(http://ejercongress.org/pdf/bildiriozetleri2016ejer.pdf)IV.Internation alEurasianEducationalResearch Congress
(http://www.aniegitim.com.tr/nvivo.php?p=65)EJER Congress2017ÇALISTAY:ÖlçekGelistirmeveUyarlama :
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, Issue 66, 2016, 27-46
The Communication Barriers between Teachers and Parents
in Primary Schools
Ozmen, F., Akuzum, C., Zincirli, M., & Selcuk, G. (2016). The communication barriers
between teachers and parents in primary schools. Eurasian Journal of Educational
Research, 66, 26-46
Problem Statement: In educational institutions, the effectiveness of
communication between teachers and parents, in terms of student
achievement and attendance, has a great importance. Parent-teacher
communication provides multi-faceted benefits to teachers, the school,
and parents as well. However, various obstacles hinder the realization of
effective parent-teacher communication in school settings.
Purpose of Study: The main purpose of this study is to determine the
communication barriers between parents and teachers, based on the views
of primary school teachers. This study is seen as important since it
addresses the barriers in communication, which is seen as vital for
achieving educational aims effectively. Effective communication provides
achievement and improvement by providing support to parents, students,
teachers, and schools and promoting appropriate environments.
Method: This research is a survey type descriptive study. Due to the
stratified and random type sample formation, 850 teachers were
considered to be taken into the research sample; however, 514 of the
distributed questionnaires were found valid. The data collection tool used
This paper was presented at the Ist Eurasian Educational Research Congress.
Prof. Dr., Trakya University, firstname.lastname@example.org
Corrsponding author: Asst. Prof. Dicle University, email@example.com
Doctoral Student. Fırat University Institute of Education Sciences,
Teaching Assist., Celal Bayar Univesity, firstname.lastname@example.org
28 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
was a four-dimensioned scale developed by the researchers themselves. In
the analysis of the data, parametric and non-parametric tests were used.
Findings: The findings revealed that teachers experienced “individual”
barriers at a “general” level, but other “socio-cultural,” “accessibility,” and
“field and status” related barriers at were experienced at the “very rare”
level without any significant differences considering the gender and
branches of the teachers. However, novice teachers (5 years and less work
experience) stated significantly the most individual barriers and the most
barriers related to the other dimensions as well.
Results and Suggestions: The results obtained in this study show the same
major communication preventive issues between teachers and parents
documented in the literature. Thus, results such as physical distance,
socio-cultural differences (language, dress, values), meeting with parents
only when money is required, parents’ lack of trust in teachers and their
unwillingness for cooperation, parents’ financial problems and lack of
interest about informing parents of school-related issues, inappropriate
schedule of school activities, teachers’ misbehaviors, parents’ education
level, parents’ mistrust in teachers and managers, and the like also confirm
the situation represented in previous research. It was recommended that
school managers and teachers adopt an open-door policy for parents; and
the schools should take the initiative of realizing collaborative efforts
among the school staff, parents, and other relevant institutions in order to
eliminate communication barriers. The training of the school
administrators, teachers, and families about gaining effective
communication skills that will contribute to student achievement should
Keywords: Schools, teachers, parents, effective communication,
In fulfilling an efficient education in education organizations, communication not
only among the school managers, teachers, and students, but also with students’
parents bears a great importance. Especially communication between teachers and
parents regarding students’ performance in the class bears vital importance in better
understanding students’ problems, increasing parents’ support in education,
performing effective counselling and guidance, and ultimately increasing students’
motivation and success.
The existing parent-teacher communication studies generally approach the issue
from two aspects. The first covers teacher-parent relations and contributions of
parents to school communities and organizational activities, whereas the second one
covers studies about parents’ support of students’ academic development (Rogers et
al., 2009). Consequently, teacher-parent relations bear an increasing importance for
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 29
improving schools as learning communities and for students’ growth through
meeting their needs and expectations (Olcer & Kocer, 2015; Schussler, 2003). The US
National School Public Relations Association (NSPRA) reports numerous study
results that have indicated the important roles of school-parent-environment
cooperation in promoting school success and student growth (NSPRA, 2006).
