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Are the emotionally intelligent good citizens or counterproductive? A meta-analysis of emotional intelligence and its relationships with organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behavior

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Abstract

This research project examines whether emotional intelligence (EI) is related to organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and counterproductive work behavior (CWB). A key question concerns the degree to which EI is related to OCB and CWB after controlling for other established predictors. The study uses meta-analytical summaries of existing research (for EI-OCB, k = 68, N = 16,386; for EI-CWB, k = 17, N = 3914). It uses meta-analytical controls to obtain the best estimates of effect sizes, incremental validity, and relative importance. This meta-analysis found that EI is positively associated with OCB and negatively related to CWB. When controlling for ability measures of EI, the Big Five personality measures, general self-efficacy, cognitive intelligence, and self-rated performance, both self-report measures of EI and mixed competency measures of EI show incremental validity and relative importance in predicting OCB and CWB. An analysis of self-report EI found that the effects of EI on OCB and CWB are stronger in health care and service industries than in industries where emotional labor demands are lower. The results imply that organizations can increase OCB and reduce CWB by recruiting employees high in EI and by training employees in emotional competencies.

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... This study has both theoretical and practical implications in addressing the transformational leadership (TL), and the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI), counterproductive work behavior (CWB), and organizational commitment (OC) as shown in Figure 1. Some previous studies have investigates the direct relationship between EI and CWB (Emani, 2014;Al Ghazo, Suifan, & Alnuaini, 2019;Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017;Jung & Yoon, 2012;Keskin et al. 2016); EI and OC (Aghdasi et al. 2011;Al-Nasser & Behery, 2015;Amjad, 2018;Kumari & Priya, 2015;Masrek et al. 2015); EI and TL (Alston, Dastoor, & Chin-Loy, 2016;Antoniou, 2005;Biswas & Rahman, 2017;Leban & Zulauf, 2004); TL and CWB (Baharom et al. 2017;Uddin, Rahman, & Howladar, 2017); and TL and OC (Feizi, Ebrahimi, & Beheshti, 2014;Gillet & Vandenberghe, 2014;Gulluce et al. 2016;Porter, 2015); but with no investigation of transformational leadership. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, previous research has not covered the new element discussed in this study, which is the mediating impact of transformational leadership in the impact of emotional intelligence on counterproductive work behavior and organizational commitment in the context of Kurdistan region of Iraq, especially in the private tertiary institutions. ...
... In addition, emotional intelligence "is an intellectual capability which allows one to understand, identify, and asses the meaning of emotions; to reason; and to help in solving problems (Suleiman, Awwad, & Kada Ali, 2012: 117). In reference to another author, a popular description of emotional intelligence characteristics is that it belongs to "emotion-related selfperceptions" and traits found at the base of the personality hierarchies (Miao et al. 2017). In the measurement of an individual performance in both daily lives and professional, emotional intelligence is a critical factor. ...
... The importance of emotional intelligence was stressed by Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (1999) that it has a role to play in reducing the deviance that leads to counterproductive behavior that is related to job tasks. Meanwhile, Miao et al. (2017) opined that employee with high levels of emotional intelligence are not likely to commit any acts that could results to CBW. This view corroborates the position of Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli (2007) who observed that employees with high level of emotional intelligence have less chances of being caught in engaging in any deviant acts than those with low level of EI. ...
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Article
Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is a type of behavior that has an impact on the efficiency of an organization. It has far-reaching implications in the workplace. OCB can help organizations become more effective by improving productivity. Employee motivation and citizenship behaviours have become important issues in OB. This study examines the mediation role of organization citizenship behaviour between employee motivation and productivity at pharmaceutical Industries in KRG. The researchers employed quantitative research method via using a survey to measure the current study. The questionnaire was distributed randomly among 150 administrative employees of different pharmaceutical industries in Kurdistan region. However, the researchers were able to gather 139 completed questionnaires. The findings revealed that organization citizenship behaviour has a significant and positive mediation role between motivation factors and productivity at pharmaceutical industries in Kurdistan region of Iraq.
... Third, research has documented that emotionally intelligent employees and those reporting greater levels of hedonic wellbeing (e.g. satisfaction, engagement) were more involved, proactive, creative, and performed better in their job (Jafri et al., 2016;Miao et al., 2017a;Prentice et al., 2020). Few studies have provided theoretical explanations or empirical investigations of the mechanisms through which EI is associated with those outcomes. ...
... Our study adopts the trait perspective of EI which is related to stronger inter-personal relationships (Bozionelos & Bozionelos, 2018). Latest meta-analyses similarly indicated that trait EI stands on more robust grounds by definition and measurement, and has a much stronger association with work outcomes than ability EI (Bozionelos & Bozionelos, 2018;Miao et al., 2017aMiao et al., , 2017b. Despite the lack of conceptualization consensus, the salience of EI on job outcomes however remains undoubtedly prominent. ...
... Research has underscored that service employees with high EI perform better in their jobs, i.e., task performance and service quality (O'Boyle Jr et al., 2011;Prentice et al., 2020), exhibit greater organizational citizenship behaviors (Bozionelos & Singh, 2017;Miao et al., 2017a) and creativity (Xu et al., 2019). This is because emotionally intelligent employees can understand and acknowledge their emotions, thereby controlling frustration that can enable them to handle multiple work demands and changes effortlessly, and adjust their reactions to positively respond to the infinite range of emotional stimuli arising from self or the workplace (Bozionelos & Singh, 2017). ...
Article
This study contributes to the ongoing discussion stressing the need to reinvigorate meaning and purpose to the younger generation of employees and revitalize the essence of hospitality. To this end, the study proposes and tests a model of how spiritual leadership and emotional intelligence are related, directly and indirectly through spiritual wellbeing, to the creative performance and customer-oriented boundary-spanning behaviors (COBSB) of employees. The research hypotheses were tested using data collected from 238 frontline hotel employees and 53 supervisors and analyzed via nonlinear estimations. The findings revealed that spiritual leadership and emotional intelligence were curvilinearly related to spiritual wellbeing, COBSB, and creative performance. Specifically, too much of spiritual leadership was not necessarily a good thing, and the less emotionally intelligent can sometimes be better off. Moreover, spiritual wellbeing mediated the relationship of emotional intelligence and spiritual leadership with COBSB and creative performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed further.
... People's reactions and behaviours to different situations will differ according to their level of Emotional Intelligence. People with low level of emotional intelligence may experience negative emotions when faced with difficult situations or problems and may react in antisocial and other dysfunctional ways (Miao et al., 2017). In contrast, high emotional intelligence people can regulate their negative emotions and successfully handle them which in return reduce their tendency to participate in antisocial and counterproductive behaviours ways (Miao et al., 2017). ...
... People with low level of emotional intelligence may experience negative emotions when faced with difficult situations or problems and may react in antisocial and other dysfunctional ways (Miao et al., 2017). In contrast, high emotional intelligence people can regulate their negative emotions and successfully handle them which in return reduce their tendency to participate in antisocial and counterproductive behaviours ways (Miao et al., 2017). Since CWB is considered an emotion-based response to organizational environmental conditions (Roy et al., 2012), EI can help employees to cope with and regulate their negative emotions and consequently reduce CWB (Ouyang et al., 2015;Miao et al., 2017) Previous research suggests that EI has worked as a self-control/buffering mechanism by affecting the relation between PJ, burnout, work misbehaviour, task performance, contextual performance and CWB (Shkoler & Tziner, 2017;Devonish & Greenidge, 2010). ...
... In contrast, high emotional intelligence people can regulate their negative emotions and successfully handle them which in return reduce their tendency to participate in antisocial and counterproductive behaviours ways (Miao et al., 2017). Since CWB is considered an emotion-based response to organizational environmental conditions (Roy et al., 2012), EI can help employees to cope with and regulate their negative emotions and consequently reduce CWB (Ouyang et al., 2015;Miao et al., 2017) Previous research suggests that EI has worked as a self-control/buffering mechanism by affecting the relation between PJ, burnout, work misbehaviour, task performance, contextual performance and CWB (Shkoler & Tziner, 2017;Devonish & Greenidge, 2010). However, the two researches did not examine the different levels of EI and how they interact with the different levels of perceived justice / injustice. ...
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Article
This paper aims to reveal the power of emotional intelligence in buffering employees’ negative reactions to perceived organisational injustice manifested in counterproductive work behaviours. To test the proposed relationships, a sample of 345 employees working in hospitality private sector in Cairo-Egypt was approached. Tests of between-subjects Effects and Z-score were used to test the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The results supported the moderating effect of emotional intelligence for counterproductive work behaviours in general and to counterproductive work behaviours directed to people specifically. As expected, high emotional intelligence people are less involved in to counterproductive work behaviours even with perceived injustice. Interestingly, individuals with moderate level of emotional intelligence were found to be more involved in CWB than people with low EI when they perceive injustice. These results could have several empirical and theoretical implications.
... However, it was only during the crisis of Covid-10 pandemic, that the need of emotional intelligence became obvious (Fuchs, 2020). Employees that are emotionally intelligent have a more positive outlook, appear more happy, devoted, and loyal to their profession and organisation, which leads to a more congenial work atmosphere and improved job performance (Miao et al., 2017). ...
... People with high EI are more capable of protecting themselves from stressful situations, displaying less aggression, more self-discipline, and more self-esteem, and they do not have the tendency to harm their mental health, as low emotionally intelligent people do ( Drigas & Papoutsi, 2020). Additionally, employees that are emotionally intelligent have a more positive outlook, appear more happy, devoted, and loyal to their profession and organisation, which leads to a more congenial work atmosphere and improved job performance (Miao et al. 2017). Such emotionally intelligent individuals, contribute to a more productive work environment by being optimistic even in the face of overwhelming odds, resulting in better levels of job satisfaction, loyalty, and dedication (Miao et al. 2017). ...
