management revealed that the cost of participating in recreational activities is highly correlated with stress management. Results from this study suggest that policymakers create ideas and plan programs to engage teachers in recreational activities to lessen work-related stress. The school administration should also provide a recreational activity center that will cater to the recreational activities needed for the development of recreation among schoolteachers. Future researchers should conduct similar studies using a broader scope.
... Communication and collaboration with parents is one of the teacher's strategies in developing the character of students (OZMEN et al., 2016) In essence, communication and cooperation with parents are often carried out after the issuance of government policies regarding the permissibility of face-to-face learning. Communication between parents and the school through the school committee (interview, Teacher, Safaruddin, August 23, 2021) Communication and collaboration between teachers and parents is important and is a teacher strategy in the context of developing the character of students, especially in this new normal period, as As explained in the previous discussion, it was said that during the online Gisewhite et al., 2021) Communication between teachers and parents is needed so that the teacher or the school has information about the student's family environment situation (Hillman et al., 2019) This was carried out not only after the Covid 19 pandemic (new Normal) but even before the covid 19 pandemic, educational institutions in this case the teacher had carried it out (interview, Ridwan Ali S.Pd, August 23, 2021). ...
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... Given the importance of school-family communication that has been recognized in the literature, factors preventing good communication between teachers and parents, including family circumstances and parents' work situation, have been studied (Hornby & Lafaele, 2011;Ozmen et al., 2016). In addition to factors related to teachers and parents that impact schoolfamily communication, several studies have identified other external factors (Farrell & Collier, 2010;Pang, 2011;Sukhbaatar & Tarkó, 2018). ...
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Okullar, hepimizi etkileyen bir öğrenme ve yaşama alanıdır. Bununla birlikte, son çeyrek yüzyılda okullar, asli işlevini kaybederek, öğrenciler tarafından çok da hoşlanılmayan soğuk mekanlar ile diploma dağıtan merkezler haline gelmiştir. Bir başka ifade ile okullar, iyi ve sorumlu insan yetiştirme işlevinden hızla uzaklaşarak akademik başarıyı ön plana çıkaran, insani değer ve sorumlu insan yetiştirme hususunu ihmal eden bir noktaya gelmiştir. Öğrencilerin kendilerini tanıma ve potansiyellerini fark etmeleri için okul bir araçtır. Bireyin kendisini tanıması ve kendinin farkında olması temelde bir iletişim sorunudur. İnsanı tanımak ve anlamak, göründüğü kadar kolay bir iş değildir. Bununla birlikte okulların varlık nedeni; iyi ve sorumlu insan yetiştirmektir. Bu amaca ulaşmak için okul, insanlara yaşamdaki bağlantıları görmelerini sağlar ve temel yaşam becerileri kazandırır. Bu açıdan bakıldığında okul, nitelikli bir yaşam için bir tür iletişim platformudur. Elinizdeki bu eser, ‘okul yaşamı ve sınıf içi öğrenmelerinin özünü iletişim oluşturur’ varsayımı ile yazılmıştır. Okulun daha yaşanılır ve nitelikli olmasının yolu iletişimden geçer. Birçoğumuz iletişimin önemine inanmamıza rağmen temel iletişim becerilerine sahip değilizdir. Öğrencilerimiz okuldaki zamanlarının büyük kısmını öğretmen ve yöneticileri dinleyerek geçirmelerine karşın onlara dinleme konusunda hiçbir şey öğretemeyiz. Sözünü ettiğimiz bu ve benzeri sebeplerden dolayı okullarımızın “Etkili İletişim Becerileri” hususunda bütün üyelerinin yetiştirilmeleri/geliştirilmeleri gerektiğine inanıyoruz. Elinizdeki çalışma, bu konudaki boşluğa mütevazı bir katkı sayılmalıdır. Kitapta iletişim konusu ana hatlarıyla ve örneklerle açıklanmaktadır. Okul yöneticileri ve çalışanları bu kitaptaki ipuçlarından yola çıkarak kendi iletişim becerilerini etkinlik ve programlarını geliştirebilirler. Birinci Bölümde, iletişim ve yaşam arasındaki ilişki; İkinci Bölümde, iletişim kavramı; Üçüncü Bölümde, iletişimin bazı teorik temelleri; ve çatışma arasındaki ilişki örneklerle açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Dördüncü Bölüm okuldaki iletişimin özündeki öğrenci ile iletişimi işlerken, Beşinci