However, healthy communication between teachers and parents is not always
possible, and numerous barriers on various levels can negatively affect the
communication process. These barriers can arise in connection with school resources,
teachers’ professional development levels, family, and environmental features. It is
not always possible to mention regular and efficient communication between school
management and structures, such as parent-teacher association and school protection
association, that are formed with the purpose of improving school-parent
cooperation (Aslan, 1984; Aytac, 2000; Gungor & Tasdan, 2016; Ozel, Bayindir &
Ozel, 2014). School managements remain incapable of understanding the importance
of communication between teachers-parents and school-parents and developing
efficient strategies in improving this communication (NSPRA, 2006). On the other
hand, most teachers cannot improve themselves without the knowledge and skills
that are needed in establishing an efficient communication with parents (Lawrence-
The main purpose of this study is to determine the communication barriers
between the parents and teachers based on the views of primary school teachers.
This study is seen as important since it addresses the barriers in communication,
which is seen as vital for achieving educational aims effectively. Effective
communication provides achievement and improvement by providing support to
parents, students, teachers, and schools and promoting appropriate environments.
The most common definition of communication is sharing emotions, thoughts,
knowledge, news, and skills, or in other words, the process of creating common
ground in the sense of emotions, thoughts, and manners among individuals (Karaca,
2016; Sever, 1998). Interpersonal communication is intentionally or unintentionally
affecting others by transmitting and receiving messages (Korkut, 2000).
Due to the raised awareness of the importance of parent-school cooperation in
achieving effective education, the number of studies encouraging parents to play
more active roles in school activities is increasing. A school-parent association is
deemed indispensable to school organizations for the realization of effective
education that will foster student performance (Acikalin & Turan, 2015; Ozyurek,
1983; Sisman & Turan, 2004). By means of communication, mutual trust between the
school and parents develops (Saritas, 2005), and mutual support towards
encouraging student learning increases (Celik, 2005).
A trust-based communication that can be established between teachers and
parents bears great importance from the aspect of determining problems, finding
ways to deal with them, and providing students with help on their way to learning.
30 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
Particularly at pre-school, elementary, and secondary school levels, communication
between teachers and parents assures the realization of issues such as informing,
enlightening, and training parents with the purpose of increasing student success.
Additionally, the efficiency of communication between teachers and parents
contributes to the schools by improving school and district relations, utilizing
environmental sources, and developing programs complying with environmental
conditions by securing parents’ integration into the school.
Schools that are organic parts of the society have a natural advantage in terms of
interacting with parents. For example, schools are in a position to host or facilitate
the organization of seminars for parents that range from child development to stress
management. Moreover, schools can help form support groups in meeting the
various needs of parents (Molland, 2004), can help parents to develop relationships
with the needed institutions, can encourage the parents to participate in school
projects, and can pioneer establishing a mechanism to promote counseling and
guidance programs (Graham-Clay, 2005).
Barriers in Teacher-Parent Communication and Ways to Deal with Them
Establishing healthy communication that makes life meaningful and forms social
life is not always possible due to “communication barriers.” In our schools, there are
numerous barriers that prevent the establishment of efficient communication
between teachers and parents. These barriers can generally be categorized as
physical, technical, psychological, or social and organizational (Sabuncuoglu &
Gumus, 2008). Hoover-Dempsey et al. (2002) categorize communication barriers in
schools as either school related and parent related. School-related obstacles are
described as the inability to provide communication support, lack of system
knowledge, and failure to develop alternative strategies. Parent-related ones are
described as family status, pragmatic concerns (such as non-flexibility of parents’
work hours, etc.), and psychological barriers (negative experiences about schools
etc.). Bursalioglu (2008) states that numerous barriers within or outside of the
organization can make the communication process harder, and sometimes it may
even stop it. The study describes these barriers as psychological, semantic, status-
related, protection-related, field-related, hierarchical, narcotizing, and restraining
barriers. Tutar (2009) categorizes factors that prevent the effective communication as
personal, language and expression difficulties, listening and perception inefficiencies,
lack of knowledge, sexual and cultural differences, misconception, and psychological
Parents and school principals usually report lack of time as the most important
communication barrier. However, studies reveal that lack of planning towards
establishing cooperation and lack of developing a mutual understanding are the
most important communication barriers. In addition to that, some sort of feelings
related to previous negative experiences, religious and cultural differences,
transportation problems, and the incompetency and inefficiency of school members
may affect school-parent relations negatively (NSPRA, 2006).