... Additionally, employees that are emotionally intelligent have a more positive outlook, appear more happy, devoted, and loyal to their profession and organisation, which leads to a more congenial work atmosphere and improved job performance (Miao et al. 2017). Such emotionally intelligent individuals, contribute to a more productive work environment by being optimistic even in the face of overwhelming odds, resulting in better levels of job satisfaction, loyalty, and dedication (Miao et al. 2017). This was confirmed by the Global Talen Trend report which listed emotional intelligence as one of the top skills employers want in 2021 naming it as a key skill for 2021 (LinkedIn, 2021). ...
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Conference Paper
In our daily lives, critical and stressful events can take many various shapes. Stressful conditions, such as natural disasters and epidemics, may sometimes be more serious on a national or global scale, as it affects our life, jobs and life events in general (Drigas & Papoutsi, 2020). With the advent of the Covid-19 virus, we were in such a terrible and stressful situation. After all the time, effort, and money incurred in obtaining a degree, it is normal for graduates to focus on technical abilities learned throughout their studies in order to be employed. Surprisingly, to a disappointment of job seeking fresh graduates, there are skills and attributes that potential employers value even more apart from skills directly relevant to the job. More importantly, soft skills which are related to a candidate's emotional intelligence should be given more weightage than hard skills which are knowledge specific, Emotional intelligence is making a significant contribution to combating the pandemic. soft skills aid in obtaining and maintaining employment, and help people to adapt and behave positively so that they can deal with the challenges of their everyday life. Basic components of emotional intelligence which include awareness, management, and empathy, are extremely crucial for individuals to manage the challenging Covid-19 situations. Finding in this research presents the need for courses and programs to foster, develop and increase emotional intelligence and soft skills to be considered at all levels of education. This research sheds light on the critical impacts of emotional intelligence and soft skills to positively shape graduates' employability from the employers' perspective.
... The applied value of emotional intelligence (EI) for managing people and their effectiveness at work has been intensely debated over the last quarter-century (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2020;Sackett, Lievens, Van Iddekinge, & Kuncel, 2017). Recent meta-analytic reviews of the increasing number of empirical studies on the relationships between EI and important workplace outcomes provide grounds for optimism, showing that EI measures are positively related with job performance and key attitudes at work (Miao et al., 2020;Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017a;Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017b;O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2010). ...
... Particularly, evidence from meta-analyses has also revealed that self-report measures of EI, based on Mayer and Salovey's (1997) definition of EI and encompassing relatively similar facets, make a significant contribution to predicting overall job performance (O'Boyle et al., 2010) and its dimensions, such as citizenship performance and counterproductive behaviours (Miao et al., 2017a), even when well-established predictors, such as cognitive ability and the big five personality factors, are also taken into account. ...
... This matter represents a related, yet underdeveloped, research topic in the literature regarding the links between EI and job performance (Greenidge et al., 2014). Specifically, we address the recent calls from Miao et al. (2017a) for more empirical research to examine whether attitudinal variables such as interpersonal trust might be important mediators in this relationship. Indeed, interpersonal trust is a relevant variable for organizations as it is considered the basis of quality interpersonal relationships in the workplace, especially since work organization systems have become increasingly reliant upon interdependent work structures (De Jong, Dirks, & Gillespie, 2016;Tan & Lim, 2009). ...
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Article
Purpose - Building upon the relevance of emotional intelligence (EI) in predicting individual performance at work, this research paper examines the links between trait EI facets, co-worker trust, and task performance in a software engineering job. Theoretical framework: Specifically, it draws upon the Joseph and Newman cascading model to hypothesize that trait EI facets impact on task performance in a sequential way. It also empirically tests the mediating effect of co-worker trust on the link between emotion regulation and task performance. Design/methodology/approach - This study follows a predictive design with two data collection phases. In the first phase EI facets and co-worker trust were self-rated by the participants. The second phase was implemented after six months to collect the employees' task performance ratings from direct supervisors. A final sample was obtained of 102 employees, all of whom were project software engineers. Findings - The results from structural equation modelling provided support for the expected sequential effect between the EI facets under study (from appraisal of others' and one's own emotions to emotion regulation). They further showed that the effect of emotion regulation on task performance is fully indirect and occurs via co-worker trust. Research Practical & Social implications - Managers should build and develop a workforce of individuals with high trait EI, since they are more able to achieve stronger levels of task performance by developing feelings of trust towards their co-workers. Originality/value - To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the interplay between trait EI facets and co-worker trust in determining task performance at work.
... Research findings have demonstrated that EI influences outcomes, such as leadership effectiveness, job performance, team performance, OCB, counterproductive work behavior, antisocial behavior, ethical behavior, academic performance, health, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention (e.g., Ashkanasy & Humphrey, 2011;Fu, 2014;Joseph & Newman, 2010;Martins et al., 2010;Miao et al., 2016Miao et al., , 2017aMiao et al., , 2017bMiao et al., , 2018bO'Boyle et al., 2011;Petrides et al., 2004Petrides et al., , 2016Siegling et al., 2014;Spraggon & Bodolica, 2015). A wealth of studies have demonstrated the valid factor structure of EI and the incremental validity of EI above and beyond cognitive ability, Big Five personality traits, general selfefficacy, self-rated job performance, and affectivity (e.g., Andrei et al., 2016;van der Linden et al., 2017;Miao et al., 2017aMiao et al., , 2017bMiao et al., , 2018bO'Boyle et al., 2011;Petrides, Pérez-González, et al., 2007). ...
... Research findings have demonstrated that EI influences outcomes, such as leadership effectiveness, job performance, team performance, OCB, counterproductive work behavior, antisocial behavior, ethical behavior, academic performance, health, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention (e.g., Ashkanasy & Humphrey, 2011;Fu, 2014;Joseph & Newman, 2010;Martins et al., 2010;Miao et al., 2016Miao et al., , 2017aMiao et al., , 2017bMiao et al., , 2018bO'Boyle et al., 2011;Petrides et al., 2004Petrides et al., , 2016Siegling et al., 2014;Spraggon & Bodolica, 2015). A wealth of studies have demonstrated the valid factor structure of EI and the incremental validity of EI above and beyond cognitive ability, Big Five personality traits, general selfefficacy, self-rated job performance, and affectivity (e.g., Andrei et al., 2016;van der Linden et al., 2017;Miao et al., 2017aMiao et al., , 2017bMiao et al., , 2018bO'Boyle et al., 2011;Petrides, Pérez-González, et al., 2007). Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) were among the first scholars to develop measures of servant leadership. ...
... Emotionally intelligent leaders are likely to care about the longterm maintenance of the organization (Hur et al., 2011), and this matches servant leaders' concern for the organization and the larger community. Like servant leaders (Searle & Barbuto, 2011), employees high on EI are more likely to perform virtuous organizational citizenship behaviors and to refrain from performing counterproductive work behaviors (Miao et al., 2017b). Moreover, leaders high on EI also have employees who are more likely to perform organizational citizenship behaviors, thus meeting Greenleaf's (1977) test that servant leaders mentor others so that they are more likely themselves to become servants. ...
Article
Servant leadership is an effective leadership style that focuses on ethics and morality. Emotional intelligence (EI) is also associated with effective leadership and ethical behavior; thus, there has been a surge in studies that assessed the link between EI and servant leadership. Nevertheless, the empirical landscape of this relationship is mixed and fragmented. We undertook a meta‐analysis to clarify this literature and found that (a) EI has a significant positive relationship with servant leadership (ρ̅̂ = .57); (b) the relationship between EI and servant leadership is stronger in studies having a lower percentage of well‐educated subjects, in low power distance cultures, and in high institutional collectivism cultures; and (c) We were unable to find sufficient evidence to support moderating effects of the relationship between EI and servant leadership for gender (male‐dominated and female‐dominated studies), age (between young and old subjects), for self‐report versus follower‐report of servant leadership, and across different scales of servant leadership.
... Within a corporate context, Goleman (1998) claimed that EI can be twice as important as Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in determining career prospects and enhance employee performance. The literature widely reports that employees with higher levels of EI are better performers, with higher levels of job satisfaction, organisational commitment, resilience, mentoring and leadership skills (Miao et al. 2017a;Miao et al. 2017b). Consequently, these findings have grabbed the attention of businesses which are now seeking the competitive advantages offered by this new form of soft skill when investing in their workforce. ...
... Following these advices Miao et al. (2017a), examined the influence of EI on more specific work-related indicators i.e., organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and counterproductive work behaviour (CWB). This time the incremental validity of both self-reported trait and mixed EI measures were maintained even after "controlling for ability measures of EI, the Big Five personality measures, general self-efficacy, cognitive intelligence, and self-rated performance" (p. ...
... Like Miao et al. (2017a), the findings of the meta-analysis conducted by Miao et al. (2017b) follow the same pattern. Examining the influence of EI on work attitude indicators Miao et al. (2017b) found that, ...