Bölüm okul ortamında müzakere ve tartışma yöntemlerini açımlamaktadır. Ekler kısmında ise okulunuzda uygulayabileceğiniz “Etkili İletişim” programına yer verilmiştir. Söz konusu bu programı okulunuz ihtiyaçlarına göre yeniden tasarlayabilirsiniz. Son olarak, şunu belirtmeliyiz ki, hiçbir çalışma mükemmel değildir; iyileştirilmesi için eleştiri ve önerilere ihtiyacı vardır. Geribildirim, öneri ve katkılarınızı bize bildirirseniz, iletişime ve yaşama devam edebiliriz. Yunus Emre (d. 1240-ö. 1321) der ki: Sözünü bilen kişinin, Yüzünü ağ ede bir söz. Sözünü pişirip diyenin, İşini sağ ede bir söz. Söz ola kese savaşı, Söz ola kestire başı. Söz ola ağulu aşı, Bal ile yağ ede bir söz.
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This study investigated immigrant Chinese Canadian mothers' involvement in the education of their children with disabilities. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 recent immigrants. Thirteen categories emerged, which were subsumed under 4 thematic areas: (a) challenges in adapting to a new environment, (b) limited English proficiency, (c) different views toward education, and (d) involvement in the children's education. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of enhancing home–school communication and addressing obstacles to intercultural communication faced by teachers and immigrant parents.
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In accordance with the continuity principle, education starts in the family and continues with the organic integrity of both family and school. This integrity between family and school is an important factor in a student's education. Neither only school nor only family is enough in a student's academic, social, and personal improvement. The aim of the research is to introduce barriers preventing parents from receiving educational feedbacks on their children according to classroom teachers who are working at the primary stage of education where the family factor is felt the most, therefore, providing the outline of the situation in by the teachers and proposing solutions. The research covers 124 classroom teachers in Kutahya during the 2012-2013 academic years. According to the research, the most common factor preventing parents from obtaining educational feedback is low academic achievement of their children. Again, according to the classroom teachers, another factor is that parents are only interested in their children's success and grades (77.4%). Parents may not need to meet with the teacher when they learn their student's grade. According to the research, concerns about personal problems of parents to be addressed with the teacher, parents finding the teacher's requests unnecessary and their reluctant to hear negative comments about their student are other factors leading to significant differences. The research is important for the purposes of identifying and eliminating barriers to preventing parents from receiving feedback about their children's education and having evaluation of family involvement in the training process. Moreover, this study is also important in terms of elimination of the gaps seen in school-parent communication. The research is restricted to 124 teachers and questionnaire items.
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This paper presents the results of research into the effects of leadership on the communication satisfaction of teachers. The data was obtained by giving questionnaires to 362 teachers from 57 primary schools in Serbia. Leadership is shown to have a strong and positive impact on the communication satisfaction of teachers in Serbian primary schools. The following dimensions of leadership have the strongest influence: Core Transformational Leadership Behavior, Contingent Reward Behavior, and Intellectual Stimulation. The moderating effect of teachers' gender and age was examined with the observed relationships. The moderating effect of gender was confirmed in three dimensions of communication satisfaction: Communication Climate, Horizontal & Informal Communication, and Organizational Integration. Any moderating effect of age was not confirmed. Primary school principals in Serbia should devote considerable attention to developing leadership and communication skills. This would serve to achieve an increase in communication and job satisfaction among teachers, which potentially creates the conditions for the improved and effective functioning of schools.