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 31
Cultural differences can create communication barriers if the teachers reflect their
own cultural perspectives while interacting with the parents from a different
language and culture (Colombo, 2004). In order to deal with this potential
miscommunication, teachers should begin a quest for knowledge to help them
understand their students’ parents’ language and cultural differences (Lai &
Ishiyama, 2004). Along with gaining knowledge of cultural features, trying to
understand cultural differences and values seems to be important from the aspect of
dealing with communication barriers (Karadeniz, 2015; Kasahara & Turnbull, 2005).
Negative school experiences of parents can also constitute a barrier in their
communication with teachers. Schools should be able to provide guidance service to
help parents to manage these kinds of psychological problems (Finders & Lewis,
1994; Hartman & Chesley, 1998). This guidance service should encourage the parents
to seek help and get information related to the issues they worry about, to
understand the improvement level of the class, to grasp the teachers’ approach to
education, and to learn how to behave under what conditions. Providing the parents
with this kind of knowledge can create dual effects by decreasing parents’ negative
thoughts about school on one hand and increasing their interest in the school on the
other (Graham-Clay, 2005).
Economy-related issues and time constraints are seen among the elements that
hinder effective communication. It is reported that especially working parents do not
have enough time to cooperate with school. Besides, since most of the school-parent
meetings converted into money demanded places, most of the parents from poor
economic conditions refrain from attending these meetings (Finders & Lewis, 1994;
Seyfullahogullari, 2012; Terek et al., 2015). To cope with this, teachers can conduct
surveys to determine the work schedules of the parents at the beginning of the school
year; they can even inform parents about how and when they can communicate with
teachers. A study should be conducted on how the communication hours can be
made flexible to enable parents to attend the school or class meetings (Molland,
Also, lack of technology can limit communication opportunities. The new
technologies that provide convenience, efficiency, and effectiveness in knowledge
transfer have an important force in the development of parent-teacher
communication (Zieger & Tan, 2012). However, teachers shouldn’t think that all
parents have access to such technology, and so, they should investigate whether they
can benefit from the new technology. On the other hand, most teachers and parents
are still unable to make use of technology efficiently, and they give weight to
traditional paper-and-pencil-based communication (Graham-Clay, 2005).
Using technical terminology in communication with parents at the school level
seems to pose a general communication barrier. Teachers should observe their own
speech and make sure that they omit educational jargon from written
communications. If it is a must to use technical terms, the meaning of them must be
explained. Messages that are given to the parents in face-to-face communication
32 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
should not be above the parents’ understanding capacity (Williams & Cartledge,
As a result, efficient communication is necessary for creating school-parent
cooperation and increasing parent contribution. Teachers should not only be skilled
in the art of teaching, but also should improve their knowledge and skills towards
efficient communication with the parent community. There are numerous
communication means that teachers can benefit from, such as internet technology,
private interviews, conferences, group meetings, and the like. Teachers should strive
to develop communication strategies, new cooperative communication methods
should be established, and these efforts should reflect a planned approach (Graham-
Caspe (2003) argues that teacher training and professional development
programs must actively support improvement of teachers’ communication skills.
Implicit in the wish for improving teacher-parent communication is the expectation
that parent attendance will contribute to the improvement of student success and
realization of an efficient education (Tschannen-Moran, 2001; Virginia Department of
Education, 2002). Studies about strengthening teacher-parent communication show
that it can increase students’ success in school and prevent the occurrence of
disciplinary problems in the school as well (Aslanargun, 2007).
Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the communication barriers between
parents and teachers based on the views of primary school teachers in terms of
The research is a survey type descriptive study. Descriptive studies aim to
explain the interaction between situations by regarding their relation with previous
events and conditions (Kaptan, 1998). In this context, it was tried in this study to
describe the factors that prevent teacher-parent communication.
The space of the study consisted of 3,968 teachers who worked at 317 elementary
schools within the boundaries of Elazig city during 2011–2012 academic year. The
sample size was calculated as 350 with a reliability level of 95% based on Cochran’s
(1962) formula. A total of 15 schools were chosen randomly, with three schools from
each of the five education districts in Elazig city center. In addition, a total of six
schools—two randomly chosen schools from each randomly chosen three central
towns—from the central town set were included in the sample. Thus, questionnaires
were distributed to a total of 806 teachers from 21 elementary schools. 514 of the
returned questionnaires that were filled properly were taken into consideration by
the study (Table 1).