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Thesis
This dissertation aims to gain a better understanding on whether emotional intelligence (EI) can be effectively assessed via indirect indicators during employee recruitment processes. The IAAF scoring system, which is an objective assessment tool measuring athletic performance, was chosen as the predictor variable for this study, with the research question being: Amongst athletics athletes, can the IAAF scoring system prove to be an indirect indicator of emotional intelligence during employee recruitment? The literature suggests that the psychological skills of high-performance athletes overlap with EI components and hence it was deduced that the IAAF scoring system has key objective features to be a potential indicator of EI. To answer the research question, a case study design with the use of a cross-sectional online-survey methodology was adopted whereby the entire Maltese Athletics adult community was invited to participate. The purpose of the chosen strategy was to correlate the predictor variable IAAF score with the dependent variable EI (H1), while at the same time assessing the potential moderating role of gender (H2) and motivational climate (H3), within an amateur athletics context. The data collection period spread over three weeks between November 2020 and December 2020 attained a 21% response rate with 94 valid surveys. The low response rate, coupled with a non-response bias has affected the validity of the results, depriving us from explicitly establishing the link between the IAAF variable and EI, with H1 and H3 being partially rejected and H2 remaining unanswered due to the insufficient sample size. Spearman's bivariate correlation test confirmed that IAAF score is not a predictor of EI (ρ = 0.090, p = > 0.05), but the underlying task-oriented motivational climate is the actual significant predictor of EI (ρ = 0.202, p = < 0.05). Task orientation was in turn found to be positively associated with IAAF (ρ = 0.226, p = < 0.05), thus through the mediating role of task-oriented motivation, it was hypothesised that if the sampled population was more normally distributed in terms of educational level, task-oriented mentality and EI, a true relationship could have been established between IAAF performance and EI. It was concluded that, for recruitment purposes the IAAF scoring system is not an effective predictor of EI if an indication of a high level of task-oriented motivation is already available (example through applicant's academic achievements). High IAAF scoring results are not associated with EI amongst athletes with high educational backgrounds. On the other hand, if the applicant's curriculum vitae does not provide any clear indication of the applicant's motivational orientation, IAAF performance can be used as an indirect indicator for both task-oriented motivation and EI. Hence, it was argued that indirect indicators of EI can restore equity in the recruitment selection processes, as it gives opportunity to individuals with lower academic background to demonstrate that they can still be ideal candidates for jobs with higher emotional labour demands. Implications on the role of the IAAF scoring system and other similar self-assessment benchmark systems in fostering task-oriented mentalities and EI competencies are also discussed.
... It is for this reason that we remain cautious about meta-analyses that do not report their coding according to best practices 1 , as is the case for the Miao et al. (2016Miao et al. ( , 2017aMiao et al. ( , 2017b) studies you referenced in your letter. These meta-analyses report very large SDrho estimates, suggesting very strong moderator effects. ...
... For example, you raised concerns about two meta-analytical studies (Miao et al., 2017a;O'Boyle et al., 2011), claiming an apparent discrepancy in reported numbers in the first case; and bad sampling in the other. Regarding the apparent discrepancy in the Miao et al. (2017a) article, there is in fact a remarkably simple reason for it. ...
... For example, you raised concerns about two meta-analytical studies (Miao et al., 2017a;O'Boyle et al., 2011), claiming an apparent discrepancy in reported numbers in the first case; and bad sampling in the other. Regarding the apparent discrepancy in the Miao et al. (2017a) article, there is in fact a remarkably simple reason for it. As the authors stated in the table for the incremental validity tests, "Observer-reported OCB and observer-reported CWB were used" (Supplementary materials, p. 13, Miao et al., 2017a). ...
Article
The study of emotional intelligence (EI) in the field of leadership, and in the organizational sciences in general, has often been characterized by controversy and criticism. But the study of EI has nonetheless persisted by developing new measures and models to address these concerns. In a prior letter exchange by Antonakis, Ashkanasy, and Dasborough (2009), two author teams debated the role of EI in the leadership literature, but also set an agenda for research and reconciliation for the future. The present exchange revisits these arguments using evidence accumulated over the past decade. Specifically, the authors debate not only the evidence for the predictive power of EI for workplace outcomes, but also the validity of EI as a construct, the measurement of EI, and the appropriateness of analytical tests for establishing the value of EI. Although the author teams agree on the value of the study of emotions and the need for rigorous research in this area, they nonetheless propose alternative agendas and priorities for the future. Further, they conclude that the issues identified in this exchange are not unique to the study of EI; but should also serve to inform the study of other personality factors and leadership more broadly.
... En relación con el trabajo de Mikolajczak (2009) y, siguiendo el trabajo de Ashkanasy y Daus (2005), un número destacado de revisiones e investigaciones metaanalíticas sobre IE han clasificado los instrumentos de evaluación de la IE en tres corrientes según la taxonomía de medidas: (1) medidas de habilidad de IE, (2) medidas autoinformadas de IE y (3) medidas de modelos mixtos de IE (Ashkanasy y Daus, 2005). Esta clasificación ha permitido sistematizar la evidencia acumulada a partir de numerosos trabajos sobre los correlatos de este recurso psicológico y profundizar en las distintas aproximaciones al constructo (Miao et al., 2017a(Miao et al., , 2017bO'Boyle et al., 2011;Sánchez-Álvarez et al., 2016Sánchez-Álvarez et al., , 2020 Tal y como se muestra en la Figura 7, la primera aproximación se basa en la definición del modelo de habilidad de IE de Mayer y Salovey (1997) y emplea como instrumentos de medida pruebas de juicio situacional como el Mayer, Salovey and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT;Mayer et al., 2002) o el Geneva Emotional Competence Test (GeCo; Schlegel y Mortillaro, 2019). En cuanto a la segunda aproximación, se basa en la primera en cuanto al seguir el modelo de habilidad de Mayer y Salovey (1997) como referencia pero con la principal diferencia de poner el foco en los procesos emocionales internos. ...
... Además, las personas emocionalmente inteligentes afrontan los eventos afectivos de una forma más adaptativa, lo que les llevaría a un mejor ajuste personal y laboral y a desempeñar conductas más deseables en su trabajo (Ashkanasy y Dorris, 2017). Estos resultados van en consonancia con los hallazgos de revisiones meta-analíticas que han revelado que los profesionales con mayores niveles de IE muestran actitudes laborales más positivas y son más proclives a realizar conductas prosociales en el trabajo (Miao et al., 2017a(Miao et al., , 2017b). ...
... Estos resultados presentan implicaciones para el desarrollo de los recursos personales siguiendo la corriente de investigación en Psicología Organizacional Positiva (Di Fabio, 2017). Por ejemplo, estos hallazgos podrían orientar el desarrollo de la IE para facilitar el desempeño y los comportamientos deseables en la organización (Miao et al., 2017a). ...
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Thesis
Empirical evidence has demonstrated that teaching professionals suffer from psychosocial risk factors associated with negative educational, economic, and social consequences (Iriarte-Redín & Erro-Garcés, 2020; Travers, 2017). According to the Job Demands-Resources theory, it is proposed that both contextual and personal factors are predictors of teachers’ job strain, work engagement, and numerous individual and organizational outcomes (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017; Granziera et al., 2021). Work engagement is highlighted as a key dimension in the teaching context given its positive effects on health, commitment, and performance at work. Recent studies have increasingly focused on the predictive role of teachers’ personal resources (e.g., self-efficacy, optimism, and emotional intelligence) in work engagement as well as in positive functioning outcomes (Granziera et al., 2021). Emotional intelligence (EI) has been underscored as a helpful personal resource among teachers relating to increased work-related health and well-being (Iriarte-Redín & Erro-Garcés, 2020; Mérida-López & Extremera, 2017). However, the role of EI on teachers’ work engagement has not been empirically tested based upon the Job Demands-Resources theory. Better knowledge about the relationship between EI and contextual and personal factors in explaining teachers’ work engagement and work-related and personal well-being indicators would substantially contribute to the development of effective Positive Organizational Psychology intervention programs in educational settings. Therefore, the main goal of the current dissertation was to integrate existing theoretical frameworks on emotional intelligence and work-related well-being in providing novel empirical research offering a more comprehensive view regarding the effects of EI on teachers’ work engagement. Available at: https://hdl.handle.net/10630/21914
... Emotional intelligence (EI) enables people to recognize their emotions and use them to refine their decision-making [1][2][3][4][5]. It has been discovered that distinguishing between emotions can help guide people's actions and improve their problem-solving abilities [5]. ...
... It has been discovered that distinguishing between emotions can help guide people's actions and improve their problem-solving abilities [5]. EI has been recognized as a key component in the success of various healthcare professionals [1]. ...
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Article
Objective The present study examined the relationship of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF) and academic achievement (GPA). Analyses were performed using a sample of Saudi-origin medical rehabilitation undergraduate students (N = 130). The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF). Analyses were performed using a sample of undergraduates (N = 585) recruited from four universities across China. Methods One hundred thirty medical rehabilitation students completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF). Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out to elucidate relationships (or the lack of the same) between various variables. Results Whole sample alpha coefficient value for global trait EI was 0.84, while the same for trait EI factors ranged from 0.51 to 0.76. Global Trait EI was found higher in males than in females (Female students median score: 17 ± 2.56 VS Male students median score: 18 ± 3.67; U: 1667, p 0.04). A positive and statistically significant relationship was found between Well-being and the three other factors (with Self-control [r(128), 0.413, p 0.01]; with Emotionality [r(128), 0.518, p 0.01], with Sociability [r(128), 0.490, p 0.01]). Sociability was found to have a similar positive relationship with Self-control [r(128), 0.239, p 0.05] and Emotionality [r(128), 0.490, p 0.01] respectively. Furthermore, GPA was found to have a negative (not statistically significant) relation with Sociability. Overall, there was no association found between trait EI and GPA. Conclusions The present study is one of two studies that has investigated the train EI-academic achievement link in healthcare-related students. Our findings resonate with existing literature on the subject.
... Job Satisfaction (Miao et al., 2017a(Miao et al., , 2017c Organizational Commitment (Miao et al., 2017a) Turnover Intentions (Miao et al., 2017a) Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Miao et al., 2017b) Counterproductive Work Behavior (Miao et al., 2017b) Employee emotional intelligence is the second best predictor (after cognitive ability) of: ...
... Job Satisfaction (Miao et al., 2017a(Miao et al., , 2017c Organizational Commitment (Miao et al., 2017a) Turnover Intentions (Miao et al., 2017a) Organizational Citizenship Behavior (Miao et al., 2017b) Counterproductive Work Behavior (Miao et al., 2017b) Employee emotional intelligence is the second best predictor (after cognitive ability) of: ...
... A partir del procedimiento descrito en Miao, Humphrey y Qian (2017), la revisión se realizó en dos etapas (figura 1). En la primera, se efectuó una búsqueda avanzada, restringida al título, resumen y palabras clave, en algunas de las bases de datos electrónicas contenidas en EBSCO Host (Academic Search Complete, Business Source Complete, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection). ...
... Los efectos negativos de las emociones inauténticas son mayores cuando el interlocutor tiene bajos niveles de personamiento dialéctico. Miao et al. (2017) Es fundamental conocer la importancia relativa de la IE como predictor, una vez que se hayan controlado sus efectos por los de otras diferencias individuales. ...
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Este artículo tuvo por objetivo describir cómo las características personales de los empleados moldean sus respuestas frente a las situaciones emocionalmente demandantes de su trabajo. Para ello, se realizó una revisión de artículos empíricos publicados en revistas científicas de alto impacto. Los resultados revelan que los rasgos de personalidad, las habilidades emocionales y los motivos del trabajo constituyen las principales características individuales examinadas en la literatura sobre trabajo emocional. Asimismo, indican que estas características individuales asumen un rol fundamental en el trabajo emocional al condicionar las percepciones que los empleados tienen de las reglas emocionales, sus estrategias de regulación emocional y los efectos de los procesos regulatorios sobre la expresión emocional, el bienestar y el desempeño.
... Among job attitudes, job satisfaction is often regarded as a proxy for employees' well-being at the workplace (Grandey, 2000) and is positively associated with EI (Devonish, 2016). Among work behaviors, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) (Miao et al., 2017b) and JP (Joseph et al., 2015) are positively related to EI, while turnover intentions (Ogungbamila et al., 2014) and counter-productive work behaviors (Miao et al., 2017b) are negatively related to it. ...
... Among job attitudes, job satisfaction is often regarded as a proxy for employees' well-being at the workplace (Grandey, 2000) and is positively associated with EI (Devonish, 2016). Among work behaviors, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) (Miao et al., 2017b) and JP (Joseph et al., 2015) are positively related to EI, while turnover intentions (Ogungbamila et al., 2014) and counter-productive work behaviors (Miao et al., 2017b) are negatively related to it. ...
Article
Purpose The paper aims to examine the mediating role of emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction in the emotional intelligence (EI) and job performance (JP) relationship. Design/methodology/approach The data have been collected using a structured questionnaire from 527 females working in education, health and IT/BPO sectors across three cities of Punjab, India. A serial multiple-mediated regression has been used to estimate EI's direct and indirect effects on JP mediated through emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Findings The findings reveal that EI has an indirect positive effect on JP through its influence on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction in serial. The results also suggest that the control variables (namely age, qualification, experience and income) have a limited effect on EI, JP, emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction of female employees. Practical implications The present study asserts that organizations should seek employees with high EI to have high employee performance. The study assists supervisors and human resource (HR) managers in their different functions like recruitment and selection decisions, training and development activities, and designing high-performance work systems. Enhanced EI will improve mental health and well-being, which further drives positive work behaviors. Originality/value This study attempts to examine the EI–JP relationship for working females in more depth. Since the study is based on an Indian sample, it adds to the growing literature on EI and JP of females in the context of non-Western countries. The results are of great value to HR managers and practitioners who aim to develop practices that would increase the performance of females in the workplace.
... Emotional intelligence is understood to reinforce the organizational citizenship behaviors of employees in an organization. This may be deducted from the results of studies that have found that employees who are good at managing their emotions are more eager to demonstrate positive behaviors in their organizations (e.g., Miao et al., 2017c;Kim and Park, 2020). Additionally, employees with high emotional intelligence tend to volunteer helping others in the workplace. ...
... Previous meta-analyses also found a positive correlation between EI and organizational citizenship behavior. For example, Miao et al. (2017c) obtained positive correlations between the three streams and organizational citizenship behavior. The corrected correlation coefficients in this analysis are marginally lower than their results. ...
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Emotional intelligence is an emerging field since the 1990s due to its important outcomes for employees. This study is a psychometric meta-analysis examining the links between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction, job performance, and job stress of employees. In this meta-analysis, carefully selected studies on emotional intelligence since the origin of the concept in 1990 were included along with studies examining its outcomes. For this analysis, three streams of emotional intelligence, consistent with previous meta-analyses, were considered: ability, self-report, and mixed emotional intelligence. This meta-analysis is an attempt to add to the literature by analyzing the relationships between emotional intelligence and selected employee outcomes over a period of time beginning in 1990. The three streams of emotional intelligence were separately analyzed to examine their relationship with employee outcomes. These outcomes were included in the study based on select research studies. Our study results showed that emotional intelligence and its three streams were positively related to organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, job satisfaction, and job performance and negatively related to job stress.
... In the stark contradiction to Weber's notion that emotions in the workplace disrupted bureaucratic rationality, causing discrimination, conflict, and other undesired behaviours (Miao et al., 2017); management researchers and professionals need to realise that productivity will be achieved by managers that treat their employees positively and in return employees demand more responsibility, a wider range of duties, and the ability to make decisions (Argyris, 2017). Individual employees' contributions cannot be overlooked as we move to the modern world. ...
... When confronted with tough situations, people with low emotional intelligence may experience wrath, fear, and other negative emotions. However, those with high levels of emotional intelligence can manage these feelings and behave more effectively and are willing to engage in prosocial OCB (Goleman, 1998;Miao et al., 2017). Over the years, various studies considered EI and OCB as important components of individual performance (Abdullahi et al., 2020;Makkar & Basu, 2019). ...
Article
This research paper examines how the demographic profile of employees influences the association between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) in the IT industry. A descriptive research design was adopted with data obtained from 315 respondents from IT industry. A cross-sectional sample was collected using the survey method, and bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis techniques were applied to determine the research objectives. The results reveal that EI has a substantial impact on OCB. On analysing the impact of demographic variables, the findings reveal that age and job experience, unlike gender and marital status, have a moderating impact on EI skills for promoting better citizenship behaviour in the IT industry. Managers and HR professionals may realize that differences in demographic profile influences the behaviour and contribution of every employee, which is required to develop strategic HR planning aligned with overall organization’s objectives.
... Previous studies found that emotional intelligence is related to positive work outcomes. It is positively related to organizational citizenship behavior (Miao et al., 2017) and subordinate task performance (Miao et al., 2018a). Emotional intelligence is negatively associated with counterproductive work behavior (Miao et al., 2017). ...
... It is positively related to organizational citizenship behavior (Miao et al., 2017) and subordinate task performance (Miao et al., 2018a). Emotional intelligence is negatively associated with counterproductive work behavior (Miao et al., 2017). ...
Article
Amaç: Bilinçli farkındalık dikkatle ve olumlu bir tutumla ana odaklanmak olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bilinçli farkındalık Budizm kökenli bir kavram olup Kabat-Zinn (2005) tarafından bilim dünyasına kazandırılmış ve psikoloji, işletme, sağlık bilimleri, rehberlik ve psikolojik danışmanlık gibi farklı alanlarda etkileri incelenmiştir. Bilinçli farkındalığın bireylerin tutum ve davranışlarında olumlu etkileri olduğu çok sayıda araştırma tarafından tespit edilmiştir. Bilinçli farkındalığın yeterince ilişkilendirilmediği bir konu da çatışma yönetimidir. Bu araştırmada bilinçli farkındalığın işbirlikçi çatışma yönetimi stillerine olan etkisinde duygusal zekânın aracı rolü incelenecektir.Yöntem: Araştırmada kolayda örneklem yöntemi ile kamu ve özel sektörde çalışan 193 beyaz yaka personelden veri toplanmıştır. Bulgular: Bilinçli farkındalık ile problem çözücü ve uzlaşmacı çatışma yönetim stilleri arasında anlamlı ilişkiler olduğu bulunmuştur. SPSS Process Macro eklentisi ile yapılan ara değişken analizi sonucunda duygusal zekanın aracı rolü olmadığı anlaşılmıştır. Sonuç: Bilinçli farkındalığın işbirlikçi çatışma stillerini yordadığı görülmüştür. Araştırmanın teorik katkıları tartışılmış ve uygulamacılara öneriler verilmiştir.
... Other attribute-based antecedents to OCB, beyond well-researched personality traits and motives, would also be beneficial. Existing meta-analytic evidence has linked emotional intelligence and OCB (Miao et al., 2017). Considering our evidence shows the importance of interpersonal skills, future research that examines how emotional intelligence, which shares some similar conceptual roots with interpersonal competencies, affects role cognitions and OCB would be particularly interesting. ...
Article
While substantial research demonstrates that personal attributes and the manner with which people construe their work roles both play important antecedent roles in predicting organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), there has been very little examination of the process by which these distinct factors jointly affect the performance of OCB. We apply the principles of role theory and identity theory to articulate how an understudied personal attribute (interpersonal skill) influences OCB as well as the boundary conditions for this relationship. We posit role cognitions as a key mechanism through which interpersonal skills ultimately facilitate OCB. We also examine how work contexts characterized by demands from social contingencies placed on an individual's work role by other people shape this role enactment process, specifically situational differences in accountability, routinization, interdependence, and external interactions. Results support the proposed mediating effects of role cognitions and show the indirect effects of interpersonal skills through role cognitions are amplified when contexts are high in accountability and interdependence and are attenuated in contexts high in routinization.
... According to Elfenbein and MacCann (2017), emotional intelligence is the capacity to confront one's emotions and use them to guide one's thoughts and actions. According to Miao et al. (2017), Emotional intelligence is the capacity to recognise one's own and others' emotions, motivate oneself, and organise one's own and others' emotions effectively. ...
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Education serves the purpose of cultivating the capacity to shape character and civilisation in a dignified manner to advance the nation's intellectual life. Social studies education is an affective domain subject because it teaches students to see knowledge in social interactions and to apply it directly in the community environment. This study compares students' social skills acquired through moral reasoning-based cooperative learning to those acquired through simulation-based cooperative learning in order to determine the effectiveness of simulation-based and moral reasoning-based cooperative learning in improving students' social skills, as well as the interaction between the two. This research employed a quasi-experimental design with a comparative approach. The study was conducted in classes VIII A and VIII B, with 27 students and 26 students, respectively, at SMP N 27 Pesawaran, Lampung Province, Indonesia. The findings of this study indicate a significant difference in social skills between students taught using the Moral Reasoning cooperative learning model and students taught using the Simulation cooperative learning model in social studies subjects. Learning that employs the Moral Reasoning learning model is more effective than learning that employs the Simulation one.