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 33
The Schools Included in the Sample and the Numbers of Returned Questionnaires
Vali Lutfullah Bilgin
Yahya Kemal Beyatli
Gonul Ihsan Tangulu
Kovancilar Eti Holding
Palu Yavuz Selim
Karakocan Nuri Özaltin
Karakocan Cengiz Topel
The distribution of the teachers according to their genders indicates that 42.2% of
the sample are female teachers and 57.8% are male. Regarding the branch variables,
77.4% of the teachers are in social sciences, 14.8% are in physical sciences, and 7.8%
are in arts/special talents. By work year variable, 56.8% of teachers have “5 or fewer
years,” 37% have “6–15 years,” and 6.2% have “6 and more years” (Table 2).
34 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
Demographic Qualifications of Teachers Who Participated in the Study
Fine arts/Special talent
Work Years in School
5 years and less
16 years and more
Research Instrument and Procedure
With the purpose of determining the issues that prevent teacher-parent
communication, the “Communication Barriers Assessment Scale” was developed by
the researchers. In the development process, 27 items were initially generated,
accompanied by a literature review and expert opinions. In order to assess the
reliability and validity of the instrument, a pilot application was done, and the
opinions of randomly selected 152 teachers were asked. An exploratory factor
analysis was applied to the instrument. During the principal component analysis, six
items were excluded since their factor loads were found to be below .40 or because
they took place in two factors with close loads with a rate difference under .10. At the
end of varimax rotated analyses, 21 items were gathered under four factors with an
eigenvalue over 1.00. These factors were labeled “personal” (items 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 12),
“socio-cultural” (items 4, 8, 9, 10 ), “accessibility” (items 12, 14, 15, 18, 19 ) and “field
and status” barriers (items 13, 16, 17, 20, 21 ) according to the meanings of the items
grouped under each factor. In this pilot study, Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient
for the whole scale was calculated as .78. This is regarded as sufficient since .70 is
considered the limit value to test reliability (Buyukozturk, 2012). Reliability
coefficients for sub-dimensions were .82 for personal barriers, .71 for socio-cultural
barriers, .74 for accessibility barriers, and .70 for field and status barriers.
The Likert type scale contains five options namely “always,” “generally,”
“sometimes,” “rarely,” and “never,” to be scored as 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 for the items that have
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 35
negative connotations, and the reverse scoring for the positive ones. On the basis of
these dimensions, the responses of the subjects were computed regarding the mean
≥ 4.20 always, 4.19 ≥
≥ 3.40 generally, 3.39 ≥
≥ 2.60 sometimes, 2.59 ≥
≥ 1.80 rarely, and
≤ 1.79 never.
Data obtained from research were first entered to SPSS (Statistical Package for the
Social Sciences) package software, and the demographical features of the sample
group were analyzed by means of this software. Pursuant to the results of
Kolmogrov-Smirnov Z test for normal distribution, the Levene test for the
homogeneity of the scale, independent t test for gender variable, ANOVA for branch
variable, Kruskal-Wallis H test for work years of the subjects at schools, and the
Least Significant Difference (LSD) test and Mann-Whitney U test for assessing the
meaningful differences were computed.
On the basis of the teachers’ opinions and with the purpose of determining the
preventive factors for the realization of efficient communication between teachers
and parents, the obtained findings are interpreted below.
Results and Interpretations Related to Gender Variable
Pursuant to the independent sample’s t test, there is no significant difference
between female (
A =3.68) and male teachers’ (
B =3.62) [t(512) =1.29, p>.05] views
regarding “personal” barriers (parents’ prejudices towards school, illiteracy of
parents, concern about hearing negative comments about children, parents’ problems
with school management, and so on). This finding indicates that, although female
teachers have encountered more personal barriers, male and female teachers are
exposed to a similar number of personal obstacles at the “generally” level. Other
“socio-cultural” barriers (parents’ religious affinity, poor socio-economic conditions,
low level of education, parents’ tendency to find their children very successful);
“accessibility” barriers (not stating the needs and opinions openly, not paying
attention to the teacher, inaccessibility of parents when they are needed, insufficient
amount of time devoted to the parents, not talking easily with the parents about their
children at any time); and “field and status”-related barriers (distance of residential
address of the parents, the lack of appropriate spaces in the school to talk with
parents, social status differences between teachers and parents, working at the same
school with some parents, and so on) have been experienced at the “rarely” level
without any significant difference (Table 3).