... It is speculated that the leaders' EI increases the morality of the team and therefore the overall result of the team (RaesIi et al. 2016). EI positively relates to OCB (Miao et al. 2017). EI helps people to keep their hopes positive and utilize emotions to sympathize with others and ignore the little gains to get greater mutual gains. ...
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Article
The citizenship behavior of academicians in higher education is of pronounced significance that certainly requires consideration. Nevertheless, such behavior can be stimulated through a leadership style that has received rare attention. Therefore, this study proposed an integrated research model that explores how transformational leadership influences citizenship behaviors through rarely used dimensions Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Organization and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Individual by addressing the mediating role of workplace spirituality and emotional intelligence. We integrated two theoretical models of social exchange and transformational leadership to describe the underlying linkages. Using data from 408 academicians working in public sector universities and by employing Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling we provided support for our hypothesis to validate the research model. This study focuses on a typology of the second-order hierarchical latent variable model that includes reflective—formative relationships with emphasis on the repeated indicator approach. The findings of this study provide empirical evidence and encouraging justifications for the substantial influence of workplace spirituality and emotional intelligence on the relationship between transformational leadership and citizenship behaviours.
... CWB-I is interpersonally oriented and may include acts of aggression towards co-workers, such as verbal insults, spreading false rumours, making fun of others, making racial slurs or withholding crucial information from others. Nonetheless, many studies consider the global CWB (Dalal, 2005, p. 1242) as meaningful (Marcus et al., 2016;Miao et al., 2017;Smithikrai, 2014;Yang & Treadway, 2018), by noting that the components of CWB are sometimes difficult to distinguish empirically (Bowling & Eschleman, 2010;Meier & Spector, 2013;Ng et al., 2016). This is partly because behaviours targeted at individuals (CWB-I) may also indirectly affect the organisation (CWB-O) (Marcus et al., 2016), and vice versa. ...
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This study examines the role of cultural values in influencing counterproductive work behaviours (CWBs). In particular, it focuses on the cultural values of power distance, long-term orientation and collectivism (both horizontal and vertical collectivism) as well as the Confucian values of guanxi and harmony. In line with recent approaches in moral psychology and sociology, we consider how Confucian values become moral triggers or inhibitors for employees to engage in CWB. In addition, we consider the moderating effects of guanxi and harmony on the relationships between the cultural values of power distance, long-term orientation, collectivism and CWB. The results from a survey of 489 white-collar employees in China confirmed the importance of cultural values in influencing CWB. Specifically, our findings indicate that guanxi moderates the relationship between cultural values and CWB and acts as a moral trigger for an employee to engage in CWB. With the exception of horizontal collectivism, we also found that harmony moderates the relationship between cultural values and CWB. Specifically, harmony acts as a moral inhibitor for an employee to engage in CWB. Lastly, we discuss the implications of the findings for theory and practice in the context of managing an increasingly global workplace and business environment.
... Consistently, emotional intelligence is generally regarded as adeptness at recognizing and managing emotional experiences and responses in self and others and then integrating these to enhance thinking and consequent behaviours (Serrat, 2017). People high in emotional intelligence regulate their emotions to excel at work and in life and perform empathic prosocial behaviours (Miao, Humphrey and Qian, 2017). Goleman (2001) has conceptualized emotional intelligence into a construct encompassing five competencies; self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, empathy and social skills (Pettijohn, Rozell and Newman, 2010). ...
... Initially coined by Bateman and Organ (1983), the term "organisational citizenship behaviour" or OCB as "individual behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognised by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organisation" (Organ, 1988, p. 4). The OCB of employees has been related to improved organisational productivity and efficiency, increased customer satisfaction and reduced cost and employees turnover (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017). ...
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Government institutions play a vital role in implementing and navigating the government's vision and policy for the benefit of the citizens. However, the administrative role that these government institutions are supposed to portray, to some extent has failed to meet public expectations, resulting in significant public complaints as reported by the Public Complaint Bureau. In response to the public outcry for better service delivery, this research investigates the differences in demographic characteristics such as employees' gender, age, level of education, position/grade and the length of service in influencing the organisational citizenship behaviour. The sample of the study consisted of 615 employees from a public institution located in Putrajaya, Malaysia. The data were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Bonferroni Correction analyses. The result indicates no significant difference between gender, age, education level and job tenure on organisational citizenship behaviour. In particular, male and female employees share a similar level of citizenship behaviour in the public institution. In addition, employees' age group, level of education and job tenure have no differences regarding the level of citizenship behaviour. Unlike other demographic variables, position/grade was found to have significant differences with citizenship behaviour among employees in the public institution. This indicated that different levels of citizenship behaviour exist in accordance with the position/grade. Correspon dingly, the interpretations of results, limitations and suggestions for future research have been described in the final section.
... Emotional intelligence is well-researched in the prediction of health and mental well-being, life satisfaction, emotional labour, organizational citizenship behaviour, team effectiveness, job performance, work-family conflicts and effective leadership (See meta-analyses: Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2016;O'Boyle et al., 2010;Peña-Sarrionandia et al., 2015: Joseph et al., 2015Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017). EI is also associated with preventing and dealing with stress (Schutte et al., 2007), which reflects an important leadership skill (Miao et al., 2016). ...
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Maintaining good mental well-being is important for leaders, but little attention has been given to how leaders facilitate their own well-being or how leaders evaluate emotions associated with certain events (cognitive reappraisal). This study investigates how mental well-being might influence the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and cognitive reappraisal in leaders and whether this relationship differs by gender. Data from 246 hotel managers in Sweden were collected, with a response rate of 69%. Our findings show that the four EI dimensions play a significant role in cognitive reappraisal, including Self-Emotion Appraisal, a core dimension of EI. The analyses showed that the effect of mental well-being on the relationship between two of the EI dimensions and cognitive reappraisal differed significantly by gender. We recommend the use of tailored training programs such as simulation-based training with real life cases. This type of training can support leaders in using broader strategies to regulate emotions, as well as helping them become more mindful about the consequences of their own and others’ choice of emotion regulation. Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
... According to Schutte and Malouff (2011), emotional intelligence did significantly mediate between mindfulness and subjective well-being which comprised of higher positive affect, lower negative affect and greater life satisfaction. Individuals with emotional intelligence manage their emotions in order to excel at work and in life and practice empathic prosocial behaviours (Miao, Humphrey and Qian, 2017). Research conducted by Saklofske et al. (2007) indicated that emotional intelligence is significantly mediated the relationship between personality and exercise behaviour. ...
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Article
Recently, healthcare sector is facing increasing challenges and growing expectations from the patients. Ministry of Health Malaysia received increasing number of complaints for public hospitals on unsatisfied service quality which involved nursing services. Satisfaction with nursing services has been reported to contribute more significantly than any other service to overall perceptions of healthcare service quality. Researchers reported the new generation of nursing graduates were being criticized for their dissatisfactory attitudes towards patients and deterioration in the standard service delivery performance which has been identified as the contributing factors to the increasing number of complaints and criticisms on nurses. Customer-oriented behaviour has been validated as an essential approach to achieve higher quality of care and improving patients' satisfaction with the healthcare service delivered. Owing to that fact, this paper aims to impart a conceptual analysis of the mediating effects of emotional intelligence on the relationship between big five personality traits and customer-oriented behaviour among Malaysian nursing students. This paper is guided by trait theory and emotional intelligence theory in establishing the proposed theoretical framework. Our conceptual analysis suggests that emotional intelligence significantly mediates the relationship between big five personality traits and customer-oriented behaviour. In addition, this study provides an avenue to researchers to examine nursing students' customer-oriented behaviour level and its relationship with big five personality traits and emotional intelligence. It also offers a beneficial guideline for Student Recruitment Department of nursing colleges to enrol the best candidates with the right personality traits into the nursing program and lead towards the sustainability of nursing care quality deliver by the future nurses.
... Emotionally intelligent leaders are more likely to be authentic leaders (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2018b). Employee emotional intelligence is positively related to individual job performance, organizational citizenship behavior, service performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, and negatively related to counterproductive work behavior and turnover intentions (Miao, Barone, Qian, & Humphrey, 2019;Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017a;2017b;O'Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, & Story, 2011). ...
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Article
Exploring the psychological foundations of management in family firms is necessary to understand why they formulate and implement strategies differently from nonfamily firms, and why and how family firm behavior varies across different family firms. Picone et al. (2021. The psychological foundations of management in family firms: Values, biases, and heuristics. Family Business Review, 34(1), 12-32) have proposed a conceptual framework for the psychological foundations of management in family business, examining how the values, biases, and heuristics of family firm members affect strategic decision-making and family firm outcomes. Drawing on this framework, we examine emotions, memories, and experiences in family firms, disentangling “what we know” from “what we should know”, and offering some relevant questions to advance the field.
... One of the most popular employee work habit which has received much attention from researchers and management practitioners for its relevance to the organizations' performance is Organizational Citizenship Behavior (aka extra-role behavior or citizenship behavior). Incontrovertibly, these positive employee work habits has been associated with improved organizational productivity and efficiency, increased customer satisfaction and reduced cost and employees turnover (Miao et al., 2017). It is highly valued and critical in enhancing government organisations (Norasherin et al., 2016). ...