36 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
Data Distribution According to Gender Variable on the Basis of Dimensions
Field and Status
Results and Interpretation Regarding Branch Variable
Pursuant to the “socio-cultural” barriers dimension, the analysis of the data
indicated significant differences among the opinions of teachers from three different
branches related to barriers in teacher-parent communication [F(2-511) =3.25, p< 0.05].
The Least Significant Difference test revealed the difference between social sciences
and physical sciences and between physical science and fine arts/special talent
branches. Accordingly, it is observed that teachers of fine arts/special talent branches
C =2.56) have encountered barriers based on socio-cultural reasons more when
compared to teachers of social sciences (
A =2.33) and physical sciences (
however, it is understood that all sample groups have encountered barriers at the
“rarely” level (Table 4).
In the dimensions of “personal,” “accessibility,” and “field and status” related
barriers, no statistically significant difference is observed between teacher opinions
(p> .05). Personal barriers have been experienced at the “generally” level;
“accessibility” and “field and status” related barriers have been encountered at the
“rarely” level (Table 4).
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 37
Data Distribution According to Branches Variable on the Basis of Dimensions
Results and Interpretation Regarding Work Year Variable
The analysis of the data revealed that teachers’ opinions relating to “personal”
barriers differed significantly by their work years in school [χ2(2) =19.318, p< 0.05]. As
a result of multiple comparisons that were performed through a Mann-Whitney U
test, this difference seems to occur in groups that have “5 years and less” and “6–15
38 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
years” of work in the school. This finding shows that teachers’ years of work in the
school have an impact on the rate of their encountering personal barriers. When the
mean rank of the groups is regarded, it is seen that the “5 years and less” work year
group encounters the most barriers, and it is followed by “6–15 years” and “16 years
and more” groups respectively.
It is understood that there is no significant difference related to other “socio-
cultural,” “accessibility,” and “field and status” related barriers. However, it is seen
that teachers with “5 years and less” work years have encountered socio-cultural
barriers at the highest level; this is followed by teachers with “16 years and more”
and “6–15 years” of work experience. Further, teachers with “16 years and more” of
work experience have encountered accessibility barriers the most, and it is followed
by teachers with “5 years and less” and “6–15 years” work year experience. Related
to “field and status” barriers, it is seen that teachers with “5 years and less” work
experience have encountered the most barriers, followed by teachers who have “6–15
years” and “16 years and more” work experience (Table 5).
Data Distribution According to Work Year Variable on the Basis of Dimensions
A) 5 years and less
B) 6–15 years
C) 16 years and more
A) 5 years and less
B) 6–15 years
C) 16 years and more
A) 5 years and less
B) 6–15 years
C) 16 years and more
A) 5 years and less
B) 6–15 years
C) 16 years and more
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 39
Discussion and Conclusion
This study tried to determine the barriers to effective communication between
teachers and parents on the basis of teacher opinions. The results considering the
independent variables as gender, branch, and work years of teachers in the school
can be summarized as follows:
Results obtained related to gender variable reveal that personal barriers are
encountered at the “generally” level; socio-cultural, accessibility, and field and status
related barriers are encountered at the “rarely” level. Compared to male teachers,
female teachers seem to witness personal barriers more. Celik’s (2005) result that
female teachers experience more problems in school-parent communication supports
the results of this research. On the other hand, the research results of Cengil (2016),
Cevis (2002), and Kenanoglu (2004) indicate no significant difference between
teachers’ opinions by gender related to problems in school-parent relations.
As the branch variable is regarded, it is understood that teachers from all
branches (social sciences, physical sciences, and fine arts/special talents) encounter
personal barriers at the “generally” level and the other socio-cultural, accessibility,
field and status related barriers at the “rarely” level. However, it is understood that
teachers from fine arts/special talent branches encounter socio-cultural related
barriers more significantly than the other branch teachers. In Celik’s (2005) study, it
is concluded that teachers who graduated from other branches, but work as class
teachers experience more problems than other teachers.
The results related to work years in the school indicate that teachers with “5 years
and less” work experience encounter personal barriers the most, and the teachers
who have “16 years and more” and “6–15 year” of work experience follow them.
Likewise, teachers with “5 years and less” experience encounter socio-cultural and
field and status based barriers more than the other branch teachers. However,
teachers with “16 years and more” work year experience encounter accessibility
related barriers the most. It is understood that the least experienced teachers
encounter almost all kind of barriers—mainly personal barriers—more than the more
experienced ones. This situation indicates that novice teachers are not able to develop
sufficient knowledge and skills in communication. Research shows that the greatest
problems that novice teachers face are related to communication with parents as well
The results obtained in this study are the same major communication preventive
issues between teachers and parents found in the literature. Thus, the results such as
physical distance, socio cultural differences (language, dressing, values) (Sisman &
Turan, 2004); meeting with parents only when money is required (Kocak, 1991);
parents’ lack of trust in teachers and their unwillingness to cooperate (Celik, 2005);
parents’ financial problems and lack of interest in informing parents of school-related
issues (Ceylan & Akar, 2010); inappropriate schedule of school activities (Basaran &
Koc, 2001); teachers’ misbehaviors (Ogan, 2000; Yılmaztekin, 2015); parents’
education level, parents’ mistrust in teachers and managers (Porsuk, 2010), and the
like also confirm the findings of that research.
40 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
School managers and teachers should have knowledge about the socio-economic
and cultural structure of parents’ environments in order to increase communication
with them. Besides, school managers and teachers should develop an open-door
policy for parents and the parents should be encouraged to visit the school as much
as possible. Thus, while parent support can be obtained more easily on one hand, the
cooperation opportunities will be created on the other to improve the students in all
Schools should plan parents’ meeting at the beginning of the instructional year,
announce the meeting schedule and agenda to parents, and secure a suitable place,
time, and environment for meetings.
In this study, personal barriers were mentioned at the “generally” level. In order
to eliminate personal barriers, prejudices towards the school and teachers should be
eliminated, and a relationship that is based on mutual trust and tolerance should be
In establishing communication with parents who do not have the ability to speak
Turkish well, the assistance of other school members should be obtained, in case the
class teacher is incapable of understanding them. The meeting time with parents
should be arranged pursuant to parents’ availability and should be used efficiently.
In order to eliminate communication barriers that art/special talent branches
teachers encounter, the importance of these branches for personal development
should be explained well, and psychological consultancy and guidance should be
obtained on this subject. The assistance of experienced teachers to the novice teachers
should be ensured in establishing a good communication between parents and
teachers. Besides traditional communication methods such as face-to-face and
written communication, electronic communication (mobile phones, social network,
and computer environment) should be utilized efficiently as well.
Under the leadership of the National Education Ministry and universities,
various informative and educational programs with the goal of improving teacher-
parent communication should be organized.
In order to perform teacher-parent communication efficiently and develop a
sustainable cooperation, a schoolwide mechanism should be built where preventive
factors to efficient communication are identified and ways to overcome them are
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 41
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Problem Durumu: Eğitim kurumlarında etkili eğitimin gerçekleştirilmesinde
okullardaki yönetici, öğretmen ve öğrenciler yanında öğrenci velileriyle kurulan
iletişim büyük önem taşır. Özellikle sınıf içindeki öğrenci performansına ilişkin
öğretmen ve veliler arasında kurulan iletişim öğrenci sorunlarının daha iyi
anlaşılması, velilerin eğitime olan desteklerinin artırılması, etkili yönlendirme ve
rehberlik yapılması ve nihayet öğrenci güdülenmesinin ve başarısının artırılmasında
yaşamsal önem taşır. Etkili iletişim, güçlü okul-aile işbirliğini yaratmak ve veli
katılımını artırmak için gereklidir. Öğretmen sadece öğretme sanatında beceri sahibi
olmamalı, aynı zamanda kendi veli topluluğuyla etkili iletişime yönelik bilgi ve
Eurasian Journal of Educational Research 45
becerisini de geliştirmelidir. Öğretmenlerin yararlanabileceği internet teknolojisi,
velilerle özel görüşmeler/konferanslar ve okul ile ev iletişimine yönelik birçok
iletişim olanağı vardır. Öğretmenler, velilerle iletişim kurmak için, iletişim
stratejilerini ve işbirlikli yeni iletişim yöntemlerini kullanma konusunda çaba sarf
etmeli ve bu çabalar planlı bir yaklaşımı yansıtmalıdır.