Article
Purpose: Government institutions through it employees play a vital role in steering and implementing government’s vision and policy for the benefit of the citizens. However, the work habits of many government employees to have failed to meet public expectations thus perennial complaints. Globally, Self-efficacy and Organizational Citizenship Behavior are concepts commonly researched and practiced among private sector organizations for better work performance. Although, these constructs have not received favorable consideration among public sector scholars and practitioners in the Africa, entrenching positive work behavior among employees for improved service delivery is universal and widely advocated for in the literature. It is a day today responsibility of managers, however studies have bestowed this role in the organization in general rather than the actual drivers of positive work behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine whether self-efficacy and the demographic characteristics of senior public officers influence their engagement in citizenship behaviors. Methodology: Guided by social exchange theory and social cognitive theory, the study adopted a cross sectional quantitative survey design. Target population was the middle level employees in public service in Kenya. Data was collected using questionnaires, (N=389) determined by stratified sampling procedure and analyzed to derive descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS computer software. From the multiple regression model (1), R2 = 0.042 showing that demographic characteristics accounted for 4.2% variation in OCB, while model (2) shows R2 =0.17 indicating that Self-efficacy accounted for 17.1% of OCB. Self-efficacy had significant relationship with Organizational citizenship behavior (β1= 0.362, p<0.05). Age had a positive significant relationship (β= .204, p<0.05) with OCB. Tenure was found to relate negatively with OCB (β= -.183 (p<.05). Findings: The findings showed that Self-efficacy and age were strong determinant of OCB, thus the higher the employees’ age and psychological and emotional self-belief the higher their tendency to exhibit extra role behavior at the work place. Employee’s practice of discretionary behaviour to help colleagues solve organizational or personal problems is not just a matter of chance but a fully conscious decision informed of ones’ personal characteristics. Unique Contribution to Theory, Practice and Policy: The study affirmed the applicability of the social exchange and social cognitive theories among public sector workers. As such, managers in public institutions should strive to identify, promote and nurture employee’s personal traits that contribute to practice of positive work behaviours like citizenship behaviour at the work place in their endeavor to improve public service delivery.
... High trait EI is associated with lower levels of perceived stress (e.g., Petrides & Furnham 2006;Szczygiel et al., 2015). Trait EI is crucial for such working life outcomes as commitment, health, job satisfaction, and job effectiveness (Miao et al., 2017b). Furthermore, leaders high in trait EI may be skillful in communicating with followers on different levels (e.g., e-mail), for instance as regards feedback pertaining to the achievement of goals (Prati et al., 2003); they may have a good control and regulation of own behavior, tolerate frustration, and cope with different changes without intensification of emotional reaction. ...
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Article
Unlabelled: Leaders of today need to achieve well in terms of task performance, perceiving low stress, and having high levels of work engagement. One may ask whether trait-based leadership resource factors can be identified and how such resource factors might relate to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement. Our aim was to test the hypothesis, derived from Hobfoll's motivational Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, that there are trait-based leadership resource factors, which are differentially correlated to the leaders' task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement. Leaders (N = 344) aged from 23 to 65 years (M = 49, SD = 8.6; 58% women) completed an online questionnaire including measures of task performance, perceived stress, work engagement, personality traits, trait emotional intelligence, empathy, performance-related self-esteem, compassionate and rational leadership competence, and coping resources for stress. Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four trait-based leadership resource factors. With Bonferroni adjustment, and controlling for sex, age, number of years in the current managerial position, self-deceptive enhancement, and impression management, only Rational Mastery was significantly positively correlated with task performance. Rational Mastery, Efficient Coping, and Modesty were negatively correlated with perceived stress, and all factors except Modesty, but including the fourth (Good-Heartedness) were positively correlated with work engagement. Organizations striving for sustainable work conditions should support trait-based leadership, which depends not only on a task-oriented resource such as rational mastery, but also on human-oriented resources such as efficient coping, modesty, and good-heartedness, all of them being differentially related to task performance, perceived stress, and work engagement. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-03767-8.
... It is emphasized that they help workers to cope with job demands, reduce physiological and psychological cost of stress, help achieve work goals, and stimulate personal growth, learning and development [6]. In fact, several meta-analysis studies show that job resources are the source of many positive job-related outcomes, including job satisfaction [7,8], work engagement [9][10][11], job performance [12,13] and work motivation [14,15]. However, the mechanism by which job resources lead to these positive outcomes remains unclear. ...
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Article
This study aims to understand the long-term relation between comprehensive job resources and the three basic psychological needs at work (autonomy, relatedness and competence). The study was conducted in a progressive design on a sample of 1025 Polish human service professionals. Based on a typology of job resources, the three aggregated job resources index related to the task, leadership and interpersonal relations were created and the effects of each of them on the satisfaction and frustration of the three basic psychological needs, measured after 8 months, were tested. The analysis conducted by using of structural equation modelling showed that task resources are associated with the three basic psychological needs more strongly than two other kinds of resources and that that both leadership and interpersonal resources were related to the satisfaction and frustration of all the needs to the same extent. The results are discussed in the paradigm of the Conservative of Resources and the Self Determination theories.
... Entre los diferentes modelos, Bar-On (2006) ubica la inteligencia emocional en un modelo de bienestar y la define como la capacidad para emplear las emociones para actividades cognitivas incluyendo la solución de problemas (Mayer, et al., 2001), lo que muestra su importancia en el deporte, en particular en los colectivos (Oriol-Granado, et al., 2014). Para medir esta variable, se han utilizado con frecuencia autoinformes en los que los participantes valoran su percepción a través del grado de acuerdo o desacuerdo con determinados ítems (Duque et al, 2020;Miao, et al., 2017). En este caso, siguiendo el modelo planteado, se ha utilizado la adaptación de la escala de Bar-On (2000) Emotional Quotient Inventory realizada por Ferrándiz, et al. (2012). ...
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Article
La implicación de los jugadores en los entrenamientos depende de numerosos factores. Ante la necesidad de mejorar el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, el objetivo del estudio fue conocer la relación entre la intensidad de los jugadores en los entrenamientos de deportes colectivos con el rendimiento deportivo, la condición física y variables psicológicas como la inteligencia emocional o la satisfacción con la vida. Para ello, se pasó un cuestionario en el que se valoraban las citadas variables a 61 jóvenes deportistas de Costa Rica de cuatro deportes colectivos. Asimismo, se les colocaba un acelerómetro para medir la intensidad en el entrenamiento. Los resultados mostraron relaciones interesantes de las variables estudiadas con la intensidad mostrada por los jugadores en los entrenamientos y la percepción de su rendimiento deportivo. Se concluye que la inteligencia emocional y la condición física influyen en la intensidad de los entrenamientos. Son necesarios estudios similares que aporten más datos. Palabras clave. Entrenamiento deportivo, inteligencia emocional, satisfacción con la vida, acelerómetro, deportes colectivos. Abstract. Player involvement in sports training depends on numerous factors. Given the need to improve the teaching-learning process, the study's objective was to determine the relationship between the intensity of players in team sports training with sports performance, physical condition, and psychological variables such as emotional intelligence or life satisfaction. A questionnaire was administered in which the variables mentioned above were assessed on 61 young athletes from Costa Rica from four team sports. Likewise, athletes wore an accelerometer to measure training intensity. The results showed interesting associations between the variables studied with the player's training intensity and the perception of their sports performance. In conclusion, emotional intelligence and physical condition influence the intensity of training. Similar studies are needed to provide more data. Key words. Sports training, emotional intelligence, life satisfaction, accelerometer, team sports.
... Duygusal zekanın ÖVD'na olan olumlu etkisi hem ulusal (Bağcı, 2014), hem de uluslararası (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017;Turnipseed, & Vandewaa, 2012) literatürde tespit edilmiş bulunmaktadır. Tüm belirtilen sebeplerden ötürü, bu çalışmada aşağıdaki hipotez önerilmiştir: ...
Conference Paper
Bitcoin as one the most famous cryptocurrency has gained more popularity especially in the last few years. Gold is also considered as a safe haven for many investors especially when there is political and financial uncertainty existing in the market. In some previous studies there are some statistically significant connectedness have found between Gold price and Bitcoin price (Jareno et al., 2020). It is determined that gold price return changes have caused some sensitivity over Bitcoin returns. Therefore, in this study, the influence of gold price over Bitcoin price fluctuations has been questioned especially in a term which consists of during and after pandemic term. With this understanding in this study; weekly data regarding BTC/USD and Gold/USD has been collected from the date 08.05.2017 to 25.04.2022 (5 years) and as the statistical method ARDL model approach is applied to find an answer to the question. The results have showed that gold price has no statistically significant impact on the Bitcoin price volatility contrary to previous studies.
... Duygusal zekanın ÖVD'na olan olumlu etkisi hem ulusal (Bağcı, 2014), hem de uluslararası (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017;Turnipseed, & Vandewaa, 2012) literatürde tespit edilmiş bulunmaktadır. Tüm belirtilen sebeplerden ötürü, bu çalışmada aşağıdaki hipotez önerilmiştir: ...
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Bitcoin as one the most famous cryptocurrency has gained more popularity especially in the last few years. Gold is also considered as a safe haven for many investors especially when there is political and financial uncertainty existing in the market. In some previous studies there are some statistically significant connectedness have found between Gold price and Bitcoin price (Jareno et al., 2020). It is determined that gold price return changes have caused some sensitivity over Bitcoin returns. Therefore, in this study, the influence of gold price over Bitcoin price fluctuations has been questioned especially in a term which consists of during and after pandemic term. With this understanding in this study; weekly data regarding BTC/USD and Gold/USD has been collected from the date 08.05.2017 to 25.04.2022 (5 years) and as the statistical method ARDL model approach is applied to find an answer to the question. The results have showed that gold price has no statistically significant impact on the Bitcoin price volatility contrary to previous studies.
... Duygusal zekanın ÖVD'na olan olumlu etkisi hem ulusal (Bağcı, 2014), hem de uluslararası (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017;Turnipseed, & Vandewaa, 2012) literatürde tespit edilmiş bulunmaktadır. Tüm belirtilen sebeplerden ötürü, bu çalışmada aşağıdaki hipotez önerilmiştir: ...
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Over the last few decades; global finance market has experienced series of crises including USA crises in 2008 and Covid-19 Pandemic Global crises. They have had a great impact on the whole economies in the world including Turkey. These crises have strengthened the belief that gold is one of the most valuable investment protection tools. Gold value has reached its all-time high value especially during and after pandemic. This brought the question whether the existing prediction methods for gold price forecasting are still effective with time series analysis. In this study monthly prices of Free market Cumhuriyet gold selling priced (averaged) is being evaluated from January 2008 to April 2022. The ARIMA model is applied and also some other methods are compared with ARIMA. For the evaluation; MAPE, RMSE and MAE metrics are applied and all models’ results are compared in order to select the best time series forecasting model for gold price in Turkey consisting the term before and after pandemic.
... Duygusal zekanın ÖVD'na olan olumlu etkisi hem ulusal (Bağcı, 2014), hem de uluslararası (Miao, Humphrey, & Qian, 2017;Turnipseed, & Vandewaa, 2012) literatürde tespit edilmiş bulunmaktadır. Tüm belirtilen sebeplerden ötürü, bu çalışmada aşağıdaki hipotez önerilmiştir: ...
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The participation of workers in management and, moreover, a regulation form without managers, completely managed by workers, with equally distributed profits, is undoubtedly a democratic form of management, which is the dream of every generation of workers. Especially when the capitalist market is gaining strength, there is an idea that such a practice can become a sip of water in the desert. Conducting Research on Cuba, the only socialist state in the Western Hemisphere, despite the capitalist society and free-market rules that became widespread after the historic collapse of the Soviet Union, and the assessment of the level of workers' participation in administration and democratic decision-making is a very curious issue. The absence so far of any research in Turkey related to the participation of workers in management in Cuba increases the importance of this work, which serves as a practical guide with an informative character. In this study, the concept of participation in management is explained within the scope of industrial democracy, and there are briefly mentioned the forms of participation in governance. There has been examined the level of participation of workers in management in Cuba and presented various points of view. In the conducting of the study has been used the literature review method. According to the findings of the study, workers in Cuba participate in management at different levels through unions and cooperatives. In addition, workers can individually participate in the management and be a participant of the joint decision-making process.
... Например, D. M. William установил взаимосвязь между текучестью кадров и ЭИ руководителя: чем выше ЭИ руководителя, тем меньше увольнений в организации [1]. C. Miao, R. H. Humphrey, S. Qian установили, что ЭИ руководителей вне зависимости от их пола и возраста положительно коррелирует с удовлетворенностью работой подчиненных [2]. ...
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В работе представлены результаты влияния эмоционального интеллекта на стилевую дифференциацию процессов принятия управленческих решений. Впервые выявлено диверсифицированное влияние эмоционального интеллекта на управленческую деятельность, которое проявляется в том, что эмоциональный интеллект отрицательно влияет на стиль принятия управленческих решений.
... 7% -75% of employees have performed a CWB act at work (Cohen, 2016). CWB will have a profound effect on the conditions of an organization as it will affect the level of employee satisfaction at work (job satisfaction) and have a positive relationship with conflict (Miao et al., 2017). In this study, CWB will be analyzed using cyberbullying victimization, because Indonesia is a country with a high level of social media use. ...
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Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) is a behvaior that is contrary with the norms and the rules of an organization. CWB can give the big problems in financial and non-financial aspect for an organization or a member of organization . In this study we will show the effect of cyberbullying victimization on CWB in organization. In this research CWB will be analyzed with the level of cyberbullying victimization that is a variabel which is rarely been studied. The object of this research is pest contrl sector that is never studied in previoud research. A questionnaire has been designed and distributed to 585 pest control employees at Indonesia and the data will be analyzed with SEM ( Structral Equation modelling). This research show that cyberbullying victimization give the positive and significant effect to CWB. This illustrates that the higher level of cyberbullying victimization within an organization, the higher CWB rate and otherwise.Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) is a behavior that is contrary with the norms and the rules of an organization. CWB can give the big problems in financial and non-financial aspect for an organization or a member of organization . In this study we will show the effect of cyber bullying victimization on CWB in organization. In this research CWB will be analyzed with the level of cyber bullying victimization that is a variable which is rarely been studied. The object of this research is pest control sector that is never studied in previous research. A questionnaire has been designed and distributed to 585 pest control employees at Indonesia and the data will be analyzed with SEM ( Structural Equation modelling). These researches show that cyber bullying victimization give the positive and significant effect to CWB. This illustrates that the higher level of cyber bullying victimization within an organization, the higher CWB rate and otherwise.
... Individuals with high Emotional Intelligence manage work with good emotions. Even Emotional Intelligence is a predictor of citizen behavior (Miao et al., 2017). Likewise, citizen satisfaction triggers positive citizenship behavior (Zenker & Rütter, 2014). ...
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Innovation is a crucial element to achieving business success and sustainability. In pursuing superior performance, organizational members generate new ideas and realize new ideas. Hybrid entrepreneurship was a phenomenal point of view but was still poorly studied in the management literature. This research that examines the topic of entrepreneurship contributes to the development of entrepreneurship and economic growth. The approach in this research was quantitative. Respondents were entrepreneurs and employees in the Greater Jakarta area (Jabodetabek) with a simple random sampling technique. A total of 104 respondents returned the questionnaire. Evaluation of research hypotheses used SmartPLS software program. Results show that all variables have a significant correlation.
... A recent meta-analysis by Miao et al. (2017) found that after controlling for cognitive intelligence, the Big Five personality traits, general self-efficacy, self-rated job performance and ability, self-reported EI and mixed EI had incremental validity and relative weight when predicting organisational citizenship behaviour and counterproductive work behaviour. George (2000) indicates that CEO EI must have a high cognitive flexibility to enable adapting to change in the environment. ...
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... There are several relationships between the constructs of organizational citizenship behavior and task performance (Miao, Humphrey & Qian, 2018), psychological capital (Gupta, Shaheen & Reddy, 2017), organizational trust (Yildiz, 2019), emotional intelligence (Miao, Humphrey & Qian, 2017), job satisfaction (Spector & Che, 2014), organizational commitment (Cetin, Gürbüz & Sert, 2015), leadership (Nohe & Hertel, 2017), motivational aspect (Singh & Srivastava, 2009), stressors (Eatough, Chang, Miloslavic & Johnson, 2011) absenteeism and turn over (Lee & Allen, 2002). ...
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Chapter
Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a distinct mental ability, defined by Mayer and Salovey as ability to perceive, use, understand, and manage emotions in self and others. EI is now recognized as a distinct type of intelligence via three main streams of thought: (1) conceptualized and measured as a mental ability; (2) conceptualized as an ability, but measured using self/peer-reporting; and (3) other conceptualizations and measures. Extant research demonstrates that EI can be developed though training; and that it links to positive life outcomes including better mental health and well-being, as well as improved social relations, academic achievement, and work performance.
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Purpose Utilizing transaction cost economics (TCE) theory as the theoretical underpinning, this article aims to describe the costs of interpersonal helping and governing mechanisms that individuals may use to alleviate helping costs. Design/methodology/approach A theoretical analysis was performed by drawing upon TCE and related research. Findings Through the lens of TCE, the authors propose the following: First, as the costs of helping increase, interpersonal helping shifts from being triggered by an autonomous motivation to being regulated by contextual contingencies. Second, the helper is likely to utilize reciprocity to mitigate helping costs by acquiring specific assets possessed by the recipient when asset specificity is high. Third, the helper is likely to utilize organizationally sanctioned procedures and rules to mitigate helping costs by eliminating unwanted resource consumptions when outcome uncertainty is high. Finally, the helper is likely to utilize group norms to mitigate helping costs by involving others in helping or discouraging requests for recurrent help when the frequency of helping is high. Originality/value From a theoretical standpoint, this article complements previous research that focuses on the dark side of interpersonal helping. Practically, the authors offer several implications that help managers minimize the costs of helping in the organization.
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p>The primary purpose of this research is to study the effect of emotional intelligence (EI) on the counterproductive work behavior (CWB) of employees in the pest control industry in Indonesia. Although the effect of EI on CWB can be analyzed using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), this model is not specific to employees; for this reason, EI will be measured via the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS). Questionnaires were distributed to 585 pest control employees. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that EI has a statistically significant negative relationship with CWB and that the more emotionally intelligent employees are, the less likely they will be to act counterproductively at work. These findings can potentially reduce the level of CWB for organizations and society by enabling companies to assess the EI of workers. </p
Chapter
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Purpose Emotional intelligence (EI) is deemed important in developing interpersonal relationships. However, in the development of team-member exchange (TMX), the effect of EI on TMX and the team context have been largely ignored. For filling these gaps, this study explores the effect of employee EI on employee TMX and introduces EI-based leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation as a team context to moderate the EI-TMX relationship. Design/methodology/approach Data were drawn from 51 teams (consisting of 293 followers and 51 team leaders) selected from 30 companies (across the industries of technology, real estate, commerce and manufacturing). Findings Results revealed that employee EI was positively related to employee TMX. EI acted as the basis of LMX differentiation (EI was positively related to LMX, EI variety was positively associated with LMX differentiation), and EI-based LMX differentiation acted as a favorable context for high-EI employees to develop high-quality TMX. Originality/value This study contributes to the understanding of EI’s significant and complex influence on interpersonal exchange relationships between leaders, followers and coworkers.
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Over the past few decades there has been tremendous growth in Emotional Intelligence research. It has been learned that since Emotional Intelligence is not a trait, appropriate intervention programmes can inculcate a combination of dynamic skills required for the same. Emotional Intelligence is an essential factor to be considered in an organizational setup. The present study attempts to determine the influence of Emotional Intelligence on Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Commitment and Citizenship behavior are vital aspects of the organizational world. This study makes use of a sample of 115 Executives working at FCI OEN Connectors, Cochin, Kerala. The tools used for the study are Emotional Intelligence Inventory, The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and The Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale. The statistics used for the study are standard deviation and Pearsons product moment correlation. The results indicate that a positive relationship existed between Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior.