Araştırmanın Amacı: Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, ilköğretim okullarında öğretmen
ve veli arasında etkili iletişime engel oluşturan unsurları öğretmen görüşlerinden
yola çıkarak belirlemeye çalışmaktır.
Araştırmanın Yöntemi: Araştırma tarama türünde betimsel bir çalışmadır.
Araştırmanın evrenini, 2011-2012 eğitim-öğretim yılında, Elazığ ili sınırları içinde
bulunan 317 ilköğretim okulunda görev yapan 3,968 öğretmen oluşturmaktadır.
Elazığ il merkezindeki beş eğitim bölgesinin her birinden tesadüfi örnekleme
yöntemiyle 3’er okul olmak üzere, toplam 15 okul seçilmiştir. Merkez ilçeler
kümesinden rastgele seçilen üç ilçenin her birinden 2’şer okul olmak üzere 6 okul
ayrıca araştırma kapsamına dâhil edilmiştir. Böylece, toplam 21 ilköğretim okulu ve
bu okullarda görev yapan toplam 806 öğretmene ölçek dağıtılmış, bu ölçeklerden
uygun şekilde doldurularak dönenlerin sayısı 514 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Öğretmen-
veli iletişimine engel olan unsurları saptamak amacıyla araştırmacılar tarafından
geliştirilen “İletişim Engellerini Belirleme Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Ölçek geliştirilirken
literatür ve uzman görüşleri eşliğinde, önce 27 adet madde geliştirilmiştir. Geçerlik
ve güvenirliği tespit etmek amacıyla ölçek bir pilot uygulamaya tabi tutulmuş ve
yansız olarak seçilen 152 öğretmenin görüşleri alınmıştır. Yapılan faktör analizinde 6
maddenin faktör yükü düşük çıktığından bu maddeler ölçeğe dahil edilmemiştir.
Faktör analizi sonucunda, dört faktör altında toplanan 21 madde, maddelerin taşıdığı
anlamlar dikkate alınarak, “kişisel” (1-2-3-5-6-7-12 no’lu maddeler), “sosyo-kültürel”
(4-8-9-10 no’lu maddeler), “ulaşılabilirlik” (13-16-17-20-21 no’lu maddeler), “alan ve
statü” (14-18-19-22-23 no’lu maddeler) engelleri şeklinde isimlendirilmiştir. Ölçeğin
tamamı için Cronbach Alfa güvenirlik katsayısı .78 olarak bulunmuştur.
Çalışmadan elde edilen veriler SPSS paket programı aracılığı ile analiz edilmiştir.
Verilerin analizinde kullanılacak istatistiksel yöntemleri belirlemek amacıyla normal
dağılıma uygunluk analizinde Kolmogrov-Smirnov Z sınaması, verilerin homojenlik
durumunu tespit etmek için de Levene sınaması kullanılmıştır. Bu sınamaların
sonuçlarına göre, cinsiyet değişkeninde Independent Sample t test; branş
değişkeninde Varyans Analizi (ANOVA); ve görev yapılan okuldaki çalışma süresi
değişkenine yönelik Kruskal-Wallis test ve anlamlı farklılığın hangi denek grupları
arasında gerçekleştiğini belirleyebilmek için Least Significant Difference (LSD) test
ve Mann-Whitney U sınaması ile çoklu karşılaştırmalar yapılmıştır.
Araştırmanın Bulguları: Cinsiyet değişkenine ilişkin olarak ulaşılan bulgular, kişisel
engellerle “genellikle” düzeyinde; sosyo-kültürel, ulaşılabilirlik, alan ve statüden
kaynaklanan engellerle ise “çok nadir” düzeyinde karşılaşıldığını göstermektedir.