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Our meta-analysis of emotional intelligence (EI) demonstrates that: First, all three types of EI are significantly related to job satisfaction (ability EI: = .08; self-report EI: = .32; and mixed EI: = .39). Second, both self-report EI and mixed EI exhibit modest yet statistically significant incremental validity (ΔR2 = .03 for self-report EI and ΔR2 = .06 for mixed EI) and large relative importance (31.3% for self-report EI and 42.8% for mixed EI) in the presence of cognitive ability and personality when predicting job satisfaction. Third, we found mixed support for the moderator effects (i.e., emotional labour demand of jobs) for the relationship between EI and job satisfaction. Fourth, the relationships between all three types of EI and job satisfaction are mediated by state affect and job performance. Fifth, EI significantly relates to organizational commitment (self-report EI: = .43; mixed EI: = .43) and turnover intentions (self-report EI: = −.33). Sixth, after controls, both self-report EI and mixed EI demonstrate incremental validity and relative importance (46.9% for self-report EI; 44.2% for mixed EI) in predicting organizational commitment. Seventh, self-report EI demonstrates incremental validity and relative importance (60.9%) in predicting turnover intentions. Employees with higher emotional intelligence (EI) have higher job satisfaction, higher organizational commitment, and lower turnover intentions. Adding EI measures to the set of personality and cognitive measures currently being used can improve the ability to assess employee job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions. EI improves job satisfaction by helping employees reduce negative feelings, by increasing positive feelings, and/or by improving job performance. To produce productive and satisfied workers, organizations should incorporate EI in employee recruitment, training, and development programmes.
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Emotional labor is the display of expected emotions by service agents during service encounters. It is performed through surface acting, deep acting, or the expression of genuine emotion. Emotional labor may facilitate task effectiveness and self-expression, but it also may prime customer expectations that cannot be met and may trigger emotive dissonance and self-alienation. However, following social identity theory, we argue that some effects of emotional labor are moderated by one's social and personal identities and that emotional labor stimulates pressures for the person to identify with the service role. Research implications for the micro, meso, and macro levels of organizations are discussed.
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The purpose of this research was to develop broad, theoretically derived measure(s) of deviant behavior in the workplace. Two scales were developed: a 12-item scale of organizational deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to the organization) and a 7-item scale of interpersonal deviance (deviant behaviors directly harmful to other individuals within the organization). These scales were found to have internal reliabilities of .81 and .78, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis verified that a 2-factor structure had acceptable fit. Preliminary evidence of construct validity is also provided. The implications of this instrument for future empirical research on workplace deviance are discussed.
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Emotional labor (expressing emotions as part of one's job duties, as in “service with a smile”) can be beneficial for employees, organizations, and customers. Meta-analytical summaries reveal that deep acting (summoning up the appropriate feelings one wants to display) generally has positive outcomes. Unlike surface acting (faking emotions), deep acting does not harm employee well-being, and deep acting is positively related with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and customer satisfaction. Emerging research also suggests that a third form of emotional labor, natural and genuine emotional labor, is a frequently used emotional labor strategy that has positive effects for both employees and customers. We examine how identity processes shape how employees experience emotional labor, and we maintain that when employees identify with their roles, emotional labor augments and affirms their identity. Person-job fit is an important moderator that influences whether emotional labor enhances or hinders employee well-being. Emotional labor may also have positive outcomes when organizations grant more autonomy and adopt positive display rules that call for the expression of positive emotions. Recent research also indicates that emotional labor strategies may improve leadership effectiveness. Research opportunities on the bright side of emotional labor are abundant. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is a divisive topic for many individuals interested in the subject of leadership. Whereas practitioner-oriented publications have claimed that EI is the sine qua non of leadership, academics continue to discuss EI's relevance for understanding leadership emergence, behavior, and effectiveness. Here we critically review recent empirical evidence to constructively frame what has become a contentious debate about the relevance of EI. We also identify unresolved issues and highlight future research directions that may promote our understanding of EI's role for leadership. We close with a practical discussion of possible applications of EI in leadership education, training, and development.
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Perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns correlate moderately and positively but exhibit divergent patterns of associations with positive and negative outcomes. Despite accumulated evidence supporting the incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence, over and above the Big Five, the contention that trait emotional intelligence plays a mediating role in the perfectionism-outcome link has yet to be investigated. To address this, 645 Chinese participants completed pencil-and-paper measures of perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, trait emotional intelligence, depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction with life. Perfectionistic strivings were positively related to trait emotional intelligence while perfectionistic concerns were negatively related to trait emotional intelligence. Moreover, trait emotional intelligence fully mediated the link between perfectionistic strivings and satisfaction with life and partially mediated the link between perfectionistic concerns and depression, anxiety, stress, and satisfaction with life. However, perfectionistic strivings’ total effects on depression, anxiety, and stress were non-significant, thus precluding mediation.
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We examined the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and three forms of organizational commitment (affective, normative, and continuance commitment) and their variability across individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Meta-analytic results based on 55 independent samples from 50 studies (N = 18,262) revealed that (a) all FFM traits had positive relationships with affective commitment; (b) all FFM traits had positive relationships with normative commitment; and (c) Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience had negative relationships with continuance commitment. In particular, Agreeableness was found to be the trait most strongly related to both affective and normative commitment. The results also showed that Agreeableness had stronger relationships with affective and normative commitment in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures. We provide theoretical and practical implications of these findings for personality, job attitudes, and employee selection and retention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study examined the incremental validity of the adult short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) in predicting 7 construct-relevant criteria beyond the variance explained by the Five-factor model and coping strategies. Additionally, the relative contributions of the questionnaire's 4 subscales were assessed. Two samples of Canadian university students completed the TEIQue-SF, along with measures of the Big Five, coping strategies (Sample 1 only), and emotion-laden criteria. The TEIQue-SF showed consistent incremental effects beyond the Big Five or the Big Five and coping strategies, predicting all 7 criteria examined across the 2 samples. Furthermore, 2 of the 4 TEIQue-SF subscales accounted for the measure's incremental validity. Although the findings provide good support for the validity and utility of the TEIQue-SF, directions for further research are emphasized.
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Although one of the most well-established research findings in industrial-organizational psychology is that general mental ability (GMA) is a strong and generalizable predictor of job performance, this meta-analytically derived conclusion is based largely on measures of task or overall performance. The primary purpose of this study is to address a void in the research literature by conducting a meta-analysis to determine the direction and magnitude of the correlation of GMA with 2 dimensions of nontask performance: counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Overall, the results show that the true-score correlation between GMA and CWB is essentially 0 (-.02, k = 35), although rating source of CWB moderates this relationship. The true-score correlation between GMA and OCB is positive but modest in magnitude (.23, k = 43). The 2nd purpose of this study is to conduct meta-analytic relative weight analyses to determine the relative importance of GMA and the five-factor model (FFM) of personality traits in predicting nontask and task performance criteria. Results indicate that, collectively, the FFM traits are substantially more important for CWB than GMA, that the FFM traits are roughly equal in importance to GMA for OCB, and that GMA is substantially more important for task and overall job performance than the FFM traits. Implications of these findings for the development of optimal selection systems and the development of comprehensive theories of job performance are discussed along with study limitation and future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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This article investigated the mediating role of job satisfaction between four ability-based emotional intelligence (EI) dimensions and contextual performance and counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs), and controlled for Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Agreeableness. Based on data collected from 222 employees, results supported the hypothesized partial mediation model. Job satisfaction partially mediated the relationship between (a) the ability-based EI dimension, regulation of emotion, and contextual performance, and CWB-I and CWB-O; (b) the ability-based EI dimension, self-emotion appraisal, and CWB-I and CWB-O; (c) the ability-based EI dimension, use of emotion and contextual performance; and (d) between Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness and contextual performance and CWBs. Implications, limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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This study examined whether trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or emotional self-efficacy) can differentiate between leaders and non-leaders (N = 96) employed by a major multinational company in Europe. Available intelligence test scores along with age, gender, and tenure were used as control variables. Trait EI, cognitive ability, and gender were significant predictors in a logistic-regression model. Further, both leaders and non-leaders scored significantly higher on trait EI compared to the standardization sample of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), though the effect size for the former (Cohen’s d = 2.80) was considerably larger than for the latter (Cohen’s d = 1.23). The results support the notion that leadership and management positions require high trait EI.
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Trait emotional intelligence (EI) was measured and self-estimated in a UK sample of 128 managers (52.3% female), recruited at a professional services firm. Participants’ measured scores were compared to standardization sample data and gender differences in measured and estimated scores, as well as in estimation bias and accuracy were examined. As hypothesized, managers’ global trait EI scores were significantly higher than those of the normative sample of the measure used, although the scores of female participants were largely responsible for this difference. Gender-specific hypotheses were confirmed for measured scores (differences only hypothesized at the factor level) and estimation accuracy (males estimating their trait EI more accurately), but not for estimated scores (female participants had higher estimates, but the opposite was hypothesized). Further, female managers showed signs of estimation bias.
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Drawing from research on person-organization fit, work engagement, and emotional intelligence, this study investigates the mediating role of work engagement in the link between goal congruence and organizational deviance, as well as how this mediating effect might be moderated by emotional intelligence. Data captured from 272 employees of four IT companies show that the goal congruence between employees and their supervisor negatively affects the former's organizational deviance, though this effect disappears when controlling for the intermediate role of work engagement. Further, emotional intelligence moderates both the positive relationship between goal congruence and work engagement and the negative relationship between work engagement and organizational deviance, such that these relationships become invigorated at higher levels of emotional intelligence. The findings also reveal that the indirect effect of goal congruence on organizational deviance through work engagement is more pronounced at higher levels of emotional intelligence, which offers evidence of moderated mediation. These findings have significant implications for research and practice.
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Abstract This study has examined the moderating impact of impression management motive on the relationship of emotional intelligence (EI) and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs). Data were collected by administering self rated questionnaires to male middle level executives (N = 250) based in motor cycle manufacturing organizations based in northern India. Results as analyzed through moderated regression analysis demonstrated the significant negative impact of impression management motive on the relationship of EI and OCBs. However, EI and impression management had predicted OCBs positively. These findings advance the research on the concepts of EI, impression management and OCBs in the area of organizational psychology. Copyright (c) 2012 Institute of Behavioral and Applied Management Read Full Article. Dr. Jain
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