Kadın öğretmenler, kişisel engellere daha çok tanık olurken, erkek öğretmenler
sosyo-kültürel, ulaşılabilirlik, alan ve statüden kaynaklanan engellerle daha çok
karşılaşmaktadırlar. Branş değişkeni dikkate alındığında, tüm branşlardaki (sosyal
bilimler, fen bilimleri ve güzel sanatlar/özel yetenek) öğretmenlerin, kişisel
46 Fatma Ozmen, Cemal Akuzum, Muhammed Zincirli & Gulenaz Selcuk
engellerle “genellikle” düzeyinde; sosyo-kültürel, ulaşılabilirlik, alan ve statüden
kaynaklı engellerle ise “çok nadir” düzeyinde karşılaştığı anlaşılmaktadır.
Öğretmenlerin görev yaptıkları okuldaki çalışma süreleri değişkenine ilişkin ulaşılan
bulgular, kişisel engellerle en yüksek düzeyde “5 yıl ve daha az” çalışma süresine
sahip öğretmenlerin karşılaştığını, bunu “16 yıl ve üzeri” ve “6-15 yıl” çalışma
süresine sahip öğretmenlerin izlediğini göstermektedir. Sosyo-kültürel kaynaklı
engeller ile alan ve statüden kaynaklanan engellerle çalışma süresi “5 yıl ve daha az”
olan grup daha çok karşılaşırken, ulaşılabilirlikle ilişkili engellerle çalışma süresi “16
yıl ve üzeri” grubun daha çok karşılaştığı anlaşılmıştır.
Araştırmanın Sonuç ve Önerileri: Öğretmen-veli iletişimini etkili şekilde
gerçekleştirmek ve sürdürülebilir bir işbirliğini geliştirmek için, etkili iletişime engel
olan unsurları tanımlayacak ve sistematik olarak irdeleyecek okul çapında bir
mekanizmanın oluşturulması gerekir. Öğretmen-veli iletişiminde karşılaşılan
engeller, öğretmen-veli arasındaki anlayışın geliştirilmesi ve işbirliğine yönelik
alternatiflerin oluşturulması için bir fırsat olarak ele alınmalıdır. Öğretmen-veli
iletişiminin etkili şekilde gerçekleştirilmesi isteğinin temelinde, veli katılımının
çocuğun başarısının artmasına ve etkili eğitimin gerçekleştirilmesine yapacağı katkı
beklentisi vardır. Bu araştırmada da, öğretmen ve veli arasında etkili iletişime engel
oluşturan unsurlar öğretmen görüşlerinden yola çıkarak belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır.
Araştırmada belirlenen boyutlar temelinde ulaşılan sonuçlar, alan yazın
çalışmalarında da öğretmen ve veli arasındaki etkili iletişimi engelleyen temel
unsurlar olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Nitekim, fiziksel uzaklık, sosyo-kültürel
farklılıklar (dil, giyim, değer); velilerle sadece para söz konusu olduğunda
görüşülmesi; velilerde öğretmenlere karşı güven eksikliğinin olması ve velilerin
işbirliğine açık olmaması; velilerin ekonomik sorunları ve velilerin okul işleyişi
konusunda yeterli düzeyde bilgilendirilmemesi; okuldaki etkinliklerin zamanı;
öğretmenlerin olumsuz tavırları ve velinin kendi öğrenciliğini anımsamak
istememesi; velilerin eğitim düzeyi, velilerin öğretmen ve yöneticilere karşı güven
duymamaları gibi sonuçlar bu durumu teyit etmektedir. Elde edilen bu sonuçlardan
yola çıkarak şu önerilere yer verilebilir: Okul yönetimi ve öğretmenler, ailelerle
iletişimi artırabilmek için, ailelerin yaşadığı çevrenin sosyo-ekonomik ve kültürel
yapısı hakkında bilgi sahibi olmalıdır. Okul yönetimi ve öğretmenler, velilere karşı
açık kapı politikası oluşturmalı, velilerin okula gelmeleri cesaretlendirilmelidir.
Böylelikle, bir yandan veli desteği daha kolay elde edilirken, diğer yandan
öğrencilerin her yönden gelişmesi yönünde işbirliği fırsatları yaratılacaktır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Okul, öğretmen, veli, etkili iletişim, iletişim engelleri.